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Publication numberUS20030121629 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/025,833
Publication dateJul 3, 2003
Filing dateDec 19, 2001
Priority dateDec 19, 2001
Publication number025833, 10025833, US 2003/0121629 A1, US 2003/121629 A1, US 20030121629 A1, US 20030121629A1, US 2003121629 A1, US 2003121629A1, US-A1-20030121629, US-A1-2003121629, US2003/0121629A1, US2003/121629A1, US20030121629 A1, US20030121629A1, US2003121629 A1, US2003121629A1
InventorsSheng-Hsin Hu
Original AssigneeKimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Use of fractionated fiber furnishes in the manufacture of tissue products, and products produced thereby
US 20030121629 A1
Abstract
A product and process of making an absorbent paper article such as paper products, towels, napkins and the like is disclosed. A product having superior properties of softness, handfeel, and strength is disclosed. The product may show a reduced degree of sloughing, that is, a reduction in the amount of paper particles or flakes that are generated from the product upon the abrasion of the paper product. In one embodiment, a two furnish process is employed. In some applications, both hardwood fibers and softwood fiber sources may be employed. At least one fiber furnish is fractionated or separated into short and long fiber fractions. The resulting product exhibits reasonably good strength and softness, with reduced sloughing.
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Claims(22)
What is claimed is:
1. A method of making a paper product having at least one ply, comprising:
(a) providing a first furnish of fibers;
(b) providing a second furnish of fibers;
(c) fractionating the first furnish into a long fiber fraction and a short fiber fraction;
(d) diverting the short fiber fraction to the second furnish to form a third furnish;
(e) forming a first and second exterior layer using the third furnish;
(f) forming a first interior layer using the long fiber fraction of the first furnish; and
(g) combining at least the first and second exterior layers with the first interior layer to form a first ply.
2. The method of claim 1 comprising the additional steps of: forming a second interior layer using the long fiber fraction of the first furnish, and
combining the second interior layer with the first and second exterior layers and the first interior layer to form a first ply.
3. The method of claim 1 in which the first furnish comprises softwood fibers.
4. The method of claim 3 in which the second furnish comprises hardwood fibers.
5. The method of claim 1 in which the third furnish comprises hardwood fibers.
6. The method of claim 1 comprising the additional steps of:
(h) repeating steps (e)-(g) to form a second ply, and
(i) combining the first ply with the second ply to form a multi-ply paper product.
7. The method of claim 4 in which the hardwood fibers comprise eucalyptus fibers.
8. The method of claim 7 in which the percentage of eucalyptus fibers in the paper product is between about 50 and about 80 percent.
9. The method of claim 8 in which the percentage of eucalyptus fibers in the paper product is between about 60 and about 70 percent.
10. The method of claim 9 in which the percentage of eucalyptus fibers in the paper product is about 65 percent.
11. The method of claim 4 in which the ratio of hardwood fibers to softwood fibers is about 2:1.
12. A paper product having at least one ply, the product being made by a process including the following steps:
(a) providing a first furnish of fibers;
(b) providing a second furnish of fibers;
(c) fractionating the first furnish into a long fiber fraction and a short fiber fraction;
(d) diverting the short fiber fraction to the second furnish to form a third furnish;
(e) forming a first and second exterior layer using the third furnish;
(f) forming a first interior layer using the long fiber fraction of the first furnish; and
(g) combining at least the first and second exterior layers with the first interior layer to form a first ply.
13. The product of claim 12, in which the process further includes the additional steps of:
forming a second interior layer using the long fiber fraction of the first furnish, and
combining the second interior layer with the first and second exterior layers and the first interior layer to form a first ply.
14. The product of claim 12 in which the first furnish comprises softwood fibers.
15. The product of claim 12 in which the second furnish comprises hardwood fibers.
16. The product of claim 12 in which the slough value for the product is less than about 6 mg, while employing about 20 cycles of abrasion, at a speed of about 80 cycles per minute.
17. The product of claim 12 in which:
(a) the slough value for the paper product is less than about 6 mg, while employing about 20 cycles of abrasion, at a speed of about 80 cycles per minute, and
(b) the product exhibits a Handfeel rating of between about 7.74 and about 8.
18. The product of claim 12 in which the product exhibits:
(a) a Handfeel rating of between about 7.74 and 8, and
(b) a tensile strength of between about 540 and about 773 grams/3 inch width.
19. The product of claim 17 in which:
the paper product further exhibits a tensile strength of between about 540 and about 773 grams/3 inch width.
20. The product of claim 15 in which the hardwood fibers comprise eucalyptus fibers.
21. The product of claim 20 in which the percentage of eucalyptus fibers in the product is between about 50 and about 80 percent by weight.
22. The product of claim 21 in which the percentage of eucalyptus fibers in the product is between about 60 and about 70 percent by weight.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] Strength and softness are important attributes in consumer paper products such as bathroom tissue, towels, and napkins. Strength and softness are strongly influenced by the sheet structure of a paper product. The type and arrangement of fibers employed in the manufacture of paper products are important factors in determining the strength and softness of products made from such fibers.

