Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20030132809 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/054,358
Publication dateJul 17, 2003
Filing dateJan 17, 2002
Priority dateJan 17, 2002
Also published asUS7109810, US20040085141, US20040085142
Publication number054358, 10054358, US 2003/0132809 A1, US 2003/132809 A1, US 20030132809 A1, US 20030132809A1, US 2003132809 A1, US 2003132809A1, US-A1-20030132809, US-A1-2003132809, US2003/0132809A1, US2003/132809A1, US20030132809 A1, US20030132809A1, US2003132809 A1, US2003132809A1
InventorsChinnugounder Senthilkumar, Robert Fulton, Tea Lee
Original AssigneeChinnugounder Senthilkumar, Robert Fulton, Tea Lee
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Oscillator with tunable capacitor
US 20030132809 A1
Abstract
Circuitry for controlling the oscillation frequency of an oscillator by using a digitally tunable on-chip capacitor bank. The capacitor bank includes a plurality of on-chip capacitors, each of which is independently selectable by a control signal for providing a selectable amount of capacitance to the oscillator to control the oscillator's oscillation frequency.
Images(6)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(27)
What is claimed is:
1. Circuitry for controlling the oscillating frequency of an oscillator, the circuitry comprising:
a plurality of capacitors, each of which is independently selectable by a control signal, and each of which provides a controllable amount of capacitance to the oscillator to control the oscillating frequency of the oscillator.
2. The circuitry of claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of capacitors has a different capacitance than the other capacitors, and a predefined amount of capacitance is provided by a predetermined combination of capacitors.
3. The circuitry of claim 2, wherein the capacitors are drain-source connected MOSFETs.
4. The circuitry of claim 3, wherein the MOSFETs are P-type enhancement mode MOSFETs.
5. The circuitry of claim 3, wherein the MOSFETs are N-type depletion mode MOSFETs.
6. The circuitry of claim 1 wherein the capacitors are selected from the group consisting of on-chip metal capacitors, on-chip poly capacitors, and discrete capacitors.
7. The circuitry of claim 1, wherein each of the capacitors corresponds to a transmission gate switch.
8. The circuitry of claim 7, further comprising a set of memory registers to provide the control signals for selecting the individual capacitors
9. The circuitry of claim 8, wherein the transmission gate switches are decoupled from the set of memory registers by a set of buffer circuitry.
10. The circuitry of claim 9, wherein the set of buffer circuitry is powered by a filtered power signal.
11. The circuitry of claim 1, wherein the oscillator includes a resonator and an inverting amplifier.
12. The circuitry of claim 11, wherein a first subset of the plurality of capacitors is selectively electrically coupled to a first terminal of the resonator, and a second subset of the plurality of capacitors is selectively electrically coupled to a second terminal of the resonator
13 An electronic device comprising:
a real time clock for generating a system time signal, the real time clock having a digitally tunable oscillator for digitally adjusting an operating frequency of the real time clock to speed up or slow down the system time signal; and
a memory device for storing data representing a configuration of the digitally adjusted tunable oscillator.
14. The electronic device of claim 13, further comprising a communication port for receiving a reference time signal, wherein the digitally tunable oscillator is digitally adjusted according to the reference time signal to minimize the difference between the system time signal and the reference time signal.
15. The electronic device of claim 13, wherein the digitally tunable oscillator includes a capacitor bank having a set of capacitors with capacitance values in a binary-weighted relationship, the capacitors selectable through a set of control signals.
16. A method comprising:
generating a set of control signals to select a subset of capacitors from a set of capacitors;
connecting the selected subset of capacitors to an oscillator;
generating an oscillating signal using the oscillator and the selected subset of capacitors in combination; and
generating a system time signal using the oscillating signal.
17. The method of claim 16, further comprising receiving a reference time signal, comparing the reference time signal with the system time signal, and modifying the set of control signals in response to the difference between the reference time signal and the system time signal to select a different subset of capacitors.
