FIELD OF THE INVENTION
- BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a superabrasive composition for grinding the front panel of a cathode ray tube, which comprises a mixture of diamond and cubic boron nitride particles in a specified ratio dispersed in a bonding material, also to a superabrasive article formed in a specified shape using said composition.
A cathode ray tube (CRT) is comprised of a face glass panel and a funnel glass body which are separately prepared by hot-press molding a glass goat. In a conventional face panel manufacturing process, the resulting hot-press molded glass is subjected to a sequential grinding process using abrasive materials such as garnet, pumice and rouge lap to provide a finished front glass panel having a smooth surface for screen display.
Superabrasives such as diamond and a cubic boron nitride (CBN) have been widely used for grinding molded glass or steel articles because they have higher hardness and toughness than such abrasive materials as alumina and silicon carbide (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,096,107 and 6,200,360), and a grinding process that employs a superabrasive material does not generate environmentally hazardous wastewater as the conventional slurry process does.
Such a superabrasive material is combined with a bonding material and sintered to provide a superabrasive grinding article, whose performance characteristics are influenced by particle size, hardness, grade and structure of the superabrasive particles, as well as by the kind of bonding material used and the porosity of the sintered composite thereof.
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A grinding article for grinding CRT front panel may be formed in various shapes as disclosed in various documents. For example, Korean Patent Laid-open Publication No. 95-25832 discloses a superabrasive article for grinding the front glass panel of CRT, in the form of a rubber pad having implanted buttons of diamond particles. Although the use of this article does not generate wastewater, when diamond particles are employed alone as a grinding material, the ground surface is glazed.
It is, therefore, a primary object of the invention to provide an improved grinding composition suitable for use in the manufacture of the front glass panel of a cathode ray tube, which has excellent grinding efficiency without the above-mentioned environmental or scratch problem.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a grinding article prepared from such a composition having improved durability and use life.
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a superabrasive composition for grinding the front glass panel of a cathode ray tube, which comprises superabrasive particles and a bonding material, the superabrasive particles being a mixture of diamond particles and cubic boron nitride (CBN) particles in a mix ratio of 8.5:1.5 to 9.5:0.5 in volume.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a grinding article for grinding the front glass panel of a cathode ray tube, which comprises a superabrasive grinding layer formed by sintering the inventive superabrasive composition and a substrate element for securing the superabrasive grinding layer, said grinding layer has a cylindrical protrusion extending outward from a portion of bottom surface thereof, and the substrate element, which has on a portion of the top surface thereof a dimple which is shaped to closely receive said cylindrical protrusion, is tightly bonded to the grinding layer forming an interface which extends from the remaining portion of the bottom surface of the grinding layer to the surface of said protrusion.
The above and other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description thereof, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which respectively show:
FIG. 1: a perspective view of an example of a superabrasive article according to the present invention;
FIG. 2: a cross-sectional view taken along the face A-A′ of the superabrasive article of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 3 and 4: two examples of means for firmly securing the grinding layer on a substrate element in the inventive superabrasive grinding article;
FIG. 5: a conventional means for attaching the grinding layer to a substrate element; and
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 6: the variation in the grinding efficiency of superabrasive grinding articles prepared using a metallic bonding material, depending on the sintering conditions.
The superabrasive composition of the present invention is characterized in that a specific mixture of diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN) particles is employed as a superabrasive material, i.e., in accordance with the present invention, the mix ratio of diamond particles and CBN particles is in the range of 8.5:1.5 to 9.5:0.5 in volume. When diamond. particles are employed in an excess amount, the surface of a grinding article prepared therefrom can be suffered by glazing phenomena as the grinding process progresses, thereby lowering the grinding efficiency. Further, when CBN particles are employed in an amount exceeding the specified range, the superabrasive particles easily fall off from the grinding surface during use, and therefore, the grinding efficiency is reduced as well.
The mixed superabrasive particles are combined with a bonding material in a mix ratio of 1.5:8.5 to 2.5:7.5 by volume, to provide the inventive composition.
The bonding material may be metallic or a mixture of a metal oxide and a resin, and it functions to disperse and tightly hold the superabrasive particles during a high pressure sintering process to give a highly compacted composite having a high degree of physical integrity.
Representative examples of a metallic bonding material, which may be used in the present invention, include particles of Fe, Cu, Sn, an oxide thereof having an average particle size ranging from 30 to 50 μm. when a mixture of a metal oxide and a resin is used a bonding material, the resin may be preferably a phenol resin, and combined with the metal oxide component in a mix ratio of 9:1 to 7:3.