[0002] Strength and softness usually are inversely related. That is, the stronger a given sheet, the less softness that sheet is likely to provide. Likewise, a softer sheet is usually not as strong. Thus, this inverse relationship between strength and softness results in a constant endeavor in the industry to produce a sheet having a strength which is at least as great as conventional prior art sheets, but with improved softness. Also, a sheet which is at least as soft as known sheets, but with improved strength, is desirable.

[0003] It is common in the manufacture of paper products to provide two furnishes (or sources) of fiber. Sometimes, a two-furnish system is used in which the first furnish is comprised of hardwood eucalyptus wood fibers, and the second furnish is made of Northern softwood fibers. Eucalyptus hardwood fibers tend to be softer and more “fuzzy” to the touch, and therefore often these fiber types are provided on outer surfaces of a paper product.

[0004] As a general rule fibers having better softness are provided in outer layers of paper products—which routinely contact the skin of consumers. The inner layers of paper products often may comprise coarse fibers which are less desirable in their properties of softness, absorbency, or strength. Thus, in this way the desirable properties of paper products can be maximized at a minimal cost in raw materials.

[0005] Fractionation is the process by which cellulosic fibers are separated according to their properties. U.S. Pat. No. 6,024,834 to Horton, Jr. is directed to a process of separating by fractionation cellulosic fibers that exhibit desired properties such as fiber length and fiber coarseness values.

[0006] U.S. Pat. No. 4,781,793 to Halme discloses a method in a paper manufacturing process for improving the properties of paper using fractionation. In the disclosure of that patent, the stock slurry is separated into two components which are stated to contain substantially all of the fibers to be used for paper manufacture. One component contains mainly fibers longer than the average distribution of fiber length in the basic stock, and the other component contains primarily shorter fibers and fines.

[0007] Fines and short fibers usually are regarded as the least desirable fibers in most fiber slurries. Fines comprise short portions of cellulosic material that do not appreciably contribute to paper softness.

[0008] A pending U.S. patent application (Ser. No. 09/608,836) entitled “Softer and Higher Strength Paper Products and Method of Making Such Products”, owned and maintained by the common assignee Kimberly Clark Worldwide, Inc., is directed to applying a fractionated portion of a furnish to the upper part of a sheet during manufacture. In that disclosure, a single furnish is fractionated to produce: (1) a slurry of long fibers, and (2) a slurry of short fibers/fines. Then, the slurry of long fibers is provided to a paper machine, such as a machine having a twin wire former for producing a paper sheet. The separated slurry of short fibers/fines then is provided upon the upper surface of the paper sheet.

[0009] Sloughing of paper products, such as bath tissue, is an important factor in tissue manufacture. Sloughing may be described generally as the loss of paper particles from the surface of the paper due to surface abrasion. Sloughing is undesirable. Unfortunately, however, sloughing sometimes is increased by the use of debonding agents. Debonding agents are used to soften paper products. Many consumers react negatively to paper that exhibits a high degree of sloughing. Therefore, efforts are made to provide a paper that will exhibit a minimal amount of sloughing.

[0010] It would be desirable to provide a process and product that can provide a high level of softness, strength, and absorbent capacity for good handfeel, but with reduced sloughing. A method of employing fractionating to separate at least one furnish of papermaking fibers, thereby manufacturing a resulting paper product having a reasonable strength, reduced sloughing, and relatively superior softness would be desirable.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0011] In the invention, a product and process for making an absorbent paper product is provided. In general, the product of the invention shows superior properties of softness and strength. The product also may exhibit a reduced degree of sloughing, that is, a reduction in the amount of paper particles or flakes that are generated from the product during use of the product. In some embodiments, a two furnish process is disclosed. In some applications, both hardwood fibers and softwood fibers may be employed.

[0012] In the method of making a paper product, a first furnish of fibers and a second furnish of fibers are provided. The first furnish is fractionated into a long fiber fraction and a short fiber fraction. Then, the short fiber fraction is diverted from the second furnish to form a third furnish. A first and a second exterior layer are formed using the third furnish which has been diverted. Then, a first interior layer is formed using the long fiber fraction of the first furnish. Furthermore, first and second exterior layers are combined with a first interior layer to form a first ply.

[0013] In some embodiments of the invention, the method further includes forming a second interior layer using the long fiber fraction of the first furnish. Then, that second interior layer is combined with the first and second exterior layers, and the first interior layer, to form a first ply. Examples and illustrations of the invention may be seen in the attached Figures.

[0014] In some applications, the first furnish comprises softwood fibers, and the second furnish comprises hardwood fibers. The invention may include two or more plies in the final paper product. Some embodiments of the invention employ hardwood fibers comprised of eucalyptus fibers, but the invention is not so limited.

[0015] In many applications, the invention provides a paper product or a tissue having reduced levels of slough, with about the same or a comparable level of softness.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0016] A full and enabling disclosure of this invention, including the best mode shown to one of ordinary skill in the art, is set forth in this specification.

