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Publication numberUS20030106092 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/970,367
Publication dateJun 5, 2003
Filing dateOct 2, 2001
Priority dateOct 2, 2001
Also published asUS6906241, US20050166285
Publication number09970367, 970367, US 2003/0106092 A1, US 2003/106092 A1, US 20030106092 A1, US 20030106092A1, US 2003106092 A1, US 2003106092A1, US-A1-20030106092, US-A1-2003106092, US2003/0106092A1, US2003/106092A1, US20030106092 A1, US20030106092A1, US2003106092 A1, US2003106092A1
InventorsEric Davis, Melissa Goellner
Original AssigneeDavis Eric L., Melissa Goellner
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Endoglucanase gene promoter upregulated by nematodes
US 20030106092 A1
Abstract
The present invention provides a nucleic acid construct comprising a cyst and root knot nematode responsive promoter, preferably the Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter or promoters that hybridize thereto, operatively associated with a heterologous nucleic acid segment that encodes a product disruptive of nematode attack. Plants and plant cells using the same and methods of use thereof are also disclosed.
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Claims(25)
That which is claimed is:
1. A nucleic acid construct which comprises, in the 5′ to 3′ direction:
(a) a cyst and root knot nematode responsive promoter selected from the group consisting of: (i) nucleic acid encoding the Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter according to SEQ ID NO:9, and (ii) nucleic acid sequences which hybridize to nucleic acid having a sequence of (i) above or the complement thereof under conditions represented by a wash stringency of 0.3M NaCl, 0.03M sodium citrate, 0.1% SDS at 60° C., and which encodes a cyst and/or root knot nematode responsive promoter; and
(b) a heterologous nucleic acid positioned downstream from said cyst and root knot nematode promoter and operatively associated therewith, said heterologous nucleic acid encoding a product disruptive of nematode attack.
2. A nucleic acid construct according to claim 1, wherein said promoter is the Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter of SEQ ID NO: 9.
3. A nucleic acid construct according to claim 1, wherein said heterologous nucleic acid segment is a gene coding for an insecticidal protein.
4. A nucleic acid construct according to claim 4, wherein said heterologous nucleic acid segment is a gene coding for a Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein toxic to insects.
5. A nucleic acid construct according to claim 1, wherein said heterologous nucleic acid segment is a gene coding for a product toxic to said plant cell.
6. A nucleic acid construct according to claim 1, wherein said construct comprises a plasmid.
7. A plant cell transformed with a nucleic acid construct according to claim 1.
8. A method of making a transformed plant, comprising regenerating a plant from a plant cell according to claim 7.
9. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell containing a nucleic acid construct according to claim 1, and wherein said nucleic acid construct comprises a Ti plasmid.
10. A method of making a transformed plant, comprising infecting a plant cell with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens according to claim 9 to produce a transformed plant cell, and then regenerating a plant from said transformed plant cell.
11. A microparticle carrying a nucleic acid construct according to claim 1, wherein said microparticle is suitable for the ballistic transformation of a plant cell.
12. A method of making a transformed plant, comprising propelling a microparticle according to claim 11 into a plant cell to produce a transformed plant cell, and then regenerating a plant from said transformed plant cell.
13. A plant cell protoplast comprising a nucleic acid construct according to claim 1.
14. A method of making a transformed plant, comprising regenerating a plant from a plant cell protoplast according to claim 13.
15. A transformed plant comprising transformed plant cells, said transformed plant cells containing a heterologous nucleic acid construct according to claim 1.
16. A transformed plant according to claim 15, wherein said plant is a dicot.
17. A transformed plant according to claim 15, wherein said plant is a monocot.
18. A transformed plant according to claim 15, wherein said plant is a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plant.
19. Plant seed that germinates into a plant of claim 15.
20. A method of controlling cyst and root knot nematodes, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a cyst and root knot nematode-responsive promoter selected from the group consisting of: (i) nucleic acid encoding the Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter of SEQ ID NO:9, and (ii) nucleic acid sequences which hybridize to nucleic acid having a sequence of (i) above, or the complement thereof, under conditions represented by a wash stringency of 0.3M NaCl, 0.03M sodium citrate, 0.1% SDS at 60° C., and which encodes a cyst and root knot nematode-responsive promoter;
(b) preparing a construct by combining said promoter with a further heterologous region which codes for a product disruptive of nematode attack, and
(c) transforming plants with the construct to obtain plants which are cyst and root knot nematode resistant.
21. A method according to claim 20, wherein said plants are monocots.
22. A method according to claim 20, wherein said plants are dicots.
23. A plant produced by the method of claim 20.
24. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a cyst and root knot nematode responsive promoter selected from the group consisting of:
(i) nucleic acid encoding the Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter according to SEQ ID NO:9, and
(ii) nucleic acids which hybridize to nucleic acids having a sequence of (i) above, or the complement thereof, under conditions represented by a wash stringency of 0.3M NaCl, 0.03M sodium citrate, 0.1% SDS at 60° C., and which encodes a cyst and/or root knot nematode responsive promoter.
25. An isolated nucleic acid according to claim 24 comprising the Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter of SEQ ID NO: 9.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates to tissue-specific gene promoters, and particularly relates to a promoter which is responsive to the cyst and root knot nematodes.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] A promoter is a DNA sequence which flanks a transcribed gene, and to which RNA polymerase must bind if it is to transcribe the flanking gene into messenger RNA. A promoter may consist of a number of different regulatory elements which affect a structural gene operationally associated with the promoter in different ways. For example, a regulatory gene may enhance or repress expression of an associated structural gene, subject that gene to developmental regulation, or contribute to the tissue-specific regulation of that gene. Modifications to promoters can make possible optional patterns of gene expression, using recombinant DNA procedures. See, e.g., Old and Primrose, Principles of Gene Manipulation (4th Ed., 1989).

[0003] U.S. Pat. No. 5,459,252 to Conkling and Yamamoto describes a root specific promoter designated RB7, which was identified in tobacco. U.S. Pat. No. 5,837,876 to Conkling et al. describes a root cortex specific gene promoter designated the RD2 promoter, which was also identified in tobacco.

[0004] Rather than use a promoter that is constitutively active, it is desirable to have promoters that are responsive to particular stimuli. In particular, if a promoter is responsive to a particular pathogen, then that promoter could be used to impart selective disease resistance to that pathogen through expression of a transgene that disrupts that pathogen.

[0005] U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,386 to Conkling, Opperman and Taylor describes pathogen resistant transgenic plants in which a nematode-responsive element is operatively associated with a nucleotide of interest (in this case, a gene encoding a product toxic to plant cells). One nematode responsive element was a deletion fragment of the RB7 root specific promoter described above.

[0006] U.S. Pat. No. 5,589,622 to Gurr et al. suggests nematode resistant transgenic plants in which cells of the plant contain a heterologous construct comprising a nematode responsive promoter operatively associated with a product disruptive of nematode attack. However, the DNAs disclosed by Gurr et al. as nematode responsive promoters do not appear to represent such promoters, and instead appear to represent extraneous or irrelevant DNA.

[0007] To impart useful traits to plants by the expression of foreign genes using genetic engineering techniques, a variety of pathogen-responsive promoters will be required to allow traits to be expressed selectively, in the appropriate plant tissues, and at the appropriate times. Accordingly, there is a continued need for pathogen responsive elements that operate in plant cells.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] The present invention is based on the discovery that the endo-1,4-β-glucanases, Ntcel2 (SEQ ID NO:1), Ntcel7 (SEQ ID NO:3), and Ntcel8 (SEQ ID NO:5), of Nicotiana tabacum are upregulated in cyst and root-knot nematode feeding cells (i.e., giant cells). Plant parasitic nematodes cause approximately 100 billion dollars annually in crop loses worldwide. The root knot nematode has a host range of over 2000 plant species, and is one of the most damaging nematodes.

[0009] Accordingly, a first aspect of the present invention is an isolated nucleic acid, particularly DNA, molecule which directs cyst and/or root knot nematode responsive transcription of a downstream heterologous nucleic acid/DNA segment in a plant cell (i. e., a promoter), and the use thereof in providing or imparting nematode resistance to plants and plant cells. Preferably the promoter is responsive to, or activates transcription in response to, both cyst and root knot nematodes.

[0010] A further aspect of the present invention is a construct comprising a promoter as described above and a heterologous nucleic acid/DNA segment (i. e., a DNA segment not naturally associated with that promoter) positioned downstream from, and operatively associated with, the promoter. The heterologous nucleic acid/DNA segment preferably encodes a product disruptive of nematode attack (i. e., a product that hinders or interferes with the ability of a nematode to feed upon a plant cell, or establish a feeding site in relationship to a plant cell, when that product is expressed in a plant cell).

[0011] Further aspects of the present invention are plant cells containing the above described constructs, methods of making transformed plants from such plant cells, the transformed plants comprising such transformed plant cells, and the use of the foregoing to impart resistance to root knot nematodes to plants.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012]FIG. 1 shows the immunolocalization of EGases during parasitism of tobacco roots. (A) Longitudinal section through a tobacco root 24 h after inoculation with second-stage juveniles (J2) of Globodera tabacum (N) probed with mouse pre-immune serum. (B) Longitudinal section through a tobacco root 24h after inoculation with G. tabacum J2 and probed with GR-ENG-1 antiserum. Binding of the GR-ENG-1 antiserum (green fluorescence) is observed along the migratory path (MP) of multiple migratory juveniles within the root cortical tissue. An arrow points to a nematode tail (N). (C) Brightfield view of a longitudinal section through a tobacco root 24 h after inoculation with second-stage juveniles of G. tabacum (N) (D) Same section as C showing binding of GR-ENG-1 antiserum on the cell wall just outside the head of the nematode and within the nematode's subventral secretory gland cells (SvG). (E) Longitudinal section through a tobacco root containing a sedentary parasitic J2 of G. tabacum during early syncytia (Syn) development. (F) Same section as E showing specific binding of GR-ENG-1 antiserum to the SvG, but not within the developing syncytium. (G) Section through a tobacco root containing a sedentary parasitic J2 feeding from a well-developed syncytium. (H) Same section as G showing slight binding of GR-ENG-1 antiserum to the surface of the nematode, but not within the syncytium. Scale bars=50 μm. Sty=nematode stylet.

[0013]FIG. 2 shows an amino acid sequence comparison of Ntcel2 (SEQ ID NO:2), Ntcel7 (SEQ ID NO:4), and Ntcel8 (SEQ ID NO:6). Amino acid sequences were aligned using programs of the Wisconsin Package Version 10.0, Seqweb Version 1.1 (Genetics Computer Group, Madison, Wis.). Dots were introduced by the program to optimize the alignment. Black boxes depict identical amino acids among the three sequences. An arrowhead designates the putative secretion signal peptide cleavage sites of the proteins as determined by the SignalP V 1.1 program (Nielson, et al. (1997) Protein Engin. 10:1-6). Arrows designate two conserved amino acid domains used to amplify tobacco EGases from nematode-infected root tissue. An extra 124 amino acid sequence encoding a putative cellulose-binding domain at the C-terminus of Ntcel8 is underlined.

[0014]FIG. 3 illustrates a phylogenetic comparison of plant EGases. The evolutionary relationships among mature plant EGase amino acid sequences were calculated using programs of the Wisconsin Package Version 10.0, Seqweb Version 1.1 (Genetics Computer Group, Madison, Wis.) and the Kimura distance correction method (Kimura, 1983). The tree was constructed using the UPGMA method. Sequences used for the analysis (Genbank accession numbers in parentheses) were: Arabidopsis Cel1 (X98544); Bean Bac1 (M57400); Orange Celb1 (AF000136); Pea Egl1 (L41046); Pepper Cel3 (X97189); Tobacco Pistal EGase (AF128404); Tobacco Cel1 (AF362949), Cel2 (AF362948), Cel4 (AF362950), Cel5 (AF362951), Cel7 (AF362947); Tomato Cel1 (U13054), Cel2 (U13055), Cel3 (U78526), TPP18/Cel4 (U20590), Cel5 (AF077339), Cel7 (Y1 1268), Cel8 (AF098292); Strawberry Eg3 (AJ006349).

[0015]FIG. 4 shows DNA gel blot analysis of Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8 genes in tobacco. Genomic DNA (5 μg) was digested with BamHI, EcoRI, and HindIII, electrophoresed on a 0.7% agarose gel, blotted to nylon membranes, and probed with a 1 kb fragment spanning the conserved amino acid domains, CWERPED (SEQ ID NO:7) and YINAPL (SEQ ID NO:8), of Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8. Blots were hybridized in 5×SSC at 65° C. and washed twice in 0.5×SSC at 68° C. and twice in 0.1×SSC at 68° C. B=BamHI, E=EcoRI, and H=HindIII.

[0016]FIG. 5 shows the relative RT-PCR analysis of tobacco EGase transcripts in uninfected and nematode-infected root tissue. RT-PCR products were amplified from uninfected (U), tobacco cyst nematode-infected (T), or root knot nematode-infected (R) tobacco root tissue 7-9 days post-infection using tobacco EGase gene-specific primers. A DNA gel blot of the RT-PCR products was probed with tobacco EGase digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. L=1 kb DNA ladder (GibCo BRL, Rockville, Md.).

[0017]FIG. 6 shows in situ hybridization of Ntcel7, Ntcel8, and Ntcel2 mRNA in root knot kematode (RKN)-infected tobacco roots. Longitudinal serial sections through a RKN-induced gall on tobacco roots 12-14 days post-infection (dpi) and hybridized with a tobacco Ntcel7 sense (A) or antisense digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled riboprobe (B). Longitudinal section through a RKN-induced gall on tobacco roots 7-9 dpi and hybridized with a tobacco Ntcel7 antisense DIG-labeled riboprobe (C). Longitudinal sections through tobacco roots infected with RKN and hybridized with a tobacco Ntcel8 antisense DIG-labeled riboprobe at 7-9 dpi (D-F). Longitudinal serial sections through a tobacco gall induced by RKN at 12-14 dpi and hybridized with a tobacco Ntcel2 sense (G) and antisense (H) DIG-labeled riboprobe. N=nematode, GC=giant cells, LR-lateral root. Scale bars=50 μm.

