US 2003010 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 28, 1935.
J. D. NlxoN FLUID ELEvAToR Filed Feb. 27, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 HM@ (di ATTORNzix/LI May 28, 1935.. J. D. NlxoN FLUID ELEVATOR Filed Feb. 27, 1953 5 sheets-sheet 2 HMM/K6@ ATTORNEY,
May 28, 1935. J. D. NlxoN FLUID ELEVATOR Filed Feb. 27, 193s s sheets-Sheet s ATTORNEYH operating fluid under pressure.
Patented May 28, 1935 UNITED STATES 2,003,010 FLUID ELEvA'roR Jeddy D. Nixon, Houston, Texg., assignor to S. S. McClendon, Jr., Houston, Tex., as trustee Application February Z7, 1933, Serial No. 658,882
This invention relates to a iiuid elevator.
An object of the invention is to provide apparatus whereby liquid in a well may be delivered to the ground surface through the agency of an The invention relates to certain improvements over that type of apparatus for asimilar purpose disclosed by my copending application on Method and apparatus for producing liquidA from wells led June l0, 1932, under Serial No. 616,487.
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus of the character described of such construction that the liquid to be recovered from the producing formation may be-trapped, or separated from the cognate liquid in the well, in successive loads or quantities and an operating iiuid, such as air or gas, under pressure, applied to said trapped or separated quantities or loads to expel them successively from the well; an important feature of the invention resides in the novel means for restraining or cutting oif the operating fluid so that the same will be expended only while actually expelling a load of liquid from the well, said means comprising a novelly constructed valve mechanism particularly designed for the purposes stated.
Another object is to provide an apparatus of the character described wherein special means has been provided for excluding the operating iiuid from the producing formation of the well. Ano-ther object is to provide, in apparatus of the character described, novel means for automatially controlling the application of the operating uid.
Another object of the invention is to provide, in apparatus of the character described, a novel type of valve of such construction and mounted in such novel manner that it may be easily opened and closed to control the application of the operating fluid to the loads of entrapped liquid.
The invention also includes a novel type 0f dash pot.
With the above and other objects in view the invention has particular relation to certain novel features of construction, operation, and arrangement of parts, an example of which is given in this specication and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 shows a vertical sectional view of the lower end of the apparatus.
lFigure 2 shows a. similar view of the upper end thereof.
Figure 3 shows a vertical sectional view of the upper portion of the float chamber showing the valves and valve operating mechanism.
(c1. 10a-24s) Figure 4 shows an enlarged vertical sectional view of the controlling valve mechanism employed.
Figure 5 shows a vertical sectional view showing an intermediate section of the oat chamber 5 illustrating a novel type of dash pot mounted therein.
Figure 6 shows an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view of the dash pot.
Figure 7 shows an enlarged vertical sectional view, showing the lower end of the float chamber and the packing assembled therewith and located beneath said chamber also showing the inlet valve for controlling the inlet of liquid into said chamber, and r 0 Figure 8 shows an enlarged vertical sectional view of the upper portion of the float chamber taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 3.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings wherein like numerals of reference designate the same parts in each of the figures the numeral I designates the well casing which is set at the desired depth in the well. A suitable inow pipe 2 may be provided whose lower end extends down the required distance into the liquid to be lifted and a suitable packer as 3 may be set between the casing I and the iniiow pipe 2 as shown in Figures 1 and 7. 'I'his packer is in the form of an upwardly opening cup ring, one or more of which may be used as desired, only one being shown. Any type of packer suitable for the purpose may be used. Above the packer 3 there is a suitable housing 4 within which there is a float chamber 5. The upper end of the inow pipe 2 may be suitably connected into the lower end of the housing l, and Within the float chamber 5 there is a suitable valve cage 6 preferably connected to the upper end of the inflow pipe 2 and clamping the valve seat 'l in place. The inflow of liquid through the pipe 2 and seat 1 is controlled by the upwardly opening valve 8 which is confined by said cage. The lower end of the pipe 2 may have a suitable nipple 9 attached thereto whose lower end has the inlet opening I0.
Attached to the upper end of the housing 4 and closing the same there is a head I I, and leading upwardly from this head to the ground surface there is an eduction tube I2 ,which continues on down into and through the chamber 5 and whose lower end terminates above but adjacent the lower end of thefloat chamber.`
There is a bore I3 through the head II which connects that portion of the eduction tube I2, ble- 55 the packing 3. The pipe I5 is of suchlengthv that the screen I6 will be above the level of the oil. A trap will thus be formed so that any sediment falling through the casing from above will not enter the passageway I4 but will fall down about the housing 4.