[0017]FIG. 1 is a schematic flow diagram of one embodiment of a papermaking process that can be used in the present invention;

[0018]FIG. 2 is a schematic flow diagram of another embodiment of a papermaking process that can be used in the present invention;

[0019]FIG. 3 is a schematic flow diagram of still another embodiment of a papermaking process that can be used in the present invention;

[0020]FIG. 4A is a schematic view showing a process for manufacturing a four layer creped paper;

[0021]FIG. 4B shows a similar schematic showing a process for manufacturing a three layer creped paper;

[0022]FIG. 4C reveals a schematic showing a process for making a three-layer UCTAD paper product;

[0023]FIG. 4D is a schematic showing a process for making a four-layer UCTAD paper product;

[0024]FIG. 5 is a graph showing results of samples manufactured according to the procedures outlined in Examples 1-6, comparing a control made without fractionation to a sample made using fractionation as outlined below; and

[0025]FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an apparatus designed to mechanically abrade paper samples in the measurement of slough.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0026] Reference now will be made to the embodiments of the invention, one or more examples of which are set forth below. Each example is provided by way of explanation of the invention, not as a limitation of the invention. In fact, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made in this invention without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. For instance, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used on another embodiment to yield a still further embodiment. Thus, it is intended that the present invention cover such modifications and variations as come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. Other objects, features and aspects of the present invention are disclosed in or are obvious from the following detailed description. It is to be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the present discussion is a description of exemplary embodiments only, and is not intended as limiting the broader aspects of the present invention, which broader aspects are embodied in the exemplary constructions.

[0027] As used herein, the term “fractionation” or “fraction” is meant generally to refer to separation of a mixture into separate components. More particularly, such terms refer to the separation of a cellulosic fiber mixture into separate cellulosic fiber fractions in which each fraction provides a different average length value for the fibers comprising the fraction.

[0028] A wide variety of cellulosic fibers may be employed in the process of the present invention. In many embodiments of the invention, a first furnish comprising a strength layer is employed. This first furnish may be a softwood, for example. The average fiber length of a softwood fiber typically is about two to four times longer than a hardwood fiber. Softwood sources include tree sources, such as pines, spruces, and firs and the like.

[0029] A second furnish also may be employed, the second furnish containing a hardwood, such as a eucalyptus-type hardwood, as but one example. Hardwood sources such as oaks, eucalyptuses, poplars, beeches, and aspens, may be used, but this list is by no means exhaustive of all the hardwood sources that may be employed in the practice of the invention. Fibers from different sources of wood exhibit different properties. Hardwood fibers, for example, tend to show high degrees of “fuzziness” or softness when placed on the exterior surface of a paper product, such as a bathroom tissue.

[0030] Illustrative cellulosic fibers that may be employed in the practice of the invention include, but are not limited to, wood and wood products, such as wood pulp fibers; non-woody paper-making fibers from cotton, from straws and grasses, such as rice and esparto, from canes and reeds, such as bagasse, from bamboos, form stalks with bast fibers, such as jute, flax, kenaf, cannabis, linen and ramie, and from leaf fibers, such as abaca and sisal. It is also possible to use mixtures of one or more cellulosic fibers.

[0031] As used herein, the term “fiber” or “fibrous” is meant to refer to a particulate material wherein the length to diameter ratio (aspect ratio) of such particulate material is greater than about 10. Conversely, a “nonfiber” or “nonfibrous” material is meant to refer to a particulate material wherein the length to diameter ratio of such particulate material is about 10 or less. It is generally desired that the cellulosic fibers used herein be wettable.

[0032] Suitable cellulosic fibers include those which are naturally wettable. However, naturally non-wettable fibers can also be used.

[0033] In the practice of the present invention, it is desired that the cellulosic fibers be used in a form wherein the cellulosic fibers have already been prepared into a pulp. As such, the cellulosic fibers will be presented substantially in the form of individual cellulosic fibers, although such individual cellulosic fibers may be in an aggregate form such as a pulp sheet. This is in contrast with untreated cellulosic forms such as wood chips or the like. Thus, the current process is generally a post-pulping, cellulosic fiber separation process as compared to other processes that may be used for high-yield pulp manufacturing processes.

[0034] The preparation of cellulosic fibers from most cellulosic sources results in a heterogeneous mixture of cellulosic fibers. The individual cellulosic fibers in the mixture exhibit a broad spectrum of values for a variety of properties such as length, coarseness, diameter, curl, color, chemical modification, cell wall thickness, fiber flexibility, and hemicellulose and/or lignin content. As such, seemingly similar mixtures of cellulosic fibers prepared from the same cellulosic source may exhibit different mixture properties, such as freeness, water retention, and fines content because of the difference in actual cellulosic fiber make-up of each mixture or slurry.

[0035] In the practice of the present invention, a fractionation means or mechanism is used to separate a cellulosic fiber mixture into distinct components. Fractionation mechanisms that are suitable for use in the present invention include, but are not limited to, equipment used to separate contaminants and/or inks from cellulosic fibers such as low-consistency washers, intermediate-consistency washers, high-consistency washers, flotation cells, flotation machines, centrifugal cleaners, pressure screens, and gravity screens.

[0036] Generally, such fractionation processes should be accomplished under conditions such that the cellulosic fibers being fractionated are not damaged such as by degradation or by undesirable physical modification. Otherwise, however, the conditions under which a cellulosic fiber mixture is fractionated are not critical and may include a wide range of temperatures, pressures, consistencies, humidities and other conditions.

[0037] In general, the cellulosic fibers may be used in the process of the present invention in either a dry or a wet state. However, it may be desirable to prepare an aqueous mixture comprising the cellulosic fibers wherein the aqueous mixture is agitated, stirred, or blended to effectively disperse the cellulosic fibers throughout the water.