In accordance with the present invention, lie inventive superabrasive composition is subjected to a hot press-molding process to provide the inventive grinding article having the specified structure.
The hot press-molding process may be carried out by incorporating the inventive superabrasive composition into a mold to be hot-pressed under a high-temperature, high-pressure condition, the mold holding a pre-fabricated substrate element designed for securing the grinding layer generated by sintering the inventive composition.
The hot press-molding process may be suitably conducted at a temperature ranging from 150 to 800° C. and a pressure ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 ton/cm2, depending on the component of the bonding material used, in a vacuum electrical furnace. For example, when a metal such as copper or tin is employed as a bonding material, the sintering-molding process may be conducted at a high temperature of 650 to 750° C., under a pressure of 0.1 to 0.25 ton/cm2, whereas when a resin is incorporated in the bonding material, the sintering-molding may be conducted at a low temperature ranging from 150 to 200° C., under a pressure of 0.25 to 0.35 ton/cm2, although the condition may be varied depending on the Tg (glass transition temperature) and decomposition temperature of the resin used.
The mold and the securing substrate element may be made of a stainless steel, carbon steel or other materials conventionally known in the art, and the mold is sealed during the hot press-molding process conducted in a vacuum.
In the present invention, the substrate element is pre-shaped to have a dimple so that the grinding layer obtained by sintering the inventive composition can be firmly attached thereto. That is, in the inventive grinding article, the grinding layer has a cylindrical protrusion extending from the bottom surface thereof toward the inside of the dimple of the sintered element in a tightly locking manner.
In order to still more firmly attach the grinding layer to the substrate element, a specific structural feature such as a flange, circumferential groove or screw groove may be further provided to the interface between the grinding layer and the substrate element.
The grinding article for grinding the front glass panel of a CRT according to the present invention may be shaped in a form, e.g., a round or a rectangular pad, suitable for the selected method of grinding. For instance, a round pad form is preferably used for a LAP machine which operates in a rotational mode, and a rectangular pad form, for AGM which operates in an oscillational mode.
Depending on the method of grinding and the composition of the bonding material, the particle size and the toughness index of the superabrasive particles may be suitably controlled. For example, in case the bonding material comprises a resin component, and a rotational grinding tool is used, the superabrasive particles preferably have an average particle size of 75 to 90 μm and a toughness index of 50 to 60, while when an oscillation method is used, it is preferred that the average particle size is smaller, in the range of 30 to 38 μm.
In case a metallic bonding material is used and a rotational grinding method is adopted, the superabrasive particles preferably have an average particle size of 75 to 90 μm and a toughness index of 50 to 60, like the above case, but when a vibrational grinding method is selected, the average particle size of the superabrasive particles preferably range from 30 to 38 μm, and the toughness indexes of the diamond and CBN particles, from 50 to 60, and from 40 to 50, respectively.
If the particle size is greater than the upper limit, the surface of the polished glass panel becomes too rough, while if it is smaller than the lower limit, the grinding efficiency decreases. Further, if the toughness index is greater than the upper limit, the abrasive particles do not sufficiently break out at a suitable rate to renew the grinding surface and the grinding surface tends to get glazed, while if it is lower than the lower limit, the use life becomes short.
Several embodiments of the grinding article according to the present invention are shown in the accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 represents a perspective view of one embodiment of the grinding article of the present invention, and FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view thereof taken along the face A-A′ in FIG. 1.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the inventive superabrasive grinding article (100) consists of a superabrasive grinding layer (110) and a substrate element (120) for securing the grinding layer, wherein the bottom part of the grinding layer (110) has a cylindrical protrusion with a circular flange (141) positioned at the lower end thereof, which extends into, and closely fits the preformed substrate element (120).
The lower portion of the substrate element (120) is equipped with a circular groove (130) at the outside surface thereof, which is used for loading the grinding article to a carrier such as a rubber pad. The circular flange (141) prevents the grinding layer from detaching from the substrate element when the article is subjected to a vibrational motion in the axial direction.
FIGS. 3 and 4 represent two other embodiments of the inventive grinding article. As can be seen from FIGS. 3 and 4, the means for attaching the superabrasive grinding layer to the substrate element have an additional structural feature, i.e., a circumferential groove (142) positioned at the bottom surface (160) of the grinding layer (110), or a screw groove (143) provided on the outer surface of the cylindrical protrusion (140).