'I'he head I I also has a bore I1, from the upper endc downwardly therethrough into the float chamber 5 and whose lower end is reduced forming an inside annular shoulder I8. Fitted within this bore there is a tubular valve casing I9, whose lower end fits against said shoulder. The upper end of the bore I1 may be closed by a plug 20, which abuts the upper end of the valve leasing.
'Ihe valve casing I9 has a lateral opening 2| which registers with the inlet passageway I4, and above and beneath the opening 2| are the inside annular downwardly converging valve seats 22,
23, with which the upper and lower disc-like valves 24, 25 cooperate. These valves are secured in ilxed relation in any preferred manner. As shown, the upper valve 24 is secured to the upper end of the valve stem 26 and the lower valve 25 is tted onto said stem. There are the tubular upper and lower spacers 21, 28 around the stem 26 the former of which is interposed between and spaces said valves and the latter of which is arranged beneath and abuts the valve 25 and is retained in place by the nut 29 which is threaded onto the stem 26 and abuts the lower end of the spacer 28. The spacers 21, 28 have the respective longitudinal guide wings 30, 3l, thereon' and spaced apart therearound whereby the valves 24, 25 are maintained centered relative to their respective seats. Above the valve 24 the casing I9 has the lateral opening 32 which registers with the passageway 33 leading through the head II into the iloat chamber 5. As shown in Figures 3 and 4 the valves 24, 25 are in closed position and the operating uid will be out oi from the float chamber 5. From an inspection of Figure 4 it will be apparent that the transverse diameter of the valves 24 and 25 is somewhat less than the transverse diameter of the valve casing I9 and the areas of the valves exposed to the pressure of the operating iluid, when the valves are closed, are approximately equal and the valves will be balanced by said pressure so that the total pressure of the operating uid will not have to be overcome in 'opening the valves, thus conducing to the easy opening of said valves.
'I'he upper end of the casing I has a conventional casing head 34 attached thereto having packing 35 supported therein around the eduction tube I2.V Above said packing there is a suitable adapter 36 in said casing head having an inside downwardly converging slip seat 31 and in this seat are the conventional wedge shaped slips 38 which engage and support the eduction tube I2. The adapter 36 and slips 38 may rest against the packing 35 to maintain the same compressed and to forma fluid tight joint with the casing head and eduction tube to prevent the escape of the operating uid from the casing I.
.The adapter and slips may be maintained in position by means of the cap 49 secured on the casing head. Any preferred type of casing head may be employed with means thereon for supporting the eduction tube and for forming aA seal at the top of the casing I. The casing I is` thus sealed by the packing 3 beneath the uid elevating apparatus and by the packing 35 at the upper end of the casing thus forming a compression chamber 50 within the casing around the eduction tube I2 in which the operating iluid may be maintained under the required pressure. This operating iiuid is supplied'from a suitable source, such as a compressor, through the line 5I which may be equipped with a suitable gauge 52 for registering the amount of the compression in the chamber 50.
The eduction tube I2 leads off, to va suitable receptacle to receive the liquid discharged from the well and the pressure line 5I is connected into the eduction tube I2 by means of a suitable connecting pipe 53 which is formed of sections connected by a suitable coupling 53. vThe pipe 53 is equipped with a gauge 54 and between this gauge and the pipe 5I there is a suitable gate valve 55 connected into the pipe 53 and normally closed. The eduction tube has a, suitable gate valve 55 incorporated therein out beyond the connection of the pipe 53 with said eduction tube, said valve 55 being normally open but being provided to close the eduction tube when it may be desired to do so. The head I I also has a relief passageway 56 which connects the bore I3 with the chamber 5`and whose inner or lower end is ilared forming a seat 51 which is controlled by the inwardly opening valve4 58. 'I'his valve 58 is attached to the upper end of the stem 59 and the upper end of this stem works through a suitable guide 60 in the passageway 56, said end being extended for that purpose.
Depending from the head II there is a suitable anchor 6I and a valve actuating lever 62 is pivoted at one end to this anchor 6I and its other end is provided with a bifurcated yoke 63 whose fingers work in suitable side bearings in the bearing member 64 attached to the lower end of the stem 26. 'Ihe lower end of the stem 59 is pivotally connected'to the lever 62 at an intermediate point oi said lever. Pivoted to the lower end of the anchor 6| there is a bell crank having the arms 65, 66. The arm 65 extends out across the chamber 5 and has the depending actuating rod '61 whose upper end is pivotally connected to the free end of the arm 65. A cross link 68 has its upper end pivoted to the lever 62 between the yoke 63 and the point of connection of the stem 59 to said lever 62. 'I'he other end of the cross link 68 has a slidable pivotal connectionv 4with the arm 65.