[0038] The cellulosic fibers are typically mixed with an aqueous solution wherein the aqueous solution beneficially comprises at least about 30 weight percent water, suitably about 50 weight percent water, more suitably about 75 weight percent water, and most suitably about 100 weight percent water. When another liquid is employed with the water, such other suitable liquids include methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone. However, the use or presence of such other non-aqueous liquids may impede the formation of an essentially homogeneous mixture such that the cellulosic fibers do not effectively disperse into the aqueous solution and effectively or uniformly mix with the water. Such a mixture should generally be prepared under conditions that are sufficient for the cellulosic fibers and water to be effectively mixed together. Generally, such conditions will include using a temperature that is between about 10 degrees C. and about 100 degrees C.

[0039] In general, cellulosic fibers are prepared by pulping or other preparation processes in which the cellulosic fibers are present in an aqueous solution. For use in certain fractionation processes of the present invention, therefore, it may be possible to use an aqueous solution directly from such preparation processes without having to separately recover the cellulosic fibers. Specific fractions of a cellulosic fiber mixture have been discovered to exhibit improved properties that make such fractionated cellulosic fibers suitable for use in liquid absorption or liquid handling applications.

[0040] The cellulosic fibers fractionated according to the process of the present invention are suited for use in disposable paper products such as facial or bathroom tissue, paper towels, wipes, napkins, and disposable paper products. Furthermore, other applications of the invention may be directed to products including: diapers, adult incontinent products, bed pads, sanitary napkins, tampons, other wipes, bibs, wound dressings, surgical capes or drapes.

[0041] In one embodiment of the present invention, the fractionated fibers prepared according to the process of the present invention are formed into a handsheet which may represent a tissue-based product. Such a handsheet may be formed by any method, including methods shown below in connection with the Examples.

Papermaking Processes

[0042] A tissue product made in accordance with the present invention can generally be formed according to a variety of papermaking processes known in the art. In fact, any process capable of making a paper web can be utilized in the present invention. For example, a papermaking process of the present invention can utilize wet-pressing, creping, through-air-drying, creped through-air-drying, uncreped through-air-drying, single recreping, double recreping, calendering, embossing, air laying, as well as other steps in processing the paper web.

[0043] In some embodiments, in addition to the use of various chemical treatments, such as described above, the papermaking process itself can also be selectively varied to achieve a tissue product with certain properties. For instance, a papermaking process can be utilized to form a multi-layered paper web, such as described and disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,129,988 to Farrington, Jr.; 5,494,554 to Edwards, et al.; and 5,529,665 to Kaun, which are incorporated herein in their entirety by reference thereto for all purposes.

[0044] In this regard, various embodiments of a method for forming a multi-layered paper web will now be described in more detail. Referring to FIG. 1, a method of making a wet-pressed tissue in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention is shown, commonly referred to as couch forming, wherein two wet web layers are independently formed and thereafter combined into a unitary web. To form the first web layer, a specified fiber (either hardwood or softwood) is prepared in a manner well known in the papermaking arts and delivered to the first stock chest 1, in which the fiber is kept in an aqueous suspension. A stock pump 2 supplies the required amount of suspension to the suction side of the fan pump 4. If desired, a metering pump 5 can supply an additive (e.g., latex, reactive composition, etc.) into the fiber suspension. Additional dilution water 3 also is mixed with the fiber suspension.

[0045] The entire mixture of fibers is then pressurized and delivered to the headbox 6. The aqueous suspension leaves the headbox 6 and is deposited on an endless papermaking fabric 7 over the suction box 8. The suction box 8 is under vacuum that draws water out of the suspension, thus forming the first layer. In this example, the stock issuing from the headbox 6 would be referred to as the “air side” layer, that layer eventually being positioned away from the dryer surface during drying.

[0046] The fabric 7 can be any forming fabric, such as fabrics having a fiber support index of about 150 or greater. Some suitable forming fabrics include, but are not limited to, single layer fabrics, such as the Appleton Wire 94M available from Albany International Corporation, Appleton Wire Division, Menasha, Wis.; double layer fabrics, such as the Asten 866 available from Asten Group, Appleton, Wis.; and triple layer fabrics, such as the Lindsay 3080, available from Lindsay Wire, Florence, Miss.

[0047] The consistency of the aqueous suspension of papermaking fibers leaving the headbox can be from about 0.05 to about 2%, and in one embodiment, about 0.2%. The first headbox 6 can be a layered headbox with two or more layering chambers which delivers a stratified first wet web layer, or it can be a monolayered headbox which delivers a blended or homogeneous first wet web layer.

[0048] To form the second web layer, a specified fiber (either hardwood or softwood) is prepared in a manner well known in the papermaking arts and delivered to the second stock chest 11, in which the fiber is kept in an aqueous suspension. A stock pump 12 supplies the required amount of suspension to the suction side of the fan pump 14. A metering pump 5 can supply additives (e.g., latex, reactive composition, etc.) into the fiber suspension as described above. Additional dilution water 13 is also mixed with the fiber suspension. The entire mixture is then pressurized and delivered to the headbox 16. The aqueous suspension leaves the headbox 16 and is deposited onto an endless papermaking fabric 17 over the suction box 18. The suction box is under vacuum which draws water out of the suspension, thus forming the second wet web. In this example, the stock issuing from the headbox 16 is referred to as the “dryer side” layer as that layer will be in eventual contact with the dryer surface. Suitable forming fabrics for the forming fabric 17 of the second headbox include those forming fabrics previously mentioned with respect to the first headbox forming fabric.