- EXAMPLE 1
The following Examples are given for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
Added to a bonding material composed of 75 wt % of a bronze-based powder (M325, a product of KENNAMETAL COMPANY, U.S.A) and 25 wt % of a tin powder were superabrasive particles of diamond and CBN in various ratios as shown in Table 1, the amount of superabrasive particles being 25% by volume based on the total weight of the resulting mixture, and the resulting mixture was homogenized using a tumbler mixer to obtain various superabrasive compositions.
A securing substrate element (120) having the shape corresponding to FIG. 3 and made of SS41, which was previously fabricated using an NC(Numerical Control) machine, was positioned in a mold, and the above grinding layer composition was introduced over the substrate element. The mold was sealed with a carbon punch, placed in a vacuum electric furnace, and subjected to sintering under a pressure of 0.2 ton/cm2 for 20 minutes at 700° C., to provide a sintered, superabrasive grinding article having the shape shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
Superabrasive grinding articles thus prepared were implanted in a round rubber pad by a conventional implanting method, and the resulting grinding device was loaded in an LAP grinding machine and employed in grinding 200 CRT front glass panels in a rotational mode under 0.15 kgf/cm2
for 30 seconds to evaluate the grinding efficiency thereof which is represented by the amount of glass removed. The result is shown in Table 1.
| ||TABLE 1 |
| || |
| || |
| ||Superabrasive Materialsa ||Average Amount Removed (g) |
| ||Diamond ||Cubic Boron Nitride ||1˜10 glass ||40˜50 glass ||100˜200 glass |
| ||Powderb (%) ||Powderc (%) ||plates ||plates ||plates |
| || |
|Run 1-1 ||85 ||15 ||98 ||94 ||92 |
|Run 1-2 ||90 ||10 ||95 ||97 ||95 |
|Run 1-3 ||95 || 5 ||98 ||95 ||93 |
|Com. Run 1-1 ||65 ||35 ||104 ||82 ||55 |
|Com. Run 1-2 ||75 ||25 ||101 ||86 ||72 |
|Com. Run 1-3 ||100 || 0 ||100 ||60 ||34 |
- EXAMPLE 2
As can be seen from Table 1, when the relative amount of CBN is not in the range of 5-15%, the grinding efficiency rapidly falls off as the grinding process proceeds.
The procedure of Example 1 was repeated except that while fixing the diamond to CBN mix ratio at 9.5:0.5, the amount, the average particles size and the toughness index of the superabrasive particles used were varied as shown in Table 2, to provide superabrasive grinding articles.
The superabrasive grinding device was loaded in an LAP machine and employed in grinding a 15″ CRT glass panel for 30 seconds at 5.5-7 Hz and 0.15 kgf/cm2
. The grinding efficiency and the roughness of the machined surface were measured. The apparatus used for measuring the surface roughness was Surftest301 ™ (stylus type) of Japan, Mitsutoyo Company.
| ||TABLE 2 |
| || |
| || |
| ||Superabrasive Particles || |
| || ||Tough- || ||Amount ||Surface |
| ||Particle ||ness ||Amount ||Removed ||Roughness |
| ||Size (μm) ||Index ||(vol %)d ||(g) ||(Rt) |
| || |
|Run 2-1 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||25 ||42 ||6.0 |