18. The method of claim 17, further comprising saving data representing the setting of the control signals in a memory.
19. A method of generating a time signal comprising:
generating a system time signal using a real time clock circuit that has a tunable oscillator for adjusting an operation frequency of the real time clock circuit;
receiving a reference time signal over a network;
adjusting the tunable oscillator to increase or decrease the operating frequency of the real time clock circuit in response to a difference between the system time signal and the reference time signal.
20. The method of claim 19 wherein adjusting the tunable oscillator comprises adjusting a set of control signals to modify a selection of a set of capacitors within a capacitor bank, the selection of the set of capacitors correlating to the operating frequency of the real time clock circuit.
21. Apparatus for providing a variable level of capacitance, comprising:
a plurality of capacitors, each capacitor selectable through an independent control signal generated by a logic circuit, the selected capacitors providing an amount of capacitance that is the sum of the individual capacitances of the selected capacitors; and
buffer circuitry for decoupling the plurality of capacitors from the logic circuit to prevent noise in the logic circuit from affecting the plurality of capacitors.
22. The apparatus of claim 21, further comprising a filter circuit connected to a power supply to generate a filtered power supply signal that is used to power the buffer circuitry.
23. The circuit of claim 21, further comprising transmission gates, each of which corresponds to one of the plurality of capacitors and can be turned on by the independent control signal when the corresponding capacitor is selected.
24. Apparatus comprising:
a control unit configured to generate a set of control signals, each of which independently selects a capacitor from a plurality of capacitors, the selected capacitors being coupled to an oscillator, the selected capacitors in combination proving a controllable amount of capacitance to the oscillator to control the oscillating frequency of the oscillator.
25. The apparatus of claim 24 in which the control unit is disposed within a computer chipset.
26. The apparatus of claim 24, further comprising circuitry for generating a system time signal based on the oscillating frequency of the oscillator.
27. The apparatus of claim 26, further comprising a memory for storing the configuration of the set of control signals, and a data processing unit that processes data based on the system time signal.
Description
    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    This invention relates to oscillator circuits, and more particularly to tunable oscillator circuits.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    Oscillator circuits can be used to provide timing signals. For example, a personal computer motherboard typically has a Real Time Clock (RTC) circuit that provides an accurate 32.768 KHz oscillating signal that is further processed to obtain the second, minute, and hour values used by the computer system to keep time.
  • [0003]
    The RTC circuit is typically part of an I/O controller hub chip (sometimes referred to as the south-bridge chipset), and is connected to an external crystal resonator that resonates within a narrow range of operating frequencies. Depending on the crystal oscillator topology, one or more discrete external load capacitors may be connected to the RTC circuit to tune the oscillating frequency. The values of the load capacitors are selected according to an initial circuit layout design so that the RTC circuit in conjunction with the external components will oscillate at a predetermined frequency.
  • [0004]
    However, variation between different motherboard designs may result in placement of the load capacitors at slightly different locations on the motherboard, resulting in the addition of a certain amount of parasitic capacitance associated with the wiring connections. Other factors, such as tolerances in circuit components and minute routing differences, will also affect the oscillating frequency. Because a small variance in the oscillating frequency may significantly affect the accuracy of the system time signal over time, individual tuning of the capacitance value tailored to a specific motherboard design is required to obtain accurate system timing signals.
  • [0005]
    The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
  • DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0006]
    [0006]FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a computer chipset with external components that form a digitally tunable oscillator.
  • [0007]
    [0007]FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an on-chip capacitor bank of the oscillator circuit of FIG. 1.
  • [0008]
    [0008]FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a buffer circuit connected to a transmission gate switch.
  • [0009]
    [0009]FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an alternative embodiment of an on-chip capacitor bank.
  • [0010]
    [0010]FIG. 5 is a block diagram of an electronic device.
  • [0011]
    Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0012]
    As will be described in more detail below, the invention is directed towards circuitry for controlling oscillating frequency of an oscillator. In addition to the external load capacitors, the circuitry includes on-chip capacitors, each of which is independently selectable by a control signal, and each of which provides a controllable amount of capacitance to the oscillator to control the oscillating frequency of the oscillator. The term “on-chip capacitor” means that the capacitor is manufactured on a semiconductor chip.