[0018]FIG. 7 shows in situ hybridization of tobacco Ntcel7 and Ntcel8 mRNA in tobacco cyst nematode-infected tobacco roots. Longitudinal serial sections through tobacco roots infected with tobacco cyst nematodes (TCN) and hybridized with a tobacco Ntcel7 antisense (A) or sense (B) digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled riboprobe 7 days post-infection. Longitudinal serial sections through tobacco roots infected with TCN and hybridized with a tobacco Ntcel8 antisense (C) or sense (D) DIG-labeled riboprobe 7 days post-infection. N=nematode, S=syncytia. Scale bars=50 μm.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0019] Various preferred embodiments of the present invention are set forth below. These embodiments are not intended to provide a detailed catalog of all manner in which the instant invention may be carried out, as numerous variations will be apparent to persons skilled in the arts to which the invention pertains. Accordingly, the following is set forth for illustrative purposes, and is not intended to be limiting of the invention.

[0020] 1. Cyst and Root-Knot Nematodes

[0021] The invention may be carried out to protect plants from cyst (Globodera and Heterodera spp.) or root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Cyst nematodes, like all plant-parasitic nematodes, are a microscopic roundworms very simple animal, related to the animal-parasitic roundworms that infect livestock and pets. The infective juvenile is the second-stage juvenile, so-called because it molts once in the egg from first-stage to second-stage. The infective juvenile is invisible to the naked eye. Its length is about {fraction (1/64)} inch. The juveniles penetrate roots and cause the formation of specialized feeding cells in the root's vascular system (veins). If the juvenile becomes a male, it leaves the root and moves through the soil and probably does not contribute further to plant damage. If the juvenile becomes a female, it loses the ability to move and swells to a lemon-shape as it matures. The young adult female is referred to as a white female. Plant damage is primarily due to the feeding of females. White females become yellow as they age and then brown after they die. The brown stage is the cyst for which the nematode is named. Each cyst can contain up to 500 eggs, but under field conditions usually contain many fewer eggs. The cyst protects the eggs from the soil environment.

[0022] Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites with an extremely intimate and complex relationship to the host plant. The infective second stage juvenile (J2) is free in the soil. Upon location of a host root, the J2 penetrates the root intercellularly in the region just posterior to the root cap and migrates to the developing vascular cylinder. The nematode then orients itself parallel to the cylinder and injects glandular secretions into the plant cells surrounding its head, resulting in the initiation of nematode feeding cells. These 5-7 cells undergo rapid nuclear divisions, increase tremendously in size, and become filled with pores and cell wall invaginations. The feeding site cells, or “giant cells”, function as super transfer cells to provide nourishment to the developing nematode. During this time, the nematode loses the ability to move and swells from the normal eel shaped J2 to a large, pear shaped adult female. As the nematode feeds on the giant cells, parthenogenic reproduction results in the disposition of 300-400 eggs. This entire process occurs over the span of 20-30 days, and root-knot nematodes may complete as many as 7 generations during a cropping season. Thus, in addition to delivering at the feeding site a product that is toxic to the nematode, it will be seen that, by causing the plant itself to kill or disable the cells upon which the pathogen must feed, the pathogen will be much less successful at infecting the plant.

[0023] Feeding cells induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes (RKN), termed syncytia and giant-cells, respectively, are formed from host root cells during parasitism to sustain the growth and reproduction of the nematode (Hussey and Grundler (1998) Nematode parasitism of plants. In The physiology and biochemistry of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes, ed. R. N. Perry, D. T. Wright, pp. 213-243, Wallingford UK: CABI publishing). Motile second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematode penetrate plant roots and migrate to the vascular cylinder where the feeding cells serve as the sole nutritive source for the subsequent sedentary parasitic life stages of these nematodes. Evidence suggests that stylet (hollow feeding spear) secretions originating from three large unicellular esophageal gland cells of RKN and cyst nematodes play essential roles during parasitism of plant roots, including the induction of feeding cells (Davis, et al. (2000) Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 38:341-372; Hussey (1989) Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 27:123-141). Nematode secretions may directly or indirectly alter the development of affected host plant cells (Hussey (1989) Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 27:123-141). This modification of normal plant cell development causes plant cells to re-differentiate into unique cell types strictly for the benefit of the nematode and is accompanied by multiple changes in plant gene expression (Bird, D. McK. (1996) J. Parasitol. 82:881-888).

[0024] Giant-cells and syncytia have several characteristics in common. In both cell types, there is an increase in metabolic activity and cytoplasmic density, the large central vacuole is reduced to several smaller ones, organelles proliferate, individual cells hypertrophy, cell walls thicken, and fingerlike protuberances (ingrowths) form along walls adjacent to the xylem vessels to increase membrane surface area for solute uptake (Hussey and Grundler (1998) Nematode parasitism of plants. In The physiology and biochemistry of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes, ed. R. N. Perry, D. T. Wright, pp. 213-243, Wallingford UK: CABI publishing). The nuclei within these cells enlarge, develop an amoeboid appearance, have a very prominent nucleolus, and are polyploid. In giant-cells of RKN, the nuclei are stimulated to divide in the absence of cell division resulting in enlarged plant root cells containing hundreds of nuclei (Huang and Maggenti (1969) Phytopathol. 59:447-455). The syncytium of cyst nematodes is also multinucleate but arises via a different mechanism than that of giant-cells. Within the initial syncytial cell, the plasmodesmatal openings begin to gradually widen and wall degradation is initiated at pit fields (Jones (1981) Ann. Appl. Biol. 97:353-372; Grundler et al. (1998) Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 104:545-551). As the initial syncytial cell enlarges, the cell wall gaps expand and neighboring protoplasms fuse. Progressive cell wall dissolution allows the syncytium to expand longitudinally along the length of the vascular cylinder (extending as far as 2-3 mm) and can incorporate up to 200 plant cells (Jones (1981) Ann. Appl. Biol. 97:353-372).

[0025] 2. Promoters

[0026] As used herein, a nematode responsive (or “nematode inducible”) promoter refers to a promoter that (a) does not normally drive transcription in a plant cell except when that cell resides in tissue infected by a cyst or root knot nematode, or (b) normally drives transcription in a plant cell, and which drives increased levels of transcription when that cell resides in tissue infected by a cyst or root knot nematode. The promoter may be a naturally occurring promoter, may comprise a nematode responsive element isolated from a naturally occurring promoter, or may be a synthetic promoter.

[0027] A preferred promoter for use in the present invention is the endo-1,4-β-glucanase (Ntcel7) promoter of Nicotiana tabacum described herein. This promoter is referred to herein as a Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter, and is set forth herein as SEQ ID NO: 9. The Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter and other promoters that may be used to carry out the present invention are also disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,005,092 to Shoseyov and Z. Shani, issued Dec. 21, 1999, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[0028] Other DNAs that hybridize to a Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter under high stringency hybridization conditions as described below, and which encode a nematode responsive promoter (particularly a cyst or root knot nematode responsive promoter) may also be used to carry out the present invention.

[0029] High stringency hybridization conditions which will permit homologous DNA sequences (e.g., other natural plant DNA sequences) to hybridize to a DNA sequence encoding a Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter are well known in the art. For example, hybridization of such sequences to a DNA encoding a Nicotiana Ntcel7 promoter may be carried out in 25% formamide, 5×SSC, 5×Denhardt's solution, with 100 μg/ml of single stranded DNA and 5% dextran sulfate at 42° C., with wash conditions of 25% formamide, 5×SSC, 0.1% SDS at 42° C. for 15 minutes, to allow hybridization of sequences of about 60% homology. More stringent conditions are represented by a wash stringency of 0.3M NaCl, 0.03M sodium citrate, 0.1% SDS at 60° or even 70° C. using a standard in situ hybridization assay. (See Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual (2d Ed. 1989)(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)). In general, plant DNA sequences which code for nematode responsive promoters and which hybridize to the DNA sequence encoding the nematode responsive elements disclosed herein will be at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% or even 95% homologous or more with the sequences of the DNA encoding the nematode responsive elements disclosed herein.

[0030] It will be apparent that other sequence fragments from the promoter 5′ flanking region, longer or shorter sequences, or sequences with minor additions, deletions, or substitutions made thereto, can be prepared which will also encode a nematode responsive promoter, all of which are included within the present invention.

[0031] 3. Heterologous DNAs and Expression Cassettes

[0032] DNA constructs, or “expression cassettes,” of the present invention include, 5′-3′ in the direction of transcription, a nematode responsive promoter of the present invention, a heterologous DNA segment operatively associated with the promoter, and, optionally, transcriptional and translational termination regions such as a termination signal and a polyadenylation region. All of these regulatory regions should be capable of operating in the transformed cells. The 3′ termination region may be derived from the same gene as the transcriptional initiation region or from a different gene.

[0033] The term “operatively associated,” as used herein, refers to DNA sequences contained within a single DNA molecule which are associated so that the function of one is affected by the other. Thus, a promoter is operatively associated with a gene when it is capable of affecting the expression of that gene (i.e., the gene is under the transcriptional control of the promoter). The promoter is said to be “upstream” from the gene, which is in turn said to be “downstream” from the promoter.

[0034] Heterologous DNAs used to carry out the present invention may encode any product that is disruptive of nematode attack when that DNA is transcribed (and, where applicable, translated) in a plant cell, including but not limited to proteins, peptides, and non-protein products such as antisense RNAs, ribozymes, other nucleic acids that suppress expression by sense strand suppression or triplex formation, etc. (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,801,540 (Calgene, Inc.)).

[0035] The heterologous DNA may encode a product that is toxic to the plant cells, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,386 to Conkling et al. A wide variety of protein or peptide products which are toxic to plant cells can be used, including (but not limited to) enzymes capable of degrading nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) such as nucleases, restriction endonucleases micrococcal nucleas, Rnase A, and barnase; enzymes which attack proteins such as trypsin, pronase A, carboxypeptidase, endoproteinase Asp-N, endoproteinase Glu-C, and endoproteinase Lys-C; ribonucleases such as RNase CL-3 and RNase T1, toxins from plant pathogenic bacteria such as phaseolotoxin, tabtoxin, and syringotoxin; lipases such as produced from porcine pancrease and Candida cyclindracea, membrane channel proteins such as glp F and connexins (gap junction proteins, and antibodies which bind proteins in the cell so that the cell is thereby killed or debilitated. Genes which produce antibodies to plant cell proteins can be produced as described in W. Huse et al. ((1989) Science 246:1275-1281). Proteins to which such antibodies can be directed include, but are not limited to, RNA polymerase, respiratory enzymes, cytochrome oxidase, Krebs cycle enzymes, protein kinases, aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, and enzymes involved in the shikimic acid pathway such as enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-5-phosphate synthase.

[0036] One preferred heterologous DNA is a structural gene encoding mature Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RNase (or Barnase). See, e.g., C. Mariani et al. ((1990) Nature 347:737-741) and C. Paddon and R. Hartley ((1985) Gene 40:231-39).

[0037] Note that the toxic product may either kill the plant cell in which it is expressed or simply disable the cell so that it is less capable of supporting the pathogen. It is preferred, particularly where the plant is a food plant, that the plant-toxic product be non-toxic to animals, and particularly be non-toxic to humans.

[0038] The heterologous DNA may encode any other product disruptive of nematode attack, including but not limited to those described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,589,622 to Gurr et al. (e.g., products toxic to the nematode). Thus the heterologous DNA may encode a Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein toxic to insects. Strains of B. thuringiensis which produce polypeptide toxins active against nematodes are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,948,734 and 5,093,120 (Edwards et al.).

[0039] Again note that the toxic product may either kill the nematode attempting to feed on the plant cell in which it is expressed or simply disable the nematode so that it is less capable of feeding on the plant cell or establishing a feeding site. For example, the heterologous DNA may encode a peptide, antibody or the like that disrupts feeding by interacting with the ingestion or digestion of food such as one of the antibodies described for soybean cyst nematode including that against the dorsal pharyngeal gland (Atkinson et al, (1988) Annals of Applied Biology 112:459-469), modified as necessary for specificity to the root knot nematode, using the procedures for transgenic expression of antibodies in plants described by Hiatt, A. Gafferkey, R. C. & Bowdish, K. ((1989) Production of Antibodies in Transgenic Plants, Nature 342:76-78).

[0040] Again it is preferred, particularly where the plant is a food plant, that the nematode-toxic product be non-toxic to other animals, and particularly be non-toxic to birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals and humans.

[0041] Where the expression product of the gene is to be located in a cellular compartment other than the cytoplasm, the structural gene may be constructed to include regions which code for particular amino acid sequences which result in translocation of the product to a particular site, such as the cell plasma membrane, or secretion into the periplasmic space or into the external environment of the cell. Various secretory leaders, membrane integration sequences, and translocation sequences for directing the peptide expression product to a particular site are described in the literature. See, for example, Cashmore et al., Biotechnology (1985) 3:803-808, Wickner and Lodish, Science (1985) 230:400-407.

[0042] The expression cassette may be provided in a DNA construct which also has at least one replication system. For convenience, it is common to have a replication system functional in Escherichia coli, such as ColE1, pSC101, pACYC184, or the like. In this manner, at each stage after each manipulation, the resulting construct may be cloned, sequenced, and the correctness of the manipulation determined. In addition, or in place of the E. coli replication system, a broad host range replication system may be employed, such as the replication systems of the P-1 incompatibility plasmids, e.g., pRK290. In addition to the replication system, there may be at least one marker present, which may be useful in one or more hosts, or different markers for individual hosts. That is, one marker may be employed for selection in a prokaryotic host while another marker may be employed for selection in an eukaryotic host, particularly the plant host. The markers may provide protection against a biocide, such as antibiotics, toxins, heavy metals, or the like; may provide complementation by imparting prototrophy to an auxotrophic host; or may provide a visible phenotype through the production of a novel compound in the plant. Exemplary genes which may be employed include neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), nitrilase, and the gentamicin resistance gene. For plant host selection, non-limiting examples of suitable markers are beta-glucuronidase (GUS) (providing indigo production), luciferase (providing visible light production), NPTII (providing kanamycin resistance or G418 resistance), HPT (providing hygromycin resistance), and the mutated aroA gene (providing glyphosate resistance).