The arm 66 depends beneath the anchor 6I and its free end is connected to said anchor by means of pull springs 69, 69.
Within the oat chamber 5 there is a float 10 and extending longitudinally through this float, at one side of its longitudinal axis, there is a tube 1I whose ends are secured to the ends of the float. 'I'his tube forms a loose bearing through which the eduction tube I2 extends, said tube forming also a guide for said float. The float is of the required buoyancy and has the upstanding rod 12 Whose upstanding end has an .overturned yoke 13 which has a bearing to receive the rod 61.
Longitudinally adjustable on the rod 61 are the upper and lower stops 14, 15 spaced the re,
quired distance apart, the former above the yoke 'I3 and the latter being beneath said yoke. Be-
neath the float 18 the eduction tube l2 has the upper and lower disc like supports 16, 11 on the former of which a dash pot is secured. This dash pot is of novel construction and comprises a cylinder 18 whose lower end is closed by a cap 19 which is fastened to the supporting disc 16. Attached to the upper end' of the cylinder 18 there is a closure cap 19 having the ducts 88, 88 leading outwardly therethrough and having an axial bearing 8|. Within the cylinder 18 there is a plunger 82 which is attached to the lower end of the plunger rod 83. This plunger rod works through the bearing and its upper end is pivotally connected to the lower end of the float 10. The cylinder 18 is filled with a liquid 8| of high specific gravity, preferably mercury. The plunger 82 has the 4passageways 85 extending longitudinally therethrough and a back pressure valve 86 normally closes these passageways and has a leak duct 81 therethrough. The Valve 86 opens downwardly and is supported by a s tem 88 which extends up into the plunger and whose upper end has an enlarged head 89. A coil spring 98 surrounds said stem 88 and is interposed between the head 89 above andthe annular shoulder 9| of the plunger beneath. The spring 98 normally acts to hold the valve 86 closed. Upon upward movement of the plunger 82 the valve 86 will readily open to permit the passageway of the mercury through the passageways 85 so that said liquid will oder slight resistance to the upward movement of said plunger and oat. Upon downward movement of said plunger the valve 86 will be closed and the liquid in the cylinder 18 beneath the plunger will be restricted to the duct 81 and the downward movement of the plunger and float will accordingly be retarded.
'I'he inside diameter of the lower end of the cylinder 18 is enlarged as at 92. The plunger 82 ts snugly in the cylinder above this enlarged lower end of the cylinder and upon downward movement of the plunger, when the plunger fully enters said enlarged portion, the liquid beneath the plunger may pass also up around said plunger and the downward movement ofthe plunger and oat will be accelerated.
Attached to and depending from the lower end of the float 18 there are the guide rods 93, 93, which work through suitable bearings 94, 95, of the upper and lower discs 16, 11 and these guide rods have their lower ends connected by a cross bar 96. There is a counter balance weight 98 in the lower end of the oat chamber which is supported by the chain 99. One end of this chain is attached to the weight and the chain, or other flexible member, Works over apulley |88, rotatably mounted on a bracket I8 which is attached to and depends from the under side of the disc 11. The other end of this chain is attached to the cross bar 96. The float 18 is preferably hollow and formed of metal and of sufficient strength to prevent crushing by the pressure to which it is subjected, although any selected type of float may be used. The float is not necessarily of itself buoyant, but when counter balanced by the weight 98, will rise as the level of the liquid in the chamber 5 rises but its descent will be retarded by the dash pot herein above describedand for the purpose hereinafter stated. Mercury is preferably used in the dash pot for the reason that it is desirable, in order to conduce to the free operation of the dash pot, not te form a close joint between the rod 83 and closure cap 19 and liquid in the oat chamber will freely enter and be discharged through the ports 88 but this liquid will oat on the mercury as also any foreign matter that may be contained therein; and also for the reason that the viscosity of the mercury will not appreciably vary as a result of the temperatures to which it may be subjected in a well and the resistance it olers to the plunger 82 will be approximately the same at all of said temperatures.
In use, the apparatus is lowered into a producing well to the required distance beneaththe liquid level so that the liquid in the well will rise and enter the chamber 5, as the liquid is expelled therefrom as hereinafter stated.