[0049] After initial formation of the first and second wet web layers, the two web layers are brought together in contacting relationship (couched) while at a consistency of from about 10 to about 30%. Whatever consistency is selected, it is typically desired that the consistencies of the two wet webs be substantially the same. Couching is achieved by bringing the first wet web layer into contact with the second wet web layer at roll 19.

[0050] After the consolidated web has been transferred to the felt 22 at vacuum box 20, dewatering, drying and creping of the consolidated web is achieved in the conventional manner. More specifically, the couched web is further dewatered and transferred to a dryer 30 (e.g., Yankee dryer) using a pressure roll 31, which serves to express water from the web, which is absorbed by the felt, and causes the web to adhere to the surface of the dryer. The web is then dried, optionally creped and wound into a roll 32 for subsequent converting into the final creped product.

[0051]FIG. 2 is a schematic flow diagram of another embodiment of a papermaking process than can be used in the present invention. For instance, a layered headbox 41, a forming fabric 42, a forming roll 43, a papermaking felt 44, a press roll 45, a Yankee dryer 46, and a creping blade 47 are shown. Also shown, but not numbered, are various idler or tension rolls used for defining the fabric runs in the schematic diagram, which may differ in practice. In operation, a layered headbox 41 continuously deposits a layered stock jet between the forming fabric 42 and the felt 44, which is partially wrapped around the forming roll 43. Water is removed from the aqueous stock suspension through the forming fabric 42 by centrifugal force as the newly formed web traverses the arc of the forming roll. As the forming fabric 42 and felt 44 separate, the wet web stays with the felt 44 and is transported to the Yankee dryer 46.

[0052] At the Yankee dryer 46, the creping chemicals are continuously applied on top of the existing adhesive in the form of an aqueous solution. The solution is applied by any convenient means, such as using a spray boom that evenly sprays the surface of the dryer with the creping adhesive solution. The point of application on the surface of the dryer 46 is immediately following the creping doctor blade 47, permitting sufficient time for the spreading and drying of the film of fresh adhesive.

[0053] In some instances, reactive compositions may be applied to the web as it is being dried, such as through the use of the spray boom. For example, the spray boom can apply the additives to the surface of the drum 46 separately and/or in combination with the creping adhesives such that such additives are applied to an outer layer of the web as it passes over the drum 46. In some embodiments, the point of application on the surface of the dryer 46 is the point immediately following the creping blade 47, thereby permitting sufficient time for the spreading and drying of the film of fresh adhesive before contacting the web in the press roll nip. Methods and techniques for applying an additive to a dryer drum are described in more detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,853,539 to Smith, et al. and 5,993,602 to Smith, et al., which are incorporated herein in their entirety by reference thereto for all purposes.

[0054] The wet web is applied to the surface of the dryer 46 by a press roll 45 with an application force of, in one embodiment, about 200 pounds per square inch (psi). Following the pressing or dewatering step, the consistency of the web is typically at or above about 30%. Sufficient Yankee dryer steam power and hood drying capability are applied to this web to reach a final consistency of about 95% or greater, and particularly 97% or greater. The sheet or web temperature immediately preceding the creping blade 47, as measured, for example, by an infrared temperature sensor, is typically about 235° F.

[0055] The web can also be dried using non-compressive drying techniques, such as through-air drying. A through-air dryer accomplishes the removal of moisture from the web by passing air through the web without applying any mechanical pressure. Through-air drying can increase the bulk and softness of the web. Examples of such a technique are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,048,589 to Cook, et al.; 5,399,412 to Sudall, et al.; 5,510,001 to Hermans, et al.; 5,591,309 to Rugowski, et al.; and 6,017,417 to Wendt, et al., which are incorporated herein in their entirety by reference thereto for all purposes.

[0056] For example, referring to FIG. 3, one embodiment of a papermaking machine that can be used in forming an uncreped through-dried tissue product is illustrated. For simplicity, the various tensioning rolls schematically used to define the several fabric runs are shown but not numbered. As shown, a papermaking headbox 110 can be used to inject or deposit a stream of an aqueous suspension of papermaking fibers onto an upper forming fabric 112. The aqueous suspension of fibers is then transferred to a lower forming fabric 113, which serves to support and carry the newly-formed wet web 111 downstream in the process. If desired, dewatering of the wet web 111 can be carried out, such as by vacuum suction, while the wet web 111 is supported by the forming fabric 113.