[0043] An advantage of the present invention is that two or more promoters can be “daisychained” to a single structural gene. Where each promoter is responsive to a different pathogen, the plant is then provided with resistance to a plurality of promoters. For example, a second promoter may be positioned upstream from the structural gene and operatively associated therewith so that the structural gene is associated with a plurality of promoters, with each of the promoters activated by a different plant pathogen. Still more promoters can be included if desired. Other promoters that may be used in conjunction with the instant promoter are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,386 to Conkling et al.

[0044] The various fragments comprising the various constructs, expression cassettes, markers, and the like may be introduced consecutively by restriction enzyme cleavage of an appropriate replication system and insertion of the particular construct or fragment into the available site. After ligation and cloning, the DNA construct may be isolated for further manipulation. All of these techniques are amply exemplified in the literature. See, e.g., Maniatis et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. (1982).

[0045] 4. Plant Transformation Vectors and Techniques

[0046] A vector is a replicable DNA construct. Vectors which may be used to transform plant tissue with DNA constructs of the present invention include both Agrobacterium vectors and ballistic vectors, as well as vectors suitable for DNA-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells containing a DNA construct of the present invention, wherein the DNA construct comprises a Ti plasmid, are useful in methods of making transformed plants. Plant cells are infected with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens to produce a transformed plant cell, and then a plant is regenerated from the transformed plant cell.

[0047] Numerous Agrobacterium vector systems useful in carrying out the present invention are known. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,459,355 discloses a method for transforming susceptible plants, including dicots, with an Agrobacterium strain containing the Ti plasmid. The transformation of woody plants with an Agrobacterium vector is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,795,855. Further, U.S. Pat. No. 4,940,838 to Schilperoort et al. discloses a binary Agrobacterium vector (i.e., one in which the Agrobacterium contains one plasmid having the vir region of a Ti plasmid but no T-DNA region, and a second plasmid having a T-DNA region but no vir region) useful in carrying out the present invention.

[0048] Microparticles carrying a DNA construct of the present invention, which microparticle is suitable for the ballistic transformation of a plant cell, are also useful for making transformed plants of the present invention. The microparticle is propelled into a plant cell to produce a transformed plant cell and a plant is regenerated from the transformed plant cell. Any suitable ballistic cell transformation methodology and apparatus can be used in practicing the present invention. Exemplary apparatus and procedures are disclosed in Sanford and Wolf, U.S. Pat. No. 4,945,050, and in Agracetus European Patent Application Publication No. 0 270 356, titled “Pollen-mediated Plant Transformation”. When using ballistic transformation procedures, the expression cassette may be incorporated into a plasmid capable of replicating in the cell to be transformed. Examples of microparticles suitable for use in such systems include 1 to 5 μm gold spheres. The DNA construct may be deposited on the microparticle by any suitable technique, such as by precipitation.

[0049] Plant species may be transformed with the DNA construct of the present invention by the DNA-mediated transformation of plant cell protoplasts and subsequent regeneration of the plant from the transformed protoplasts in accordance with procedures well known in the art.

[0050] 5. Plants for Transformation and Propagation of Transformants

[0051] Plants that may be used to carry out the present invention are typically vascular plants (including angiosperms and gymnosperms, monocots and dicots).

[0052] Cells used to carry out the present invention may be vascular plant cells, which may reside in vitro or in vivo in a plant tissue or intact plant, but other cell types such as bacterial cell may be employed to carry out intervening steps involved in preparing the DNA constructs employed in carrying out the present invention.

[0053] A transformed plant or host cell is a plant or host cell which has been transformed or transfected with DNA constructs as disclosed herein, using recombinant DNA techniques such as those described above coupled with propagation techniques such as those described below.

[0054] The promoter sequences disclosed herein may be used to express a heterologous DNA sequence in any plant species capable of utilizing the promoter (i.e., any plant species the RNA polymerase of which binds to the promoter sequences disclosed herein). Examples of plant species suitable for transformation with the DNA constructs of the present invention include both monocots and dicots, and include but are not limited to tobacco, soybean, potato, cotton, sugarbeet, sunflower, carrot, celery, flax, cabbage and other cruciferous plants, pepper, tomato, citrus trees, bean, strawberry, lettuce, maize, alfalfa, oat, wheat, rice, barley, sorghum and canola. Thus an illustrative category of plants which may be transformed with the DNA constructs of the present invention are the dicots, and a more particular category of plants which may be transformed using the DNA constructs of the present invention are members of the family Solanacae.

[0055] Any plant tissue capable of subsequent clonal propagation, whether by organogenesis or embryogenesis, may be transformed with a vector of the present invention. The term “organogenesis,” as used herein, means a process by which shoots and roots are developed sequentially from meristematic centers; the term “embryogenesis,” as used herein, means a process by which shoots and roots develop together in a concerted fashion (not sequentially), whether from somatic cells or gametes. The particular tissue chosen will vary depending on the clonal propagation systems available for, and best suited to, the particular species being transformed. Exemplary tissue targets include leaf disks, pollen, embryos, cotyledons, hypocotyls, megagametophytes, callus tissue, existing meristematic tissue (e.g., apical meristems, axillary buds, and root meristems), and induced meristem tissue (e.g., cotyledon meristem and hypocotyl meristem).

[0056] 6. Uses of the Invention

[0057] The present invention may be used in the manner described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,386 to Conkling et al. or U.S. Pat. No. 5,589,622 to Gurr et al. Thus, the present invention provides a method of controlling nematodes, comprising: (a) providing a cyst and root knot nematode-responsive promoter as described above, (b) preparing a construct as described above by combining said promoter with a further region which codes for a product disruptive of nematode attack, and (c) transforming plants with the construct to obtain plants which are cyst and root knot nematode resistant. The plants employed may be as described above, and transformation may be carried out as described above. Once a first generation (FO generation) of transformed plants are obtained, plant seed that contains the aforesaid construct, and that germinates into a cyst and root knot nematode resistant transgenic plant, may be produced from the FO plants by conventional breeding procedures. An agricultural field infected with cyst or root knot nematodes, or susceptible to cyst or root knot nematode infection, can then be planted with a crop of such plants in accordance with standard techniques (e.g., by planting seed or plantlets) to provide an agricultural field of crop plants that are resistant to cyst and/or root knot nematode infection.

[0058] The present invention is explained in greater detail in the following non-limiting Examples.

EXAMPLE 1 Plant and Nematode Culture Maintenance

[0059] Plant Material. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ‘NC95’) seeds were surface sterilized with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for five minutes, followed by several rinses with sterile water, and germinated in Petri plates containing 0.8% Noble agar (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, Pa.) supplemented with Murashige and Skoog ((1962) Physiol. Plant Path. 15:473-497) minimal media, pH 5.8 and 3% sucrose. Tobacco seedlings were grown in a controlled temperature growth chamber at 25° C. with a 14-hour photoperiod.

[0060] Nematode Cultures and Inoculations. The tobacco cyst nematode (TCN), Globodera tabacum subspecies solanacearum (Miller and Gray (1972) Nematologica 18:404-413), and the root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita Race 4 (Hartman and Sasser (1985) Identification of Meloidogyne species on the basis of differential host test and perineal—pattern morphology. In Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne, Vol.II (Biology and Control), ed. J. N. Sasser and C. C. Carter, pp. 69-77, Raleigh, N.C.: NCSU Graphics) were propagated on greenhouse-grown tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ‘NC95’) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Rutgers), respectively. To isolate cyst nematode eggs, TCN cysts were crushed gently in a glass homogenizer and the eggs were rinsed onto a 25 μm sieve. Hatching of TCN eggs was stimulated over filter-sterilized tobacco root diffusate (LaMondia (1995) J. Nematol. 27: 382-386) at 28° C. on a Baermann pan. RKN eggs were isolated from egg masses on tobacco roots with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite then rinsed with water and collected on a 25 μm sieve (Hussey and Barker (1973) Plant Dis. Rep. 57:1025-1028). RKN eggs were set up to hatch over water at 28° C. on a Baermann pan. After 3 days, hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of either TCN or RKN were collected on a 25 μm sieve and surface-sterilized with 0.002% mercuric chloride, 0.002% sodium azide, and 0.001% Triton X-100 for 5 minutes followed by several washes with sterile water. Surface-sterilized J2 were resuspended in 50 μl of 2 mM Penicillin-G and 950 μl of 1.5% low melting agarose at 37° C. at a concentration of approximately 50 J2/10 μl for TCN and 5 J2/10 μl for RKN. Ten microliter aliquots of J2 were used to inoculate two week-old tobacco root tips.

EXAMPLE 2 In Planta Localization of TCN EGases Tissue

[0061] Fixation and Embedding. For immunolocalizations, TCN-infected root pieces were excised from Petri plates twenty-four to ninety-six hours after inoculation and fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 137 mM NaCl, 1.4 mM KH2PO4, 2.6 mM KCl, 1.8 mM Na2HPO4, pH 7.4) for three hours at room temperature. After two 15 minute washes with PBS, the fixed root pieces were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (30%, 60%, 70%, 85%, 95%, 100%, 15 min. each) and then incubated sequentially in ethanol: Histoclear (National Diagnostics, Atlanta, Ga.) 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 for 10 minutes each. After two 15 minutes incubations in 100% Histoclear, the root pieces were transferred to molten Paraplast plus (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, Pa.) at 60° C. for two hours and embedded in blocks. For in situ mRNA localizations, nematode-infected tobacco root pieces were dissected from Petri plates 7-9 days or 12-14 days after infection and infiltrated with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 130 mM NaCl, 7 mM Na2H2PO4, 3 mM NaH2PO4) using a short vacuum. The root pieces were then transferred to fresh 4% PFA, incubated an additional 6 hours at room temperature followed by seventeen hours in 4% PFA at 4° C. The root pieces were washed twice in PBS for 20 minutes each time, dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (30%, 60%, 70%, 85%, 95%, 100%), incubated sequentially in Histoclear (National Diagnostics, Atlanta, Ga.): ethanol 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and then in 100% Histoclear twice for 30 minutes each time. The root pieces were incubated in Histoclear: Paraplast (Fisher Scientific) 75:25 overnight at 60° C., and then overnight again in pure Paraplast at 60° C. The Paraplast-embedded root pieces were sectioned to a thickness of 12μm (TCN-infected tobacco root tissue) or 20 μm (RKN-infected tobacco root tissue) using a rotary microtome (American Optical, Buffalo, N.Y.) and adhered to Superfrost Plus microscope slides (Fisher Scientific) overnight at 40° C. on a slide warmer. Three 15-minute incubations in Histoclear were used to remove the Paraplast from the sections followed by an ethanol series up to water to rehydrate the sections.

[0062] TCN-infected roots were sectioned to a thickness of 10 μm using a rotary microtome (American Optical, Buffalo, N.Y.) and placed on Superfrost Plus (Fisher Scientific) microscope slides. The sections were adhered to the slides overnight on a 40° C. slide warmer. Three 10-minute incubations in Histoclear at room temperature were used to remove the paraffin from the sections followed by rehydration in a graded ethanol series up to water. Non-specific binding sites in sections were blocked with 10% normal goat serum containing protease inhibitors (10 μl/ml of Stock A=0.1 mM leupeptin, 100 mM Na2EDTA, 20 mM iodoacetamide, and Stock B=20 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 0.1 mM pepstatin A [all chemicals from Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.]) for three hours at room temperature. Primary antibody (GR-ENG1 mouse polyclonal sera; Smant, et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:4906-491 1) diluted 1:100 with 10% goat serum in PBS was applied to the sections and incubated overnight at 4° C. After three five-minute rinses in PBS, secondary Alexa 488-goat anti-mouse IgG conjugate (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.) diluted 1:500 was applied to the sections and allowed to incubate in the dark for three hours at room temperature. The sections were rinsed three times for five minutes each in PBS before mounting with antiquenching agent (0.2 M carbonate buffer, pH 8.6, 50% glycerol, 0.02 mg/ml p-phenylenediamine). Sections were observed and photographed on an epifluorescence microscope (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany).

[0063] Endo-β-1,4-Glucanases In Planta. Antiserum raised against recombinant GR-ENG-1 (endoglucanase) of the potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis (Smant, et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:4906-4911), was confirmed to bind to both GT-ENG-1 and GT-ENG-2 of the tobacco cyst nematode (TCN), G. tabacum (Goellner, et al. (2000) J. Nematol. 32:154-165). GR-ENG-1 antiserum did not bind to total protein preparations from either uninfected or TCN-infected tobacco roots on protein gel blots (data not shown). No staining was observed in plant tissue sections probed with mouse pre-immune sera, nor did the pre-immune sera bind to the nematode cuticle (FIG. 1A). Sections of infected roots at 24 hours after inoculation with J2 of TCN that were probed with GR-ENG-1 antiserum localized TCN EGases within the nematode and in tobacco root cortical tissue (FIG. 1B). Within the nematode, EGases were localized throughout the subventral esophageal gland cells including their extensions and terminating in the subventral gland ampullae at the base of the metacorpus (FIGS. 1C-1D). Within plant tissue, GR-ENG-1 antiserum localized TCN outside the head of the nematode and along the migratory path of the nematode through tobacco root tissue (FIGS. 1C-1D). Occasionally, the antiserum bound to the surface of the nematode, which may indicate the binding of EGases to the cuticle as the nematode migrated forward through root tissue (FIG. 1H).