An operating fluid, either gas or air, is forced into the casing chamber 58, through the pressure line 5| and the operating uid is maintained under pressure in said casing. The liquid rising through the pipe 2 will lift the valve 8 and enter the oat'chamber 5 and the oat 18 will be elevated and will carry the yoke 13 upwardly with it, and when said yoke 13 strikes the stop 1 4 the rod 61 will be lifted. A very slight movement of the rod 61 upwardly will elevate the free end of the arm 65, the lateral pin |02 carried by said arm moving in the oblong slot |83 in the link 8 until the arm 66 has been moved inwardly to carry the springs 89 past center and thereupon said springs will impart a sudden -thrust to the link 68 which in turn will suddenly elevate the free end, or yoke 63, of the lever 62 and this :ii
will cause a sudden upward movement of the valve stem 26. The valves 24, 25 will offer slight resistance to this upward movement for the reason' that, as before stated, they are approximately balanced by the pressure of the operating fluid.
These valves 24, 25 will accordingly be opened and when lifted from their respective seats the operating fluid will pass around the Valves and enter the chamber 5 both through they reduced lower end of the bore |1 and through the passageway 33. As the lever 62 is actuated upwardly the relief valve 58 will close the relief passageway 56, and will limit the opening movement of the valves 24, 25. Thereupon, the pressure of the operating uid against the load of liquid in the chamber 5 will drive said liquid into and through the eduction tube |2 to the ground surface where the liquid will be discharged through a suitable discharge line |84 provided for the purpose, and constituting a continuation of the tube I2.
As the liquid is expelled from the chamber 5, the float 18 will descend, but it is necessary that the descent of the float be retarded so that the valves 24, 25 will not be prematurely closed and the operating uid cut olf from the chamber 5 before the load of liquid has been completely expelled `to the ground surface and for this purpose the dash pot hereinbefore mentioned has been provided. As explained, this dash pot oiers little resistance to the elevation of the float by reason of the fact that the valve 86 will freely open upon elevation of the plunger 82, but as the oat 18 descends the valve 86 will remain closed and the liquid beneath said valve will pass through the leak duct or port 81 into the cylinder 18 above said valve thus retarding the descent of the oat until the plungers 82 passes within theenlarged lower end 92 of the cylinder 18 whereupon the liquid beneath said plunger may pass freely upwardly about the plunger permitting a lsudden acceleration of the downward movement of the oat 18 whereupon the yoke 13 will strikethe stop 15 causing a downward movement of the rod 61 andthe arm 65 and the corresponding outward movement of the arm 66 carrying the springs 69 back across center and imparting a sudden downward thrust to the link 68 thereby opening the relief valve 58 and operating through the stem 26 to close the inlet valves 24, 25.l The operating fluid offers a minimum resista-nce toI the'closing movement of the valves 24, 25 by reason of the fact that the stream of the infiowing operating fluid is divided and acts substantially equally against both valves in opposite directions. z
It is to be noted that the elevator will be located at different depths in different wells and the time required for expelling a load will vary according to the depth, accordingly the stops 14, 15 must be adjusted for depth so that after the float has been elevated to open the valves 24, 25 its descent will not be completed and said -valves closed and the operating fluid cut olf until the load has been completely expelled.
When the inlet valves 24, 25 are closed and the relief valve 58 opened, the float chamber 5 will besubstantially empty and at this time the weight of the iioat 10 and of the counter balancing weight 98 are supported from the lower stop 'l5 so that, until the float is again liftedl these valves will be securely maintained in this last mentioned position. l
Thereupon, the liquid from the producing formation of the well may again enter the chamber 5 until another load of vliquid has entered said chamber and any air or gas in said chamber above may freely pass out through the 'relief passageway 56 into the eduction tube l2. Meanwhile the operating iluid will be cut off so that there will be no waste of said operating fluid while the float chamber is being filled with liquid. The float will accordingly again be lifted as before, and when another load of liquid has been entrapped in the chamber 5 the valves 24, 25 will again be opened vand the valve 58 be closed as above explained and the operating fluid will again enter the chamber 5 and expel the load of liquid entrapped therein, and the operation of entrapping the loads of liquid in the float chamber and expelling the same from the chamber to the ground surface will be automatically repeated in succession so long as the operating fluid is maintained under the required pressure in the casing and so long as the well produces sulclent liquid to collect in successive loads in the iioat chamber as the same are expelled therefrom.
The drawings and description disclose what is now considered to be a preferred form of the invention for the purpose of showing a way in which the invention may be used, but the inventive thought upon which the application is based, is broader than the illustrative embodiment thereof and I therefore intend no limitations other than those imposed by the appended claims.