[0057] The wet web 111 is then transferred from the forming fabric 113 to a transfer fabric 117 while at a solids consistency of between about 10% to about 35%, and particularly, between about 20% to about 30%. As used herein, a “transfer fabric” is a fabric that is positioned between the forming section and the drying section of the web manufacturing process. In this embodiment, the transfer fabric 117 is a patterned fabric having protrusions or impression knuckles, such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,417 to Wendt et al. Typically, the transfer fabric 117 travels at a slower speed than the forming fabric 113 to enhance the “MD stretch” of the web, which generally refers to the stretch of a web in its machine or length direction (expressed as percent elongation at sample failure). For example, the relative speed difference between the two fabrics can be from 0% to about 80%, in some embodiments greater than about 10%, in some embodiments from about 10% to about 60%, and in some embodiments, from about 15% to about 30%. This is commonly referred to as “rush” transfer. One useful method of performing rush transfer is taught in U.S. Pat. No. 5,667,636 to Engel et al., which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference thereto for all purposes.

[0058] Transfer to the fabric 117 may be carried out with the assistance of positive and/or negative pressure. For example, in one embodiment, a vacuum shoe 118 can apply negative pressure such that the forming fabric 113 and the transfer fabric 117 simultaneously converge and diverge at the leading edge of the vacuum slot. Typically, the vacuum shoe 118 supplies pressure at levels between about 10 to about 25 inches of mercury. As stated above, the vacuum transfer shoe 118 (negative pressure) can be supplemented or replaced by the use of positive pressure from the opposite side of the web to blow the web onto the next fabric. In some embodiments, other vacuum shoes can also be used to assist in drawing the fibrous web 111 onto the surface of the transfer fabric 117.

[0059] From the transfer fabric 117, the fibrous web 111 is then transferred to the through-drying fabric 119. When the wet web 111 is transferred to the fabric 119. While supported by the through-drying fabric 119, the web 111 is then dried by a through-dryer 121 to a solids consistency of about 95% or greater. The through-dryer 121 accomplishes the removal of moisture from the web 111 by passing air therethrough without applying any mechanical pressure. Through-drying can also increase the bulk and softness of the web 111. In one embodiment, for example, the through-dryer 121 can contain a rotatable, perforated cylinder and a hood for receiving hot air blown through perforations of the cylinder as the through-drying fabric 119 carries the web 111 over the upper portion of the cylinder. The heated air is forced through the perforations in the cylinder of the through-dryer 121 and removes the remaining water from the web 111. The temperature of the air forced through the web 111 by the through-dryer 121 can vary, but is typically from about 250° F. to about 500° F. It should also be understood that other non-compressive drying methods, such as microwave or infrared heating, can be used.

[0060]FIG. 4A shows a process that utilizes creping in the manufacture of a four-layered tissue product. In the FIG. 4A, a first furnish (which produces the strength layer) is separated into long and short fiber fractions. The short fiber fraction is supplied to a second furnish. The second furnish may contain hardwood fibers. Once the second furnish receives the short fiber fraction from the first furnish, it becomes a third furnish.

[0061] The third furnish becomes a first exterior layer, which faces the dryer, and a second exterior layer, which faces the dryer on the opposite side. The long fiber fraction becomes a first interior layer and a second interior layer. The first interior layer and the first exterior layer are pressed or mated together to form a first combined layer as shown in FIG. 4A. Furthermore, a second exterior layer and a second interior layer are pressed or mated together to form a second combined layer. Then, the first combined layer and the second combined layer are mated together in a later step to form a four layer ply.

[0062] The third furnish supplies the fiber source for producing the “soft” exterior layers, as shown in FIG. 4A, which are dried on the dryer side, against the Yankee dryer. The long fiber fraction of the first furnish is applied to first and second interior layers. After drying, the first combined layer and second combined layer are joined to form a four-ply paper product.

[0063]FIG. 4B shows a similar creped process for producing a three-layered product. It would be possible to produce products having four or more than four layers in a variety of combinations, but these examples are shown for illustrative purposes. The invention is not limited to any particular layering arrangement.

[0064]FIG. 4C shows an UCTAD process for producing a three-layered product. The process employs a fractionation of the first furnish, and the short fiber fraction is applied to the second furnish for use on the exterior layers of the product. The long fiber fraction of the first furnish is applied on the first interior layer, as shown in FIG. 4C.

[0065]FIG. 4D shows a four-layer UCTAD product that may be produced using the process of the present invention. In this embodiment, the four-layer headbox may be employed in the manufacture of the four layered product.

[0066] In some embodiments, the first furnish is derived from a softwood. Likewise, in other embodiments, a second furnish derived from a hardwood is used to provide a softness layer for exposure to the outside of the paper product, such as a facial or bathroom tissue. A first combined layer and a second combined layer may be joined to form a paper ply. The resulting paper product may be formed from one ply, or multiple plies, such as two, three, or more plies.

[0067] The term “average length”, as shown in Table 1 for example, refers to a weighted average length of pulp fibers determined utilizing an optical fiber analyzer such as Kajaani fiber analyzer model No. FS-100 available from Kajaani Oy Electronics, Kajaani, Finland or a similar fiber analyzer. Generally speaking, the weighted average length of pulp fibers is a “length-weighted” average fiber length. According to the test procedure, a pulp sample is treated with a macerating liquid to ensure that no fiber bundles or shives are present. Each pulp sample is disintegrated in to hot water and diluted to an approximately 0.001% solution. Individual test samples are drawn in approximately 50 to 100 ml portions from the dilute solution when tested using the standard Kajaani fiber analysis test procedure. The weighted average fiber length may be expressed by the following equation:

ΣK xi=o(x i *n i)/n

[0068] where

[0069] k=maximum fiber length

[0070] xi=fiber length

[0071] ni=number of fibers having length xi

[0072] n=total number of fibers measured.