[0064] To monitor the TCN EGases during the initiation of syncytia within host roots, tobacco roots inoculated with infective J2 were fixed for sectioning at 48-96 hours post-infection. The time of root penetration by J2 was monitored using an inverted microscope, and the stage of nematode development and extent of syncytium formation was determined in sections. EGases were not detected by GR-ENG-1 antiserum within initial syncytial cells during the early stages of formation, even when EGases were still detectable within the subventral gland cells of parasitic J2 (FIGS. 1E-1F). TCN EGases were also not detected within well-developed syncytia (FIGS. 1G-1H).

EXAMPLE 3 Isolation and Sequence Characterization of Tobacco EGases

[0065] To isolate poly A(+) RNA, 5 cm of infected or noninfected tobacco root pieces (excluding root tips) were excised from Petri plates and ground in a small glass homogenizer in 250 μl lysis-binding buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 500 mM LiCl, 10 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, 5 mM dithiothreitol, 1% LiDS; Dynal, Lake Success, N.Y.). After lysis, the homogenate was centrifuged for one minute at 13,000×g and the supernatant was transferred to a clean tube. Twenty-five microliters of Dynal magnetic oligo-(dT)25 beads equilibrated with lysis-binding buffer were added to the supernatant and placed on a rotator for 5 minutes to allow the mRNA to anneal to the beads. Using a magnetic stand the beads were washed twice in washing buffer with LiDS (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 0.15 M LiCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1% LiDS) and three times in washing buffer without LiDS. For first strand cDNA synthesis, the beads were washed several times in 1×first strand buffer (25 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.3, 37.5 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2) and then resuspended in 12 μl of RNase-free water. The following components were added to the bead suspension: 4 μl 5×first strand buffer, 2 μl 0.1 M DTT, 1 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 1 μl Superscript II reverse transcriptase (200U/μl; GibCo BRL, Rockville, Md.). The reaction mixture was incubated on a rotator at 42° C. for one hour. Following first strand cDNA synthesis, two units of RNase H were added to the reaction and allowed to incubate at 37° C. for 20 minutes. The beads were rinsed twice with TE (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH8.0, 1 mM EDTA) and then resuspended in 25 μl of TE and stored at −20° C. Two degenerate primers to conserved amino acid domains of known plant EGase sequences were designed as follows: CWERPED: 5′-TGTTGGGARAGRCCHGARGAY-3′ (SEQ ID NO:10) and YINAPL2: 5′-MACHADHGSWGCATTRAYRTAWGT-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 11) where R=A+G, Y=C+T, M=A+C, S=G+C, W=A+T, H=A+T+C, D=G+A+T. A ten microliter aliquot of first strand cDNA on the beads was washed with 1×PCR buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.4, 50 mM KCl) before adding the following reaction components: 5 μl 10×PCR buffer (200 mM Tris-HCl, pH8.4, 500 mM KC), 1.5 μl 50 mM MgCl2, 1.0 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 2.5 μl 10 μM 5′ CWERPED, 2.5 μl 10 μM 3′ YINAPL2, 27 μl dH20, and 2.5U Taq Polymerase). The PCR cycles were as follows: 1 cycle at 94° C. 2 min; 5 cycles at 94° C. 1 min., 37° C. 1 min., 72° C. 2 min with a ramp of 14° C./min between the annealing and elongation step (Compton, 1990); 35 cycles at 94° C. 30 sec, 50° C. 50 sec, 72° C. 1 cycle at 72° C. 10 min. A 1 kb amplified fragment was obtained and cloned into the pCR2.1 TA cloning vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.). Plasmid DNA was isolated from several individual transformants and the cDNA inserts were sequenced. Sequencing was carried out by The Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research (ICBR) DNA Sequencing Core Laboratory (DSEQ) located at the University of Florida, Gainsville, Fla. Isolation of the full-length tobacco EGase cDNAs was accomplished using 3′ and 5′ random amplification of cDNA ends systems (RACE, GibCo BRL) according to the manufacturer's protocols. The five tobacco EGase cDNA sequences were submitted to Genbank and have been designated with the following names and accession numbers; Ntcel2=AF362948 (SEQ ID NO:1), Ntcel4=AF362950, Ntcel5=AF362951, Ntcel7=AF362947 (SEQ ID NO:3), Ntcel8=AF362949 (SEQ ID NO:5).

[0066]FIG. 2 shows the 1 kb cDNA product amplified by RT-PCR from TCN-infected tobacco root tissue (data not shown) using primers designed to two conserved amino acid domains (CWERPEDM (SEQ ID NO:7) and YINAPL (SEQ ID NO:8)) present in plant EGases. No observable products were amplified from identical uninfected root tissue. Five distinct tobacco EGase cDNA sequences representing structurally divergent gene family members were identified after sequencing random clones of the 1 kb product and designated as Ntcel2, Ntcel4, NtCel5, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8 based on the nomenclature described by del Campillo ((1999) Multiple endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase (Cellulase) genes in Arabidopsis. In Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Volume 46, ed. R. A. Pedersen and G. P. Schatten, pp. 39-61. New York: Academic Press). Full-length coding sequences of three of these cDNA clones (Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8) were obtained using 3′ and 5′ RACE PCR (FIG. 2). The 1 kb partial cDNA sequences of Ntcel4 and Ntcel5 showed the highest percentage nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with tomato Cel4 and Cel5, respectively (Brummell, et al. (1997) Plant Mol. Biol. 33:87-95; del Campillo and Bennett (1996) Plant Physiol. 111:813-820), and were not characterized further due to their low expression levels (see below). A phylogenetic tree constructed using mature amino acid sequences of Ntcel2 (SEQ ID NO:2), Ntcel7 (SEQ ID NO:4), and Ntcel8 (SEQ ID NO:6), and 14 other plant EGase sequences depicts the relatedness of the new tobacco EGases with selected members of the plant EGase gene family (FIG. 3). The 1500 bp open reading frame (ORF) of the 1674 bp Ntcel2 cDNA clone encodes a 500-amino acid polypeptide, including a 35-mer putative signal peptide (FIG. 2). The mature protein has a deduced molecular mass of 51.3 kDa and a pI of 8.7. Ntcel2 has 54% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to Ntcel7 and 55% nucleotide and 49% amino acid identity to Ntcel8. Ntcel2 shares significant amino acid similarity with pepper Cel3 (89%; Trainotti, et al. (1998) Hereditas 128:121-126), tomato Cel2 (86%; Lashbrook, et al. (1994) Plant Cell 6:1485-1493), and Arabidopsis Cell (73%; Shani, et al. (1997) Plant Mol. Biol. 34:837-842) (FIG. 3). The 1467 bp ORF of the 1723 bp Ntcel7 cDNA clone encodes a 489-amino acid polypeptide, including a putative signal peptide corresponding to amino acids 1-24 (FIG. 2). The mature protein has a deduced molecular mass of 51.8 kDa and pI of 8.7. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of Ntcel7 showed 52% nucleotide and 49% amino acid identity with Ntcel8. Ntcel7 shares significant amino acid sequence similarity with tomato Cel7 (86%; Catala, et al. (1997) Plant Journal 12:417-426), orange Celb1 (71%; Burns, J. K. et al., 1997, unpub.; Accession #AF000136 ), and pea Egl1 (68%; Wu, et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 111:163-170) (FIG. 5). The 1872 bp ORF of the 2286 bp Ntcel8 cDNA clone encodes a 624-amino acid polypeptide, including a 28-mer putative signal peptide (FIG. 2). The mature protein has a deduced molecular mass of 65.7 kDa and a pI of 8.0. This tobacco EGase shares significant amino acid similarity to tomato Cel8 (81%; Catala and Bennett (1998) Plant Physiol. 118:1535) and strawberry Eg3 (79%; Trainotti, et al. (1999) Plant Mol. Biol. 40:323-332). Amino acid sequence alignment of all three tobacco EGases depicts the extra 124 amino acids at the C-terminus of Ntcel8 that are absent from Ntcel2 and Ntcel7 (FIG. 2).

[0067] DNA Gel Blot Analysis. Tobacco genomic DNA was isolated from young leaves using the DNeasy Plant Maxi isolation kit (Qiagen, Valencia, Calif.). Genomic DNA (5 μg) was digested separately with EcoRI, BamHI, and HindIII, electrophoresed on a 0.7% (w/v) agarose gel, and transferred to Hybond-N membrane (Amersham, Arlington Heights, Ill.).

[0068] Tobacco genomic DNA was hybridized with DIG-labeled tobacco EGase DNA probes corresponding to the 1 kilobase (kb) nucleotide sequence spanning the two conserved amino acid domains, CWERPED (SEQ ID NO:7) and YINAPL (SEQ ID NO:8), described above. Hybridizations were carried out in standard hybridization buffer (5×SSC, 0.1% N-lauroylsarcosine, 0.02% SDS, 1% blocking reagent [Roche Molecular, Indianapolis, Ind.]) at 65° C. for 18 hours followed by three 10-minute washes in 2×SSC at room temperature. The membrane was then washed twice at 68° C. with 0.5×SSC for 30 minutes, and twice at 68° C. with 0.1×SSC for 30 minutes. After incubating the membranes in 1% blocking reagent for 1 hour, the membranes were incubated with a 1:10,000 dilution of sheep anti-DIG alkaline phosphatase conjugate for 30 minutes. Unbound antibody was removed by three 15 minutes washes with maleic acid wash buffer (0.1 M maleic acid, 0.15 M NaCl, pH 7.5, 0.3% Tween-20). The membrane was incubated in AP detection buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 9.5, 100 mM NaCl, 50 mM MgCl2) for 10 minutes followed by a 1:100 dilution of the chemiluminescent substrate CSPD (Roche Molecular) prior to wrapping the membrane in saran wrap and exposing it to x-ray film for 2.5 hours.

[0069]FIG. 4 shows DNA gel blots of BamHI, EcoRI, and HindIII-digested tobacco genomic DNA which were hybridized separately with 1 kb probes generated to sequences spanning two conserved amino acid domains of Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8 (CWERPEDM (SEQ ID NO:7) and YINAPL (SEQ ID NO:8); FIG. 2). High stringency genomic analysis suggests that a single gene may encode Ntcel2. In contrast, both Ntcel7 and Ntcel8 appear to belong to small gene families (FIG. 4).

EXAMPLE 4 Upregulation of Tobacco EGases in Nematode-Infected Roots

[0070] RT-PCRs were conducted both on mRNA extracted from equivalent amounts of total RNA or mRNA isolated from equivalent amounts of nematode-infected tobacco root tissue. The same results were obtained using either method. Total RNA was isolated using the Puregene RNA isolation kit (Gentra Systems, Minneapolis, Minn.) according to the manufacturer's instructions and treated with RNase-free DNase I (2U/μl; Ambion, Austin, Tex.). The DNase I was removed using DNA-free (Ambion) acccording to the manufacturer's protocol. Oligo-dT magnetic beads (Dynal) were used to extract mRNA from 500 ng of total RNA or directly from tissue ground in lysis-binding buffer as described in EXAMPLE 3. The mRNA was eluted from the beads at 65° C. for 2 min in 11.5 μl of DEPC-treated water. First strand cDNA's were synthesized using a 3′ degenerate tobacco EGase primer including a BamHI restriction site (3 ′ Tobcelribo BamHI: 5′-CGCGGATCCGGRTTRTYWCCHARHAWRTARTCHACYTG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:12) where R=A+G, Y=C+T, W=A+T, H=A+T+C) that recognized all five tobacco EGase cDNA sequences. Reverse transcription reactions contained the following components: 4 μl 5×first strand buffer (250 mM Tris, pH 8.3, 375 mM KCl, 15 mM MgCl2), 2 μl 0.1M DTT, 1 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 0.5 μl 10 μM 3′ Tobcelribo BamHI primer, 11.5 μl mRNA isolated from above, and 1 μl Superscript reverse transcriptase (200U/μl; GibCo BRL). The reaction was incubated at 42° C. for 1 hour, followed by the addition of 2 Units of RNase H (GibCo BRL) and an additional 20-minute incubation at 37° C. The cDNA was precipitated and resuspended in 10 μl of water. Reactions without the addition of reverse transcriptase were included as a control for contaminating DNA, although amplifications of tobacco genomic DNA using each EGase primer set did not generate fragments of the size predicted for amplification from cDNA. 5′ gene-specific primers containing an EcoRI restriction site and the 3′ Tobcelribo BamHI primer were used in subsequent PCR amplification reactions. 5′ primer sequences were as follows: 5 ′Tobcel2 EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCGTAACATGCAGCATGTGACATCC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:13); 5′ Tobcel4 EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCGCATGTTGGAGCAAGGATCTTC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:14); 5′ Tobcel5 EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCCCAGGCTCACCTAG CTTTCAAGC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:15); 5′ Tobcel7EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCGGG GGCCTAATTTACAAGCTAAC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:16); 5′ Tobcel8 EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCCCATGCACCTGTGTTTGAGAAGTAC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:17). PCR reactions contained the following components: 5 μl 10×PCR buffer (200 mM Tris, pH 8.4, 500 mM KCl), 1.5 μl 50 mM MgCl2, 1.0 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 2.5 μl 5′ primer, 2.5 μl 3′ primer, 2 μl cDNA, 35 μl water, 0.5 μl Taq polymerase (5U/μl ). PCR cycles consisted of an initial denaturation step at 94° C. for 2 minutes, followed by 40 cycles of 94° C. 1 min, 55° C. 1 min, 72° C. 2 min, and a final 10 min elongation step at 72° C. Ten microliter aliquots of each RT-PCR reaction were electrophoresed on a 2% agarose gel, transferred to nylon membranes, and hybridized with corresponding tobacco EGase DIG-labeled DNA probes.