What I claim is:
l. In apparatus for raising predetermined loads of liquid, successively, from a well to the ground surface, liquid entrapping means having a chamber provided with an inlet for an operating fluid under pressure and a relief outlet, a valve control ling the inlet, a relief valve controlling the outletA an eduction tube leading from the chamber. a iloat arranged to be elevated by the entrapped liquid' and operative, when elevated, to effect the opening of the inlet valve and the closing of the relief valve, whereby the operating fluid is admitted into the chamber to expel the load from said chamber through said tube, and operative when lowered to effect the closing of the inlet valve and the opening of the relief valve, a dash pot containing mercury which acts to retard the Vdownward movement of the float to maintain the inlet valve open until the entrapped load of liquid is discharged from the well.
2. In apparatus for raising predetermined* and the closing of the relief valve, whereby the'- opeating fluid is admitted into the chamber'to expelthe entrapped load through said tube and operative. when lowered, to effect the closing of the inlet valve and the opening of the relief valve,
a dash pot containing a liquid having a higher specific gravity than that of the entrapped liquid' or the operating fluid and which acts to retard the downward movement of the float to maintainA the inlet valve open for a predetermined time after the entrapped load of liquidis discharged from the chamber, and means connecting the float and valves which is adjustable to vary th interval between the opening and the closing of the valves in accordance with the time required to discharge a load.
3. In apparatus for elevating loads of liquid, successively, from a well, liquid entrapping means having a chamber provided with an inlet for an operating fluid under pressure and a relief outlet, a valve controlling said inlet, a relief valve controlling the outlet, a discharge line leading out of the well from said chamber, a float arranged to be elevated by the entrapped lfluid and operative when elevated, to effect the opening of the valve to admit operating fluid to expel the load and to close the relief valve, and operative, when lowered, to eiect the closing of the inlet valve and the opening of the relief valve, a dash pot containing mercury arranged to retard the downwardmovement of the float and to thereby delay the closing movement of the inlet valve for a predetermined length of time after the entrapped load has been expelled from the chamber.
4. In apparatus for elevating loads of liquid, successively, from a well, liquid entrapping means having a chamber provided with an inlet for an operating fluid under pressure and a relief outlet, a valve controlling said inlet, a relief valve conf trolling the outlet, a discharge line leading out of the well from said chamber, a float arranged to be elevated by the entrapped iluid and opera'- tive when elevated, to eil'ect the opening of the valve to admit operating uid to expel the load and to close the relief valve, and operative, when lowered, to effect the closing of the inlet valve and the opening of the relief valve, a dash pot containing mercury arranged to retard the downward movementof the float and to thereby delay the closing movement of the inlet valve for a predetermined length of time after the entrapped load has been expelled from the chamber, and a counter balance in the chamber for the float.
5. An apparatus for expelling liquid from a well comprising liquid entrapping means having a chamber for the liquid, and shaped to be 1ow' ered into a well, an eduction tube leading out of the well from said chamber, said liquid chamber having an inlet to admit an operating fluid into the chamber to expel the entrapped liquid through said tube from the well, said chamber also having a relief outlet, an inlet valve controlling said inlet, a relief valve controlling the outlet, a pivotally mounted valve actuating lever having connection with the inlet valve and the relief valve, a iioat in said chamber, a pivotally mounted bell crank to one arm of which the oat is connected, a pull spring attached at one end to an anchor and at its other end to the other arm of the bell crank, a link connecting the valve actuating lever and bell crank whereby upon elevation of the oat said spring will be rendered effective to open the inlet valve and close the relief valve and upon downward movement of the oat, the spring will be rendered effective to close the inlet valve and open the relief valve.
6. In apparatusfor raising predetermined loads of liquid successively from a well to the ground surface, liquid entrapping means having a cham- 20 ber provided with an inlet for an operating uid under pressure, and a. relief outlet, a tube leading from said chamber out of. the well, a valve controlling said inlet, a relief valve controlling the outlet, a float arranged to be elevated by the entrapped liquid and operative, when elevated, to effect the opening of the inlet valve and the closing of the relief valve whereby the operating fluid will be admitted into the chamber to expel the entrapped load through said tube, and operative when lowered to eiect the closing of the inlet valve and the opening of the relief valve, means eiective to retard the downward movement of the oat to maintain the inlet valve open for a predetermined time after the entrapped load of liquid is discharged from said chamber, and means connecting the float and valves, which are adjustable to vary the interval between the opening and the closing of the valves in accordance with the time required to discharge the load. JEDDY D. NIXON.