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Publication numberUS20030129631 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/273,334
Publication dateJul 10, 2003
Filing dateOct 18, 2002
Priority dateDec 12, 1997
Also published asUS6930175
Publication number10273334, 273334, US 2003/0129631 A1, US 2003/129631 A1, US 20030129631 A1, US 20030129631A1, US 2003129631 A1, US 2003129631A1, US-A1-20030129631, US-A1-2003129631, US2003/0129631A1, US2003/129631A1, US20030129631 A1, US20030129631A1, US2003129631 A1, US2003129631A1
InventorsGary Pasternack, Gerald Kocheavar, Jonathan Brody, Shrihari Kadkol
Original AssigneePasternack Gary R., Kocheavar Gerald J., Brody Jonathan R., Kadkol Shrihari S.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gene family with transformation modulating activity
US 20030129631 A1
Abstract
pp32 is a member of a highly conserved family of differentiation-regulated nuclear proteins that is highly expressed in nearly all human prostatic adenocarcinomas of Gleason Grade ≧5. This contrasts with the low percentage of prostate tumors that express molecular alterations in proto-oncogens or demonstrate tumor suppressor mutation or loss of heterozygosity. By analysis of specimens of human prostatic adenocarcinoma and paired adjacent normal prostate from three individual patients, the inventors have shown that normal prostate continues to express normal pp32, whereas three of three sets of RT-PCR-amplified transcripts from prostatic adenocarcinomas display multiple cancer-associated coding sequence changes. The cancer-associated sequence changes appear to be functionally significant. Normal pp32 exerts antineoplastic effects through suppression of transformation. In contrast, cancer-associated pp32 variants augment, rather than inhibit, transformation.
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Claims(31)
1. An isolated DNA molecule comprising at least a sequence of 18 contiguous nucleotides selected from the sequence consisting of base pairs 4894-4942 of the sequence in FIG. 2 or the corresponding sequence from FIG. 5, or a sequence complementary thereto, said DNA molecule also containing non-mammalian DNA sequence and being substantially free of human DNA molecules.
2. An isolated DNA molecule comprising at least a sequence of 18 contiguous nucleotides selected from a sequence which encodes the amino acids from residue 146-163 of the amino acid sequence of pp32r1 or the corresponding sequence of pp32r2.
3. An isolated nucleic acid probe of at least 15 nucleotides which specifically hybridizes on Northern blot with nucleic acid encoding the amino acids from residue 146-163 of the amino acid sequence of pp32r1 or the corresponding sequence of pp32r2.
4. An isolated nucleic acid probe comprising a sequence of at least 8 contiguous nucleotides unique to pp32r1 or pp32r2.
5. A nucleic acid molecule produced by recombinant methods, wherein said nucleic acid molecule encodes at least the amino acids from residue 146-163 of sequence of the amino acid sequence of pp32r1 or the corresponding sequence of pp32r2.
6. The nucleic acid molecule according to claim 5, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is an expression vector which expresses said amino acid sequence.
7. A recombinant cell containing the nucleic acid molecule of claim 6.
8. A nucleic acid molecule produced by recombinant methods, said nucleic acid molecule containing a sequence encoding at least the amino acids from residue 146-163 of sequence of the amino acid sequence of pp32r1 or the corresponding sequence of pp32r2, said sequence being operatively linked to a promoter in antisense orientation.
9. A pair of nucleic acid primers each of which comprises at least 10 contiguous nucleotides, at least one of said primers being selected from or complementary to the sequence of pp32r1, wherein nucleic acid amplification of human chromosome 4 or a transcript thereof using said pair of nucleic acid primers will produce an amplified nucleic acid encoding residues 146-163 of the sequence of pp32r1.
10. A diagnostic method for predicting malignant potential of neuroendocrine, neural, mesenchymal, lymphoid, epithelial or germ cell derived tumors, comprising:
providing a sample of human neuroendocrine, neural, mesenchymal, lymphoid, epithelial or germ cell derived tissue; and
determining, in the sample, levels or intracellular sites of expression of a gene product expressed from a gene sequence which encodes residues 146-163 of the sequence of pp32r1 or the corresponding sequence of pp32r2.
11. A diagnostic method for predicting malignant potential of neuroendocrine, neural, mesenchymal, lymphoid, epithelial or germ cell derived tumors, comprising:
providing a sample of human neuroendocrine, neural, mesenchymal, lymphoid, epithelial or germ cell derived tumor tissue; and
determining, in the sample, levels or intracellular sites of expression of a gene product expressed from a gene sequence which encodes residues 146-163 of the sequence of pp32r1 or the corresponding sequence of pp32r2.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the gene product is mRNA.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the mRNA is extracted from the sample and quantitated.
14. The method of claim 12, wherein the level of mRNA is determined by in situ hybridization to a section of the tissue sample.
15. The method of claim 12, wherein the mRNA is quantitated by polymerase chain reaction.
16. The method according to claim 11, wherein the gene product is protein.
17. The method according to claim 16, wherein the method further comprises reacting the sample with an antibody that specifically binds to a polypeptide consisting of the sequence of pp32r1, but does not specifically bind to a polypeptide consisting of the sequence of pp32 or pp32r2, or an antibody that specifically binds to a polypeptide consisting of the sequence of pp32r2, but does not specifically bind to a polypeptide consisting of the sequence of pp32 or pp32r1
18. The method according to claim 11, wherein the tissue is a carcinoma.
19. The method according to claim 11, wherein the tissue is a carcinoma or sarcoma of a tissue selected from the group consisting of epithelial, lymphoid, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, central nervous system and peripheral nervous system tissues.
20. The method according to claim 19, wherein the tissue is selected from the group consisting of colon carcinoma, prostate carcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
21. An antibody that specifically binds to a polypeptide consisting of the sequence of pp32r1 or pp32r2, but does not specifically bind to a polypeptide consisting of the sequence of pp32.
22. The antibody of claim 21, wherein the antibody is a monoclonal antibody.
23. An isolated DNA molecule comprising an androgen-activated transcriptional promoter.
24. The isolated DNA molecule of claim 23, wherein the promoter comprises a transcription initiation site and a binding site for a steroid hormone receptor protein positioned within 10,000 nucleotide base pairs (bp) of the transcription initiation site, preferably 5,000 bp, more preferably 3000 bp.
25. The isolated DNA molecule of claim 24, further comprising at least one binding site for steroid hormone receptor proteins positioned within 2000 nucleotide base pairs (bp) of the transcription initiation site, preferably a plurality of binding sites for steroid hormone receptor proteins are positioned within 2000 bp of the transcription initiation site, more preferably, at least 5 binding sites for steroid hormone receptor proteins are so positioned.
26. The isolated DNA molecule of claim 25, wherein the binding sites for steroid hormone receptor proteins are selected from the group of steroid receptor protein binding sites listed on Table 1.
27. The isolated DNA molecule of claim 24, further comprising an open reading frame comprising at least one exon of a protein coding sequence, wherein said open reading frame is operatively linked to said androgen-activated transcriptional promoter.
28. The isolated DNA molecule of claim 27, wherein transcriptional activity of the promoter is regulated by steroids.
29. A method of screening a compound for pharmacological activity comprising:
culturing a cell transfected with the DNA molecule of claim 27; and
determining expression of the protein coding sequence in the presence and absence of the compound.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the expression determined is RNA expression or protein expression.
31. The DNA molecule of claim 23, wherein the DNA molecule is a DNA vector.
Description
  • [0001] The work leading to this invention was supported in part by Grant No. RO1 CA 54404 from the National Institutes of Health. The U.S. Government retains certain rights in this invention.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    1. File of the Invention
  • [0003]
    This invention is directed to various members of a gene family with transformation modulating activity, and to diagnostic and gene therapy techniques based on the variants.
  • [0004]
    2. Review of Related Art
  • [0005]
    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the most frequent malignancy in adult men with approximately 317,000 new cases diagnosed each year (Parker, et al., CA, 46:8-27, 1996). In spite of the capabilities for early diagnosis and treatment (Potosky, et al., JAMA, 273:548-552, 1995), it represents the second leading cause of cancer death in men following lung cancer.
  • [0006]
    To date, the study of alterations in specific genes has not been particularly rewarding in primary prostate cancer. Most alterations in the widely studied oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes occur in only 20-30% of primary prostate carcinomas, except for the myc gene, where overexpression has been observed in as many as 50-60% of such cases (Fleming, et al., Cancer Res., 46:1535-1538, 1986). Up to 40% of primary prostate cancers studied by comparative genomic hybridization display chromosomal aberrations (Visakorpi, et al., Cancer Res., 55:342-347, 1995), although such alterations occur more frequently as tumors recur and become refractory to hormonal therapy. Characterization of candidate proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes at such altered loci may eventually shed light on tumor progression in the prostate.
  • [0007]
    pp32 (GenBank HSU73477) is a highly conserved nuclear phosphoprotein. Increased expression of pp32 or closely related species is a frequent feature of clinical cancers. For example, in human prostate cancer, high-level expression of RNA hybridizing with pp32 probes occurs in nearly 90% of clinically significant prostate cancers, in contrast to the substantially lower frequencies of alterations of other oncogenes and tumor suppressors (See U.S. Pat. No. 5,726,018, incorporated herein by reference). Molecular Features and Activities of pp32.
  • [0008]
    pp32 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is differentiation-regulated during differentiation of adult prostatic epithelium (Walensky, et al., Cancer Res. 53:4720-4726, 1993). The human pp32 cDNA sequence (Gen-Bank U73477) is 1052 bp in length and encodes a protein of 249 amino acids. The protein is composed of two domains: an amino terminal amphipathic α-helical region containing a leucine zipper, and a highly acidic carboxyl terminal region. The murine and human forms of pp32 are highly conserved with over 90% nucleic acid homology and over 95% protein-level homology.
  • [0009]
    Human pp32 has been isolated independently by a number of groups. Vaesen et al. (“Purification and characterization of two putative HLA class II associated proteins: PHAPI and PHAPII.” Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler., 375:113-126, 1994) cloned an essentially equivalent molecule, termed PHAPI, from an EBV-transformed human B-lymphoblastoid cell line; PHAPII, cloned by the same strategy, is unrelated to pp32. This study identified PHAPI through its association in solution with human HLA class II protein, noting membrane and cytoplasmic localization as well as nuclear; the gene has putatively been localized to chromosome 15q22.3-q23 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (Fink, et al., “Localization of the gene encoding the putative human HLA class II-associated protein (PHAPI) to chromosome 15q22.3-q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.” Genomics, 29:309-310, 1995). More recently, a group studying inhibitors of protein phosphatases identified pp32 as IIPP2a, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2a (Li, et al., “Molecular Identification of II PP2A, a novel potent-heat-stable inhibitor protein of protein phosphatase 2A.” Biochemistry 35:6998-7002, 1996); another phosphatase inhibitor, I2PP2a, is unrelated to pp32. Interestingly, another recent report (Ulitzur, et al., “Biochemical characterization of mapmodulin, a protein that binds microtubule-associated proteins.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 272:30577-30582, 1997) identified pp32 as a cytoskeletally-associated cytosolic protein in CHO cells. It is not clear whether this finding stems from a difference in system, or whether pp32 can localize to the cytoplasm under certain circumstances. pp32 has also been identified as LANP, a leucine rich nuclear protein in the central nervous system (Matsuoka, et al., “A nuclear factor containing the leucine-rich repeats expressed in murine cerebellar neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:9670-9674, 1994).
  • [0010]
    There are also a number of reports of gene products bearing lesser degrees of homology to pp32. The Vaesen group has identified a series of unpublished sequences, termed PHAPI2a (EMBL Locus HSPHAPI2A) and PHAPI2b (EMBL Locus HSPHAPI2B), also cloned from an EBV-transformed human B-lymphoblastoid cell line. These variant pp32 sequences are distinct from the sequences reported herein, representing the April protein instead. April, cloned from human pancreas, is shorter than PHAPI2a by two N-terminal amino acids (Mencinger, et al., “Expression analysis and chromosomal mapping of a novel human gene, APRIL, encoding an acidic protein rich in leucines.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1395:176-180, 1998, see EMBL Locus HSAPRIL); PHAPI2b is identical to a subset of APRIL. Silver-stainable protein SSP29 (unpublished GenBank Locus HSU70439) was cloned from HeLa cells and is identical to PHAPI2a.
  • [0011]
    The nuclear phosphoprotein pp32 has been linked to proliferation. Malek and associates reported that various neoplastic cell lines showed markedly elevated expression levels and that bacterial polysaccharide induced expression of pp32 epitopes by B lymphocytes upon polyclonal expansion (Malek, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 265:13400-13409, 1990). Walensky and associates reported that levels of pp32 expression, measured by in situ hybridization, increased in direct relation to increasing Gleason grade of human prostatic cancers.
  • [0012]
    pp32 cDNA probes hybridize strongly with prostatic adenocarcinoma, whereas the hybridization signal in normal prostate is confined to basal cells. Polyclonal anti-pp32 antibodies react strongly with sections of human prostatic adenocarcinoma. The antibodies and riboprobes used by the investigators in previous studies are consistent with cross-reactivities of the reagents with all reported members of the pp32 nuclear phosphoprotein family, therefore, while previous descriptions focused upon pp32, it cannot be excluded that homologous proteins were detected.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0013]
    In one aspect, this invention provides a DNA molecule containing at least a portion of the sequence consisting of base pairs 4894-4942 of the sequence shown in FIG. 2 or its complement. Alternatively, the DNA molecule may contain at least a portion consisting of base pairs 4879-4927, or base pairs 4858-4927. Alternatively, this invention provides a DNA molecule that contains at least a portion of a nucleotide sequence encoding amino acid residues 146-163 of tumor-derived pp32r1 sequence; preferably the DNA encodes all of that segment. In one mode, the DNA molecule is an expression vector which expresses said amino acid sequence, and the invention also includes a recombinant cell containing the expression vector. In another mode, the DNA molecule has the particular sequence operatively linked to a promoter in antisense orientation. In another alternative, this invention provides a DNA probe which specifically hybridizes on Northern blot with nucleic acid encoding the amino acids from residue 146-163 of the tumor-derived pp32r1 sequence, a preferred probe would have a sequence of at least 8 contiguous nucleotides “unique” to the nucleotide sequence of the pp32r1 variant as described herein. In yet another alternative, the invention provides a pair of nucleic acid primers each of which comprises at least 10 contiguous nucleotides, at least one of the primers binding specifically to the pp32r1 sequence, where if the primers are used in nucleic acid amplification of a suitable source of human nucleic acid, the amplification will produce an amplified nucleic acid encoding at least residues 146-163 of the pp32r1 sequence.
  • [0014]
    In still another aspect, this invention provides antibodies that specifically bind the tumor derived pp32, but do not bind to normal pp32. Preferably, these antibodies are monoclonal antibodies. The invention also provides polypeptides containing epitopes that bind these antibodies.
  • [0015]
    In yet another aspect, this invention provides diagnostic methods for predicting malignant potential of neuroendocrine, neural, mesenchymal, lymphoid, epithelial or germ cell derived tumors by determining, in a sample of human neuroendocrine, neural, mesenchymal, lymphoid, epithelial or germ cell derived tissue, the level of, or the intracellular sites of expression of, a gene product expressed from a gene sequence which encodes, inter alia, residues 146-163 of tumor derived pp32r1. Where the gene product is mRNA, the mRNA is extracted from the sample and quantitated, optionally by PCR, or the level of mRNA may be determined by in situ hybridization to a section of the tissue sample. Where the gene product is protein, the determination may include reacting the sample with an antibody that specifically binds to tumor derived pp32, but not to normal pp32. Preferably, the tissue sample is carcinoma tissue. e.g., carcinoma or sarcoma of a tissue selected from the group consisting of epithelial, lymphoid, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, central nervous system and peripheral nervous system tissues, including colon carcinoma, prostate carcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [0016]
    In still another aspect, this invention provides an androgen-activated transcriptional promoter which may be inserted into recombinant DNA molecules. The minimal promoter is made up of a transcription initiation site and at least one binding site for a steroid hormone receptor protein. Typically the consensus sequence for the steroid hormone receptor protein binding site is positioned within 5000 nucleotide base pairs (bp), more preferably within 3000 bp, or even fewer bp of the transcription initiation site: In a preferred mode, a number of binding sites for steroid hormone receptor proteins are positioned within that distance of the transcription initiation site, the promoter may contain five, ten or even 25 steroid hormone receptor protein binding sites. Preferably, the binding site(s) for steroid hormone receptor protein binding are selected from the consensus sequences listed on Table 1. In a preferred mode of the invention, the androgen-activated transcriptional promoter is operatively linked to an open reading frame comprising at least one exon of a protein coding sequence, operative linking of the open reading frame thereby providing an expression vector in which expression of the open reading frame is regulated by steroids.
  • [0017]
    In another aspect, this invention provides a method for screening candidate compounds for pharmacological activity by (1) culturing a cell transfected with the DNA molecule containing the androgen-activated transcriptional promoter which is operatively linked to an open reading frame comprising at least one exon of a protein coding sequence, and (2) determining expression of the open reading frame in the presence and absence of the compound. In a preferred mode the androgen-activated promoter may be all or an operative portion of the sequence in FIG. 2 which is up-stream of the translation initiation site, or alternatively the androgen-activated promoter may be the 2700 bp of the sequence in FIG. 2 which is upstream from the translation initiation site.
  • [0018]
    pp32 is a member of a highly conserved family of differentiation-regulated nuclear proteins that is highly expressed in nearly all human prostatic adenocarcinomas of Gleason Grade ≧5. This contrasts with the low percentage of prostate tumors that express molecular alterations in proto-oncogenes or demonstrate tumor suppressor mutation or loss of heterozygosity. By analysis of specimens of human prostatic adenocarcinoma and paired adjacent normal prostate from three individual patients, the inventors have shown that normal prostate continues to express normal pp32, whereas three of three sets of RT-PCR-amplified transcripts from prostatic adenocarcinomas display multiple cancer-associated coding sequence changes. The cancer-associated sequence changes appear to be functionally significant. Normal pp32 exerts antineoplastic effects through suppression of transformation. In contrast, cancer-associated pp32 variants augment, rather than inhibit, transformation.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 1A shows detection of pp32-related mRNA in benign prostate and prostate cancer tissue sections by in situ hybridization.
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 1B shows immunohistochemical stain of prostate cancer sections with anti-pp32 antibodies.
  • [0021]
    [0021]FIG. 2 shows the genomic sequence of variant pp32r1 isolated from human placenta.
  • [0022]
    [0022]FIG. 3 provides a base-by-base comparison of the sequence of pp32r1 (top) with normal human pp32 (bottom). The numbering system for pp32r1 corresponds to FIG. 1, and the numbering system for normal pp32 is taken from Chen, et al. Nucleotide base differences are underlined in the pp32r1 sequence. Sequences within the normal pp32 sequence missing in pp32r1 are represented by dashes. The open reading frame for pp32r1 is indicated by overlining.