[0071] To compare the relative expression of individual tobacco EGase genes in noninfected and nematode-infected (RKN or TCN) tobacco root tissue, the presence of EGase mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene-specific primer sets designed to each of the five tobacco EGase cDNA sequences amplified the following sized fragments: Ntcel2-181 bp; Ntcel4-350 bp; Ntcel5-245 bp; Ntcel7-209 bp; Ntcel8-300 bp (FIG. 5). These same size fragments were not amplified from tobacco genomic DNA or from control reactions that did not contain reverse transcriptase, excluding the possibility of contaminating genomic DNA in the results. Equivalent amounts of either RNA or root tissue were used for the synthesis of first-strand cDNAs, and the relative amount of amplification products were consistently higher in nematode-infected roots as compared to uninfected roots for each tobacco EGase gene, in three separate experiments (FIG. 5). When the entire uninfected root PCR reaction was loaded on a gel only a faint band could be detected (data not shown). DNA gel blots of amplified fragments hybridized with probes to each tobacco EGase cDNA confirmed the identity of the products (FIG. 5). The three genes showing the highest expression levels (Ntcel2, Ntcel7, Ntcel8) were selected for further analysis.

EXAMPLE 5 In Situ Localization of Tobacco EGase Transcripts in Root-Knot Nematode-Infected Roots

[0072] Digoxigenin-Labeled RNA Probes. Antisense and sense RNA probes were synthesized to Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8 EGase cDNAs by in vitro transcription. Gene-specific primer sets containing EcoRI and BamHI restriction sites were designed to each of the three tobacco EGase cDNA sequences and used to amplify products ranging in size from 150-210 basepairs (bp). The 5′ Tobcel2 EcoRI primer and 5′ Tobcel 7 EcoRI primers were used together with the 3′ Tobcelribo BamHI primer (see EXAMPLE 4) to amplify products of 181 bp and 209 bp, respectively of Ntcel2 and Ntcel7. 5′ Tobcel8-2 EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCCGTCTTTCGGAACAGCAACCCT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:18), and 3′ Tobcel8-2 BamHI: 5′-CGCGGATCCTTCATCTGCGTATCCACTGACAG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:19) were used to amplify a 150 bp fragment from Ntcel8. Two primers designed to conserved regions of plant 18S ribosomal RNA genes were used to amplify a 87 bp fragment of the tobacco 18S ribosomal RNA gene to be used as a control riboprobe. Primers sequences were as follows: Plant 18S 5′ EcoRI: 5′-CCGGAATTCGAATGATCCGGTG AAGTGTTCGG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:20) and Plant 18S 3 ′ BamHI: 5′-CGCGGATCCGATAAGGTTTAGTGGACTTCTCGC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:21). Each product was digested with both EcoRI and BamHI and cloned into a pBluescript SK+ transcription vector with a truncated multiple cloning site (De Boer, et al. (1998) J. Nematol. 30: 309-312) and flanking T3 and T7 promoter sequences. Purified plasmid DNA corresponding to each tobacco riboprobe clone was digested separately with EcoRI and BamHI, column purified, and 1-2 μg was added to in vitro transcription reactions containing digoxigenin-UTP (Roche Molecular) and the respective polymerase to synthesize RNA probes. Unincorporated nucleotides were removed using mini Quick Spin RNA columns (Roche Molecular) and the incorporation of DIG-UTP was quantified by dot blot analysis.

[0073] In Situ RNA Hybridization. Rehydrated tissue sections were pre-treated with proteinase K (1 μg/ml (12 μm sections) or 2 μg/ml (20 μm sections) in 100 mM Tris-HCl and 50 mM EDTA, pH 8.0) for 30 minutes at 37° C., rinsed for 5 minutes twice with TBS buffer (150 mM NaCl and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5), incubated in TBS with glycine (2 mg/ml) for 2 minutes, and then washed again for 5 minutes twice with TBS buffer. Sections were post-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS for 5 minutes and washed in TBS for 5 minutes. After acetylation with acetic anhydride (0.25% in 0.1 M triethanolamine-HCl, pH 8.0) for 10 minutes, the sections were washed with TBS, dehydrated in a graded ethanol series, and air-dried. Hybridization solution (40% formamide, 10% dextran sulfate, 1 mg/ml yeast tRNA, 0.5 mg/mL polyadenylic acid, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 0.01 M sodium phosphate, pH 6.8, 5 mM EDTA, 40 U/mL ribonuclease inhibitor) was supplemented with 100 ng of DIG-labeled riboprobe per 100 μl of hybridization solution and dispensed onto slides containing sections. Hybridization was carried out for 16-18 hours at 45° C. in a humid chamber. Post-hybridization treatments included a 20-minute wash with 2×SSC at room temperature followed by RNase A treatment (50 μg/mL in 0.5 M NaCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, and 1 mM EDTA) for 30 minutes at 37° C. Slides were then washed in 0.2×SSC twice for one hour at 55° C., and once with 0.1×SSC for thirty minutes at 55° C. Slides were rinsed in TBST (0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 0.15 M NaCl, and 0.3% Triton X-100) for 10 minutes on a shaking platform and then blocked overnight at 4° C. with 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction V (Fisher) in TBST. Hybridized DIG-labeled transcripts were immunolocalized by incubating sections with a 1:200 dilution of sheep anti-digoxigenin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate (Roche Molecular) in 1% BSA in TBST for two hours at room temperature. The slides were washed three times for 15 minutes each with TBST and once with alkaline phosphatase (AP) detection buffer (0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH 9.5, 0.1 M NaCl, and 50 mM MgCl2) for 10 minutes. Substrate buffer (175 μg/mL 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and 350 μg/mL nitroblue tetrazolium chloride in AP detection buffer) was dispensed onto sections on slides and color development was allowed to proceed for 4-8 hours at room temperature in the dark. Slides were washed with water before mounting with 50% glycerol, 7% gelatin, and 1% phenol. Sections were photographed using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) equipped with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics.

[0074] Results. To determine the spatial expression pattern of tobacco Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8 EGases in nematode-infected root tissue, mRNA in situ hybridizations were conducted on sections cut at weekly timepoints from developing tobacco galls after inoculation with RKN. RT-PCR experiments indicated that tobacco EGase expression levels were relatively low; therefore serial sections were cut to a thickness of 20 μm to increase transcript volume for detecting hybridization signals. FIG. 6 depicts longitudinal sections through RKN-infected root galls hybridized with either antisense or sense tobacco EGase riboprobes. FIGS. 6A and 6B illustrate giant cell-specific expression of Ntcel7 in serial sections through an RKN-induced tobacco gall 12-14 days after infection. Strong labeling was detected within the giant-cells and lateral root primordia (FIG. 6B) in sections probed with the antisense Ntcel7 riboprobe, but not in sections probed with a sense Ntcel7 riboprobe (FIG. 6A). FIG. 6C also depicts strong expression of Ntcel7 in developing giant-cells during early stages of nematode development (7-9 days post-infection), but not in surrounding cortical parenchyma cells. Sections probed with tobacco 18S ribosomal RNA sense and antisense riboprobes were used as controls. Strong hybridization signal was detected in all gall tissues with the antisense, but not the sense 18S RNA probe (data not shown).

[0075] In situ mRNA hybridizations using tobacco Ntcel8 sense and antisense riboprobes showed a similar expression pattern to that of Ntcel7 in sections of RKN-induced gall tissues (FIG. 6). During early stages of infection (7-9 dpi), Ntcel8 transcripts were localized specifically within developing giant-cells and lateral root primordia when probed with an antisense Ntcel8 riboprobe (FIG. 6D-F), but not a sense riboprobe (data not shown). During later stages of infection (12-14 dpi), Ntcel8 transcripts were still detected in giant-cells (data not shown). Consistently, signal intensity for Ntcel7 was stronger than for Ntcel8, but it is unclear if this reflects a true quantitative difference in expression levels.

[0076] Tobacco Ntcel2 sense and antisense riboprobes were used to probe sections through RKN-induced gall tissue, (FIGS. 6G and 6H). In sections probed with the Ntcel2 antisense riboprobe the overall signal intensity was much lower than signal intensities observed in sections probed with either Ntcel7 or Ntcel8 antisense riboprobes. Weak hybridization of Ntcel2 was detected in giant-cells and in lateral root primordia at 12-14 days post-infection with an antisense Ntcel2 riboprobe (FIG. 6H), but not a sense Ntcel2 riboprobe (FIG. 6G).

EXAMPLE 6 In Situ Localization of Tobacco EGase Transcripts in Cyst Nematode-Infected Roots

[0077] To determine the spatial expression pattern of tobacco Ntcel2, Ntcel7, and Ntcel8 EGases in TCN-infected root tissue, mRNA in situ hybridizations were conducted on sections cut from TCN-infected tobacco roots at 7 days post-infection (FIG. 7). Longitudinal serial sections through TCN-infected tobacco roots were cut to a thickness of 12 μm because roots were much thinner than RKN-induced galls and to increase the number of sections containing nematodes. Thinner sectioning may have contributed to a slight loss in hybridization signal intensity (target transcript) as compared to in situ hybridizations of RKN-infected root tissue (20 μm thick). In situ hybridizations of tobacco EGase riboprobes to TCN-infected root tissue sections required 6 hours of color development, in contrast to 2-4 hour color development for hybridizations of RKN-infected root tissue sections.

[0078] Longitudinal sections through TCN-infected tobacco roots were treated with antisense or sense tobacco Ntcel2, Ntcel7, Ntcel8, and 1 8S ribosomal RNA riboprobes. FIG. 7 shows strong expression of Ntcel7 in TCN-induced syncytia at 7 days after inoculation in sections probed with an antisense (FIG. 7A), but not a sense (FIG. 7B) Ntcel7 riboprobe. Ntcel7 transcripts were also detected in lateral root tips with the antisense, but not the sense Ntcel7 riboprobe as observed in RKN-infected tobacco root tissue (data not shown).

[0079] In situ mRNA hybridizations using tobacco Ntcel8 antisense and sense riboprobes showed a similar expression pattern to that of Ntcel7 in sections of TCN-infected root tissues (FIGS. 7C and 7D). At 7 days post-infection, Ntcel8 transcripts were localized within developing TCN-induced syncytia when probed with an antisense Ntcel8 riboprobe (FIG. 7C), but not a sense Ntcel8 riboprobe (FIG. 7D). Hybridization signal intensity was much stronger for Ntcel7 than for Ntcel8 and may reflect a quantitative difference in transcript levels, as was observed for these probes when hybridized to RKN-infected tobacco root tissue. Ntcel8 transcripts were also detected in lateral root tips with the anti sense, but not the sense Ntcel8 riboprobes. In situ mRNA hybridizations using tobacco Ntcel2 sense and antisense riboprobes did not show an observable difference in hybridization signal intensity (data not shown). Ntcel2 transcript levels may not be high enough for detection using this method. Sections probed with control tobacco 18S ribosomal RNA antisense and sense riboprobes produced strong hybridization signals in all cell types, but were more intense within TCN-induced syncytia (data not shown).

[0080] The foregoing is illustrative of the present invention, and is not to be construed as limiting thereof. The invention is defined by the following claims, with equivalents of the claims to be included therein.