|Run 2-2 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||22 ||45 ||6.4 |
|Run 2-3 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||18 ||42 ||6.1 |
|Run 2-4 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||15 ||44 ||5.9 |
|Com. Run 2-1 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||10 ||37 ||6.4 |
|Com. Run 2-2 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||30 ||36 ||5.4 |
|Com. Run 2-3 ||90˜75 ||50˜60 ||35 ||32 ||5.6 |
|Com. Run 2-4 ||90˜75 ||60˜80 ||25 ||42 ||7.6 |
|Com. Run 2-5 ||90˜75 ||60˜80 ||15 ||46 ||7.4 |
|Com. Run 2-6 ||90˜75 ||60˜80 ||5 ||48 ||8.2 |
|Com. Run 2-7 ||90˜75 ||40˜50 ||25 ||31 ||6.1 |
|Com. Run 2-8 ||90˜75 ||40˜50 ||20 ||29 ||5.9 |
|Com. Run 2-9 ||90˜75 ||40˜50 ||15 ||27 ||6.3 |
|Com. Run 2-10 ||90˜75 ||40˜50 ||10 ||30 ||5.7 |
|Com. Run 2-11 ||90˜75 ||40˜50 ||5 ||33 ||6.7 |
|Com. Run 2-12 ||106˜90 ||60˜80 ||25 ||65 ||13.1 |
|Com. Run 2-13 ||106˜90 ||60˜80 ||15 ||67 ||9.8 |
|Com. Run 2-14 ||106˜90 ||60˜80 ||5 ||75 ||10.1 |
|Com. Run 2-15 ||106˜90 ||50˜60 ||25 ||60 ||11.2 |
|Com. Run 2-16 ||106˜90 ||50˜60 ||15 ||58 ||10.1 |
|Com. Run 2-17 ||106˜90 ||50˜60 ||10 ||55 ||11.2 |
|Com. Run 2-18 ||106˜90 ||50˜60 ||5 ||64 ||12.1 |
|Com. Run 2-19 ||106˜90 ||40˜50 ||25 ||53 ||9.6 |
|Com. Run 2-20 ||106˜90 ||40˜50 ||15 ||49 ||10.0 |
|Com. Run 2-21 ||106˜90 ||40˜50 ||5 ||51 ||10.8 |
|Com. Run 2-22 ||75˜63 ||60˜80 ||15 ||22 ||5.1 |
|Com. Run 2-23 ||75˜63 ||50˜60 ||5 ||2 ||4.8 |
|Com. Run 2-24 ||75˜63 ||40˜50 ||25 ||25 ||6.0 |
|Com. Run 2-25 ||75˜63 ||40˜50 ||15 ||18 ||5.4 |
|Com. Run 2-26 ||75˜63 ||30˜40 ||5 ||20 ||5.1 |
- EXAMPLE 3
As can be seen from Table 2, if the amount of the abrasive particles employed is not in the range of 15-25% of the present invention or the toughness index is lower than 50, the grinding efficiency becomes unsatisfactory (see Com. Run Nos. 2-1 to 2-3 and 2-7 to 2-11), while if the toughness index is higher than 60 or the particle size is higher than 90 μm, the ground surface becomes too rough (see Com. Run Nos. 2-4 to 2-6 and 2-15 to 2-18). On the other hand, if the particle size is smaller than 75 μm, the grinding efficiency becomes unsatisfactorily low (see Com. Run No. 23). Further, other articles prepared in Com. Run Nos. 2-12 to 2-14, 2-19 to 2-22, and 2-24 to 2-26 using superabrasive particles having particle size and toughness value not in the range of the present invention show poor grinding efficiencies.
The procedure of Example 1 was repeated except that while fixing the diamond to CBN mix ratio at 9.5:0.5, the amount, particles size and toughness index of the superabrasive particles were varied as shown in Table 2, to provide a number of superabrasive grinding articles, which were each implanted in a rectangular rubber pad to prepare a grinding device.
The grinding device thus obtained was loaded in an A.G.M. (orbital Aspherical Grinding Machine) (operated in an oscillation mode), and employed in grinding a 29″ CRT glass panel for 35 seconds at 5.5-7 Hz and 0.15 kgf/cM2
. The grinding efficiency and the roughness of the machined surface were measured as in Example 2. The result is shown in Table 3.