[0073] The term “short fibers” refers to fibers having an average fiber length ranging from about 0.2 mm (or less) to about 1.0 mm as determined by an optical fiber analyzer such as, for example, a Kajaani fiber analyzer model No. FS-100 (Kajaani Oy Electronics, Kajaani, Finland).

[0074] The term “long fibers” as used herein refers to fibers having an average fiber length of from about 1.0 mm to about 3 mm (or greater) as determined by an optical fiber analyzer such as, for example, a Kajaani fiber analyzer model No. FS-100 (Kajaani Oy Electronics, Kajaani, Finland). In the paper industry, it is well known that strength and softness usually are inversely related such that one of these two attributes can be increased or decreased only at the expense of the other. In general, debonders have been used in the papermaking process to improve the handfeel of paper products. However, debonders are known to decrease the tensile properties of the paper products, weakening the overall paper products. In some cases, surfactants and enzymes may be used to improve the Handfeel of paper products.

Stiffness

[0075] Tensile strength was reported as “GMT” (grams per 3 inches of a sample), which is the geometric mean tensile strength and is calculated as the square root of the product of MD tensile strength and CD tensile strength. MD and CD tensile strengths were determined using a MTS/Sintech tensile tester (available from the MTS Systems Corp., Eden Prairie, Minn.). Tissue samples measuring 3 inch wide were cut in both the machine and cross-machine directions. For each test, a sample strip was placed in the jaws of the tester, set at a 4-inch gauge length for facial tissue and 2-inch gauge length for bath tissue. The crosshead speed during the test was 10-in./minute. The tester was connected with a computer loaded with data acquisition system; e.g., MTS TestWork for windows software. Readings were taken directly from a computer screen readout at the point of rupture to obtain the tensile strength of an individual sample.

Slough Measurement Methods and Apparatus

[0076] To determine the abrasion resistance or tendency of fibers to be rubbed from the web when handled samples were measured by abrading the tissue specimens by way of the following method. This test measures the resistance of tissue material to abrasive action when the material is subjected to a horizontally reciprocating surface abrader. All samples were conditioned at about 23° C. and about 50% relative humidity for a minimum of 4 hours.

[0077]FIG. 6 shows a diagram of the test equipment that may be employed to abrade a sheet. In FIG. 6, a machine 241 having a mandrel 243 receives a tissue sample 242. A sliding magnetic clamp 248 with guide pins (not shown) is positioned opposite a stationary magnetic clamp 249, also having guide pins (not shown). A cycle speed control 247 is provided, with start/stop controls 245 located on the upper panel, near the upper left portion of FIG. 6. A counter 246 is shown on the left side of machine 241, which displays counts or cycles.

[0078] In FIG. 6, the mandrel 243 used for abrasion consists of a stainless steel rod, 0.5″ in diameter with the abrasive portion consisting of a 0.005″ deep diamond pattern extending 4.25″ in length around the entire circumference of the rod. The mandrel 243 is mounted perpendicular to the face of the machine 241 such that the abrasive portion of the mandrel 243 extends out from the front face of the machine 241. On each side of the mandrel 243 are located guide pins (not shown) for interaction with sliding magnetic clamp 248 and stationary magnetic clamp 249. These clamps 248-249 are spaced about 4″ apart and centered about the mandrel 243. The clamps 248-249 are configured to slide freely in the vertical direction.

[0079] Using a die press with a die cutter, specimens are cut into 3″ wide×8″ long strips with two holes at each end of the sample. For tissue samples, the Machine Direction (MD) corresponds to the longer dimension. Each test strip is weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg. Each end of the sample 242 is applied upon the guide pins (not shown) and clamps 248-249 to hold the sample 242 in place. A movable jaw (not shown) is then allowed to fall providing constant tension across the mandrel 243.

[0080] The mandrel 243 is then moved back and forth at an approximate 15 degree angle from the centered vertical centerline in a reciprocal horizontal motion against the test strip for 20 cycles (each cycle is a back and forth stroke), at a speed of about 80 cycles per minute, removing loose fibers from the web surface. Additionally the spindle rotates counter clockwise (when looking at the front of the instrument) at an approximate speed of 5 revolutions per minute (rpm). The clamps 248-249 are then removed from the sample 242 and the sample 242 is removed by blowing compressed air (approximately 5-10 psi) on the sample 242.

[0081] The sample 242 is then weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg and the weight loss calculated. Ten test samples per tissue sample may be tested and the average weight loss value in milligrams is recorded. The result for each example was compared with a control sample containing no hairspray. Results are shown in FIG. 5, for control samples and for samples that have been fractionated according to the teachings of this invention.