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 4 shows the alignment of the pp32r1 amino acid sequence (top) with normal human pp32 (bottom). Residue changes are underlined in the pp32r1 sequence. Amino acids missing in the pp32r1 sequence compared to normal pp32 are represented by dashes.
  • [0024]
    [0024]FIG. 5 shows the genomic sequence of variant pp32r2.
  • [0025]
    [0025]FIG. 6A shows RT-PCR amplification of pp32 and pp32 variants from human prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell line.
  • [0026]
    [0026]FIG. 6B shows cleavase fragment length polymorphism analysis of pp32 detects variant pp32 transcripts in human prostate cancer.
  • [0027]
    [0027]FIG. 7 shows the alignment of nucleic acid (A) and amino acid (B) sequences from human prostatic adenocarcinoma and prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines with pp32.
  • [0028]
    [0028]FIG. 8 is a bar graph showing ras+myc induced transformed focus formation. Co-transfection with a pp32 expression vector reduces transformation, while co-transfection with a pp32r1 expression vector stimulates transformation.
  • [0029]
    [0029]FIG. 9 is a bar graph showing pp32r1 stimulation of ras+myc induced transformed focus formation. Co-transfection with a pp32 expression vector reduces transformation, while co-transfection with expression vectors for pp32r1 sequences from prostate cancer cell lines stimulate transformation.
  • [0030]
    [0030]FIG. 10 is a graph of transformation assay results for cells transfected with variant pp32 species, which are shown to stimulate transformation with variable potency.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0031]
    The inventors have discovered that phenotypic changes in pp32 are a common feature of human prostate cancer. Previous data show that 87% of prostate cancers of Gleason Score 5 and above express pp32 or closely-related transcripts (U.S. Pat. No. 5,734,022, incorporated herein by reference). This is striking in comparison to the frequency of molecular alterations in other widely studied oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in primary prostatic adenocarcinoma, which occur in a substantially smaller proportion of cases. For example, myc overexpression (Fleming, et al.) occurs in around 60% of cases, and p53 is abnormal in only around 25% of primary tumors (Isaacs, et al., in “Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 59:653-659, 1994).
  • [0032]
    Several lines of evidence suggest that pp32 may act as a tumor suppressor. Functionally, pp32 inhibits transformation in vitro by oncogene pairs such as ras with myc, mutant p53, Ela, or jun, or human papilloma virus E6 and E7 (Chen, et al., “Structure of pp32, an acidic nuclear protein which inhibits oncogene-induced formation of transformed foci.” Molecular Biology of the Cell, 7:2045-2056, 1996). pp32 also inhibits growth of transformed cells in soft agar (Chen, et al.). In another system, ras-transfected NIH3T3 cells previously transfected to overexpress normal human pp32 do not form foci in vitro or, preliminarily, do not form tumors in nude mice, unlike control cells. In contrast, knockout of endogenous pp32 in the same system by an antisense pp32 expression construct markedly augments tumorigenesis (Example 12 below).
  • [0033]
    In clinical prostate cancer, the situation at first appears counterintuitive. Most human prostate cancers seem to express high levels of pp32 by in situ hybridization (see Example 1 below) and stain intensely with anti-pp32 antibodies. Because pp32 inhibits oncogene-mediated transformation (Chen, et al.), its paradoxical expression in cancer was investigated at the sequence level. The paradoxical question of why prostate cancers seem to express high-levels of an anti-oncogenic protein was addressed by comparing the sequence and function of pp32 species from paired normal prostate and adjacent prostatic carcinoma from three patients as well as from four prostate cancer cell lines. It is demonstrated herein that pp32 is a member of a closely-related gene family, and that alternate expression of these closely-related genes located on different chromosomes modulates oncogenic potential in human prostate cancer. The variant pp32 species expressed in prostate cancer are closely related to pp32.
  • [0034]
    The present data indicate that prostate cancers express variant pp32 transcripts, whereas adjacent normal prostate expresses normal pp32. Two instances clearly show that expression of alternate genes on different chromosomes can lead to the phenotypic switch, rather than mutation or alternate splicing. This switch in molecular phenotype is accompanied by a switch in functional pp32 phenotype. Normal pp32 is anti-oncogenic in character, in contrast to the pro-oncogenic variant transcripts that foster oncogene-mediated transformation. The high frequency of this abnormality suggests that expression of variant pp32 species may play an etiologic role in the development of human prostate cancer. In addition, these findings have significant diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • [0035]
    Definitions
  • [0036]
    In describing the present invention, the following terminology is used in accordance with the definitions set out below.
  • [0037]
    Nucleic Acids
  • [0038]
    In discussing the structure of particular double-stranded DNA molecules, sequences may be described herein according to the normal convention of giving only the sequence in the 5′ to 3′ direction along the nontranscribed stand of DNA (i.e., the-strand having a sequence homologous to the mRNA).
  • [0039]
    A DNA sequence “corresponds” to an amino acid sequence if translation of the DNA sequence in accordance with the genetic code yields the amino acid sequence (i.e., the DNA sequence “encodes” the amino acid sequence): one DNA sequence “corresponds” to another DNA sequence if the two sequences encode the same amino acid sequence.
  • [0040]
    Two DNA sequences are “substantially similar” when at least about 90% (preferably at least about 94%, and most preferably at least about 96%) of the nucleotides match over the defined length of the DNA sequences. Sequences that are substantially similar can be identified by the assay procedures described below or by isolating and sequencing the DNA molecules. See e.g., Maniatis et al., infra, DNA Cloning, vols. 1 and II infra: Nucleic Acid Hybridization, infra.
  • [0041]
    A “heterologous” region or domain of a DNA construct is an identifiable segment of DNA within a larger DNA molecule that is not found in association with the larger molecule in nature. Thus, when the heterologous region encodes a mammalian gene, the gene will usually be flanked by DNA that does not flank the mammalian genomic DNA in the genome of the source organism. Another example of a heterologous region is a construct where the coding sequence itself is not found in nature (e.g., a cDNA where the genomic coding sequence contains introns, or synthetic sequences having codons different than the native gene). Allelic variations or naturally-occurring mutational events do not give rise to a heterologous region of DNA as defined herein.
  • [0042]
    A “coding sequence” or “open reading frame” is an in-frame sequence of codons that (in view of the genetic code) correspond to or encode a protein or peptide sequence. Two coding sequences correspond to each other if the sequences or their complementary sequences encode the same amino acid sequences. A coding sequence in association with appropriate regulatory sequences may be transcribed and translated into a polypeptide in vivo. A polydenylation signal and transcription termination sequence will usually be located 3′ to the coding sequence. A “promoter sequence” is a DNA regulatory region capable of binding RNA polymerase in a cell and initiating transcription of a downstream (3′ direction) coding sequence. Promoter sequences typically contain additional sites for binding of regulatory molecules (e.g., transcription factors) which affect the transcription of the coding sequence. A coding sequence is “under the control” of the promoter sequence or “operatively linked” to the promoter when RNA polymerase binds the promoter sequence in a cell and transcribes the coding sequence into mRNA, which is then in turn translated into the protein encoded by the coding sequence.
  • [0043]
    Vectors are used to introduce a foreign substance, such as DNA, RNA or protein, into an organism. Typical vectors include recombinant viruses (for DNA) and liposomes (for protein). A “DNA vector” is a replicon, such as plasmid, phase or cosmid, to which another DNA segment may be attached so as to bring about the replication of the attached segment. An “expression vector” is a DNA vector which contains regulatory sequences which will direct protein synthesis by an appropriate host cell. This usually means a promoter to bind RNA polymerase and initiate transcription of mRNA, as well as ribosome binding sites and initiation signals to direct translation of the mRNA into a polypeptide. Incorporation of a DNA sequence into an expression vector at the proper site and in correct reading frame, followed by transformation of an appropriate host cell by the vector, enables the production of a protein encoded by said DNA sequence.
  • [0044]
    An expression vector may alternatively contain an antisense sequence, where a small DNA fragment, corresponding to all or part of an mRNA sequence, is inserted in opposite orientation into the vector after a promoter. As a result, the inserted DNA will be transcribed to produce an RNA which is complementary to and capable of binding or hybridizing with the mRNA. Upon binding to the mRNA, translation of the mRNA is prevented, and consequently the protein coded for by the mRNA is not produced. Production and use of antisense expression vectors is described in more detail in U.S. Pat. No. 5,107,065 (describing and exemplifying antisense regulation of genes in plants) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,190,931 (describing antisense regulation of genes in both prokaryotes and eukarvotes and exemplifying prokaryotes), both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0045]
    “Amplification” of nucleic acid sequences is the in vitro production of multiple copies of a particular nucleic acid sequence. The amplified sequence is usually in the form of DNA. A variety of techniques for carrying out such amplification are described in a review article by Van Brunt (1990, Bio/Technol., 8(4):291-294). Polymerase chain reaction or PCR is a prototype of nucleic acid amplification and use of PCR herein should be considered exemplary of other suitable amplification techniques.
  • [0046]
    Polypeptides
  • [0047]
    For the purposes of defining the present invention, two proteins are homologous if 80% of the amino acids in their respective amino acid sequences are the same; for proteins of differing length, the sequences will be at least 80% identical over the sequence which is in common (i.e., the length of the shorter protein).
  • [0048]
    Two amino acid sequences are “substantially similar” when at least about 87% of the amino acids match over the defined length of the amino acid sequences, preferably a match of at least about 89%, more preferably a match of at least about 95%. Typically, two amino acid sequences which are similar will differ by only conservative substitutions.
  • [0049]
    “Conservative amino acid substitutions” are the substitution of one amino acid residue in a sequence by another residue of similar properties, such that the secondary and tertiary structure of the resultant peptides are substantially the same. Conservative amino acid substitutions occur when an amino acid has substantially the same charge or hydrophobicity as the amino acid for which it is substituted and the substitution has no significant effect on the local conformation of the protein. Amino acid pairs which may be conservatively substituted for one another are well-known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
  • [0050]
    The polypeptides of this invention encompass pp32r1 and pp32r1 analogs, pp32r2 and pp32r2 analogs, along with other variants of pp32 and their analogs. pp32r1 and pp32r2 are naturally occurring, mature proteins, and further encompass all precursors and allelic variations of pp32r1 and pp32r2, as well as including forms of heterogeneous molecular weight that may result from inconsistent processing in vivo. An example of the pp32r1 sequence is shown in FIG. 3, top line. “pp32r1 analogs” are a class of peptides which includes:
  • [0051]
    1) “Allelic variations of pp32r1,” which are polypeptides which are substantially similar to pp32r1. Preferably the amino acid sequence of the allelic variation is encoded by a nucleic acid sequence that differs from the sequence of pp32r1 by one nucleotide in 300;
  • [0052]
    [0052]2) “Truncated pp32r1 peptides,” which include fragments of either pp32 or allelic variations of pp32r1 that preferably retain either (i) an amino acid sequence unique to pp32r1, (ii) an epitope unique to pp32r1 or (iii) pp32r1 activity;
  • [0053]
    3) “pp32r1 fusion proteins,” which include heterologous polypeptides which are made up of one of the above polypeptides (pp32r1, allelic variations of pp32r1 or truncated pp32r1 peptides) fused to any heterologous amino acid sequence.
  • [0054]
    “Unique” sequences of the pp32r1 variant according to this invention, either amino acid sequences or nucleic acid sequences which encode them, are sequences which are identical to a sequence of a pp32r1 polypeptide, but which differ in at least one amino acid or nucleotide residue from the sequences of human pp32 (Genbank Locus HSU73477), murine pp32 (Genbank Locus MMU73478), human cerebellar leucine rich acidic nuclear protein (LANP) (Genbank Locus AF025684), murine LANP (Genbank Locus AF022957). IIPP2a or human potent heat-stable protein phospatase 2a inhibitor (Genbank Locus HSU60823), SSP29 (Genbank Locus HSU70439), HLA-DR associated protein 1 (Genbank Locus HSPPHAPI, Accession No. X75090), PHAPI2a (EMBL Locus HSPHAPI2A, Genbank Accession No. Y07569), PHAPI2b (EMBL Locus HSPHAPI2B, Genbank Accession No. Y07570), and April (EMBL Locus HSAPRIL), and preferably, are not found elsewhere in the human genome. (A list of these sequences is provided in Table 3A.) Similarly, an epitope is “unique” to pp32r1 polypeptides if it is found on pp32r1 polypeptides but not found on any members of the set of proteins listed above. Analogs of pp32r2 and unique pp32r2 sequences are defined similarly. Of course, unique sequences of pp32r1 are not found in pp32r2 and vice versa.
  • [0055]
    “Variants of pp32” are homologous proteins which differ from pp32 by at least 2 amino acids. In particular, sequence comparison between pp32 and a variant will demonstrate at least one segment of 10 amino acids in which the sequence differs by at least two (2) amino acids. More typically a variant will exhibit at least two such 10 amino acid segments. Preferably, variants of pp32 in accordance with this invention will exhibit differences in functional activity from pp32. In particular, pp32r1 and pp32r2 are variants of pp32 whose activity includes stimulation of transformation in the rat fibroblast transformation assay described herein.
  • [0056]
    A composition comprising a selected component A is “substantially free” of another component B when component A makes up at least about 75% by weight of the combined weight of components A and B. Preferably, selected component A comprises at least about 90% by weight of the combined weight, most preferably at least about 99% by weight of the combined weight. In the case of a composition comprising a selected biologically active protein, which is substantially free of contaminating proteins, it is sometimes preferred that the composition having the activity of the protein of interest contain species with only a single molecular weight (i.e.. a “homogeneous” composition).
  • [0057]
    As used herein, a “biological sample” refers to a sample of tissue or fluid isolated from a individual, including but not limited to, for example, plasma, serum, spinal fluid, lymph fluid, the external sections of the skin, respiratory, intestinal, and genitourinary tracts, tears, saliva, milk, blood cells, tumors, organs, and also samples of in vivo cell culture constituents (including but not limited to conditioned medium resulting from the growth of cells in cell culture medium, putatively virally infected cells, recombinant cells, and cell components).
  • [0058]
    “Human tissue” is an aggregate of human cells which may constitute a solid mass. This term also encompasses a suspension of human cells, such as blood cells, or a human cell line.
  • [0059]
    The term “immunoglobulin molecule” encompasses whole antibodies made up of four immunoglobulin peptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, as well as immunoglobulin fragments. “Immunoglobulin fragments” are protein molecules related to antibodies, which are known to retain the epitopic binding specificity of the original antibody such as Fab, F(ab)′2, Fv, etc. Two polypeptides are “immunologically cross-reactive” when both polypeptides react with the same polyclonal antiserum.
  • [0060]
    General Methods
  • [0061]
    The practice of the present invention employs, unless otherwise indicated, conventional molecular biology, microbiology, and recombinant DNA techniques within the skill of the art. Such techniques are well known to the skilled worker and are explained fully in the literature. See, e.g., Maniatis, Fritsch & Sambrook, “Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual” (1982); “DNA Cloning: A Practical Approach,” Volumes I and II (D. N. Glover, ed., 1985); “Oligonucleotide Synthesis” (M. J. Gait. ed., 1984); “Nucleic Acid Hybridization” (B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins, eds., 1985): “Transcription and Translation” (B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins, eds., 1984): “Animal Cell Culture” (R. I. Freshney, ed., 1986); “Immobilized Cells and Enzymes” (IRL Press, 1986); B. Perbal, “A Practical Guide to Molecular Cloning” (1984), and Sambrook, et al., “Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual” (1989).
  • [0062]
    pp32 Related Genomic DNA
  • [0063]
    Screening a human genomic library in bacteriophages with probes generated from human pp32 cDNA yielded a new sequence that contained an open reading frame encoding a protein homologous with pp32 (see Example 2; pp32 sequence, reported in Chen, et al., Mol. Biol. Cell, 7:2045-2056, 1996). While the pp32r1 and pp32r2 sequences (see FIGS. 2 and 5) are substantially homologous to pp32, multiple single nucleotide base changes and short deletions suggest that they are encoded by gene distinct from pp32 gene. The pp32 family also includes substantially homologous polypeptides reported by others: HLA-DR associated protein 1 (Vaesen, 1994), leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein (Matsuoka, 1994), and protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor (Li, 1996).
  • [0064]
    DNA segments or oligonucleotides having specific sequences can be synthesized chemically or isolated by one of several approaches. The basic strategies for identifying, amplifying and isolating desired DNA sequences as well as assembling them into larger DNA molecules containing the desired sequence domains in the desired order, are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. See. e.g., Sambrook, et al., (1989); B. Perbal, (1984). Preferably, DNA segments corresponding to all or a part of the cDNA or genomic sequence of pp32r1 may be isolated individually using the polymerase chain reaction (M. A. Innis, et al., “PCR Protocols: A Guide To Methods and Applications.” Academic Press, 1990). A complete sequence may be assembled from overlapping oligonucleotides prepared by standard methods and assembled into a complete coding sequence. See, e.g., Edge (1981) Nature 292:756: Nambair, et al. (1984) Science 223:1299: Jay, et al. (1984) J. Biol. Chem., 259:6311.
  • [0065]
    The assembled sequence can be cloned into any suitable vector or replicon and maintained there in a composition which is substantially free of vectors that do not contain the assembled sequence. This provides a reservoir of the assembled sequence, and segments or the entire sequence can be extracted from the reservoir by excising from DNA in the reservoir material with restriction enzymes or by PCR amplification. Numerous cloning vectors are known to those of skill in the art, and the selection of an appropriate cloning vector is a matter of choice (see, e.g., Sambrook, et al., incorporated herein by reference). The construction of vectors containing desired DNA segments linked by appropriate DNA sequences is accomplished by techniques similar to those used to construct the segments. These vectors may be constructed to contain additional DNA segments, such as bacterial origins of replication to make shuttle vectors (for shuttling between prokaryotic hosts and mammalian hosts), etc.
  • [0066]
    Procedures for construction and expression of proteins of defined sequence are well known in the art. A DNA sequence encoding pp32r1, pp32r2, or an analog of either pp31R1 or pp32r2, can be synthesized chemically or prepared from the wild-type sequence by one of several approaches, including primer extension, linker insertion and PCR (see, e.g., Sambrook, et al.). Mutants can be prepared by these techniques having additions, deletions and substitutions in the wild-type sequence. It is preferable to test the mutants to confirm that they are the desired sequence by sequence analysis and/or the assays described below. Mutant protein for testing may be prepared by placing the coding sequence for the polypeptide in a vector under the control of a promoter, so that the DNA sequence is transcribed into RNA and translated into protein in a host cell transformed by this (expression) vector. The mutant protein may be produced by growing host cells transfected by an expression vector containing the coding sequence for the mutant under conditions whereby the polypeptide is expressed. The selection of the appropriate growth conditions is within the skill of the art.