1 21 1 1674 DNA Nicotiana tabacum CDS (12)..(1514) 1 agcaactaaa t atg gcg cga aaa aat tgc ggc ttt ccg gca ggt ttc ccg 50 Met Ala Arg Lys Asn Cys Gly Phe Pro Ala Gly Phe Pro 1 5 10 tca ttt ccc ctt agt cta gct ctc att ttc ttc ctc ccc gtc aat ccc 98 Ser Phe Pro Leu Ser Leu Ala Leu Ile Phe Phe Leu Pro Val Asn Pro 15 20 25 ctc cgg cat tgc tct gcc ggt ggc cat gac tac cgc gac gcc ctc cga 146 Leu Arg His Cys Ser Ala Gly Gly His Asp Tyr Arg Asp Ala Leu Arg 30 35 40 45 aaa agc atc ctc ttc ttc gaa ggc caa cgc tcc ggc aaa ctt cca ccc 194 Lys Ser Ile Leu Phe Phe Glu Gly Gln Arg Ser Gly Lys Leu Pro Pro 50 55 60 gac caa cgt ata aag tgg cgt aaa gac tcc gcc ttg tac gat ggc gcc 242 Asp Gln Arg Ile Lys Trp Arg Lys Asp Ser Ala Leu Tyr Asp Gly Ala 65 70 75 tcc gcc gga gtg gac ttg aca gga ggt tac tat gat gcc ggg gac aac 290 Ser Ala Gly Val Asp Leu Thr Gly Gly Tyr Tyr Asp Ala Gly Asp Asn 80 85 90 gtc aaa ttc gtc ttt cca atg gcg ttc act acc aca ttg ttg tcg tgg 338 Val Lys Phe Val Phe Pro Met Ala Phe Thr Thr Thr Leu Leu Ser Trp 95 100 105 agc ata ata gac ttc aaa agg aac atc gga cgt gag ctt gga aac gcc 386 Ser Ile Ile Asp Phe Lys Arg Asn Ile Gly Arg Glu Leu Gly Asn Ala 110 115 120 125 gtg aag gca gtg aag tgg gcg acg gat ttc ttg tta aaa gcg acg gct 434 Val Lys Ala Val Lys Trp Ala Thr Asp Phe Leu Leu Lys Ala Thr Ala 130 135 140 aag gaa ggc gtc ata tat gtg caa gtg ggt gat gca ttt tct gac cat 482 Lys Glu Gly Val Ile Tyr Val Gln Val Gly Asp Ala Phe Ser Asp His 145 150 155 agc tgt tgg gag agg cca gaa gat atg gac act ttg aga act gtt tac 530 Ser Cys Trp Glu Arg Pro Glu Asp Met Asp Thr Leu Arg Thr Val Tyr 160 165 170 aag att gac cag aat cat cct gga tca gac gtc gcc ggc gaa atc gct 578 Lys Ile Asp Gln Asn His Pro Gly Ser Asp Val Ala Gly Glu Ile Ala 175 180 185 gcc tct ttg gcc gcc gcg tcc att gtt ttc cgg tca ctc gac tct tct 626 Ala Ser Leu Ala Ala Ala Ser Ile Val Phe Arg Ser Leu Asp Ser Ser 190 195 200 205 tac tct ggt ctc cta ctt gat cgt gcc gtt aaa gtt ttc gag ttt gcc 674 Tyr Ser Gly Leu Leu Leu Asp Arg Ala Val Lys Val Phe Glu Phe Ala 210 215 220 aac agg cac aga ggt gca tac agc tcc agt ttg cac tct gcg gtt tgc 722 Asn Arg His Arg Gly Ala Tyr Ser Ser Ser Leu His Ser Ala Val Cys 225 230 235 cct ttt tac tgt gat ttt gat gga tac cag gac gaa ttg ctt tgg ggt 770 Pro Phe Tyr Cys Asp Phe Asp Gly Tyr Gln Asp Glu Leu Leu Trp Gly 240 245 250 gcg gcg tgg cta cac aaa gca acg agg agg cgt caa tac aga gag tac 818 Ala Ala Trp Leu His Lys Ala Thr Arg Arg Arg Gln Tyr Arg Glu Tyr 255 260 265 ata gtg aaa aac gag gtt gtt tta aga gct gga gac acc att aat gaa 866 Ile Val Lys Asn Glu Val Val Leu Arg Ala Gly Asp Thr Ile Asn Glu 270 275 280 285 ttc ggt tgg gat aat aaa cac gct ggg att aat gtc ctc att tcc aag 914 Phe Gly Trp Asp Asn Lys His Ala Gly Ile Asn Val Leu Ile Ser Lys 290 295 300 gag gtg ttg atg gga aga gca cca gac cta aaa tcc ttt caa gta aat 962 Glu Val Leu Met Gly Arg Ala Pro Asp Leu Lys Ser Phe Gln Val Asn 305 310 315 gca gat gcc ttc atc tgc tca ata tta cct gga att tct cat ccc caa 1010 Ala Asp Ala Phe Ile Cys Ser Ile Leu Pro Gly Ile Ser His Pro Gln 320 325 330 gtg caa tat tct ccg ggt gga ctc att gtc aaa cct ggc gtt tgt aac 1058 Val Gln Tyr Ser Pro Gly Gly Leu Ile Val Lys Pro Gly Val Cys Asn 335 340 345 atg cag cat gtg aca tcc ttg tcc ttc cta ctg ctc gct tac tct aat 1106 Met Gln His Val Thr Ser Leu Ser Phe Leu Leu Leu Ala Tyr Ser Asn 350 355 360 365 tat cta agc cac gcc aat cat gcc gtg cca tgt ggc tcc atc tca gcc 1154 Tyr Leu Ser His Ala Asn His Ala Val Pro Cys Gly Ser Ile Ser Ala 370 375 380 acc cct gct ctc ctc aaa cat att gcc aaa cgt cag gtg gat tac att 1202 Thr Pro Ala Leu Leu Lys His Ile Ala Lys Arg Gln Val Asp Tyr Ile 385 390 395 ctt gga gat aat ccg caa aga atg tca tac atg gtg ggg tat ggt cca 1250 Leu Gly Asp Asn Pro Gln Arg Met Ser Tyr Met Val Gly Tyr Gly Pro 400 405 410 cgt tac cca tta agg att cac cac aga ggt agc tct tta cca tct gtg 1298 Arg Tyr Pro Leu Arg Ile His His Arg Gly Ser Ser Leu Pro Ser Val 415 420 425 gcg gcc cac cca gcc cgt att ggg tgc aaa gga ggg tcc aat tat ttc 1346 Ala Ala His Pro Ala Arg Ile Gly Cys Lys Gly Gly Ser Asn Tyr Phe 430 435 440 445 tta tca cca aat cca aat cca aat cgc ttg att ggt gct gtt gtt ggt 1394 Leu Ser Pro Asn Pro Asn Pro Asn Arg Leu Ile Gly Ala Val Val Gly 450 455 460 ggg ccc aat ata act gat tcc ttc cca gac gca agg cca ttc ttt cag 1442 Gly Pro Asn Ile Thr Asp Ser Phe Pro Asp Ala Arg Pro Phe Phe Gln 465 470 475 gag tcg gag ccc act act tac gtt aat gcg cca ttg gtg ggc ctt ttg 1490 Glu Ser Glu Pro Thr Thr Tyr Val Asn Ala Pro Leu Val Gly Leu Leu 480 485 490 gct tac ttt tca gcc cat act tga tctcttccaa tttaaagaga gaatagagtg 1544 Ala Tyr Phe Ser Ala His Thr 495 500 gtgtgcaaag gccaccctct ctataccata tattattatt gttcaacatt ctatttcttc 1604 cttattcaat caacgaagaa actactacgc ctaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa 1664 gaaaaaaaaa 1674 2 500 PRT Nicotiana tabacum 2 Met Ala Arg Lys Asn Cys Gly Phe Pro Ala Gly Phe Pro Ser Phe Pro 1 5 10 15 Leu Ser Leu Ala Leu Ile Phe Phe Leu Pro Val Asn Pro Leu Arg His 20 25 30 Cys Ser Ala Gly Gly His Asp Tyr Arg Asp Ala Leu Arg Lys Ser Ile 35 40 45 Leu Phe Phe Glu Gly Gln Arg Ser Gly Lys Leu Pro Pro Asp Gln Arg 50 55 60 Ile Lys Trp Arg Lys Asp Ser Ala Leu Tyr Asp Gly Ala Ser Ala Gly 65 70 75 80 Val Asp Leu Thr Gly Gly Tyr Tyr Asp Ala Gly Asp Asn Val Lys Phe 85 90 95 Val Phe Pro Met Ala Phe Thr Thr Thr Leu Leu Ser Trp Ser Ile Ile 100 105 110 Asp Phe Lys Arg Asn Ile Gly Arg Glu Leu Gly Asn Ala Val Lys Ala 115 120 125 Val Lys Trp Ala Thr Asp Phe Leu Leu Lys Ala Thr Ala Lys Glu Gly 130 135 140 Val Ile Tyr Val Gln Val Gly Asp Ala Phe Ser Asp His Ser Cys Trp 145 150 155 160 Glu Arg Pro Glu Asp Met Asp Thr Leu Arg Thr Val Tyr Lys Ile Asp 165 170 175 Gln Asn His Pro Gly Ser Asp Val Ala Gly Glu Ile Ala Ala Ser Leu 180 185 190 Ala Ala Ala Ser Ile Val Phe Arg Ser Leu Asp Ser Ser Tyr Ser Gly 195 200 205 Leu Leu Leu Asp Arg Ala Val Lys Val Phe Glu Phe Ala Asn Arg His 210 215 220 Arg Gly Ala Tyr Ser Ser Ser Leu His Ser Ala Val Cys Pro Phe Tyr 225 230 235 240 Cys Asp Phe Asp Gly Tyr Gln Asp Glu Leu Leu Trp Gly Ala Ala Trp 245 250 255 Leu His Lys Ala Thr Arg Arg Arg Gln Tyr Arg Glu Tyr Ile Val Lys 260 265 270 Asn Glu Val Val Leu Arg Ala Gly Asp Thr Ile Asn Glu Phe Gly Trp 275 280 285 Asp Asn Lys His Ala Gly Ile Asn Val Leu Ile Ser Lys Glu Val Leu 290 295 300 Met Gly Arg Ala Pro Asp Leu Lys Ser Phe Gln Val Asn Ala Asp Ala 305 310 315 320 Phe Ile Cys Ser Ile Leu Pro Gly Ile Ser His Pro Gln Val Gln Tyr 325 330 335 Ser Pro Gly Gly Leu Ile Val Lys Pro Gly Val Cys Asn Met Gln His 340 345 350 Val Thr Ser Leu Ser Phe Leu Leu Leu Ala Tyr Ser Asn Tyr Leu Ser 355 360 365 His Ala Asn His Ala Val Pro Cys Gly Ser Ile Ser Ala Thr Pro Ala 370 375 380 Leu Leu Lys His Ile Ala Lys Arg Gln Val Asp Tyr Ile Leu Gly Asp 385 390 395 400 Asn Pro Gln Arg Met Ser Tyr Met Val Gly Tyr Gly Pro Arg Tyr Pro 405 410 415 Leu Arg Ile His His Arg Gly Ser Ser Leu Pro Ser Val Ala Ala His 420 425 430 Pro Ala Arg Ile Gly Cys Lys Gly Gly Ser Asn Tyr Phe Leu Ser Pro 435 440 445 Asn Pro Asn Pro Asn Arg Leu Ile Gly Ala Val Val Gly Gly Pro Asn 450 455 460 Ile Thr Asp Ser Phe Pro Asp Ala Arg Pro Phe Phe Gln Glu Ser Glu 465 470 475 480 Pro Thr Thr Tyr Val Asn Ala Pro Leu Val Gly Leu Leu Ala Tyr Phe 485 490 495 Ser Ala His Thr 500 3 1723 DNA Nicotiana tabacum CDS (45)..(1514) 3 ctaaacaagc cattttatac tttgagcaaa tcaaaaaaag tata atg gcg ttt aga 56 Met Ala Phe Arg 1 gtg gaa gtt tct gtt tgc atc att ctc ttc tca tca ttt ttc ttc tct 104 Val Glu Val Ser Val Cys Ile Ile Leu Phe Ser Ser Phe Phe Phe Ser 5 10 15 20 ttg ggt act gcc caa ggg gtt ttc aac tat aga gag gct ctt gaa aag 152 Leu Gly Thr Ala Gln Gly Val Phe Asn Tyr Arg Glu Ala Leu Glu Lys 25 30 35 tcc att ttg ttc ttt gaa gga caa aga tca ggg aaa ctc ccc cat aac 200 Ser Ile Leu Phe Phe Glu Gly Gln Arg Ser Gly Lys Leu Pro His Asn 40 45 50 cag cgt gtc tct tgg agg ggt agt tcg ggg ctt tca gat ggt tca ctt 248 Gln Arg Val Ser Trp Arg Gly Ser Ser Gly Leu Ser Asp Gly Ser Leu 55 60 65 gct aaa gtg gac tta act gga ggc tat tat gat gct gga gac aat gtc 296 Ala Lys Val Asp Leu Thr Gly Gly Tyr Tyr Asp Ala Gly Asp Asn Val 70 75 80 aag ttc aat ttc cca atg gca tac act acc aca ttg ctc tct tgg aac 344 Lys Phe Asn Phe Pro Met Ala Tyr Thr Thr Thr Leu Leu Ser Trp Asn 85 90 95 100 aca ctt gag tat ggc aag aga atg ggg ccc caa ttg caa aat gca cgg 392 Thr Leu Glu Tyr Gly Lys Arg Met Gly Pro Gln Leu Gln Asn Ala Arg 105 110 115 gca gct atc cgt tgg gcc acc gat tac tta ctc aaa tgc gca aat gct 440 Ala Ala Ile Arg Trp Ala Thr Asp Tyr Leu Leu Lys Cys Ala Asn Ala 120 125 130 gcg ccc aac aag ctc ttc gtt ggg gtt ggt gac cca aat tct gat cat 488 Ala Pro Asn Lys Leu Phe Val Gly Val Gly Asp Pro Asn Ser Asp His 135 140 145 aaa tgt tgg gaa agg ccc gaa gat atg gat act gtc cgg agc gtc tat 536 Lys Cys Trp Glu Arg Pro Glu Asp Met Asp Thr Val Arg Ser Val Tyr 150 155 160 tat gtc tct ccg agc agt cct ggc tct gat gtg gct gga gaa atg gcc 584 Tyr Val Ser Pro Ser Ser Pro Gly Ser Asp Val Ala Gly Glu Met Ala 165 170 175 180 gct gct tta gct gct gcc tca tta gtt ttc cgg acg gtt gat ccg gtt 632 Ala Ala Leu Ala Ala Ala Ser Leu Val Phe Arg Thr Val Asp Pro Val 185 190 195 tac tca aag aag cta ttg gga aat gca gtg aaa gta ttt aga ttt gca 680 Tyr Ser Lys Lys Leu Leu Gly Asn Ala Val Lys Val Phe Arg Phe Ala 200 205 210 gtt caa tac aga ggc tcc tat agt gat tca cta ggc tct gca gct tgc 728 Val Gln Tyr Arg Gly Ser Tyr Ser Asp Ser Leu Gly Ser Ala Ala Cys 215 220 225 cca ttc tac tgc tca tac tct ggt tat aag gat gag cta tat tgg gga 776 Pro Phe Tyr Cys Ser Tyr Ser Gly Tyr Lys Asp Glu Leu Tyr Trp Gly 230 235 240 gct gca tgg cta ttg aga gca aca aat gat att