EXAMPLE A Fractionation of Softwood Fiber

[0082] A northern softwood kraft pulp (available from Kimberly-Clark Corporation; Northern Softwood fiber (LL-19 designation)) was used as a cellulose fiber sample. This cellulosic fiber sample was fractionated using a cleaner available from Beloit Inc. under the designation 76 mm Posiflow UltraLong with 13 mm conic tip, 25 mm feed insert and 22 mm vortex finder. The operation conditions were as follows: feed consistency: 0.73%; inlet flow rate of about 66.5 GPM, inlet pressure of about 40 PSI. Adjust the accepts portion pressure at 10 PSI and results in 70% of inlet fiber (weight basis) come out from cleaner bottom (rejects) and 30% emerge from accepts. The rejects portion is long fiber fraction and the accepts portion is short fiber fraction. The feed, accepts and rejects fiber batches are formed into 60-gram handsheets and test their properties. The results are as follows:

TABLE 1
Feed Accepts Rejects
Weight % 100 30 70
Freeness 685 635 705
Tensile Index, 27 37.9 24
Nm/g
Population Avg. 1.03 0.89 1.13
Length, mm

Tissue Examples

[0083] To demonstrate to use fractionated softwood fibers for making soft tissue with less slough, several bathroom tissue prototypes were produced on a small-scale continuous pilot machine. The invention is in no way limited merely to the manufacture of bathroom tissue, but this is provided as an exemplary embodiment of one application of the invention.

[0084] The machine formed two separate tissue sheets and couched them together into a single sheet which was then pressed, dried and creped. This configuration allowed simulation of a layered tissue sheet with very high layer purity. Each former had its own stock system including stock chest, metering pump, fan pump and white water handling. This allowed each layer to have its own fiber blend and independent chemical treatment. The chemicals could be added to the chest to create a single batch at one concentration or metered into the stock line to allow periodic adjustment.

EXAMPLES 1-3 Tissue Samples Manufactured with Softwood Fibers: Control Specimens

[0085] Permanent wet strength additive (Kymene, available from Hercules, Inc) was provided in an amount equivalent to 4 lbs/(0.2%) to the dryer side stock chest containing eucalyptus fiber (Bahil Su, Inc.). The airside stock chest contained a northern softwood kraft fiber (LL-19, from Kimberly-Clark.). Permanent wet strength (Kymene, from Hercules, Inc) was also added in an amount equivalent to 4 lbs/(0.2%) to the LL-19 fiber. A dry strength agent (Parez from Cytec) was added to the softwood side stock pump to adjust tensile strength. Tissue samples with three levels of tensile strength were produced by adjusting the Parez addition level. In the converting, the tissue sheet was plied up with the hardwood on the outside. The tissue sheets contain 35% LL-19 softwood fibers. and 65% eucalyptus fibers. The tensile strength, slough of the tissue sheets was tested. The softness properties of the tissue sheets were evaluated with panel testers as shown in Table 2 below, and also in FIG. 5.

EXAMPLES 4-6 Tissue Samples Manufactured with Fractionated Softwood Fibers

[0086] A repeat procedure as shown above for Examples 1-3 was employed, except that the short fraction of fiber was added to the dryer side (eucalyptus fiber) stock chest and long fraction of LL-19 was added to the air side (softwood fiber). In order to make softwood fiber mass balance, the dryer side. Thus, the eucalyptus fiber stock chest will contain about 14% of short fraction of LL-19 fiber and about 86% of eucalyptus fibers. The tissue contains about 25% fiber from the air side stock chest (100% long fraction of LL-19 fiber) and about 75% fiber from the dryer side stock chest (mixture of 14% short fraction of long fraction of LL-19 fiber and 86% of eucalyptus fiber). Overall, the tissue sheet still contains 65% eucalyptus fiber as 35% LL-19 fiber as Examples 1-3.

TABLE 2
Air Side
Panel
Tensile Hand-
Control Dryer Side Strength Slough feel
Specimens Euc LL-19 g/3″width (mg) Rating
Example 1 65 35 477 5.7 8.21
Example 2 65 35 716 6.56 7.87
Example 3 65 35 796 8.2 7.95
Test
Specimens Short Long
with fraction Fraction
Fractionation Euc LL-19 LL-19
Example 4 65 10.5 24.5 540 4.95 8
Example 5 65 10.5 24.5 641 6 7.89
Example 6 65 10.5 24.5 773 4.57 7.74

[0087] It is understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the present discussion is a description of exemplary embodiments only, and is not intended as limiting the broader aspects of the present invention, which broader aspects are embodied in the exemplary constructions. The invention is shown by example in the appended claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN101553622BSep 11, 2007Dec 14, 2011M-真实公司制造多层纤维产品的方法
WO2008003343A1 *Jul 6, 2006Jan 10, 2008Sca Hygiene Prod GmbhMethod of making an absorbent structure as a multi layer paper, especially a tissue paper
WO2008031921A1 *Sep 11, 2007Mar 20, 2008Esa HassinenMethod of manufacturing a multilayer fibrous product
Classifications
U.S. Classification162/130, 162/129, 162/123
International ClassificationE05B63/00, E05B1/00, E05B13/00, D21F11/14, E05C3/06, D21H27/38, D21F11/04
Cooperative ClassificationD21H27/38, D21F11/145, D21F11/14, D21F11/04
European ClassificationD21F11/14B, D21F11/04, D21H27/38, D21F11/14
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 6, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: KIMBERLY-CLARK WORLDWIDE, INC., WISCONSIN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HU, SHENG-HSIN;REEL/FRAME:012974/0630
Effective date: 20020501