  • [0067]
    The assembled sequence can be cloned into any suitable vector or replicon and maintained there in a composition which is substantially free of vectors that do not contain the assembled sequence. This provides a reservoir of the assembled sequence, and segments or the entire sequence can be extracted from the reservoir by excising from DNA in the reservoir material with restriction enzymes or by PCR amplification. Numerous cloning vectors are known to those of skill in the art, and the selection of an appropriate cloning vector is a matter of choice (see, e.g., Sambrook, et al., incorporated herein by reference). The construction of vectors containing desired DNA segments linked by appropriate DNA sequences is accomplished by techniques similar to those used to construct the segments. These vectors may be constructed to contain additional DNA segments, such as bacterial origins of replication to make shuttle vectors (for shuttling between prokaryotic hosts and mammalian hosts), etc.
  • [0068]
    Producing the Recombinant Peptide
  • [0069]
    Preferably, DNA from the selected clones should be subcloned into an expression vector, and the protein expressed by cells transformed with the vector should be tested for immunoreactivity with antibodies against the recombinant protein of this invention prepared as described below. Such subcloning is easily within the skill of the ordinary worker in the art in view of the present disclosure. The amino acid coding region of the DNA sequence of this invention may be longer or shorter than the coding region of the disclosed sequence, so long as the recombinant peptide expressed by the DNA sequence retains at least one epitope cross-reactive with antibodies which are specifically immunoreactive with pp32r1, pp32r2; or other pp32 variant as desired. The preparation of selected clones which contain DNA sequences corresponding to all or part of the sequence of pp32r1 or pp32r2 may be accomplished by those of ordinary skill in the art using conventional molecular biology techniques along with the information provided in this specification.
  • [0070]
    It is possible to purify a pp32 variant protein such as pp32r1, which is cross-reactive with antibodies specific for pp32, from an appropriate tissue/fluid source; however, a cross-reactive pp32 variant, or analog thereof, may also be produced by recombinant methods from a DNA sequence encoding such a protein or polypeptide. Polypeptides corresponding to the recombinant protein of this invention may be obtained by transforming cells with an expression vector containing DNA from a clone selected from an mammalian (preferably human) library as described herein. Suitable expression vector and host cell systems are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art, and are taught, for instance, in Sambrook, et al., 1989. The peptide may be obtained by growing the transformed cells in culture under conditions wherein the cloned DNA is expressed. Of course, the peptide expressed by the clone may be longer or shorter than pp32r1 or pp32r2, so long as the peptides are immunologically cross-reactive. Depending on the expression vector chosen, the peptide may be expressed as a fusion protein or a mature protein which is secreted or retained intracellularly, or as an inclusion protein. The desired polypeptides can be recovered from the culture by well-known procedures, such as centrifugation, filtration, extraction, and the like, with or without cell rupture, depending on how the peptide was expressed. The crude aqueous solution or suspension may be enriched for the desired peptide by protein purification techniques well known to those skilled in the art. Preparation of the polypeptides may include biosynthesis of a protein including extraneous sequence which may be removed by post-culture processing.
  • [0071]
    Using the nucleotide sequences disclosed herein and the polypeptides expressed from them, antibodies can be obtained which have high binding affinity for pp32r1 or pp32r2, but much lower affinity for pp32 and/or other variants of pp32. Such antibodies, whether monoclonal or purified polyclonal antibodies can be used to specifically detect pp32r1 or pp32r2. Techniques for preparing polypeptides, antibodies and nucleic acid probes for use in diagnostic assays, as well as diagnostic procedures suitable for detection of pp32 are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,726,018 and 5,734,022, incorporated herein by reference, and these techniques may be applied to pp32r1 or pp32r2 by substitution of the nucleic acid sequences disclosed herein. Similar substitution may be applied to other variants of pp32.
  • [0072]
    pp32r1 Promoter Sequence
  • [0073]
    Multiple consensus sequences for binding active steroid receptors found in genomic sequences upstream from the pp32r1 coding region are consistent with hormone regulation of gene expression. The consensus sequences were associated with the both induction and repression of expression by steroid hormones. The combination of both positively and negatively acting elements suggests complex regulation of pp32r1 expression.
  • [0074]
    Possible steroid hormone regulation of pp32r1 expression is important in regard to prostate cancer. While about one-half of treated patients initially respond to androgen ablation, subsequent hormone refraction and continued aggressive tumor growth is common (Garnick, M. B., “Prostate Cancer,” in Scientific American Medicine, Dale, D. C. and Federman, D. D. Eds., Scientific American Inc., New York. 1995). Many different steroid hormones regulate the growth of prostate cancer cells (Huggins, et al., “Studies on prostate cancer: I. The effect of castration, of estrogen, and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate,” Cancer Res., 1:293, 1941). These findings established a basis for androgen ablation therapy for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [0075]
    The present invention provides androgen-activated promoters based on the upstream portion of the genomic sequence in FIG. 2. The promoter sequence provided by this invention is bounded at its 3′ terminus by the translation start codon of a coding sequence and extends upstream (5′ direction) to include at least the number of bases or elements necessary to initiate transcription at levels above background. Within the promoter sequence will be found a transcription initiation site (conveniently defined by mapping with nuclease S1), a protein binding domain (consensus sequence) within about 100 bases upstream of the transcription initiation site generally designated the TATA box (a binding site for TATA box binding proteins and RNA polymerase), and various other protein binding domains (consensus sequences) upstream of the TATA box that modulate the basic transcriptional activity of the transcription initiation site and the TATA box. The various other protein binding domains preferably contain recognition sequences shown in Table 1 for binding (1) androgen receptors, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, and progesterone receptors; (2) transcription factors containing the leucine zipper motif including, but not limited to Fos, Jun, JunB, and Myc; and, (3) certain tissue specific transcription factors including, but not limited to GATA-1 and GATA-2. The various other protein binding domains upstream of the TATA box may contribute to specificity (tissue specific expression), accuracy (proper initiation), and strength (transcription frequency) of the promoter. The promoter elements may serve overlapping functions so that the promoter may function in the absence of subsets of these elements.
  • [0076]
    Therapy
  • [0077]
    Inhibition of function of protransforming variants of pp32 by any means would be expected to be an avenue of therapy.
  • [0078]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,726,018, incorporated herein by reference, describes various therapeutic avenues which may be applied by the skilled worker based on the nucleotides and protein sequences disclosed herein. In a particular embodiment, all or a portion of the sequence of pp32r1 or pp32r2 may be supplied in the antisense orientation to block expression of the variants found in carcinomas particularly prostate cancer. Suitable methods for preparation of antisense expression vectors and administration of antisense therapy may be found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,756,676, incorporated herein by reference. Prescreening of the patient population using the diagnostic methods described herein to identify patients having tumors expressing the particular pp32 variant is preferred.
  • [0079]
    Screening for compounds having therapeutic effects in prostate cancer may also be facilitated by the present invention. Studies which may be used to screen candidate compounds are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,756,676, incorporated herein by reference, modified by the use of cell lines which express particular variants of pp32 (see, e.g., Examples below). Compounds which affect steroid dependent protein expression may also be detected according to this invention by similar screening studies using an androgen-activated promoter as provided herein operatively coupled to a DNA sequence whose expression may be detected. (Marker sequences are well known in the art, see, e.g., Sambrook, et al., and selection of an appropriate detectable expression marker is a routine matter for the skilled worker.) Screening by testing the effect of candidate compounds on recombinant cells containing an expression vector having an androgen-activated promoter operatively coupled to an expression marker, with appropriate controls, is within the skill of the art, in view of the promoter sequences provided herein. In one aspect, this invention provides a method for screening candidate compounds for pharmacological activity by (1) culturing a cell transfected with the DNA molecule containing an androgen-activated transcriptional promoter which is operatively linked to an open reading frame comprising at least one exon of a protein coding sequence, and (2) determining expression of the open reading frame in the presence and absence of the compound. In a preferred mode the androgen activated promoter may be the portion of the sequence in FIG. 2 which is up-stream of the translation initiation site, or alternatively the androgen activated promoter may be the 2700 bp upstream from the translation initiation site.
  • [0080]
    Diagnostic Methods Based on the pp32 Gene Family
  • [0081]
    In one aspect, this invention provides methods for detecting and distinguishing among members of the pp32 gene family. As explained herein, the presence of one or more members of the gene family may be detected using assays based on common structures among the members resulting from common or similar sequences. For example, polyclonal antibodies elicited by pp32 will cross-react with pp32r1 and pp32r2, including various alleles of these pp32 variants. Similarly, the full coding region of the pp32 cDNA will hybridize under suitable conditions with nucleic acid encoding any of the variants, as shown by the in situ detection of the variants in tumor sections which were subsequently shown to contain either pp32r1 or pp32r2 allelic forms (Example 1). Selection of conditions that promote the immune cross-reactivity or cross-hybridization necessary for such detection is within the skill of the art, in view of the examples provided herein. For example, by using large nucleotide probes in hybridization experiments, the effects of one or a few differences in sequence may be overcome, i.e., larger probes will bind to more dissimilar target sequences, in contrast to shorter probes for which each nucleotide makes a larger percentage contribution to the affinity, and a single nucleotide alteration will cause a greater relative reduction in hybridization efficiency. Typically probes of 50 or more nucleotides are used to find homologues to a given sequence, and the studies reported in Example 1 used the entire sequence of pp32 as a probe to find cells expressing homologous members of the gene family other than pp32. Likewise, polyclonal antisera elicited to an antigen having multiple epitopes is more likely to cross-react with a second antigen that has a few of the same epitopes along with many different epitopes, while a monoclonal antibody or even a purified polyclonal antiserum might not bind to the second antigen.
  • [0082]
    In addition to determining the presence of one or more members of the pp32 gene family, this invention also provides methods for distinguishing among members. Determining which pp32 variant may be useful, for instance, to determine whether a transfomation promoting or suppressing variant is present in a tissue sample. Suitable methods for distinguishing include both immunoassay and nucleic acid binding assays. Preferred are methods which can detect a 10-fold difference in the affinity of the detecting ligand (e.g., antibody or oligonucleotide) for the target analyte. Such methods are well documented for other systems, and may be adopted to distnguish between pp32 variants by routine modification of such methods in view of the guidance provided herein.
  • [0083]
    Protein level assays may rely on monoclonal or purified polyclonal antibodies of relatively greater affinity for one variant compared to another (see, e.g., Smith, et al. (“Kinetics in interactions between antibodies and haptens,” Biochemistry, 14(7):1496-1502, 1975, which shows that the major kinetic variable governing antibody-hapten interactions is the rate of dissociation of the complex, and that the strength of antibody-hapten association is determined principally by the activation energy for dissociation), and Pontarotti, et al.(“Monoclonal antibodies to antitumor Vinca alkaloids: thermodynamics and kinetics,” Molecular Immunology, 22(3):277-84, 1985, which describes a set of monoclonal antibodies that bind various dimeric alkaloids and can distinguish among the alkaloid haptens due to different relative affinities of the various monoclonal antibodies for particular dimeric alkaloids), each of which is incorporated herein by reference). Suitable modifications of the conditions for immunoassays to emphasize the relative affinity of monoclonal antibodies with different affinity are also discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,759,791, incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0084]
    A number of methods are available which are capable of distinguishing between nucleic acid sequences which differ in sequence by as little as one nucleotide. For example, the ligase chain reaction has been used to detect point mutations in various genes (see. e.g., Abravaya, et al., “Detection of point mutations with a modified ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR).” Nucleic Acids Research, 23(4):675-82, 1995, or Pfeffer, et al., “A lipase chain reaction targeting two adjacent nucleotides allows the differentiation of cowpox virus from other Orthopoxvirus species,” Journal of Virological Methods, 49(3):353-60, 1994, each of which is incorporated herein by reference). Amplification of a sequence by PCR also may be used to distinguish sequences by selection of suitable primers, for example, short primers, preferably 10-15 matching nucleotides, where at least one of the primers has on the 3′ end a unique base that matches one variant but not other variants, and using annealing conditions under which the primer having the unique base has at least a ten-fold difference in dissociation rate between the fully matching variants and variants which do not fully match. Similar differentiation may be achieved in other methods dependent on hybridization by using short probes (typically under 50 bp, preferably 25 bp or less more preferably less than 20 bp or even 10-12 bp) by adjusting conditions in hybridization reactions to achieve at least a ten-fold difference in dissociation rate for the probes between the fully matching variants and variants which do not fully match. Cleavase fragment length polymorphism may also be used, and a specific example below provides guidance from which the skilled worker will be able to design similar studies by routine selection of other cleavase enzymes in view of the sequences provided herein.
  • [0085]
    The diagnostic methods of this invention may be used for prognostic purposes and patient differentiation as described herein. In particular, the methods of this invention allow differentiation between products expressed from the various sequences disclosed in FIG. 7. Preferred methods are those that detect and/or differentiate, between pp32, pp32r1, and/or pp32r2. Situations in which differentiation between pp32 variants will be of benefit will be readily apparent to the skilled clinician, in view of the present disclosure. Selection among the diagnostic methods provided by this invention of a suitable technique to achieve the desired benefit is a routine matter for the skilled clinician.
  • EXAMPLES
  • [0086]
    In order to facilitate a more complete understanding of the invention, a number of Examples are provided below. However, the scope of the invention is not limited to specific embodiments disclosed in these Examples, which are for purposes of illustration only.
  • Example 1
  • [0087]
    Cellular Location of pp32 Expression
  • [0088]
    pp32 mRNA can be detected by in situ hybridization with a pp32 probe under stringent conditions.
  • [0089]
    In situ hybridization. Bases 1-298 of the pp32 cDNA sequence (GenBank HSU73477) were subcloned into the Bluescript vector by standard techniques. Digoxigenin labeled anti-sense and sense RNA probes were generated using a commercially available kit (Boehringer Mannheim). Vector DNA linearized with BamHI and Xhol served as template for antisense and sense probe generation respectively. In vitro transcription was performed for 2 hours at 37° in a final volume of 20 μl which contained 1 μg of template DNA, 2 U/μl of either T3 or T7 RNA polymerase. 1 U/μl ribonuclease inhibitor, 1 mM each of ATP, CTP, GTP, 0.65 mM UTP, 0.35 mM digoxigenin-11-UTP, 40 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 10 mM NaCl, 10 mM DTT, 6 mM MgCl2 and 2 mM spermidine. The reaction was stopped by adding 2 μl of 0.2M EDTA, pH 8. 0 and the synthesized transcripts were precipitated for 30 min at −70° with 2.2 μl of 4 M LiCl and 75 μl of pre-chilled ethanol. RNA was pelleted by centrifugation, washed with 80% ethanol, mildly dried and dissolved in 100 μl of DEPC treated water. Yields of labeled probe were determined by an enzyme linked irrimunoassay using a commercially available kit (Boehringer Mannheim). Non-radioactive in situ hybridization was performed with anti-sense and sense pp32 RNA probes generated by in vitro transcription (see U.S. Pat. No. 5,726,018, incorporated herein by reference). FIG. 1A shows that normal prostatic basal cells are positive, whereas the clear, differentiated glandular cells are negative. In contrast, prostatic adenocarcinoma, shown at left, is strikingly positive. Note that the signal is cytoplasmic since it is mRNA and not the protein that is detected in this assay.
  • [0090]
    pp32 displays a distinctive pattern of expression in vivo (Chen, et al.; Malek. et al., “Identification and preliminary characterization of two related proliferation-associated nuclear phosphoproteins.” Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265:13400-13409, 1990; Walensky, et al., “A novel M(r) 32,000 nuclear phosphoprotein is selectively expressed in cells competent for self-renewal.” Cancer Research 53:4720-4716, 1993). In normal peripheral tissues, expression is restricted to stem-like cell populations such as crypt epithelial cells in the gut and basal epithelium in the skin: in the adult central nervous system, cerebral cortical neurons and Purkinje cells also express pp32. In normal prostate, basal cells express pp32, whereas pp32 mRNA is not detectable by in situ hybridization in differentiated glandular cells (FIG. 1A). In contrast, strong in situ hybridization to pp32 probes is found in nearly all clinically significant human prostatic adenocarcinomas. 87% of human prostatic adenocarcinomas of Gleason Score 5 and above express mRNA that hybridizes strongly with probes to pp32 in contrast to only 11% of prostate cancers of Gleason Score 4 and below in a study of 55 patients.
  • [0091]
    Immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was sectioned at 4 μM, deparaffinized, hydrated, processed for heat-induced antigen retrieval at 95° in 0.01 M citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 20 min (Cattoretti, et al., “Antigen unmasking on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections,” Journal of Pathology 171:83-98, 1993), then incubated overnight at room temperature with a {fraction (1/20)} dilution of anti-pp32 antibody. Following washing, the slide was sequentially developed with biotinylated swine-anti-rabbit IgG at {fraction (1/100)} (Dako), strepavidin peroxidase (Dako), and diaminobenzidine. FIG. 1B shows a representative high-grade human prostate cancer stained with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-pp32 antibody (Gusev, et al., “pp32 overexpression induces nuclear pleomorphism in rat prostatic carcinoma cells.” Cell Proliferation 29:643-653, 1996). The left-hand panel shows a representative field at 250x: the rectangle indicates the area shown in computer venerated detail in the right-hand panel. Strongly hybridizing tumors show intense immunopositivity with antibodies to pp32, indicating that they express pp32 or immunologically related proteins (FIGS. 1A and 1B).
  • Example 2
  • [0092]
    ESTs Corresponding to pp32
  • [0093]
    Several potential variant pp32 species have been identified in the prostate cancer expressed sequence tag libraries of the NCI's Cancer Genome Anatomy Project. Clone 588488 encodes a protein that is 96% identical to APRIL, although absent retrieval and sequencing of the full clone, it is impossible to tell whether the entire EST clone encodes a pp32 related sequence; neither is it possible to assess the biologic function of this molecule at this time. Nevertheless, it is apparent that the sequenced portion encodes a protein bearing great similarity to pp32. This EST does not appear in the database for normal prostate. As with the variant pp32 species recovered from prostate cancer, generation of this molecule by mutation would require a complex mechanism.