| ||TABLE 3 |
| || |
| || |
| ||Superabrasive Particles || |
| || ||Tough- || ||Removal ||Surface |
| ||Particle ||ness ||Amount ||Amount ||Roughness |
| ||Size (μm) ||Index ||(vol %)d ||(g) ||(Rt) |
| || |
|Run 3-1 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||25 ||86 ||4.9 |
|Run 3-2 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||22 ||85 ||4.7 |
|Run 3-3 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||18 ||83 ||4.8 |
|Run 3-4 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||15 ||84 ||4.2 |
|Com. Run 3-1 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||10 ||76 ||4.1 |
|Com. Run 3-2 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||30 ||77 ||4.9 |
|Com. Run 3-3 ||30˜38 ||50˜60 ||35 ||62 ||4.5 |
|Com. Run 3-4 ||30˜38 ||60˜80 ||25 ||65 ||5.8 |
|Com. Run 3-5 ||30˜38 ||60˜80 ||15 ||64 ||5.9 |
|Com. Run 3-6 ||30˜38 ||60˜80 ||5 ||62 ||6.2 |
|Com. Run 3-7 ||30˜38 ||40˜50 ||25 ||78 ||4.0 |
|Com. Run 3-8 ||30˜38 ||40˜50 ||20 ||75 ||3.8 |
|Com. Run 3-9 ||30˜38 ||40˜50 ||15 ||74 ||3.9 |
|Com. Run 3-10 ||30˜38 ||40˜50 ||10 ||76 ||3.8 |
|Com. Run 3-11 ||30˜38 ||40˜50 ||5 ||71 ||4.0 |
|Com. Run 3-12 ||38˜45 ||60˜80 ||25 ||84 ||9.2 |
|Com. Run 3-13 ||38˜45 ||60˜80 ||15 ||87 ||9.4 |
|Com. Run 3-14 ||38˜45 ||60˜80 ||5 ||88 ||9.4 |
|Com. Run 3-15 ||38˜45 ||50˜60 ||25 ||78 ||7.5 |
|Com. Run 3-16 ||38˜45 ||50˜60 ||15 ||78 ||8.2 |
|Com. Run 3-17 ||38˜45 ||50˜60 ||10 ||80 ||9.4 |
|Com. Run 3-18 ||38˜45 ||50˜60 ||5 ||84 ||9.2 |
|Com. Run 3-19 ||38˜45 ||40˜50 ||25 ||79 ||7.6 |
|Com. Run 3-20 ||38˜45 ||40˜50 ||15 ||76 ||8.1 |
|Com. Run 3-21 ||38˜45 ||40˜50 ||5 ||79 ||8.5 |
|Com. Run 3-22 ||20˜30 ||60˜80 ||15 ||42 ||3.2 |
|Com. Run 3-23 ||20˜30 ||50˜60 ||5 ||49 ||3.5 |
|Com. Run 3-24 ||20˜30 ||40˜50 ||25 ||38 ||3.5 |
|Com. Run 3-25 ||20˜30 ||40˜50 ||15 ||46 ||3.4 |
|Com. Run 3-26 ||20˜30 ||30˜40 ||5 ||42 ||3.1 |
- EXAMPLE 4
As in Table 2, the result in Table 3 shows that satisfactory grinding efficiency and surface smoothness can be obtained only when the particle size, toughness index and amount of abrasive particles are controlled in the specified ranges of the present invention.
The procedure of Example 1 was repeated except that while fixing the diamond to CBN mix ratio at 9.5:0.5, the average particle size at 50 to 60 μm, and the toughness index at 90 to 75, the sintering temperature and pressure were varied as shown in FIG. 6, to provide grinding articles having various sintered characteristics. The grinding efficiency of each of the grinding articles thus prepared was measured and represented by a relative value based on 10 set for the value obtained for the grinding article prepared by sintering at 700° C. and 0.10 ton/cm2. The result is shown in FIG. 6.
- EXAMPLE 5
FIG. 6 shows that a grinding article prepared using a bronze-based metal as a bonding material is suitably sintered at a temperature of 650 to 750° C. and a pressure of 0.10 to 0.25 ton/cm2.
The procedure of Example 1 was repeated using a 9.5:0.5 mixed powder of diamond and CBN having a particle size of 50 to 60 μm and a toughness index of 90 to 75, except for conducting additional runs using a phenol resin composition containing 10 to 30% of iron oxide as a bonding material using a steel mold and sintering at a condition of 160 to 170° C. and 0.25 to 0.35 ton/cm2, to provide two types of grinding articles having the structure as shown in FIG. 2.
For control, the above procedure was repeated to obtain two comparative grinding articles having the conventional structure of FIG. 5.
The grinding articles thus fabricated were subjected to a test to examine whether the grinding layer is detachable from the substrate element during the grinding process. The result is shown in Table 4.
| ||TABLE 4 |
| || |
| || |
| || || ||Number of |
| || || ||the stone |
| ||Structure ||Bonding Material ||detached |
| || |
|Comp. || ||Bronze-based metal ||2 |
|Run 4-1 |
|Comp. || ||Iron oxide - containing phenol resin ||4 |
|Run 4-2 |
|Run 4-1 || ||Bronze-based metal ||0 |
|Run 4-2 || ||Iron oxide - containing phenol resin ||0 |
The result in Table 4 shows that the grinding layer of the respective grinding article is much more firmly attached to the substrate element than that of a conventional grinding article.
While the invention has been described in connection with the above specific embodiments, it should be recognized that various modifications and changes may be made to the invention by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.