tca tac tta aac ttc 824 Ala Ala Trp Leu Leu Arg Ala Thr Asn Asp Ile Ser Tyr Leu Asn Phe 245 250 255 260 ata aac aca ttg gga gcc aat gat gta cca gac tta ttt agc tgg gat 872 Ile Asn Thr Leu Gly Ala Asn Asp Val Pro Asp Leu Phe Ser Trp Asp 265 270 275 aac aag tat gct ggt gct cat gtt ctt atg gca agg aga agc gtt gtt 920 Asn Lys Tyr Ala Gly Ala His Val Leu Met Ala Arg Arg Ser Val Val 280 285 290 gga aat gac aaa agg ttt gat cca ttc aga caa caa gct gaa gac ttt 968 Gly Asn Asp Lys Arg Phe Asp Pro Phe Arg Gln Gln Ala Glu Asp Phe 295 300 305 gtt tgc aaa ata cta ccc aac tca cct tat aca agt acc caa tat aca 1016 Val Cys Lys Ile Leu Pro Asn Ser Pro Tyr Thr Ser Thr Gln Tyr Thr 310 315 320 aaa ggg ggc cta att tac aag cta act gaa gaa aat ctt caa tat gtg 1064 Lys Gly Gly Leu Ile Tyr Lys Leu Thr Glu Glu Asn Leu Gln Tyr Val 325 330 335 340 aca tcc atc aca tct ttg ctc acc act tat gcc aaa tat atg gct agt 1112 Thr Ser Ile Thr Ser Leu Leu Thr Thr Tyr Ala Lys Tyr Met Ala Ser 345 350 355 aaa aag cat act ttc aac tgt gga agc ctc ttg gtc aca gaa aag acc 1160 Lys Lys His Thr Phe Asn Cys Gly Ser Leu Leu Val Thr Glu Lys Thr 360 365 370 att aga ata ctt gca aaa aga cag gtg gac tat ata ttg ggt aac aat 1208 Ile Arg Ile Leu Ala Lys Arg Gln Val Asp Tyr Ile Leu Gly Asn Asn 375 380 385 cca atg aaa atg tca tac atg gta ggc tat gga aca aat tac cct cga 1256 Pro Met Lys Met Ser Tyr Met Val Gly Tyr Gly Thr Asn Tyr Pro Arg 390 395 400 aga gtt cac cac aga gga tca tct tta cct tca atg gca atg cat cca 1304 Arg Val His His Arg Gly Ser Ser Leu Pro Ser Met Ala Met His Pro 405 410 415 420 cag tca ttt ggt tgt gat ggt gga ttt caa cca tac tat tat aca gca 1352 Gln Ser Phe Gly Cys Asp Gly Gly Phe Gln Pro Tyr Tyr Tyr Thr Ala 425 430 435 aat gcc aac cca aac ata ttg gtt gga gca att gtt gga ggt cct aat 1400 Asn Ala Asn Pro Asn Ile Leu Val Gly Ala Ile Val Gly Gly Pro Asn 440 445 450 caa aat gat ttc ttc ccg gat gaa cgt aca gat tat agt cat tca gag 1448 Gln Asn Asp Phe Phe Pro Asp Glu Arg Thr Asp Tyr Ser His Ser Glu 455 460 465 cct gct act tat att aat gct gcc att gtt gga cct cta gca tac ttt 1496 Pro Ala Thr Tyr Ile Asn Ala Ala Ile Val Gly Pro Leu Ala Tyr Phe 470 475 480 gat agt tcc gaa cgt tag ggaaaattaa aagaggtata aggggttgtt 1544 Asp Ser Ser Glu Arg 485 ttacttttaa aatttgtaaa tatatcccta gattgttgtc caaaaacata tgggcatgtg 1604 cccccaaaag ttggtggcta cgtagggata cttttaatat acccttctca tgtaccctgt 1664 tttagatgtt cttttgtttt tagttgggtt gttttcttaa agtggatggt ttaaaattt 1723 4 489 PRT Nicotiana tabacum 4 Met Ala Phe Arg Val Glu Val Ser Val Cys Ile Ile Leu Phe Ser Ser 1 5 10 15 Phe Phe Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Ala Gln Gly Val Phe Asn Tyr Arg Glu 20 25 30 Ala Leu Glu Lys Ser Ile Leu Phe Phe Glu Gly Gln Arg Ser Gly Lys 35 40 45 Leu Pro His Asn Gln Arg Val Ser Trp Arg Gly Ser Ser Gly Leu Ser 50 55 60 Asp Gly Ser Leu Ala Lys Val Asp Leu Thr Gly Gly Tyr Tyr Asp Ala 65 70 75 80 Gly Asp Asn Val Lys Phe Asn Phe Pro Met Ala Tyr Thr Thr Thr Leu 85 90 95 Leu Ser Trp Asn Thr Leu Glu Tyr Gly Lys Arg Met Gly Pro Gln Leu 100 105 110 Gln Asn Ala Arg Ala Ala Ile Arg Trp Ala Thr Asp Tyr Leu Leu Lys 115 120 125 Cys Ala Asn Ala Ala Pro Asn Lys Leu Phe Val Gly Val Gly Asp Pro 130 135 140 Asn Ser Asp His Lys Cys Trp Glu Arg Pro Glu Asp Met Asp Thr Val 145 150 155 160 Arg Ser Val Tyr Tyr Val Ser Pro Ser Ser Pro Gly Ser Asp Val Ala 165 170 175 Gly Glu Met Ala Ala Ala Leu Ala Ala Ala Ser Leu Val Phe Arg Thr 180 185 190 Val Asp Pro Val Tyr Ser Lys Lys Leu Leu Gly Asn Ala Val Lys Val 195 200 205 Phe Arg Phe Ala Val Gln Tyr Arg Gly Ser Tyr Ser Asp Ser Leu Gly 210 215 220 Ser Ala Ala Cys Pro Phe Tyr Cys Ser Tyr Ser Gly Tyr Lys Asp Glu 225 230 235 240 Leu Tyr Trp Gly Ala Ala Trp Leu Leu Arg Ala Thr Asn Asp Ile Ser 245 250 255 Tyr Leu Asn Phe Ile Asn Thr Leu Gly Ala Asn Asp Val Pro Asp Leu 260 265 270 Phe Ser Trp Asp Asn Lys Tyr Ala Gly Ala His Val Leu Met Ala Arg 275 280 285 Arg Ser Val Val Gly Asn Asp Lys Arg Phe Asp Pro Phe Arg Gln Gln 290 295 300 Ala Glu Asp Phe Val Cys Lys Ile Leu Pro Asn Ser Pro Tyr Thr Ser 305 310 315 320 Thr Gln Tyr Thr Lys Gly Gly Leu Ile Tyr Lys Leu Thr Glu Glu Asn 325 330 335 Leu Gln Tyr Val Thr Ser Ile Thr Ser Leu Leu Thr Thr Tyr Ala Lys 340 345 350 Tyr Met Ala Ser Lys Lys His Thr Phe Asn Cys Gly Ser Leu Leu Val 355 360 365 Thr Glu Lys Thr Ile Arg Ile Leu Ala Lys Arg Gln Val Asp Tyr Ile 370 375 380 Leu Gly Asn Asn Pro Met Lys Met Ser Tyr Met Val Gly Tyr Gly Thr 385 390 395 400 Asn Tyr Pro Arg Arg Val His His Arg Gly Ser Ser Leu Pro Ser Met 405 410 415 Ala Met His Pro Gln Ser Phe Gly Cys Asp Gly Gly Phe Gln Pro Tyr 420 425 430 Tyr Tyr Thr Ala Asn Ala Asn Pro Asn Ile Leu Val Gly Ala Ile Val 435 440 445 Gly Gly Pro Asn Gln Asn Asp Phe Phe Pro Asp Glu Arg Thr Asp Tyr 450 455 460 Ser His Ser Glu Pro Ala Thr Tyr Ile Asn Ala Ala Ile Val Gly Pro 465 470 475 480 Leu Ala Tyr Phe Asp Ser Ser Glu Arg 485 5 2286 DNA Nicotiana tabacum CDS (29)..(1903) 5 gatctacaca gttgagattt ctaagcat atg atg aaa agt ttt gtc atg atg 52 Met Met Lys Ser Phe Val Met Met 1 5 ttt tgt tcc atg act cct ctg ctt ctt ata att ggg cta ctt cct aat 100 Phe Cys Ser Met Thr Pro Leu Leu Leu Ile Ile Gly Leu Leu Pro Asn 10 15 20 ttg gca ttt gct agt agc cat aat tat ggt gaa gca ctt agc aaa agc 148 Leu Ala Phe Ala Ser Ser His Asn Tyr Gly Glu Ala Leu Ser Lys Ser 25 30 35 40 ttt ctg ttt tac gag gct cag aga tct ggt tat ctt cct cat gac cag 196 Phe Leu Phe Tyr Glu Ala Gln Arg Ser Gly Tyr Leu Pro His Asp Gln 45 50 55 aga gtt caa tgg agg ggt aat tct ggt ctt ctt gac ggc aag gct agt 244 Arg Val Gln Trp Arg Gly Asn Ser Gly Leu Leu Asp Gly Lys Ala Ser 60 65 70 ggg gtg gat cta gta gga ggg tac tac gat gca ggg gat aat gtg aaa 292 Gly Val Asp Leu Val Gly Gly Tyr Tyr Asp Ala Gly Asp Asn Val Lys 75 80 85 ttt gga ctg cca atg gca ttc acc gtt aca atg atg tcg tgg agc atc 340 Phe Gly Leu Pro Met Ala Phe Thr Val Thr Met Met Ser Trp Ser Ile 90 95 100 ata gaa tat ggg aag caa atg ggt gaa agt gga gag ctt agc aat gcc 388 Ile Glu Tyr Gly Lys Gln Met Gly Glu Ser Gly Glu Leu Ser Asn Ala 105 110 115 120 ata gat gct gtt aaa tgg ggt act gat tac ctt ctt aaa gct cac cct 436 Ile Asp Ala Val Lys Trp Gly Thr Asp Tyr Leu Leu Lys Ala His Pro 125 130 135 gaa cca aat gtc ctt tat gga gag gtt gga gat ggt acg aca gac cat 484 Glu Pro Asn Val Leu Tyr Gly Glu Val Gly Asp Gly Thr Thr Asp His 140 145 150 tac tgt tgg caa aga cca gag gac atg act act tca aga gct gct tac 532 Tyr Cys Trp Gln Arg Pro Glu Asp Met Thr Thr Ser Arg Ala Ala Tyr 155 160 165 agg atc gat cca agt cgc cct gga tcc gat ctc gct ggc gag aca gct 580 Arg Ile Asp Pro Ser Arg Pro Gly Ser Asp Leu Ala Gly Glu Thr Ala 170 175 180 gcc gca atg gca gct gct tcc atc gtc ttt cgg aac agc aac cct gct 628 Ala Ala Met Ala Ala Ala Ser Ile Val Phe Arg Asn Ser Asn Pro Ala 185 190 195 200 tat gcc aaa gag ctc ctc act cat gcc tac cag cta ttc gag ttt gcg 676 Tyr Ala Lys Glu Leu Leu Thr His Ala Tyr Gln Leu Phe Glu Phe Ala 205 210 215 gac aaa tac agg ggc aaa tat gat agc agc att act gtg gcc cag aag 724 Asp Lys Tyr Arg Gly Lys Tyr Asp Ser Ser Ile Thr Val Ala Gln Lys 220 225 230 tac tac cga tct gtc agt gga tac gca gat gaa tta ctg tgg gcc gcg 772 Tyr Tyr Arg Ser Val Ser Gly Tyr Ala Asp Glu Leu Leu Trp Ala Ala 235 240 245 gca tgg ctg tac aag gca tcc aac aaa gaa tat tac ttg aac tac cta 820 Ala Trp Leu Tyr Lys Ala Ser Asn Lys Glu Tyr Tyr Leu Asn Tyr Leu 250 255 260 ggg gag aat ggg gat gca ctt ggt gga act ggt tgg tcc atg act gaa 868 Gly Glu Asn Gly Asp Ala Leu Gly Gly Thr Gly Trp Ser Met Thr Glu 265 270 275 280 ttt ggc tgg gat gtc aag tat gct ggt gtc cag act ctt gct gct aag 916 Phe Gly Trp Asp Val Lys Tyr Ala Gly Val Gln Thr Leu Ala Ala Lys 285 290 295 ttc cta atg caa ggg aat gct ggt aac cat gca cct gtg ttt gag aag 964 Phe Leu Met Gln Gly Asn Ala Gly Asn His Ala Pro Val Phe Glu Lys 300 305 310 tac caa gaa aag gct gag aat ttt atg tgt gca tgt ctt ggg aag ggt 1012 Tyr Gln Glu Lys Ala Glu Asn Phe Met Cys Ala Cys Leu Gly Lys Gly 315 320 325 aac caa aac atc cac aag agt cca gga ggt ctc att ttc cgc cag aga 1060 Asn Gln Asn Ile His Lys Ser Pro Gly Gly Leu Ile Phe Arg Gln Arg 330 335 340 tgg aac aat atg caa ttt gtc aca agt gct tct ttc ctt gcc act gtc 1108 Trp Asn Asn Met Gln Phe Val Thr Ser Ala Ser Phe Leu Ala Thr Val 345 350 355 360 tac tct gac tat tta gcc tct gct aga aaa tcc ctc aag tgt tca tct 1156 Tyr Ser Asp Tyr Leu Ala Ser Ala Arg Lys Ser Leu Lys Cys Ser Ser 365 370 375 ggc act gta tta cca tct gag ctc ctc tca ttt gcc aag tca cag gtt 1204 Gly Thr Val Leu Pro Ser Glu Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Lys Ser Gln Val 380 385 390 gac tac att ctt gga gat aac cca aga gcc aca agt tac atg gtg gga 1252 Asp Tyr Ile Leu Gly Asp Asn Pro Arg Ala Thr Ser Tyr Met Val Gly 395 400 405 tat gga aac aac tac cca aga caa gtt cac cac aga ggt tct tcc att 1300 Tyr Gly Asn Asn Tyr Pro Arg Gln Val His His Arg Gly Ser Ser Ile 410 415 420 gtt tct gta aag aag gat cct tct ttt gtt agc tgc cgt gga ggt tat 1348 Val Ser Val Lys Lys Asp Pro Ser Phe Val Ser Cys Arg Gly Gly Tyr 425 430 435 440 gcc act tgg ttt agt aga aag gcg agt gat ccc aat ctt cta gct gga 1396 Ala Thr Trp Phe Ser Arg Lys Ala Ser Asp Pro Asn Leu Leu Ala Gly 445 450 455 gcc att gtt ggt gga cct gat gcc tat gac aac ttt gct gat cag agg 1444 Ala Ile Val Gly Gly Pro Asp Ala Tyr Asp Asn Phe Ala Asp Gln Arg 460 465 470 gac aac tat gag caa act gaa cca gcc acc tac aac aat gct cct ttg 1492 Asp Asn Tyr Glu Gln Thr Glu Pro Ala Thr Tyr Asn Asn Ala Pro Leu 475 480 485 att ggt gtg tta gca aga ctt cat ggt ggt caa agt aaa tat agt cag 1540 Ile Gly Val Leu Ala Arg Leu His Gly Gly Gln Ser Lys Tyr Ser Gln 490 495 500 ctc ctt cca gtt gct atc cct cag cca aag cca gat cca gag