  • [0094]
    pp32-related genes are present in other organisms. The existence of a pp32 gene family in rodent would be consistent with the existence of a comparably sized family in human. A murine pp32 (GenBank U73478) has 89% amino acid identity to pp32, but less identity to pp32r1 and APRIL. (The murine cerebellar leucine rich acidic nuclear protein has a single amino acid substitution relative to murine pp32.) We additionally identified a murine EST, GenBank AA066733, with closest identity to APRIL protein at 85% identity over 148 amino acids of a predicted open reading frame. Several other murine EST's. AA212094 and W82526, are closely related to the pp32 family but are not significantly more related to either pp32, pp32r1, or APRIL. A human homologue of such a gene would be expected to encode a fourth member of this gene family. We identified EST's predicted to encode pp32-related proteins in C. elegans, schistosomes, zebrafish, and Drosophila (data not shown). However, these sequences may not represent the complete extent of the pp32 gene family in these organisms, and thus are not informative for the likely size of the mammalian pp32 gene family.
  • Example 3
  • [0095]
    The Structure of a Gene Encoding a Relative of the pp32 Family
  • [0096]
    Screening a human genomic library in bacteriophages with probes generated from human pp32 cDNA yielded a new sequence that contained an open reading frame encoding a protein homologous with pp32.
  • [0097]
    Screening a Human Genomic Library in Bacteriophages for pp32 cDNA.
  • [0098]
    A genomic library from human placenta in the Lambda Fix II vector was expressed in E. coli strain XL-1 Blue MRA (Stratagene #946206). Screening for bacteriophage clones containing DNA inserts homologous with pp32 cDNA followed routine procedures (Sambrook, et al.). Briefly, nitrocellulose filters that had overlain bacteriophage plaques were hybridized with P-32 labeled probes for pp32 cDNA. The probes were prepared by the random primer method (Stratagene #300385) using pp32 cDNA as a template (Chen, et al., Molec. Biol. Cell, 7:2045-2056,1996.). Reactive bacteriophage plaques were plugged and the bacteriophages were eluted, reexpressed, and rescreened with pp32 cDNA probes until pure. Bacteriophage DNA was prepared by the plate lysate method (Sambrook, et al.).
  • [0099]
    Identifying Restriction Fragments within Bacteriophage DNA Containing Sequences Homologous with pp32 cDNA.
  • [0100]
    DNA from a bacteriophage clone containing pp32 cDNA sequences was digested with HindIII. Using routine methods, the restriction fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred in alkaline buffer to positively charged nylon filters, and hybridized with probes that were selective for the 5′ and 3′ ends of the pp32 cDNA (Sambrook, et al.). The 5′ and 3′ probes were prepared as described above except that the products of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were used as templates for the labeling reactions (Sailki, et al., Science, 239:487-491, 1988.). One PCR product was a 249 base pair segment of pp32 cDNA containing nucleotides 32 through 279. It was the result of a reaction using a pp32cDNA template and the primers
  • [0101]
    5′-TATGCTAGCGGGTTCGGGGTTTATTG-3′ and
  • [0102]
    5′-GATTCTAGATGGTAAGTTTGCGATTGAGG-3′ (primer set A).
  • [0103]
    The other product was a 263 base pair segment of pp32 cDNA including nucleotides 677 through 938. It was the result of a reaction using a pp32 cDNA template and the primers
  • [0104]
    5′-GAATCTAGAAGGAGGAGGAAGGTGAAGAG-3′ and
  • [0105]
    5′-CTATCTAGATTCAGGGGGCAGGATTAGAG-3′ (primer set B).
  • [0106]
    The PCR reactions included 35 cycles of one minute denaturations at 95° C., one minute primer annealings at 50° C., and one minute extensions at 72° C. (cycling program A). A 4.7 kb HindIII restriction fragment that hybridized with the 5′ probe, but not with the 3′ probe and a 0.9 kb HindIII fragment that hybridized with the 3′ probe, but not with the 5′ probe were subcloned into pBluescript (Gibco) by routine methods (Sambrook, et al.). The nucleotide sequences of both strands of purified plasmid DNA containing the inserts were determined by automated procedures (DNA Analysis Facility, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine).
  • [0107]
    Completion of Sequencing by Direct Sequencing of PCR Products. Alignment of the sequences of the 4.7 and 0.9 kb HindIII restriction fragments with pp32 cDNA showed about 90% homologies between the 3′ end of the 4.7 kb fragment and the 5′ region of pp32 cDNA and the 5′ end of the 0.9 kb fragment and the 3′ region of the pp32 cDNA. There was an unaligned 199 base pair gap of pp32 cDNA sequence between the ends of the restriction fragments. Primers were designed to specifically anneal to relative pp32 sequences on both sides of the sequence gap. The primer sequences were
  • [0108]
    5′-GAGGTTTATTGATTGAATTCGGCT-3′ and
  • [0109]
    5′-CCCCAGTACACTTTTCCCGTCTCA-3′ (primer set C).
  • [0110]
    Polymerase chain reactions followed cycling program A with primer set C and pure bacteriophage DNA as a template. The 943 base pair products were shown by ethidium bromide staining agarose gels, extracted from excised fragments of low melt agarose (NuSieve) electrophoresis gels, and sequenced by automated procedures as described above.
  • [0111]
    A sequence of 5,785 bases was obtained from the human placental genomic library bacteriophage clone containing segments homologous with pp32 cDNA (FIG. 2). This sequence was deposited in Genbank under Accession No. U71084, Locus HSU71084. The sequence has an open reading frame extending from nucleotides 4,453 to 5,154. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence upstream of the open reading frame revealed consensus sequences for active steroid hormone receptors at over twenty positions (Table 1).
  • [0112]
    Sequence analysis of the open reading frame showed 94% sequence homology to pp32 (FIG. 3). Alignment of the-open reading frame sequence to pp32 cDNA revealed 33 scattered, solitary base differences and clustered differences of two and seven bases. There were two internal deletions of three and nine bases. The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide containing 234 amino acid residues with 88% protein-level homology to pp32 (FIG. 4). Alignment of the translated sequence to the pp32 amino acid sequence revealed 18 scattered, solitary amino acid residue differences, three differences in clusters of two residues, and one difference in a clusters of four residues. There were two internal deletions of one and three residues and a terminal deletion of eleven residues. The translated sequence contained 69 acidic residues, 26 fewer than pp32.
  • Example 4
  • [0113]
    Chromosome Mapping of pp32r1
  • [0114]
    The pp32r1 gene maps to chromosome 4 as determined by PCR of the NIGMS monochromosomal panel 2 (Drwinga, et al., “NIGMS human/rodent somatic cell hybrid mapping panels 1 and 2,” Genomics 16:311314, 1993) followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Interestingly, the full sequence of pp32r1 including 4364 nucleotides of sequence 5′ to the start ATG contained over 400 matches in a blastn search of the non-redundant GenBank database. These matches were to two short regions of about 278 and 252 base pairs (nucleotides 674-952 and 2542-2794) that represent repeats in opposite orientations. The repeats are significantly related to elements on many chromosomes.
  • [0115]
    The human pp32 gene has been mapped to chromosome 15q22.3-q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (Fink, et al.). A Unigene entry for pp32 (Hs. 76689; HLA-DR associated protein 1) lists 93 EST sequences corresponding to this gene, 12 of which contain a mapped sequence-tagged site (STS). These STS sites are all reported to map to chromosome 15, as are many of the pp32 EST's analyzed by electronic PCR (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). APRIL protein was also mapped to chromosome 15q25 (Mencinger, et al.; GenBank Y07969).
  • Example 5
  • [0116]
    Sequence Analysis of pp32r2
  • [0117]
    A pp32-related sequence (designated pp32r2) has been identified on chromosome 12 by methods analogous to those described in Example 2 for isolation of the unique intronless pp32-related gene pp32r1, found on chromosome 4. It was initially thought that the chromosome 12 sequence, encoding a truncated protein, might represent a pseudogene; however that interpretation has been reassessed in view of the present findings. The sequence has been designated pp32r2, and is recorded in Genbank as locus AF008216: the sequence of pp32r2 is shown in FIG. 5. By BESTFIT analysis (Genetics Computer Group. Inc., Wisconsin Package, version 9.1, Madison, Wis., 1997), pp32r2 is 99.5% identical to FT1.11, FT2.4 and T1, showing four nucleotide differences over the 875 nucleotide overlap of the sequences: this level of variation is consistent with a polymorphism. Similarly, BESTFIT analysis shows that PP32R1 is 99.6 % identical to FT3.3 and 99.4% identical to FT2.2, displaying four and five nucleotide differences, respectively (see FIG. 7 below).
  • Example 6
  • [0118]
    Sequence Comparison of Multiple Clones
  • [0119]
    Screening of a human placental genomic library in Lambda Fix II vector (Stratagene #946206) with P-32 labeled probes for pp32 cDNA yielded a clone of approximately 23 kb. 4.7 kb and 0.9 kb HindIII restriction fragments of this clone hybridized with probes for pp32 cDNA. The 4.7 kb clone aligned with the 5′ portion of the pp32 cDNA sequence, and the 0.9 kb fragment aligned with the 3′ end. A small discontinuity of 0.2 kb was sequenced from a bridging PCR product. No introns were identified.
  • [0120]
    Cultured cells including the whole human embryonic line FSH173WE and the prostatic cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP (American Type Culture Collection) were grown under recommended tissue culture conditions. Poly A+RNA was prepared by oligo dT adsorption (MicroFasTrack, Invitrogen) and used as a template for the, generation of cDNA through reactions with reverse transcriptase and random hexamers (GeneAmp RNA PCR Kit, Perkin Elmer). The cDNA sequences encoding the open reading frame were amplified by nested PCR using primers specifically selective for the genomic sequence over pp32 sequences. The final 298 base pair products were seen by ethidium bromide staining agarose electrophoretic gels.
  • [0121]
    Using procedures similar to those described in Example 3, except without the need for nested primers in most cases, transcripts from DU-145 cells and from numerous patients were sequenced for comparison to the transcripts from the above samples. The results are shown in Table 2. A summary of the degree of identity between various transcripts is provided in Table 3.
  • Example 7
  • [0122]
    Sequence Variation for Individual Isolates of Different Cell Lines and Tumor Tissue
  • [0123]
    The explanation for the apparent discordant expression of p32 in cancer is that prostate tumors do not generally express pp32, but rather express variant pp32 species that promote transformation, instead of inhibiting it.
  • [0124]
    RT-PCR and CFLP. Sequences were reverse-transcribed and amplified using bases 32 to 52 of HSU73477 as a forward primer and 9 19 to 938 of the same sequence as a reverse primer in conjunction with the Titan One-Tube RT-PCR kit (Boehringer). Reverse transcription was carried out at 50° for 45 min followed by incubation at 94° for 2 min; the subsequent PCR utilized 45 cycles of 92° for 45, 55° for 45 sec. and 68° for 1 min with a final extension at 68° for 10 min in a PTC 100 thermocycler (MJ Research). Template RNA was isolated from cell lines or frozen tumor samples using RNAzol B (Tel-Test) according to the manufacturer's instructions, then digested with RNAse-free DNAse 1 (Boehringer). pCMV32 was used as a positive control without reverse transcription. The cleavage assay was performed according to the manufacturer's specifications (Life Technologies) with digestion at 55° for 10 min at 0.2 mM MnCl2 and electrophoresed on a 6% denaturing polyacrylamide sequencing gel.
  • [0125]
    At the level of RTPCR, paired normal prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma from three patients yielded amplification products (FIG. 6A) ranging from 889 to 909 bp. The reaction employed consensus primers capable of ampliring the full-length coding sequence from pp32 and the two closely-related intronless genomic sequences pp32r1 and pp32r2. The sole difference noted was a diminished amplicon yield from normal tissue as compared to neoplastic. Four human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, DU-145, LNCaP, PC-3, and TSUPR-1, also yielded similar products.
  • [0126]
    [0126]FIG. 6A shows RT-PCR amplified DNA from human prostate and prostate cancer cell lines. Lane a is an undigested control whose band migrated substantially slower than the digestion produces; samples in all other lanes were digested with cleavage as described. The lanes show: 1 kb ladder (Lifé Technologies), A; pCMV32, B; DU-145, C; LNCaP, D; PC-3, E; TSUPr-1, F; a representative sample, FT-1, without reverse transcription, G; FN-1 H; FT-1, I; FN-2, J; FT-2, K; FN-3, L; FT3, M; negative control with template omitted. FN indicates frozen benign prostate and the number indicates the patient: FT indicates frozen prostatic adenocarcinoma and the number indicates the patient. Numbers on the left-hand side of the figure indicate the size in kb of a reference 1 kb DNA ladder (Life Technologies).
  • [0127]
    Qualitative differences between normal and neoplastic tissue began to emerge when the RT-PCR products were subcloned and analyzed by cleavage fragment length polymorphism analysis (CFLP) and sequence analysis. FIG. 6B shows a cleavase fragment length polymorphism analysis of cloned cDNA amplified by RT-PCR from human prostatic adenocarcinoma, adjacent normal prostate, and human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines using primers derived from the normal pp32 cDNA sequence. The lanes show individual RT-PCR-derived clones from the DU-145, LNCaP, PC-3 and TSUPr1 cell lines, from frozen prostate cancer (FT), and from frozen normal prostate (FN): a, undigested normal pp32 cDNA, be normal pp32cDNA: c, DU-145-1; d, DU-145-3; e, DU-145-5; f, LNCaP-3; g, PC3-3; h, PC3-8; i, TSUPr1, -I; j, TSUPr1-3; k, TSUPr1-6; 1, FT1.11; m, FT1.7; n, FT2.2; o, FT2.4; p, FT3.18; q, FT3.3; r, FN3.17; s, FN2.1. LNCaP expresses normal pp32. The band shifts correspond to sequence differences. All clones of RT-PCR product from normal prostate tissue displayed a normal CFLP pattern that corresponded precisely to that obtained from cloned pp32 cDNA template (GenBank HSU73477, FIG. 6B). Prostatic adenocarcinomas yielded four distinct CFLP patterns upon similar analysis, of which three were unique and one mimicked the normal pp32 pattern. Examination of DU-145, PC-3, and TSUPR-1 cell lines yielded substantially similar results whereas LnCaP yielded only a normal pp32 CFLP pattern. Further analysis at the sequence level confirmed that normal prostate and LnCaP contained solely normal pp32 transcripts.
  • [0128]
    Transcripts obtained from prostatic adenocarcinomas and from most cell lines represented closely-related variant species of pp32, summarized in Table 1. These transcripts varied from 92.4% to 95.9% nucleotide identity to normal pp32 cDNA (Genetics Computer Group, Inc., Wisconsin Package, version 9.1, Madison, Wis., 1997). Of the sixteen variant transcripts obtained, fifteen had open reading frames encoding proteins ranging from 89.3% to 99.6% identity to normal pp32. The table summarizes data obtained for variant pp32 transcripts obtained from human prostatic adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer cell lines. Sequences falling into closely related groups are indicated by the group letters (A,B,C); U indicates unassigned sequences not clearly falling into a group. The origin of each sequence is: FT, frozen tumor followed by patient number, decimal point, and clone number; D, DU-145 followed by clone number (as are all cell line sequences); P, PC3; and T, TSUPr1. Nucleotide identity, gaps in the nucleotide sequence alignment, and protein identity were determined from BESTFIT alignments with the normal pp32 cDNA and protein sequences. The effect on transformation is described as: stimulates, more foci obtained when transfected with ras+myc than with ras-myc+vector control: inactive, equivalent foci obtained as with ras+myc+vector control; and suppresses, fewer foci obtained as with ras+myc+vector control.
  • [0129]
    The predicted protein sequences fell into three discrete groups: [1] truncated sequences spanning the N-terminal 131 amino acids of pp32, of which one such sequence substantially equivalent to pp32r2 was obtained identically from two of three patients and from the TSUPR-1 cell line; [2] sequences more closely homologous to a distinct pp32-related gene, pp32r1 than to pp32, and [3] heterogeneous pp32-related sequences. Tumors from two of the three patients analyzed contained no detectable normal pp32 transcripts. Two of twelve cloned transcripts from the third patient tumor were normal by CFLP pattern, with sequence confirmation of normality on one clone. Two clones from cell lines were normal by CFLP screening, but were later shown to represent variant-sequences.
  • [0130]
    [0130]FIGS. 7A and 7B show a multiple pairwise alignment of nucleotide and predicted protein sequences for all transcripts (Smith, et al., “Identification of common molecular subsequences,” J. Mol. Biol., 147:195-197 1981). The figures were compiled with the GCG Pileup and Pretty programs (Smith, et al.). Differences from the consensus sequences are shown as indicated, agreement with the consensus sequence is shown as a blank. Normal human pp32 is designated hpp32. Sequences from the TSUPr1, PC3, and DU-145 cell lines are as indicated. The designation FT indicates sequence derived from a frozen human prostatic adenocarcinoma. Only the normal pp32 sequence. hpp32, was obtained from normal prostate adjacent to tumor tissue. FIG. 8A shows alignment of the amplicon nucleotide sequences with pp32 and the predicted amplicon from pp32r1: FIG. 8B shows alignment of the predicted protein sequences. One sequence (FT 1.11), independently obtained three times from two separate patients and the TSUPR-1 cell line, is shown only once in the diagram. The pileup and pairwise alignments illustrate several important points: [1] there is a high degree of sequence conservation at both the nucleotide and predicted amino acid levels; [2] the sequence differences are distributed throughout the length of the sequence without obvious hotspots; [3] there is no obvious clustering or segmentation of sequence differences: and [4] the variant sequences fall into the previously described groups. These points are detailed in FIGS. 8A and 8B.
  • Example 8
  • [0131]
    Diagnostic Method to Distinguish Among Family Members
  • [0132]
    The three members of the pp32 family which are expressed in human prostate cancer are pp32, pp32r1 and pp32r2. Whereas pp32 suppresses in vitro transformation and in vivo tumorigenesis in model systems, pp32r1 and pp32r2 are pro-transforming and are tumorigenic in the same systems. It is possible to determine which of the three members is expressed in a tissue sample by using a protocol similar to that described in Example 7.
  • [0133]
    Analysis from freshly frozen human tissue and cell lines. Total RNA is extracted from freshly frozen human tissues or human cancer cell lines and subjected to reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with single set of primers capable of amplifying the entire coding region of the cDNA of all the three genes. A suitable set of primers is:
  • [0134]
    Upper: 5′GGGTTCGGGGTTTATTG3′—This corresponds to bp32 to bp48 of the pp32 cDNA sequence (Genbank U73477)
  • [0135]
    Lower: 5′CTCTAATCCTGCCCCCTGAA3′—This corresponds to bp919 to bp938 of the pp32 cDNA sequence (Genbank U73477)
  • [0136]
    The observed amplicon sizes with this primer set are pp32-907 bp, pp32r1-889 bp and pp32r2-900 bp. The three cDNAs are distinguished from each other by restriction enzyme digestion with the following enzymes—EcoR I, Hind III and Xho I. The resultant digest is run on a 2.5% agarose gel to positively identify the three different cDNAs. The table below lists the sizes of the bands observed The bolded numbers indicate the band sizes useful for identification of the three cDNAs.
    TABLE 4A
    Expected band sizes upon restriction digestion of the
    RT-PCR product from fresh tissue and cell lines
    EcoR I/Hind III EcoR I/Xho I
    Undigested EcoR I Double digest Double digest
    hpp32 907 21,177,709 21,177,69,640 21,177,709
    pp32r1 889 21,177,691 21,19,66,198,427 21,177,691
    pp32r2 900 21,879 21,244,635 21,385,494
  • [0137]
    Analysis from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. A similar approach is followed for identification of pp32, pp32r1 and pp32r2 transcripts from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues. Total RNA is extracted and subjected to reverse transcription and PCR amplification with a single set of primers capable of amplifying a stretch of 200 bp from all the three cDNAs. A suitable set of primers is:
  • [0138]
    Upper primer—from bp394 to bp414 of the pp32 cDNA sequence (Genbank U73477)
  • [0139]
    Lower primer—from bp609 to bp629 of the pp32 cDNA sequence (Genbank U73477)
  • [0140]
    The three cDNAs are distinguished from each other by restriction enzyme digestion with the following enzymes—Hind III, Xho I and BseR 1. The resultant digest is run on a 3% agarose gel to positively identify the three different cDNAs. The table below lists the sizes of the bands observed. The bolded numbers indicate the band sizes useful for identification of the three cDNAs.
    TABLE 5A
    Expected band sizes upon restriction digestion of the RT-PCR
    product from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues
    Undigested Hind III Xho I BseR I
    hpp32 200 200 200 80,120
    pp32r1 200 100,100 200 200
    pp32r2 200 200 44,156 80,120
  • Example 9
  • [0141]
    pp32r1 Augments Oncogene-Mediated Transformation of Rat Embryo Fibroblasts.
  • [0142]
    pp32r1 was subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the CMV promoter and analyzed for its effect on ras+myc-mediated formation of transformed foci in rat embryo fibroblasts. Genomic sequences including the entire coding region for pp32r1 were amplified by PCR and subcloned into the eukaryotic TA cloning and expression vector pCR3.1 vector (Invitrogen) which contains a CMV promoter. The assay was performed as described (Chen et al. Mol Biol Cell, 7:2045-56, 1996) with each T75 flask receiving 5 micrograms of pEJ-ras, and/or 10 micrograms of pMLV-c-myc, pCMV32, pp32r1 in PCR3.1, or PCR 3.1 alone. After 14 days, transformed colonies were enumerated. FIG. 8 shows the results. The data represent the average of seven replicates from two separate experiments in duplicate and one in triplicate. The error bars indicate standard error of the mean. In contrast to pp32, which consistently suppresses focus formation induced by ras+myc and other oncogene pairs, pp32r1 caused a statistically significant stimulation of focus formation with p=0.004 by an unpaired t-test.
  • Example 10
  • [0143]
    Effect of Transcripts from Various Cell Lines on Rat Fibroblast Transformation Assays
  • [0144]
    Expression constructs prepared as described above from PC-3 and DU-145 cells were tested in the rat embryo fibroblast transformation assay described by Chen, et al., Mol Biol Cell., 7:2045-56, 1996, incorporated herein by reference. The results are shown in FIG. 9. Transcripts from the two cell lines stimulated ras+myc induction of transformed rat embryo fibroblast foci, in contrast to normal pp32, which suppressed transformation. The figure shows the mean±the standard deviation, except for DU-145, which represents a single determination.
  • Example 11
  • [0145]
    Transformation Activity of Various Isolates from Patient Tumors
  • [0146]
    The variant transcripts isolated from prostate cancer patients differ significantly from pp32 in sequence. The isolated transcripts were found to stimulate transformation. Transformation assay. Rat embryo fibroblasts were transfected with the indicated constructs as described (Chen, et al.) and transformed foci enumerated. For each experiment, approximately 1×106 cells were plated per T75 flask and incubated for 2 to 3 d prior to transfection to achieve approximately 40% confluency. For each flask of primary rat embryo fibroblasts, the plasmids indicated in each experiment were added in the following amounts: pEJ-ras, 5 μg; and pMLV-c-myc, pCMV32, pCMVneo, or variant pp32 constructs in pCR3.1 (Invitrogen), 10 μg. Plasmids were prepared in two volumes Lipofectin (2 μl lipofectin per μg DNA) then gently mixed by inversion in 1.5 ml OPTIMEM in sterile 15 ml polystyrene tubes and allowed to incubate at room temperature for >15 min. For experiments with more than one flask, mixtures of all reagents were increased in proportion to the numbers of flasks required for each transfection. Cells were washed once with OPTIMEM (Gibco-BRL), and then fed with 6 ml of OPTIMEM and 1.5 ml of the DNA/Lipofectin mix. After overnight incubation, the cells were grown in standard media and refed with fresh media twice weekly. Foci were counted fourteen days post-transfection. FIG. 10 summarizes four separate experiments. Each data point represents the results from an individual flask expressed as the percent foci obtained in the contemporaneous control of ras+myc+vector.
  • [0147]
    [0147]FIG. 10 shows that expressed variant transcripts from prostate cancer cell lines and from human prostatic adenocarcinoma generally produce increased numbers of transformed foci when co-transfected with ras and myc as compared to the number of foci obtained when ras and myc are transfected with blank vector. Variant pp32 transcripts from DU-145 (D3), and from three prostate cancers (FT 1.7, FT 2.2 and FT3.18) yield increased numbers of transformed foci over those produced by ras and myc alone with blank vector. This stands in marked contrast to normal pp32, which consistently suppresses transformation. These activities are also summarized in Table 1.
  • Example 12
  • [0148]
    Effect of pp32 Variants on Tumorigenesis in Vivo
  • [0149]
    Experiments testing the effect of transfection of NIH3T3 cells on tumorigenesis in vivo are consistent with in vitro results in rat embryo fibroblasts. NIH3T3 cells were stably transfected by lipofection with the pp32 species indicated in Table 6A carried in the pCR3.1-Uni CMV-driven mammalian expression vector (Invitrogen). The G418-resistant clones employed in these experiments were all shown by genomic PCR to carry the indicated pp32 species. For analysis of tumorigenesis, 5×106 cells in 100 microliters of unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium without phenol red were injected into the flanks of female athymic nude mice on an outbred background of greater than six weeks in age (Harlan). For logistical reasons, inoculations of the various groups were staggered over a seven day period. Each group of mice was euthanized precisely seven weeks after inoculation. Where a mouse had a tumor, the tumor was dissected, measured, and weighed, and Table 6A reports the average weight of tumors in mice injected with cells carrying various vectors. One tumor from each group was examined histologically. All tumors were fibrosarcomas without noteworthy inflammation present. Data obtained with NIH3T3 cells indicate that NIH3T3 cells stably transfected with the variant pp32 species P3, P8, FT1.7, FT2.2, and FT2.4 form tumors when inoculated into nude mice. In contrast, NIH3T3 cells stably transfected to express human pp32 fail to form tumors in vivo even when further transfected with ras. Lines of NIH3T3 cells were also established that were stably transfected with expression constructs encoding pp32 or pp32-antisense. Basal expression of pp32 is essential for maintenance of contact inhibition and serum-dependent cell growth: antisense ablation of endogenous pp32 synthesis permitted cells to grow normally following serum withdrawal. Constitutive over-expression of pp32 potently suppressed ras-mediated transformation of NIH3T3 cells in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. In contrast, antisense ablation of endogenous pp32 dramatically increased the number and size of ras-transformed foci; in vivo, tumors obtained from ras-transformed antisense pp32 cells were approximately 50-fold greater in mass than tumors obtained from ras-transformed control cells.
  • [0150]
    For purposes of clarity of understanding, the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example in conjunction with specific embodiments, although other aspects, advantages and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains. The foregoing description and examples are intended to illustrate, but not limit the scope of the invention. Modifications of the above-described modes for carrying out the invention that are apparent to persons of skill in medicine, immunology, hybridoma technology, pharmacology, pathology, and/or related fields are intended to be within the scope of the invention, which is limited only by the appended claims.
  • [0151]
    All publications and patent applications mentioned in this specification are indicative of the level of skill of those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains. All publications and patent applications are herein incorporate reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.
    TABLE 1
    Consensus
    Position Strand Sequence Factor
    4 C TTTCCT PEA3
    21 N CAAGGTCA ELP
    23 N AGGTCA PPAR
    32 C CCCTAA TBF1
    41 N CTTGGC NF-1 (-like proteins)
    81 N TAAACAC Pit-1
    82 N AAACACA HiNF-A
    113 C CTTCCC c-Ets-2
    118 N CTATCA GATA-1
    122 N CAGTTG c-Myc
    212 C AATAAATA TFIID
    213 N ATAAATA ETF
    247 N TATCTA NIT2
    261 C AAGGAA c-Ets-2
    262 N AGGAAA PEA3
    283 C TTTTTCTTTTTC Hb
    320 C TTATAT GAL4
    333 N TAAAAAA TBP
    349 N TTATACATT TBP
    363 C AAGGAA c-Ets-2
    394 C TTTCTATA TBP
    398 N TATAAA TBP
    398 N TATAAA TFIID
    411 C CTGAATT Pit-1
    420 N TGTCCC GR
    423 C CCCTAA TBF1
    434 N TTCCTT c-Ets-2
    447 C CTTCCC c-Ets-2
    514 N TTATCTCT GATA-1
    514 C TTATCT GATA-2
    515 N TATCTC NIT2
    537 N TATGCA EFII
    553 N AAGTCA GCN4
    608 N TGACTA GCN4
    628 N CCTCCCAAC LyF-1
    640 N TGTCCT GR
    648 N TTAAAATTCA 1-Oct
    648 N TTAAAATTCA 4-Oct
    649 N TAAAAT F2F
    649 N TAAAAT Pit-1
    661 N TAAAAAA TBP
    673 N CTTGGC NF-1 (-like proteins)
    725 N AGGCGG Sp1
    729 N GGGCGG ETF
    729 N GGGCGG Sp1
    729 C GGGCGG Sp1
    741 N AGGTCA PPAR
    793 N TATAAATA B factor
    793 N TATAAA TBP
    793 N TATAAATA TFIID
    793 N TATAAAT TMF
    794 N ATAAATA ETF
    809 N TTATCT GATA-1
    809 C TTATCT GATA-2
    815 N GGGTGTGG TEF-2
    826 C CACATG muEBP-C2
    826 C CACATG TFE3-S
    826 N CACATG USF
    978 N ATGTAAAACA 1-Oct
    978 N ATGTAAAACA 2-Oct
    978 N ATGTAAAACA NF-IL-2A
    1000 N ATGTCAGA CSBP-1
    1006 N GATTTC H4TF-1
    1034 C TTTTCAT Pit-1
    1047 N AAGATAAAACC RVF
    1048 C AGATAA GATA-1
    1048 N AGATAA GATA-2
    1049 N GATAAA TFIID
    1083 C GCCAAG NF-1 (-like proteins)
    1124 N CGCCAT UCRF-L
    1163 C GACCTG TGT3
    1307 N CAGTCA GCN4
    1347 C TGCATA EFII
    1373 C AGAACA AR
    1373 N AGAACAT GR
    1373 N AGAACA GR
    1373 C AGAACA GR
    1373 N AGAACA PR
    1373 C AGAACA PR
    1373 N AGAACA PR A
    1373 C AGAACA PR A
    1393 C TCACTT IRF-1
    1393 C TCACTT IRF-2
    1395 C ACTTCCT E1A-F
    1423 N TTATCT GATA-1
    1423 C TTATCT GATA-2
    1424 N TATCTA NIT2
    1452 N TTACTC GCN4
    1471 N TGGGTCA c-Fos
    1471 N TGGGTCA c-Jun
    1471 N TGGGTCA ER
    1496 N TCTCTTA c-Myc
    1511 N TATAAA TBP
    1511 N TATAAA TFIID
    1549 C TTTGAA TFIID
    1568 C AATGTATAA TBP
    1581 C TTTGAA TFIID
    1590 C AGATAA GATA-1
    1590 N AGATAA GATA-2
    1591 C GATAATTG Dfd
    1657 C AGGACA GR
    1670 C ATTTTA F2F
    1670 C ATTTTA Pit-1
    1671 C TTTTATA B factor
    1671 C TTTTATA Dr1
    1671 C TTTTATA En
    1671 C TTTTATA TBP
    1671 C TTTTATA TBP-1
    1671 C TTTTATA TFIIA
    1671 C TTTTATA TFIIB
    1671 C TTTTATA TFIID
    1671 C TTTTATA TFIIE
    1671 C TTTTATA TFIIF
    1671 C TTTTATA TRF
    1672 C TTTATA TBP
    1694 C AATAAATA TFIID
    1695 N ATAAATA ETF
    1733 N AGGAAA PEA3
    1749 C TTATAT GAL4
    1783 N TAACTCA AP-1
    1829 C TAGATA NIT2
    1857 N CGCCAT UCRF-L
    1875 N TTCTGGGAA IL-6 RE-BP
    1895 N TGACTA GCN4
    1899 N TATTTAA TBP
    1942 N ATATAA GAL4
    1985 C TTTATA TBP
    1985 C TTTATA TFIID
    2010 C AATAAATA TFIID
    2011 N ATAAATA ETF
    2058 C TGCATA EFII
    2095 N CAGTCA GCN4
    2146 C AAGGAA c-Ets-2
    2147 N AGGAAA PEA3
    2190 N AGGAAA PEA3
    2220 C GGCACA GR
    2252 N CCAATAG gammaCAAT
    2286 N TGTGCC GR
    2292 N ATGGGA PTF1-beta
    2314 N TATGCA EFII
    2328 C GGCACA GR
    2350 C ATGATAAG GATA-1
    2351 N TGATAAG GATA-1
    2363 N GGGAAG c-Ets-2
    2367 N AGCCACT CP2
    2369 C CCACTGGGGA AP-2
    2404 N TAAAAT F2F
    2404 N TAAAAT F2F
    2404 N TAAAAT Pit-1
    2409 N TTGTCATA 77 + 82K protein
    2409 N TTGTCATA VETF
    2415 N TATCTA NIT2
    2451 C TTTATC TFIID
    2452 N TTATCT GATA-1
    2452 C TTATCT GATA-2
    2486 N CTCTCTCTCTCTC GAGA factor
    2644 N AGGCGG Sp1
    2658 N ACAGCTG GT-IIBalpha
    2658 N ACAGCTG GT-IIBbeta
    2709 C GGCCAGGC AP-2
    2723 N TGAACT GR
    2731 C TGACCT PPAR
    2731 C TGACCTCA URTF
    2753 N CTTGGC NF-1 (-like proteins)
    2818 C TGATGTCA AP-1
    2818 C TGATGTCA c-Fos
    2818 C TGATGTCA c-Jun
    2818 C TGATGTCA CREB
    2845 N GGGAAG c-Ets-2
    2858 N AGATAG GATA-1
    2858 C AGATAG GATA-1
    2864 C AGTTCA GR
    2899 N ATATAA GAL4
    2900 N TATAAAA B factor
    2900 N TATAAAA Dr1
    2900 N TATAAAA En
    2900 N TATAAAA TBP
    2900 N TATAAA TBP
    2900 N TATAAAA TBP-1
    2900 N TATAAAA TFIIA
    2900 N TATAAAA TFIIB
    2900 N TATAAAA TFIID
    2900 N TATAAAA TFIIE
    2900 N TATAAAA TFIIF
    2900 N TATAAAA TRF
    2921 C TTTGAA TFIID
    2924 C GAAATC H4TF-1
    2930 C CATTAG Is1-1
    2948 C TGTACA GR
    2948 C TGTACA PR
    2948 C TGTACA PR A
    2964 C ATTTGAGAA VITF
    3030 N AGTGTTCT GR
    3032 N TGTTCT AR
    3032 N TGTTCT GR
    3032 C TGTTCT GR
    3032 N TGTTCT PR
    3032 C TGTTCT PR
    3032 N TGTTCT PR A
    3032 C TGTTCT PR A
    3104 C GGATTATT T11
    3106 C ATTATTAA AFP1
    3111 N TAAAAT F2F
    3111 N TAAAAT Pit-1
    3125 C ATTTTA F2F
    3125 C ATTTTA Pit-1
    3142 N TGTGAT GR
    3169 N GTTTTATT HOXD10
    3169 N GTTTTATT HOXD8
    3169 N GTTTTATT HOXD9
    3175 C TTTGAA TFIID
    3185 N TTGCTCA Zta
    3206 N GATTTC H4TF-1
    3212 N AGGAAA PEA3
    3238 C ATTTTA F2F
    3238 C ATTTTA Pit-1
    3256 C TTTGAA TFIID
    3266 N TTGCTCA Zta
    3320 C ATTTTA F2F
    3320 C ATTTTA Pit-1
    3358 N ATGGGA PTF1-beta
    3360 C GGGACA GR
    3440 C CACTCA GCN4
    3460 C TTTCCT PEA3
    3483 N GACACA GR
    3491 C TTTCCT PEA3
    3495 N CTAATG Is1-l
    3523 C AGAACA AR
    3523 N AGAACA GR
    3523 C AGAACACT GR
    3523 C AGAACA GR
    3523 N AGAACA PR
    3523 C AGAACA PR
    3523 N AGAACA PR A
    3523 C AGAACA PR A
    3538 C TTTATC TFIID
    3539 N TTATCT GATA-1
    3539 C TTATCT GATA-2
    3551 N TGAGTG GCN4
    3569 C TCCCAT PTF1-beta
    3594 N TTAGGG TBF1
    3653 C CCTGCTGAA LyF-1
    3668 N CTCATGA 1-Oct
    3668 N CTCATGA 2-Oct
    3668 N CTCATGA Oct-2B
    3668 N CTCATGA Oct-2B
    3668 N CTCATGA Oct-2C
    3679 C TGTGTAA Zta
    3685 C AGAACT GR
    3712 C TTTCCT PEA3
    3713 N TTCCTT c-Ets-2
    3717 N TTGCTCA Zta
    3727 C AAAACATAAAT ssARS-T
    3749 N TAAAAAA TBP
    3784 C CACTCA GCN4
    3791 C ATTTTA F2F
    3791 C ATTTTA Pit-1
    3815 N TATCTA NIT2
    3829 C TAGATA NIT2
    3859 C AGAACA AR
    3859 N AGAACAG GR
    3859 N AGAACA GR
    3859 C AGAACA GR
    3859 N AGAACA PR
    3859 C AGAACA PR
    3859 N AGAACA PR A
    3859 C AGAACA PR A
    3860 N GAACAG LVa
    3877 C ATCACA GR
    3886 N TGAGTCA AP-1
    3886 C TGAGTCA AP-1
    3886 C TGAGTCA c-Fos
    3886 C TGAGTCA c-Jun
    3886 C TGAGTCA FraI
    3886 C TGAGTCA NF-E2
    3887 C GAGTCA GCN4
    3931 N AGATAG GATA-1
    3931 C AGATAG GATA-1
    3960 N TTGGCA NF-1/L
    3965 C ATTTTA F2F
    3965 C ATTTTA Pit-1
    4026 N TATTTAA TBP
    4037 N TGTGAT GR
    4040 N GATGCAT Pit-1
    4Q42 C TGCATA EFII
    4079 N TTCAAAG SRY
    4079 N TTCAAAG TCF-1A
    4079 N TTCAAA TFIID
    4097 N CAGGTC TGT3
    4140 N TGATTCA AP-1
    4140 C TGATTCA AP-1
    4140 N TGATTC GCN4
    4164 N GGGAGTG p300
    4205 C AGATAA GATA-1
    4205 N AGATAA GATA-2
    4219 C TTAGTCAC AP-1
    4219 C TTAGTCA AP-1
    4219 C TTAGTCAC c-Fos
    4219 C TTAGTCAC c-Jun
    4219 C TTAGTCA c-Jun
    4219 C TTAGTCA Jun-D
    4220 C TAGTCA GCN4
    4271 N TGTTCT AR
    4271 N TGTTCT GR
    4271 C TGTTCT GR
    4271 N TGTTCT PR
    4271 C TGTTCT PR
    4271 N TGTTCT PR A
    4271 C TGTTCT PR A
    4280 C TGACCCA c-Fos
    4280 C TGACCCA c-Jun
    4280 C TGACCCA ER
    4292 C CTTATCAG GATA-1
    4292 C CTTATCA GATA-1
    4361 N TTCAAAG SRY
    4361 N TTCAAAG TCF-1A
    4361 N TTCAAA TFIID
  • [0152]
    [0152]
    TABLE 2
    COMPARISON OF ALL PROTEIN SEQUENCES
    1 15 16 30 31 45 46 60 61 75
    TSU6 MEMGRRIHLELRNGT PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE FLSTINVGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    D3 MEMGRRIHLELRNRT PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE FLSTINVGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSDNR
    PG MEMGKWIHLELRNRT PSDVKELFLDNSQSN EGKLEGLADEFEELE LLNTINIGLSSIANL AKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    FT1.11 MEMGKWIHLELRNRT PSDVKELFLDNSQSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE LLNTINIGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    TSU1 MEMGKWIHLELRNRT PSDVKELFLDNSQSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE LLNTINIGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    FT3.18 MEMGKWIHLELRNRT PSDVKELFLDNSQSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE LLNTINIGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    FT2.4 MEMGKWIHLELRNRT PSDVKELFLDNSQSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE LLNTINIGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    FT2.2 MEMGRRIHSELRNRA PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEALTDEFEELE FLSKINGGLTSISDL PKL-KLRKLEL---K
    KG MEMGRRIHSELRNRA PSDVKELALDNSRSN EGKLEALTDEFEELE FLSKINGGLTSISDL PKL-KLRKLEL---R
    FT1.7 MEMGRRIHLELRNRT PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE FLSTINVGLTSIANL PKL-KLRKLEL---R
    P3 MEMGKWIHLELRNRT PSDVKELFLDNSQSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE LLNTINIGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    L3 MEMGRRIHLELRNRT PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE FLSTINVGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSDNR
    pp32 MEMGRRIHLELRNRT PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE FLSTINVGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSDNR
    P8 MEMGRRIHLELRNRT PSDVKELVLDNSRSN EGKLEGLTDEFEELE FLSTINVGLTSIANL PKLNKLKKLELSSNR
    76 90 91 105 106 120 121 135 136 150
    TSU6 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    D3 VSGGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    PG ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    FT1.11 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    TSU1 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    FT3.18 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    FT2.4 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNY---- ---------------
    FT2.2 VSGGLEVLAEKCPNL 86 THLYLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKQLENLKSLDL FNCEVTNLNDYGENV FKLLLQLTYLDSCYW
    KG VSGGLEVLAEKCPNL 86 THLYLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKQLENLKSLDL FNCEVTNLNDYGENV FKLLLQLTYLDSCYW
    FT1.7 VSGGLEVLAEKCPNL 86 THLYLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKQLENLKSLDL FNCEVTNLNDYGENV FKLLLQLTYLDSCYW
    P3 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FTCEVTNLNNYRENV FKLLPQLTYLDGYDR
    L3 VSGGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 THLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FNCEVTNLNDYRENV FKLLPQLTYLDGYDR
    pp32 VSGGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 THLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL FNCEVTNLNDYRENV FKLLPQLTYLDGYDR
    P8 ASVGLEVLAEKCPNL 90 IHLNLSGNKIKDLST IEPLKKLENLESLDL SNCEVTNLNDYRENV FKLLPQLTYLDGYDR
    151 165 166 180 181 195 196 210
    TSU6 --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    D3 --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    PG --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    FT1.11 --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    TSU1 --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    FT3.18 --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    FT2.4 --------------- --------------- 131 --------------- ---------------
    FT2.2 DHKEAPYSDIEDHVE GLDDEEEGEHEEEYD 176 EDAQVVEDEEGEEEE EEGEEEDVSGGDEED
    KG DHKEAPYSDIEDHVE GLDDEEEGEHEEEYD 176 EDAQVVEDEEGEEEE EEGEEEDVSGGDEED
    FT1.7 DHKEAPYSDIEDHVE GLDDEEEGEHEEEYD 176 EDAQVVEDEEGEEGE EEGEEEDVSGGDEED
    P3 DDKEAPDSDAEGYVE GLDDEEEDEDEEEYD 180 EDAQVVEDEEDEDEE EEGEEEDVSGEEEED
    L3 DDKEAPDSDAEGYVE GLDDEEEDEDEEEYD 180 EDAQVVEDEEDEDEE EEGEEEDVSGEEEED
    pp32 DDKEAPDSDAEGYVE GLDDEEEDEDEEEYD 180 EDAQVVEDEEDEDEE EEGEEEDVSGEEEED
    P8 DDKEAPDSDAEGYVE GLDDEEEDEDEEEYD 180 EDAQVVEDEEDEDEE EEGEEEDVSGEEEED
    211 225 226 240 241
    TSU6 --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    D3 --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    PG --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    FT1.11 --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    TSU1 --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    FT3.18 --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    FT2.4 --------------- --------------- --------- 131
    FT2.2 EEGYNDGEVDGEEDE EELGEEERGQKRK-- --------- 234
    KG EEGYNDGEVDGEEDE EELGEEERGQKRK-- --------- 234
    FT1.7 EEGYNDGEVDDEEDE EELGEEERGQKRKRE PEDEGEDDD 245
    P3 EEGYNDGEVDDEEDE EELGEEERGQKRKRE PEDEGEDDD 249
    L3 EEGYNDGEVDDEEDE EELGEEERGQKRKRE PEDEGEDDD 249
    pp32 EEGYNDGEVDDEEDE EELGEEERGQKRKRE PEDEGEDDD 249
    P8 EEGYNDGEVDDEEDE EELGEEERGQKRKRE PEDEGEDDD 249
  • [0153]
    [0153]
    TABLE 3
    Comparison to pp32 Sequences
    % Identity % Similarity
    CLONE cDNA Protein Protein
    D3, DU-145 cells 95 90 95
    P3, PC-3 86 94 96
    P8, PC-3 98 97 97
    FT1.11 97 86 92
    FT1.7 95 95 95
    FT2.2 94 85 88
    FT2.4 99 86 92
    FT3.18 99 90 94
  • [0154]
    [0154]
    TABLE 1A
    Effect on Oncogene-
    Sequence Nucleotide Protein Identity Mediated
    Sequence Group Identity with pp32 Gaps with pp32 Transformation Comment
    FT1.3 A 99.8 100 Not Tested Identical to pp32
    D1 A 99.9 100 Not tested identical to pp32 with 2
    silent nt changes
    L3 A 99.9 100 Not Tested
    D3 U 95.8 0 96.9 Generally Encodes truncated variant
    Stimulatory pp32
    D5 U 99.6 0 99.6 Not Tested
    FT1.2 U 92.9 1 Not tested No ORF
    P3 U 96.5 1 94.4 Slightly Stimulatory
    P8 U 98.7 0 98.0 Variable
    FT1.11 B 92.4 2 89.3 Not Tested All sequences identical,
    appears to be product of
    pp32r2
    FT2.4 B 92.4 2 89.3 Variable
    T1 B 92.4 2 89.3
    T6 U 94.2 1 93.9 Not Tested Encodes truncated variant
    pp32
    FT3.18 U 94.7 2 89.3 Stimulatory Encodes truncated variant
    pp32
    FT2.2 C 94.4 3 87.6 Stimulatory Sequences differ by 1 nt
    appears to be product of
    pp32r1
    FT3.3 C 94.4 3 87.6 not tested
    FT1.7 U 95.9 2 91.4 Stimulatory
  • [0155]
    [0155]
    TABLE 2A
    Genbank
    Protein Accession Length Human pp32 Human pp32r1 Human pp32r2 Human April Murine pp32
    Human pp32 HSU73477 249 100% 88% Identity 84% Identity 0 71% Identity 89% Identity
    2 gaps; Z = 77 gaps; Z = 73 3 gaps; Z = 58 1 gap; Z = 87
    Human pp32r1 AF008216 234 100% Identity 785 Identity 2 61% Identity 90% identity 3
    gaps; Z = 65 5 gaps; Z = 15 gaps; Z = 64
    Human pp32r2 HSU71084 131 100% Identity 61% Identity 77% Identity
    3 gaps; Z = 52 1 gap; Z = 80
    Human April Y07969 249 100% 71% Identity 4
    gaps; Z = 68
    Murine pp32 U734778 247 100% Identity
  • [0156]
    [0156]
    TABLE 3A
    pp32 Homologs
    human pp32 (Genbank Locus HSU73477)
    murine pp32 (Genbank Locus MMU73478)
    human cerebellar leucine rich acidic nuclear protein (LANP) (Genbank Locus AF025684)
    murine LANP (Genbank Locus AF022957)
    murine RFC1 (Genbank Locus MUSMRFC, Accession NO. L23755)
    HPP2a or human potent heat-stable protein phospatase 2a inhibitor (Genbank Locus HSU60823)
    SSP29 (Genbank Locus HSU70439)
    HLA-DR associated protein I (Genbank Locus HSPPHAPI, Accession No. X75090)
    PHAPI2a (EMBL Locus HSPHAPI2A, Genbank Accession No. Y07569)
    PHAPI2b (EMBL Locus HSPHAPI2B, Genbank Accession No. Y07570)
    April (EMBL Locus HSAPRIL)
  • [0157]
    [0157]
    TABLE 6A
    Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice of NIH3T3 Cells
    Transfected with pp32 and pp32 Variants
    pp32 Species Clone Tumors/ Average Tumor Weight
    FT1.7 1 3/3 14.9 ± 2.1
    21 3/3 13.3 ± 3.7
    FT2.2 1 3/3 10.5 ± 2.8
    2 3/3  3.8 ± 2.1
    FT2.4 1 3/36  1.3 ± 0.9
    2 3/3 13.8 ± 3.3
    D3 52 0/3
    62 0/3
    P3 11 3/3  5.7 ± 0.5
    143 3/3  2.1 ± 1.2
    P8 14 3/3  6.4 ± 5.3
    2 3/3 11.3 ± 3.9
    45 3/3 10.1 ± 4.8
    L3 (pp32) 55 0/3
    64 0/3
    Vector Control 23 0/3
    31 0/3
  • [0158]
    [0158]
  • 1 51 1 5785 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (4453)..(5154) 1 aagctttcct gatctctaaa tcaaggtcag ctccctaagc tcttggctcc cgtactgaaa 60 ctttttctta tgtaactctc ataaacacat agcataatgt tttgcatgtt tttcttccct 120 atcagttgca agttccagca gagctgatat attttcattt cattcgctac tatagcccta 180 gagcctgaca tagtttctgg ctgtgaatgc tcaataaata tttgtttaat tgagtagaaa 240 cataaagtat ctatttcatt gaaggaaaga ataattagct acatttttct ttttcttgcc 300 ttaatatttg aggaatttgc ttatatgtca taataaaaaa gttaaagcct tatacattat 360 actaaggaat ttggacatta aattcaagct agcctttcta taaacaaaat actgaatttc 420 tgtccctaaa tttgttcctt ccctattctt ccccattgag atgacaccaa atccctctag 480 ctgctcaaac caagtacccg tatgttattc ttaattatct ctttaccttg cttctcatat 540 gcaatttgtt aacaagtcat cttcagtctg tatccattat tctccctttc cagaccacca 600 acatgtcttg actatactgc tacaatagcc tcccaactct tgtcctactt aaaattcatt 660 gtaaaaaatc agtcttggcc gggcacggtg gctcacacct ataatcccag cactttggga 720 gtcccaggcg ggcgggtcac gaggtcaaga gatggagacc atcatggcca acatggtgaa 780 accctgtctc tactataaat acaaaaaaat tatctgggtg tggtggcaca tgcctgtaat 840 cccaactact agggaggctg aggcaggaga atcgcttgaa cctgggaggc ggaggttgca 900 gtgagccgag atcgcaccat tgcactccag cctggcaaca gagcgagact ccatcccaaa 960 acaaaacaaa acaaaaccat gtaaaacatg tctgtaaaac atgtcagatt tcgtgttcag 1020 aagtcttaca tgtcttttca ttatgctaag ataaaaccca aatgcatttt cttggtttct 1080 aaagccaaga aaataagagt tgctttcagc aaccttgttt cttccgccat gcttttccct 1140 agctcactct ttttaggcaa gtcgacctga ttttctttct gttagtctgt ttctgcctcg 1200 tggtctggct ttctttctgt tagtctgttt ccacctcgtg gtcttggtcc tggctcttca 1260 ttctgcctgg aatgctctcc actccagatc cttactagat cttagctcag tcatcaccct 1320 cgcaggaaga tcttccaacc attcacctgc atacacctat ggctgctccc tagagaacat 1380 cattctgttt tcttcacttc ctagcactta ctgctttctg aaattatcta ctttgattgt 1440 ttatttcttt ctttactctt actaggatac ctgggtcatt aaaggaggga tatttctctc 1500 ttatttactg ttataaactt aatgcttagg ctgtagaagt tatacaatat ttgaagaata 1560 aatcgttaaa tgtataacat ttttgaagaa agataattgt gggatccatt tagtttgcaa 1620 acatttgatc tgtgtgttag acagaaggcc atggtaaagg acaaagacat attttatagg 1680 actgtaccct gaaaaataaa taaacttgaa ccagttatac aagacttatg tgcaggaaac 1740 aggtaccagt tatatttaga aatggtaaat caccttctaa gcataactca gagcacaata 1800 tattagaggg tagagagaga agtgcgtctt agatattggt aatcatatta ggactgacgc 1860 catccttgat ttttcttctg ggaaacagct caaaatgact atttaatgtt tacaatgata 1920 tcttgcatct tgccagtaaa taatataata gacactagga atccaaattg taagatgaac 1980 aagtctttat agagggagag ccaaatacac aataaataac acaaggtggt aaatgcagta 2040 atacaaacat acataccatg cataggagtg cagagaaggt gtgcttctcc gaatgcagtc 2100 acccagaaag tccttctgta gaaagggata tcttaaatgg tgcttaaagg aaaagtaacc 2160 aaaggcaact aaagattgca aggaggtccc aggaaaaagc aaaagaacca aaggtacata 2220 ggcacaaaag tagcctgcct tcctgggaac ttccaatagt ttgctggagc acacagttag 2280 aagtactgtg ccatgggagc aaagactgaa gacatatgca ggttcaaggg cacagagccc 2340 catatatgtc atgataagat attgggaagc cactggggag ctactgaaac tttaagcagg 2400 gaaataaaat tgtcatatct acaccttaga aatttgattt ttttctcttc ttttatcttc 2460 tcttctcctc tcttctctct ctctctctct ctctctctct gtgtgtgtgt gtgtgtgtgt 2520 gtgtgtgtgt gacagagtcc tgctctgtca cccaggctgg agtgtagtgg agtgatctcc 2580 gcttactgca gtctctgcct ctcaagcgat tccctgcctc agcctcccga gtagctggga 2640 ttacaggcgg gctctacaac agctggctaa cttttgtatt ttttggtaac aaccaggttt 2700 taccatgttg gccaggctgg tcttgaactc ctgacctcag gtgatctgcc tgccttggct 2760 ttccaaagtg ctgggattac aggcgtgagc caccctgcct ggtgtagaag tttgattttg 2820 atgtcagtgt ggtagatgaa tttgtgggaa gcaaaacaag atagagttca atgacagtga 2880 aaagtttatt gtataagcta tataaaagaa aatgttgaag gtttgaaatc cattagtggc 2940 agtaagggtg tacagaacga aactatttga gaagtacaca aggcaagtct tactttcaag 3000 gcagtttatg taagctcatt caattgtctc agtgttcttg ctatgtgtgg gttataggat 3060 ttggaacata tgatcaatct gagcacacat cagtaaactg aataggatta ttaaaatcca 3120 caagcatttt actagtggaa tctgtgatat tttctagcta ctcttgcttg ttttatttga 3180 atcttttgct catatcctat agtaaagatt tcaggaaata tatttttatt tgcctagaat 3240 tttagccttt tagttttttg aatctattgc tcatattctt atagtaagag tttcagggaa 3300 tgtatttcta tttgtctgga attttagcct ttcaggtttt tgagcccctc ttttgcttat 3360 gggacatagt atgagacaag atgaaatgat acttctattc ccaattcact gatggggaaa 3420 atgaagcaaa aaatgttatt cactcaaggc ttctgccatg tttcctggtg gaattacggc 3480 tcagacacaa atttcctaat gcctgtgctg ctaacttctc aatagaacac tatattaatt 3540 tatcttcttc ctgagtgttt ttccacaaat cccatagcct gtgaaaagat tgttttaggg 3600 aaatattatt tttaatatag catattttgt caatgtggga cataggacta gtacctgctg 3660 aaaaccatct catgatcctt gtgtaagaac taattcacac tagaaatact attttccttg 3720 ctcattaaaa acataaatgt ctcagaaagt aaaaaattat tcctctctaa ataaacatac 3780 atgccactca aattttattc ctctaccact tgccgtatct aaacctagtt agatactttg 3840 gttttaggta taatctgaca gaacagatac aaccaagatc acattgtgag tcagaagtgg 3900 aaaattcata attcatgatg ataccaataa aagatagatt tagcttttta caggatgttt 3960 ttggcatttt attctttcat ttgaggggag atctcaccaa aatatgtctt tcatggttca 4020 ttgtgttatt taatttctgt gatgcatatt ctcaggttac tttaaaccta gtctatagat 4080 tcaaagatat cccgtgtcag gtctctaaaa gtaaaaagaa aaatgggtac ttgtgaaggc 4140 tgattcacag taagtagtgt agaggggagt gccttgtgta ttcacaaatt atcaacgtga 4200 gcatcagata agattttctt tagtcacaca cacctacctt cttactagga agatccatat 4260 acttgaataa ttgttctgct tgacccaggt tacttatcag tccctttatt ataatatttg 4320 taaatattgg ggctcgagaa ccgagcggag ctggttgagt cttcaaagtc ctaaaacgtg 4380 cggccgtggg ttcgaggttt attgattgaa ttcggctggc acgagagcct ctgcagacag 4440 agagcgcgag ag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tca gag ctg cgg aac 4491 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn 1 5 10 agg gcg ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gcc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg 4539 Arg Ala Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Ala Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser 15 20 25 aat gaa ggc aaa ctc gaa gcc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa 4587 Asn Glu Gly Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu 30 35 40 45 ttc tta agt aaa atc aac gga ggc ctc acc tca atc tca gac tta cca 4635 Phe Leu Ser Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro 50 55 60 aag tta aag ttg aga aag ctt gaa cta aga gtc tca ggg ggc ctg gaa 4683 Lys Leu Lys Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu 65 70 75 gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc acg cat cta tat tta agt ggc 4731 Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly 80 85 90 aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa cag tta gaa 4779 Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu 95 100 105 aac ctc aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac ctg aac 4827 Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn 110 115 120 125 gac tac gga gaa aac gtg ttc aag ctt ctc ctg caa ctc aca tat ctc 4875 Asp Tyr Gly Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu 130 135 140 gac agc tgt tac tgg gac cac aag gag gcc cct tac tca gat att gag 4923 Asp Ser Cys Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu 145 150 155 gac cac gtg gag ggc ctg gat gac gag gag gag ggt gag cat gag gag 4971 Asp His Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu 160 165 170 gag tat gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gat gag gag ggc gag gag 5019 Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu 175 180 185 gag gag gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga ggg gac gag gag 5067 Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu 190 195 200 205 gat gaa gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat ggc gag gaa gat gaa 5115 Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu 210 215 220 gaa gag ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa tgagaacctg 5164 Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 aagatgaggg agaagatgat gactaagtag aataacctat tttgaaaaat tcctattgtg 5224 atttgactgt ttttacccat atcccctccc ccctccaatc ctgccccctg aaacttactt 5284 ttttctgatt gtaacattgc tgtgggaatg agacgggaaa agtgtactgg gggttgtgga 5344 gggagggagg gcaggaggcg gtggactaaa atactatttt tactgccaaa taaaataata 5404 tttgtaaata ttaactggga tactagcttt gtagaatgat tactattaat tattctctct 5464 ctctttttat ttttttacac attctattct tttaagtata gtccttttag tccaaggaaa 5524 aggcactaca atccacttat taatgcttgc tactgtgttc aagtaaaata agctccagga 5584 tttaacaaaa agaggaaaga aaatatttac aatgaaaatg ttgctaaaaa tttaaaacaa 5644 attacagtaa atgtattgtt aaagcaaatt ctatttttaa aatttattaa taaggaaata 5704 atttgctaaa gcaaattttt ggaaaaataa taatgcactt tatacttgat tttatttatt 5764 aaaacaatga tttataagct t 5785 2 234 PRT Homo sapiens 2 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Ala Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Ala Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro Lys Leu Lys 50 55 60 Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu Ala 65 70 75 80 Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile 85 90 95 Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys 100 105 110 Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr Gly 115 120 125 Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser Cys 130 135 140 Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His Val 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp 165 170 175 Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu 180 185 190 Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu 195 200 205 Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu 210 215 220 Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 3 889 DNA Homo sapiens 3 gggttcgagg tttattgatt gaattcggct ggcacgagag cctctgcaga cagagagcgc 60 gagagatgga gatgggcaga cggattcatt cagagctgcg gaacagggcg ccctctgatg 120 tgaaagaact tgccctggac aacagtcggt cgaatgaagg caaactcgaa gccctcacag 180 atgaatttga agaactggaa ttcttaagta aaatcaacgg aggcctcacc tcaatctcag 240 acttaccaaa gttaaagttg agaaagcttg aactaagagt ctcagggggc ctggaagtat 300 tggcagaaaa gtgtccaaac ctcacgcatc tatatttaag tggcaacaaa attaaagacc 360 tcagcacaat agagccactg aaacagttag aaaacctcaa gagcttagac cttttcaatt 420 gcgaggtaac caacctgaac gactacggag aaaacgtgtt caagcttctc ctgcaactca 480 catatctcga cagctgttac tgggaccaca aggaggcccc ttactcagat attgaggacc 540 acgtggaggg cctggatgac gaggaggagg gtgagcatga ggaggagtat gatgaagatg 600 ctcaggtagt ggaagatgag gagggcgagg aggaggagga ggaaggtgaa gaggaggacg 660 tgagtggagg ggacgaggag gatgaagaag gttataacga tggagaggta gatggcgagg 720 aagatgaaga agagcttggt gaagaagaaa ggggtcagaa gcgaaaatga gaacctgaag 780 atgagggaga agatgatgac taagtagaat aacctatttt gaaaaattcc tattgtgatt 840 tgactgtttt tacccatatc ccctcccccc tccaatcctg ccccctgaa 889 4 907 DNA Homo sapiens 4 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattcggct ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagagatgga gatgggcaga cggattcatt tagagctgcg gaacgggacg ccctctgatg 120 tgaaagaact tgtcctggac aacagtcggt cgaatgaagg caaactcgaa ggcctcacag 180 atgaatttga agaactggaa ttcttaagta caatcaacgt aggcctcacc tcaatcgcaa 240 acttaccaaa gttaaacaaa cttaagaagc ttgaactaag cagtaacaga gcctcagtgg 300 gcctagaagt attggcagaa aagtgtccaa acctcataca tctaaattta agtggcaaca 360 aaattaaaga cctcagcaca atagagcccc tgaaaaagtt agaaaacctc gagagcttag 420 accttttcac ttgcgaggta accaacctga acaactactg agagaagatg ttcaagctcc 480 tcctgcaact cacatatctc aacggctgtg acccggatga caaggaggcc cctaactcgg 540 atggtgaggg ctttgtggag tgcctggatg acaaggagga ggatgaggat gaggaggagt 600 atgatgaaga tgctcaggta atggaagatg aggaggacga ggatgaggag gaggaacgtg 660 aagaggagga cgtgagtgga gacgaggagg agaaggatga aggttataac aatggagagg 720 tagatgatga ggaagatgaa gaagagcttg gtgaagaaga aaggggtcag aagcgaaaat 780 aagaaactga agatgaggga gaagacgatg cctaagtgga ataatctatt ttgaaaaatt 840 ccttttgtga ttttactgtt tttagccgta ccccctctcc ccccccactc taatcctgcc 900 ccctgaa 907 5 130 PRT Homo sapiens 5 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Gly Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn 130 6 907 DNA Homo sapiens 6 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattcggct ggcacgagag cctctgcaga cagagagcgc 60 gagagacgga gatgggcaga cggattcatc tagagctgcg gaacagggcg ccctctgatg 120 tgaaagaact tgccctggac aacagtcggt cgaatgaagg caaactcgaa gccctcacag 180 atgaatttga agaactggaa ttcttaagta aaatcaacgg aggcctcacc tcaatctcag 240 acttaccaaa gttaaacaag ttgagaaagc ttgaactaag cagtaacaga gtctcagggg 300 gcctggaagt attggcagaa aagtgtccaa acctcacgca tctatattta agtggcaaca 360 aaattaaaga cctcagcaca atagagccac tgaaacagtt agaaaacctc aagagcttag 420 accttttcaa ttgcgaggta accaacctga acgactacgg agaaaacgtg ttcaagcttc 480 tcctgcaact cacatatctc gacagctgtt actgggacca caaggaggcc ccttactcag 540 atattgaggc ccacgtggag ggcctggatg acgaggagga gggtgagcat gaggaggagt 600 atgatgaaga tgctcaggta gtggaagatg aggagggcga ggaggaggag gaggaaggtg 660 aagaggagga cgtgagtgga ggggacgagg aggatgaaga aggttataac gatggagagg 720 tagatggcga ggaagatgaa gaagagcttg gtgaagaaga aaggggtcag aagcgaaaat 780 gagaacctga agatgaggga gaagatgatg actaagtaga ataacctatt ttgaaaaatt 840 cctattgtga tttgactgtt tttacccata tcccctctcc cccccccctc taatcctgcc 900 ccctgaa 907 7 905 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (64)..