caa aaa 1588 Leu Leu Pro Val Ala Ile Pro Gln Pro Lys Pro Asp Pro Glu Gln Lys 505 510 515 520 gta act cca gcc cca gct tca tca act gct gac att act att gaa caa 1636 Val Thr Pro Ala Pro Ala Ser Ser Thr Ala Asp Ile Thr Ile Glu Gln 525 530 535 aag gaa aca gct tca tgg gtt ccc aag ggg aaa act tac tac aga tac 1684 Lys Glu Thr Ala Ser Trp Val Pro Lys Gly Lys Thr Tyr Tyr Arg Tyr 540 545 550 tca gta ata gta act aac aaa tct gct atg aca atg aag aat ttg aaa 1732 Ser Val Ile Val Thr Asn Lys Ser Ala Met Thr Met Lys Asn Leu Lys 555 560 565 ctc tca ata tac caa ctc tat ggt tct ctc tgg ggt ctt tca aaa tat 1780 Leu Ser Ile Tyr Gln Leu Tyr Gly Ser Leu Trp Gly Leu Ser Lys Tyr 570 575 580 ggt gac tcc tac gta ttc ccg gcc tgg ctc aac tct tta cca gct gga 1828 Gly Asp Ser Tyr Val Phe Pro Ala Trp Leu Asn Ser Leu Pro Ala Gly 585 590 595 600 aaa acc ctc gag ttt gtg tac gtt cac tct gct tct cct gca acg gtc 1876 Lys Thr Leu Glu Phe Val Tyr Val His Ser Ala Ser Pro Ala Thr Val 605 610 615 tcc ata tca agc tac act ctt gtc taa aacccaaaag acgacgtgaa 1923 Ser Ile Ser Ser Tyr Thr Leu Val 620 tctacaaaga atgaatcatc aactctgggg ttttaatgta agaattgtgc agttgtttgt 1983 aacttttcaa cttcttggtt tgtagtttga gttattaggt gtttagctat tgaagtgtag 2043 gttaaataaa ggcggatatc tggaggaaga aaggagcgaa gagacgaatt agaacaagtg 2103 ctcatcctct ttcttctcca cttcattttg tcacattata gcatagtatt gagaaaagag 2163 tgaggggctg agaaattaag aaggttgctt ctcaacagaa atgtgaagtt gatcttcatt 2223 ttgtaattta tgcaatttca aggttttcat atgttaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa 2283 aaa 2286 6 624 PRT Nicotiana tabacum 6 Met Met Lys Ser Phe Val Met Met Phe Cys Ser Met Thr Pro Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Leu Ile Ile Gly Leu Leu Pro Asn Leu Ala Phe Ala Ser Ser His Asn 20 25 30 Tyr Gly Glu Ala Leu Ser Lys Ser Phe Leu Phe Tyr Glu Ala Gln Arg 35 40 45 Ser Gly Tyr Leu Pro His Asp Gln Arg Val Gln Trp Arg Gly Asn Ser 50 55 60 Gly Leu Leu Asp Gly Lys Ala Ser Gly Val Asp Leu Val Gly Gly Tyr 65 70 75 80 Tyr Asp Ala Gly Asp Asn Val Lys Phe Gly Leu Pro Met Ala Phe Thr 85 90 95 Val Thr Met Met Ser Trp Ser Ile Ile Glu Tyr Gly Lys Gln Met Gly 100 105 110 Glu Ser Gly Glu Leu Ser Asn Ala Ile Asp Ala Val Lys Trp Gly Thr 115 120 125 Asp Tyr Leu Leu Lys Ala His Pro Glu Pro Asn Val Leu Tyr Gly Glu 130 135 140 Val Gly Asp Gly Thr Thr Asp His Tyr Cys Trp Gln Arg Pro Glu Asp 145 150 155 160 Met Thr Thr Ser Arg Ala Ala Tyr Arg Ile Asp Pro Ser Arg Pro Gly 165 170 175 Ser Asp Leu Ala Gly Glu Thr Ala Ala Ala Met Ala Ala Ala Ser Ile 180 185 190 Val Phe Arg Asn Ser Asn Pro Ala Tyr Ala Lys Glu Leu Leu Thr His 195 200 205 Ala Tyr Gln Leu Phe Glu Phe Ala Asp Lys Tyr Arg Gly Lys Tyr Asp 210 215 220 Ser Ser Ile Thr Val Ala Gln Lys Tyr Tyr Arg Ser Val Ser Gly Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ala Asp Glu Leu Leu Trp Ala Ala Ala Trp Leu Tyr Lys Ala Ser Asn 245 250 255 Lys Glu Tyr Tyr Leu Asn Tyr Leu Gly Glu Asn Gly Asp Ala Leu Gly 260 265 270 Gly Thr Gly Trp Ser Met Thr Glu Phe Gly Trp Asp Val Lys Tyr Ala 275 280 285 Gly Val Gln Thr Leu Ala Ala Lys Phe Leu Met Gln Gly Asn Ala Gly 290 295 300 Asn His Ala Pro Val Phe Glu Lys Tyr Gln Glu Lys Ala Glu Asn Phe 305 310 315 320 Met Cys Ala Cys Leu Gly Lys Gly Asn Gln Asn Ile His Lys Ser Pro 325 330 335 Gly Gly Leu Ile Phe Arg Gln Arg Trp Asn Asn Met Gln Phe Val Thr 340 345 350 Ser Ala Ser Phe Leu Ala Thr Val Tyr Ser Asp Tyr Leu Ala Ser Ala 355 360 365 Arg Lys Ser Leu Lys Cys Ser Ser Gly Thr Val Leu Pro Ser Glu Leu 370 375 380 Leu Ser Phe Ala Lys Ser Gln Val Asp Tyr Ile Leu Gly Asp Asn Pro 385 390 395 400 Arg Ala Thr Ser Tyr Met Val Gly Tyr Gly Asn Asn Tyr Pro Arg Gln 405 410 415 Val His His Arg Gly Ser Ser Ile Val Ser Val Lys Lys Asp Pro Ser 420 425 430 Phe Val Ser Cys Arg Gly Gly Tyr Ala Thr Trp Phe Ser Arg Lys Ala 435 440 445 Ser Asp Pro Asn Leu Leu Ala Gly Ala Ile Val Gly Gly Pro Asp Ala 450 455 460 Tyr Asp Asn Phe Ala Asp Gln Arg Asp Asn Tyr Glu Gln Thr Glu Pro 465 470 475 480 Ala Thr Tyr Asn Asn Ala Pro Leu Ile Gly Val Leu Ala Arg Leu His 485 490 495 Gly Gly Gln Ser Lys Tyr Ser Gln Leu Leu Pro Val Ala Ile Pro Gln 500 505 510 Pro Lys Pro Asp Pro Glu Gln Lys Val Thr Pro Ala Pro Ala Ser Ser 515 520 525 Thr Ala Asp Ile Thr Ile Glu Gln Lys Glu Thr Ala Ser Trp Val Pro 530 535 540 Lys Gly Lys Thr Tyr Tyr Arg Tyr Ser Val Ile Val Thr Asn Lys Ser 545 550 555 560 Ala Met Thr Met Lys Asn Leu Lys Leu Ser Ile Tyr Gln Leu Tyr Gly 565 570 575 Ser Leu Trp Gly Leu Ser Lys Tyr Gly Asp Ser Tyr Val Phe Pro Ala 580 585 590 Trp Leu Asn Ser Leu Pro Ala Gly Lys Thr Leu Glu Phe Val Tyr Val 595 600 605 His Ser Ala Ser Pro Ala Thr Val Ser Ile Ser Ser Tyr Thr Leu Val 610 615 620 7 8 PRT Artificial Sequence Conserved amino acid domain of plant EGases. 7 Cys Trp Glu Arg Pro Glu Asp Met 1 5 8 6 PRT Artificial Sequence Conserved amino acid domain of plant EGases 8 Tyr Ile Asn Ala Pro Leu 1 5 9 1470 DNA Nicotiana tabacum 9 atgcccattc atcaagaatc tagatcatga agtgcataac tatttatgct aaggagtgga 60 ctaaaagtta ttgtcaatta tattgacaca tgttttgtat caatgtaaaa aataggagtt 120 tgcagaaatt ccattattat aggcaggttg catatgcttt tgatcattta ctatctcggc 180 tttcaacatt cacctaataa acacatgagg aatacgaatg tgcaattagc ttaagttggg 240 aaagaaaaca tgaagcatta cgccgtaggc ctaaaggact gatagcttat ccatttttct 300 tttctttcat tctcgtcttt ccgatataca atgacaacct acatgttctt tgtactgtca 360 gcttaattta acatgtgata ttaagttaat tacgtataat tattattaaa attaattttt 420 agatttagtg acttgattgt gttaataatt tttaaactgt cagtgaatat atcttttaaa 480 ttcattagta aacttgctaa tccttaaata aaaaatataa aaaggccatt gaaaaatcaa 540 atggtagaat acttctctga tttaataaat atatgggaaa agaagtaatt aaaaagagtc 600 tattaatctt caacaccaca agtcagataa agatgtcact ctgcagtaga gggtaaatat 660 cacatcgcat tggtactcca aaaaagagga gggaaaagaa aggtgatcgt tttggccttc 720 ccatttatag ggattcgaga cggccaaatg tgaatttaca agagttaatt tcctcgaatg 780 ccatgatagc cttatagaag ttagtagttg tgaagaaaac tcaaagatat ttggtgagat 840 gcaagtggaa atatcggatt taacatttaa gcgtatacaa atactgatag tgaaaacttt 900 ttacatcatc actatagttt aaattatata gcaaatcacg tactatttat tgtaggttat 960 gaattaatat ttattaaata aaattatttg taattatctt ttaaatgatt tgattgtata 1020 aatatttctt atatcataag tgcatatatt taaagctcga acatatttct aaagtatttt 1080 tgggagtcat gtgttttccc tccattccat tttctctata gtcttcaaac actttgattt 1140 gcttttagtc ttttgttcac tcatctcgaa attcttggtc aacctaaact agttctaaga 1200 gattagaagc cgctaccttt aggcatggac taccttttcg tgtatttcga tagagtacat 1260 gtttactcaa atggaaatta aattaaatat tttttctaaa gggaatgaca ataaagaaaa 1320 agacacttga ttggaaagcc ttaatttgcg ttgctgtgat tggattcccc aagcccctat 1380 ataaaggggt catttgtcaa tgttttaatc aacgccataa ctaactctaa ataagccatt 1440 ttatactttg agcaaatcaa aaaaagtata 1470 10 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Degenerate oligonucleotide primer. 10 tgttgggara grcchgarga y 21 11 24 DNA Artificial Sequence Degenerate oligonucleotide primer. 11 machadhgsw gcattrayrt awgt 24 12 38 DNA Artificial Sequence Degenerate oligonucleotide primer. 12 cgcggatccg grttrtywcc harhawrtar tchacytg 38 13 32 DNA Artificial Sequence 5′ tobcel2-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 13 ccggaattcg taacatgcag catgtgacat cc 32 14 31 DNA Artificial Sequence 5′ tobcel4-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 14 ccggaattcg catgttggag caaggatctt c 31 15 32 DNA Artificial Sequence 5′ tobcel5-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 15 ccggaattcc caggctcacc tagctttcaa gc 32 16 32 DNA Artificial Sequence 5′ tobcel7-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 16 ccggaattcg ggggcctaat ttacaagcta ac 32 17 34 DNA Artificial Sequence 5′ tobcel8-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 17 ccggaattcc catgcacctg tgtttgagaa gtac 34 18 31 DNA Artificial Sequence 5′ tobcel8-2 gene-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 18 ccggaattcc gtctttcgga acagcaaccc t 31 19 32 DNA Artificial Sequence 3′ tobcel8-2 gene-specific synthetic oligonucleotide primer. 19 cgcggatcct tcatctgcgt atccactgac ag 32 20 32 DNA Artificial Sequence Synthetic oligonucleotide primer to tobacco 18S ribosomal RNA. 20 ccggaattcg aatgatccgg tgaagtgttc gg 32 21 33 DNA Artificial Sequence Synthetic oligonucleotide primer to tobacco 18S ribosomal RNA. 21 cgcggatccg ataaggttta gtggacttct cgc 33

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7968525Nov 26, 2008Jun 28, 2011University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.Use of RNA interference to validate new termiticide target sites and a method of termite control
EP2698433A1Jun 5, 2008Feb 19, 2014Monsanto Technology LLCGenes and uses for plant enhancement
WO2014052447A2 *Sep 25, 2013Apr 3, 2014Syngenta Participations AgMethods and compositions for increasing resistance to nematodes in plants
Classifications
U.S. Classification800/279, 435/320.1, 536/23.7, 530/350, 435/419
International ClassificationC12N15/82, C12N9/42
Cooperative ClassificationC12Y302/01004, C12N9/2437, C12N15/8239
European ClassificationC12N9/24A2D, C12N15/82B24D
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 6, 2013FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20130614
Jun 14, 2013LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Jan 28, 2013REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Dec 15, 2008FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Mar 21, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DAVIS, ERIC L.;GOELLNER, MELISSA;REEL/FRAME:012710/0193;SIGNING DATES FROM 20020220 TO 20020226
Owner name: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS BOX 8210 24
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DAVIS, ERIC L. /AR;REEL/FRAME:012710/0193;SIGNING DATES FROM 20020220 TO 20020226