(453) 7 gggttcgggg tttattggtt gaattccgct ggctcaggag cctctgcaga gaaagcgtga 60 gag atg gag atg ggc aaa tgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 108 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tcc gat gtg aaa gaa ctt ttc ctg gac aac agt cag tca aat gaa 156 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ttg gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa tta tta 204 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu 35 40 45 aat aca atc aac ata ggc ctc acc tca att gca aac ttg cca aag tta 252 Asn Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gcc tca gtg ggc 300 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 348 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag ccc ctg aaa aag 396 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc gag agc tta gac ctt ttc act tgc gag gta acc aac 444 Leu Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac aac tactgagaaa agatgttcaa gctcctcctg caactcacat 493 Leu Asn Asn 130 atctcaacgg ctgtgacccg gatgacaagg aggcccctaa ctcggatggt gagggctatg 553 tggagtgcct ggatgacaag gaggaggatg aggatgagga ggagtatgat gaagatgctc 613 aggtaatgga agatgaggag gacgaggatg aggaggagga acgtgaagag gaggacgtga 673 gtggagacga ggaggagaag gatgaaggtt ataacaatgg agaggtagat gatgaggaag 733 atgaagaaga gcttggtgaa gaagaaaggg gtcagaagcg aaaataagaa actgaagatg 793 agggagaaga cgatgcctaa gtggaataat ctattttgaa aaattccttt tgtgatttta 853 ctgtttttag ccgtatcccc tctccccccc cactctaatc ctgccccctg aa 905 8 130 PRT Homo sapiens 8 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu Asn 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn 130 9 907 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(812) 9 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aca atc aac gta ggc ctc acc tca atc gca aac ttg cca aag tta 254 Ser Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gcc tca gtg ggc 302 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 350 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa aag 398 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc aag agc tta gac ctt tcc aat tgc gag gta acc aac 446 Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Ser Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac gac tac cga gaa aat gtg ttc aag ctc ctc ccg caa ctc aca 494 Leu Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr 130 135 140 tat ctc gac ggc tat gac cgg gac gac aag gag gcc cct gac tcg gat 542 Tyr Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp 145 150 155 gct gag ggc tac gtg gag ggc ctg gat gat gag gag gag gat gag gat 590 Ala Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp 160 165 170 175 gag gag gag tat gat gaa gat gct cag gta gta gaa gat gag gag gac 638 Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp 180 185 190 gag gat gag gag gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga gag gag 686 Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu 195 200 205 gag gag gat gaa gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat gac gag gaa 734 Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu 210 215 220 gat gaa gaa gag ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa cga 782 Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg 225 230 235 gaa cct gaa gat gag gga gaa gat gat gac taagtggaat aacctatttt 832 Glu Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 240 245 gaaaaattcc tattgtgatt tgactgtttt tacccatatc ccctctcccc cccccctcta 892 atcctgcccc ctgaa 907 10 249 PRT Homo sapiens 10 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Ser Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr Tyr 130 135 140 Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp Ala 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu 165 170 175 Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 180 185 190 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu Glu 195 200 205 Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp 210 215 220 Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg Glu 225 230 235 240 Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 245 11 905 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (64)..(810) 11 gggttcgggg tttattggtt gaattccgct ggctcaggag cctctgcaga gaaagcgtga 60 gag atg gag atg ggc aaa tgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 108 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tcc gat gtg aaa gaa ctt ttc ctg gac aac agt cag tca aat gaa 156 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ttg gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa tta tta 204 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu 35 40 45 aat aca atc aac ata ggc ctc acc tca att gca aac ttg cca aag tta 252 Asn Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gcc tca gtg ggc 300 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 348 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag ccc ctg aaa aag 396 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc gag agc tta gac ctt ttc act tgc gag gta acc aac 444 Leu Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac aac tac cga gaa aat gtg ttc aag ctc ctc ccg caa ctc aca 492 Leu Asn Asn Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr 130 135 140 tat ctc gac ggc tat gac cgg gac gac aag gag gcc cct gac tcg gat 540 Tyr Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp 145 150 155 gct gag ggc tac gtg gag ggc ctg gat gat gag gag gag gat gag gat 588 Ala Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp 160 165 170 175 gag gag gag tat gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gac gag gag gac 636 Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp 180 185 190 gag gat gag gag gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga gag gag 684 Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu 195 200 205 gag gag gat gaa gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat gac gag gaa 732 Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu 210 215 220 gat gaa gaa gag ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa cga 780 Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg 225 230 235 gaa cct gaa gat gag gga gaa gat gat gac taagtggaat aacctatttt 830 Glu Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 240 245 gaaaaattcc tattgtgatt tgactgtttt tacccatatc ccctctcccc cccccctcta 890 atcctgcccc ctgaa 905 12 249 PRT Homo sapiens 12 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu Asn 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr Tyr 130 135 140 Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp Ala 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu 165 170 175 Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 180 185 190 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu Glu 195 200 205 Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp 210 215 220 Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg Glu 225 230 235 240 Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 245 13 907 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(812) 13 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aca atc aac gta ggc ctc acc tca atc gca aac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc gat aac aga gtc tca ggg ggc 302 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Asp Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly 65 70 75 ctg gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt ccg aac ctc acg cat cta aat tta 350 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa aag 398 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac 446 Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac gac tac cga gaa aat gtg ttc aag ctc ctc ccg caa ctc aca 494 Leu Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr 130 135 140 tat ctc gac ggc tat gac cgg gac gac aag gag gcc cct gac tcg gat 542 Tyr Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp 145 150 155 gct gag ggc tac gtg gag ggc ctg gat gat gag gag gag gat gag gat 590 Ala Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp 160 165 170 175 gag gag gag tat gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gac gag gag gac 638 Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp 180 185 190 gag gat gag gag gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga gag gag 686 Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu 195 200 205 gag gag gat gaa gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat gac gag gaa 734 Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu 210 215 220 gat gaa gaa gag ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa cga 782 Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg 225 230 235 gaa cct gaa gat gag gga gaa gat gat gac taagtggaat aacctatttt 832 Glu Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 240 245 gaaaaattcc tattgtgatt tgactgtttt tacccatatc ccctctcccc cccccctcta 892 atcctgcccc ctgaa 907 14 249 PRT Homo sapiens 14 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Asp Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr Tyr 130 135 140 Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp Ala 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu 165 170 175 Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 180 185 190 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu Glu 195 200 205 Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp 210 215 220 Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg Glu 225 230 235 240 Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 245 15 895 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(767) 15 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattcggct ggcacgagag cctctgcaga cagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tca gag ctg cgg aac agg gcg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Ala 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gcc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Ala Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa gcc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aaa atc aac gga ggc ctc acc tca atc tca gac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aag ttg aga aag ctt gaa cta aga gtc tca ggg ggc ctg gaa gta ttg 302 Lys Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu 65 70 75 gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc acg cat cta tat tta agt ggc aac aaa 350 Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys 80 85 90 95 att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa cag tta gaa aac ctc 398 Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu 100 105 110 aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac ctg aac gac tac 446 Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr 115 120 125 gga gaa aac gtg ttc aag ctt ctc ctg caa ctc aca tat ctc gac agc 494 Gly Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser 130 135 140 tgt tac tgg gac cac aag gag gcc cct tac tca gat att gag gac cac 542 Cys Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His 145 150 155 gtg gag ggc ctg gat gac gag gag gag ggt gag cat gag gag gag tat 590 Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr 160 165 170 175 gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gat gag gag ggc gag gag gag gag 638 Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Glu 180 185 190 gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga ggg gac ggg gag gat gaa 686 Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Gly Glu Asp Glu 195 200 205 gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat ggc gag gaa gat gaa gaa gag 734 Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu 210 215 220 ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa tgagaacctg aagatgaggg 787 Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 agaagatgat gactaagtag aataacctat tttgaaaaat tcctattgtg atttgactgt 847 ttttacccat atcccatctc ccccccccct ctaatcctgc cccctgaa 895 16 234 PRT Homo sapiens 16 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Ala Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Ala Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro Lys Leu Lys 50 55 60 Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu Ala 65 70 75 80 Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile 85 90 95 Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys 100 105 110 Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr Gly 115 120 125 Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser Cys 130 135 140 Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His Val 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp 165 170 175 Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu 180 185 190 Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Gly Glu Asp Glu Glu 195 200 205 Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu 210 215 220 Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 17 905 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (64)..(453) 17 gggttcgggg tttattggtt gaattccgct ggctcgagag cctctggaga gaaagcgtga 60 gag atg gag atg ggc aaa tgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 108 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tcc gat gtg aaa gaa ctt ttc ctg gac aac agt cag tca aat gaa 156 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ttg gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gag gaa ctg gaa tta tta 204 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu 35 40 45 aat aca atc aac ata ggc ctc acc tca att gca aac ttg cca aag tta 252 Asn Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gcc tca gtg ggc 300 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 348 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag ccc ctg aaa aag 396 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctt gag agc tta gac ctt ttc act tgc gag gta acc aac 444 Leu Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac aac tactgagaaa agatgttcaa gctcctcctg caactcacat 493 Leu Asn Asn 130 atctcaacgg ctgtgacccg gatgacaagg aggcccctaa ctcggatggt gagggctacg 553 tggagggcct ggacgatgag gaggaggatg aggatgagga ggagtatgat gaagatgctc 613 aggtagtgga agacgaggag gacgaggatg aggaggagga aggtgaagag gaggacgtga 673 gtggagagga ggaggaggat gaagaaggtt ataacgatgg agaggtagat gacgaggaag 733 atgaagaaga gcttggtgaa gaagaaaggg gtcagaagcg aaaacgagaa cctgaagatg 793 agggagaaga tgatgactaa gtggaataac ctattttgaa aaattcctat tgtgatttga 853 ctgtttttag ccgtatcccc tctccccccc cactctaatc ctgccccctg aa 905 18 130 PRT Homo sapiens 18 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu Asn 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn 130 19 905 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (64)..(453) 19 gggttcgggg tttattggtt gaattccgct ggctcaggag cctctgcaga gaaagcgtga 60 gag atg gag atg ggc aaa tgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 108 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tcc gat gtg aaa gaa ctt ttc ctg gac aac agt cag tca aat gaa 156 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ttg gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa tta tta 204 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu 35 40 45 aat aca atc aac ata ggc ctc acc tca att gca aac ttg cca aag tta 252 Asn Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gcc tca gtg ggc 300 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 348 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag ccc ctg aaa aag 396 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc gag agc tta gac ctt ttc act tgc gag gta acc aac 444 Leu Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac aac tactgagaaa agatgttcaa gctcctcctg caactcacat 493 Leu Asn Asn 130 atctcaacgg ctgtgacccg gatgacaagg aggcccctaa ctcggatggt gagggctttg 553 tggagtgcct ggatgacaag gaggaggatg aggatgagga ggagtatgat gaagatgctc 613 aggtaatgga agatgaggag gacgaggatg aggaggagga acgtgaagag gaggacgtga 673 gtggagacga ggaggagaag gatgaaggtt ataacaatgg agaggtagat gatgaggaag 733 atgaagaaga gcttggtgaa gaagaaaggg gtcagaagcg aaaataagaa actgaagatg 793 agggagaaga cgatgcctaa gtggaataat ctattttgaa aaattccttt tgtgatttta 853 ctgtttttag ccgtatcccc tctccccccc cactctaatc ctgccccctg aa 905 20 130 PRT Homo sapiens 20 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu Asn 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn 130 21 895 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(767) 21 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattcggct ggcacgagag cctctgcaga cagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tca gag ctg cgg aac agg gcg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Ala 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa gcc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aaa atc aac gga ggc ctc acc tca atc tca gac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aag ttg aga aag ctt gaa cta aaa gtc tca ggg ggc ctg gaa gta ttg 302 Lys Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Lys Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu 65 70 75 gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc acg cat cta tat tta agt ggc aac aaa 350 Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys 80 85 90 95 att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa cag tta gaa aac ctc 398 Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu 100 105 110 aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac ctg aac gac tac 446 Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr 115 120 125 gga gaa aac gtg ttc aag ctt ctc ctg caa ctc aca tat ctc gac agc 494 Gly Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser 130 135 140 tgt tac tgg gac cac aag gag gcc cct tac tca gat att gag gac cac 542 Cys Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His 145 150 155 gtg gag ggc ctg gat gac gag gag gag ggt gag cat gag gag gag tat 590 Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr 160 165 170 175 gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gat gag gag ggc gag gag gag gag 638 Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Glu 180 185 190 gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga ggg gac gag gag gat gaa 686 Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 195 200 205 gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat ggc gag gaa gat gaa gaa gag 734 Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu 210 215 220 ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa tgagaacctg aagatgaggg 787 Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 agaagatgat gactaagtag aataacctat tttgaaaaat tcctattgtg atttgactgt 847 ttttacccat atcccccctc ccccccccct ctaatcctgc cccctgaa 895 22 234 PRT Homo sapiens 22 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Ala Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro Lys Leu Lys 50 55 60 Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Lys Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu Ala 65 70 75 80 Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile 85 90 95 Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys 100 105 110 Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr Gly 115 120 125 Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser Cys 130 135 140 Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His Val 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp 165 170 175 Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu 180 185 190 Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu 195 200 205 Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu 210 215 220 Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 23 895 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(767) 23 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagggagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aca atc aac gta ggc ctc acc tca atc gca aac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aag ttg aga aag ctt gaa cta aga gtc tca ggg ggc ctg gaa gta ttg 302 Lys Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu 65 70 75 gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc acg cac cta tat tta agt ggc aac aaa 350 Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys 80 85 90 95 att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa cag tta gaa aac ctc 398 Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu 100 105 110 aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac ctg aac gac tac 446 Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr 115 120 125 gga gaa aac gtg ttc aag ctt ctc ctg caa ctc aca tat ctc gac agc 494 Gly Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser 130 135 140 tgt tac tgg gac cac aag gag gcc cct tac tca gat att gag gac cac 542 Cys Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His 145 150 155 gtg gag ggc ctg gat gac gag gag gag ggt gag cat gag gag gag tat 590 Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr 160 165 170 175 gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gat gag gag ggc gag gag ggg gag 638 Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Gly Glu 180 185 190 gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga ggg gac gag gag gat gaa 686 Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 195 200 205 gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat gac gag gaa gat gaa gaa gag 734 Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu 210 215 220 ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa cgagaacctg aagatgaggg 787 Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 agaagatgat gactaagtgg aataacctat tttgaaaaat tcctattgtg atttgactgt 847 ttttacccat atcccctctc ccccccccct ctaatcctgc cccctgaa 895 24 234 PRT Homo sapiens 24 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Lys 50 55 60 Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu Ala 65 70 75 80 Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile 85 90 95 Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys 100 105 110 Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr Gly 115 120 125 Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser Cys 130 135 140 Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His Val 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp 165 170 175 Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu 180 185 190 Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu 195 200 205 Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu 210 215 220 Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 25 907 DNA Homo sapiens 25 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagagatgga gatgggcaga cggattcatt tagagctgcg gaacaggacg ccctctgatg 120 tgaaagaact tgtcctggac aacagtcggt cgaatgaagg caaactcgag ggcctcacag 180 atgaatttga agaactggaa ttcttaagta caatcaacgt aggcctcacc tcaatcgcaa 240 acttaccaaa gttaaacaaa cttaagaagc ttgaactaag cgataacaga gtctcagggg 300 gcctggaagt attggcagaa aagtgtccga acctcacgca tctaaattta agtggcaaca 360 aaattaaaga cctcagcaca atagagccac tgaaaaagtt agaaaacctc aagagcttag 420 accttttcaa ttgcgaggta accaacctga acgactaccg agaaaatgtg ttcaagctcc 480 tcccgcaact cacatatctc gacggctatg accgggacga caaggaggcc cctgactcgg 540 atgctgaggg ctacgtggag ggcctggatg atgaggagga ggatgaggat gaggaggagt 600 atgatgaaga tgctcaggta gtggaagacg aggaggacga ggatgaggag gaggaaggtg 660 aagaggagga cgtgagtgga gaggaggagg aggatgaaga aggttataac gatggagagg 720 tagatgacga ggaagatgaa gaagagcttg gtgaagaaga aaggggtcag aagcgaaaac 780 gagaacctga agatgaggga gaagatgatg actaagtgga ataacctatt ttgaaaaatt 840 cctattgtga tttgactgtt tttacccata tcccctctcc cccccccctc taatcctgcc 900 ccctgaa 907 26 905 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (64)..(453) 26 gggttcgggg tttattggtt gaattccgct ggctcaggag cctctgcaga gaaagcgtga 60 gag atg gag atg ggc aaa tgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 108 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tcc gat gtg aaa gaa ctt ttc ctg gac aac agt cag tca aat gaa 156 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ttg gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa tta tta 204 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu 35 40 45 aat aca atc aac ata ggc ctc acc tca att gca aac ttg cca aag tta 252 Asn Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gcc tca gtg ggc 300 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 348 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag ccc ctg aaa aag 396 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc gag agc tta gac ctt ttc act tgc gag gta acc aac 444 Leu Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac aac tactgagaaa agatgttcaa gctcctcctg caactcacat 493 Leu Asn Asn 130 atctcaacgg ctgtgacccg gatgacaagg aggcccctaa ctcggatggt gagggctttg 553 tggagtgcct ggatgacaag gaggaggatg aggatgagga ggagtatgat gaagatgctc 613 aggtaatgga agatgaggag gacgaggatg aggaggagga acgtgaagag gaggacgtga 673 gtggagacga ggaggagaag gatgaaggtt ataacaatgg agaggtagat gatgaggaag 733 atgaagaaga gcttggtgaa gaagaaaggg gtcagaagcg aaaataagaa actgaagatg 793 agggagaaga cgatgcctaa gtggaataat ctattttgaa aaattccttt tgtgatttta 853 ctgtttttag ccgtatcccc tctccccccc cactctaatc ctgccccctg aa 905 27 130 PRT Homo sapiens 27 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu Asn 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn 130 28 907 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(812) 28 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat cta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gtc aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Val Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aca atc aac gta ggc ctc acc tca atc gca aac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc gat aac aga gtc tca ggg ggc 302 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Asp Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt ccg aac ctc acg cat cta aat tta 350 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa aag 398 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac 446 Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac gac tac cga gaa aat gtg ttc aag ctc ctc ccg caa ctc aca 494 Leu Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr 130 135 140 tat ctc gac ggc tat gac cgg gac gac aag gag gcc cct gac tcg gat 542 Tyr Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp 145 150 155 gct gag ggc tac gtg gag ggc ctg gat gat gag gag gag gat gag gat 590 Ala Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp 160 165 170 175 gag gag gag tat gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gac gag gag gac 638 Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp 180 185 190 gag gat gag gag gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga gag gag 686 Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu 195 200 205 gag gag gat gaa gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat gac gag gaa 734 Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu 210 215 220 gat gaa gaa gag ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa cga 782 Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg 225 230 235 gaa cct gaa gat gag gga gaa gat gat gac taagtggaat aacctatttt 832 Glu Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 240 245 gaaaaattcc tattgtgatt tgactgtttt tacccatatc ccctctcccc cccccctcta 892 atcctgcccc ctgaa 907 29 249 PRT Homo sapiens 29 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Val Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Asp Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Pro Gln Leu Thr Tyr 130 135 140 Leu Asp Gly Tyr Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp Ala 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu 165 170 175 Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 180 185 190 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu Glu 195 200 205 Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp 210 215 220 Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Arg Glu 225 230 235 240 Pro Glu Asp Glu Gly Glu Asp Asp Asp 245 30 907 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(455) 30 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aca atc aac gta ggc ctc acc tca atc gca aac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc gat aac aga gtc tca ggg ggc 302 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Asp Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc ata cat cta aat tta 350 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag ccc ctg aaa aag 398 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc gag agc tta gac ctt ttc act tgc gag gta acc aac 446 Leu Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac aac tactgagaaa agatgttcaa gctcctcctg caactcacat 495 Leu Asn Asn 130 atctcaacgg ctgtgacccg gatgacaagg aggcccctaa ctcggatggt gagggctttg 555 tggagtgcct ggatgacaag gaggaggatg aggatgagga ggagtatgat gaagatgctc 615 aggtaatgga agatgaggag gacgaggatg aggaggagga acgtgaagag gaggacgtga 675 gtggagacga ggaggagaag gatgaaggtt ataacaatgg agaggtagat gatgaggaag 735 atgaagaaga gcttggtgaa gaagaaaggg gtcagaagcg aaaataagaa actgaagatg 795 agggagaaga cgatgcctaa gtggaataat ctattttgaa aaattcctat tgtgatttga 855 ctgtttttac ccatatcccc tctccccccc ccctctaatc ctgccccctg aa 907 31 130 PRT Homo sapiens 31 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Asp Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn 130 32 908 DNA Homo sapiens 32 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgcc ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 ggagagatgg agatgggcag acggattcat ttagagctgc ggaacaggac gccctctgat 120 gtgaaagaac ttgtcctgga caacagtcgg tcgaatgaag gcaaactcga aggcctcaca 180 gatgaatttg aagaactgga attcttaagt acaatcaacg taggcctcac ctcaatcgca 240 aacttaccaa agttaaacaa acttaagaag cttgaactaa gcgataacag agtctcaggg 300 ggcctggaag tattggcaga aaagtgtccg aacctcacgc atctaaattt aagtggcaac 360 aaaattaaag acctcagcac aatagagcca ctgaaaaagt tagaaaacct caagagctta 420 gaccttttca attgcgaggt aaccaacctg aacgactacc gagaaaatgt gttcaagctc 480 ctcccgcaac tcacatatct cgacggctat gaccgggacg acaaggaggc ccctgactcg 540 gatgctgagg gctacgtgga gggcctggat gatgaggagg aggatgagga tgaggaggag 600 tatgatgaag atgctcaggt agtggaagac gaggaggacg aggatgagga ggaggaaggt 660 gaagaggagg acgtgagtgg agaggaggag gaggatgaag aaggttataa cgatggagag 720 gtagatgacg aggaagatga agaagagctt ggtgaagaag aaaggggtca gaagcgaaaa 780 cgagaacctg aagatgaggg agaagatgat gactaagtgg aataacctat tttgaaaaat 840 tcctattgtg atttgactgt ttttacccat atcccctctc ccccccccct ctaatcctgc 900 cccctgaa 908 33 906 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (66)..(812) 33 gggttcgggg tttattgatt gaattccgct ggcgcgggag cctctgcaga gagagagcgc 60 gagag atg gag atg ggc aga cgg att cat tta gag ctg cgg aac agg acg 110 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr 1 5 10 15 ccc tct gat gtg aaa gaa ctt gtc ctg gac aac agt cgg tcg aat gaa 158 Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu 20 25 30 ggc aaa ctc gaa ggc ctc aca gat gaa ttt gaa gaa ctg gaa ttc tta 206 Gly Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu 35 40 45 agt aca atc aac gta ggc ctc acc tca atc gca aac tta cca aag tta 254 Ser Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu 50 55 60 aac aaa ctt aag aag ctt gaa cta agc agt aac aga gtc tca ggg ggc 302 Asn Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly 65 70 75 cta gaa gta ttg gca gaa aag tgt cca aac ctc acg cat cta aat tta 350 Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Asn Leu 80 85 90 95 agt ggc aac aaa att aaa gac ctc agc aca ata gag cca ctg aaa aag 398 Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys 100 105 110 tta gaa aac ctc aag agc tta gac ctt ttc aat tgc gag gta acc aac 446 Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn 115 120 125 ctg aac gac tac cga gaa aat gtg ttc aag ctc ctc ctg caa ctc aca 494 Leu Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr 130 135 140 tat ctc gac ggc tgt gac cgg gac gac aag gag gcc cct gac tcg gat 542 Tyr Leu Asp Gly Cys Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp 145 150 155 gct gag ggc tac gtg gag ggc ctg gat gac gag gag gag gat gag gat 590 Ala Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp 160 165 170 175 gag gag gag tat gat gaa gat gct cag gta gtg gaa gat gag gag gac 638 Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp 180 185 190 gag gat gag gag gag gaa ggt gaa gag gag gac gtg agt gga gag gag 686 Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu 195 200 205 gag gag gat gaa gaa ggt tat aac gat gga gag gta gat gac gag gaa 734 Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu 210 215 220 gat gaa gaa gag ctt ggt gaa gaa gaa agg ggt cag aag cga aaa gag 782 Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Glu 225 230 235 aac ctg aag atg agg gag aag atg atg act aagtggaata acctattttg 832 Asn Leu Lys Met Arg Glu Lys Met Met Thr 240 245 aaaaattcct attgtgattt gactgttttt acccatatcc cctctccccc ccccctctaa 892 tcctgccccc tgaa 906 34 249 PRT Homo sapiens 34 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Val Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Val Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Pro Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asp Tyr Arg Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr 130 135 140 Leu Asp Gly Cys Asp Arg Asp Asp Lys Glu Ala Pro Asp Ser Asp Ala 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Tyr Val Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu 165 170 175 Glu Glu Tyr Asp Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu 180 185 190 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Glu Glu Glu 195 200 205 Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Asp Glu Glu Asp 210 215 220 Glu Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys Glu Asn 225 230 235 240 Leu Lys Met Arg Glu Lys Met Met Thr 245 35 26 DNA Homo sapiens 35 tatgctagcg ggttcggggt ttattg 26 36 29 DNA Homo sapiens 36 gattctagat ggtaagtttg cgattgagg 29 37 29 DNA Homo sapiens 37 gaatctagaa ggaggaggaa ggtgaagag 29 38 29 DNA Homo sapiens 38 ctatctagat tcagggggca ggattagag 29 39 24 DNA Homo sapiens 39 gaggtttatt gattgaattc ggct 24 40 24 DNA Homo sapiens 40 ccccagtaca cttttcccgt ctca 24 41 12 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 41 tttttctttt tc 12 42 10 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 42 ttaaaattca 10 43 10 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 43 atgtaaaaca 10 44 11 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 44 aagataaaac c 11 45 10 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 45 ccactgggga 10 46 13 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 46 ctctctctct ctc 13 47 11 DNA Artificial Sequence recognition sequence 47 aaaacataaa t 11 48 131 PRT Homo sapiens 48 Met Glu Met Gly Lys Trp Ile His Leu Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Phe Leu Asp Asn Ser Gln Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Gly Leu Ala Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Leu Asn 35 40 45 Thr Ile Asn Ile Gly Leu Ser Ser Ile Ala Asn Leu Ala Lys Leu Asn 50 55 60 Lys Leu Lys Lys Leu Glu Leu Ser Ser Asn Arg Ala Ser Val Gly Leu 65 70 75 80 Glu Val Leu Ala Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Ile His Leu Asn Leu Ser 85 90 95 Gly Asn Lys Ile Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 100 105 110 Glu Asn Leu Glu Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Thr Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu 115 120 125 Asn Asn Tyr 130 49 234 PRT Homo sapiens 49 Met Glu Met Gly Arg Arg Ile His Ser Glu Leu Arg Asn Arg Ala Pro 1 5 10 15 Ser Asp Val Lys Glu Leu Ala Leu Asp Asn Ser Arg Ser Asn Glu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Leu Glu Ala Leu Thr Asp Glu Phe Glu Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Ser 35 40 45 Lys Ile Asn Gly Gly Leu Thr Ser Ile Ser Asp Leu Pro Lys Leu Lys 50 55 60 Leu Arg Lys Leu Glu Leu Arg Val Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Val Leu Ala 65 70 75 80 Glu Lys Cys Pro Asn Leu Thr His Leu Tyr Leu Ser Gly Asn Lys Ile 85 90 95 Lys Asp Leu Ser Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Leu Lys 100 105 110 Ser Leu Asp Leu Phe Asn Cys Glu Val Thr Asn Leu Asn Asp Tyr Gly 115 120 125 Glu Asn Val Phe Lys Leu Leu Leu Gln Leu Thr Tyr Leu Asp Ser Cys 130 135 140 Tyr Trp Asp His Lys Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ser Asp Ile Glu Asp His Val 145 150 155 160 Glu Gly Leu Asp Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Glu His Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp 165 170 175 Glu Asp Ala Gln Val Val Glu Asp Glu Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu 180 185 190 Glu Gly Glu Glu Glu Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu 195 200 205 Gly Tyr Asn Asp Gly Glu Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Leu 210 215 220 Gly Glu Glu Glu Arg Gly Gln Lys Arg Lys 225 230 50 17 DNA Homo sapiens 50 gggttcgggg tttattg 17 51 20 DNA Homo sapiens 51 ctctaatcct gccccctgaa 20
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Classifications
U.S. Classification435/6.11, 435/69.3, 435/320.1, 536/23.2, 435/199, 435/325, 435/7.23, 435/6.14
International ClassificationC07K14/47, C12Q1/68, A61K38/00
Cooperative ClassificationC12Q1/6886, C12Q2600/112, C07K14/47, A61K38/00, C12Q2600/136
European ClassificationC12Q1/68M6B, C07K14/47