  • [0013]
    Referring to FIG. 1, a tunable clock oscillator circuit 100 (enclosed in dotted lines) includes two digitally selectable on-chip capacitor banks 106 and 108 connected to a terminal X1 and a terminal X2, respectively, of a crystal resonator 102. Terminals X1 and X2 are connected to an input terminal 110 and an output terminal 112, respectively, of an inverting amplifier 104. A feedback resistor Rf is connected in parallel to resonator 102 to bias amplifier 104 into a linear mode. Capacitor banks 106 and 108 are used to fine-tune the oscillating frequency of oscillator circuit 100. By selecting different combinations of capacitors in the on-chip capacitor banks, a different amount of capacitance can be connected to resonator 102, thereby controlling the oscillating frequency of oscillator circuit 100.
  • [0014]
    Two external load capacitors CL1 and CL2 are connected to terminals X1 and X2, respectively. The capacitance values of load capacitors CL1 and CL2 are selected according to specifications given by the manufacturer of resonator 102. The impedance of load capacitors, combined with the crystal's calibrated impedance, tunes the circuit to operate in a particular frequency in the “parallel or series resonance” area (depending on oscillator topology). For example, resonator 102 resonates at approximately 32.77 KHz, capacitors CL1 and CL2 have capacitances of about 15 pF, and resistor Rf has a value of about 10 MegOhms.
  • [0015]
    Capacitor banks 106 and 108 each include an array of capacitors that are individually selectable by a set of externally provided control signals to provide a variable amount of capacitance. For example, capacitor banks 106 and 108 each provide a selectable amount of capacitance in the range of 0 to 4 pF.
  • [0016]
    Amplifier 104 and capacitor banks 106, 108 are located within an RTC circuit 122 (enclosed in dotted lines), which is part of a chipset 114 of a computer system. RTC circuit 122 has a set of latches 120 that latches a set of control signals S0 to S9 that is generated by programmable registers 118 of chipset 114. Control signals S0 to S9 are used to select the individual capacitors in capacitor banks 106 and 108.
  • [0017]
    RTC circuit 122 is powered by a system power supply, as well as a separate battery supply when the computer system is turned off. When the battery supply is first connected to RTC circuit 122, default values are loaded into the latches to select a default set of capacitors. When the computer is initially booted up after RTC circuit 122 is connected to the battery supply, a predefined register setting is read from a BIOS memory 116 and passed through chipset registers 118 to latches 120. The latches store the register setting for the life of the battery, or until the setting is changed by chipset registers 118.
  • [0018]
    The load capacitors CL1 and CL2 are shown as being connected outside of chipset 114. However, it is understood that the load capacitors CL1 and CL2 may also be integrated within chipset 114. It is also possible to integrate the resonator, load capacitors, resistor, and the RTC circuitry within the same package.
  • [0019]
    Referring to FIG. 2, capacitor bank 106 has a capacitor array 202 that includes five capacitors, C0 to C4. Each capacitor is selectable by one of the control signals S0 to S4 through control gate switches G0 to G4. The capacitance values of the capacitors have a binary-weighted relationship, such that C4 has twice the amount of capacitance as C3, C3 has twice the amount of capacitance of C2, and so forth. For example, C4=2 pF, C3=1 pF, C2=0.5 pF, C1=0.25 pF, C0=0.125 pF.
  • [0020]
    Chipset registers 118 provide control signals S0 to S4, which are latched by latches 120. A control signal selects a capacitor by turning on the corresponding control gate switch so that one terminal of the capacitor is connected to terminal 110 of crystal resonator 102. To obtain a certain value of capacitance, chipset registers 118 select a number of capacitors so that the sum of the capacitances of the selected capacitors most closely approximate the desired capacitance value. Capacitor bank 108 operates similarly to capacitor bank 106.
  • [0021]
    Capacitors C0 to C4 are enhancement mode P-type MOSFETs (PMOS) with the drain nodes connected to the source nodes. The gate of the MOSFET functions as one terminal of the capacitor, and the drain/source node functions as the other terminal. A VCC_FILTER signal is derived from the power supply signal VCC to bias the PMOS capacitors into saturation. Most of the high frequency noise contained in the Vcc signal is filtered by a low pass filter composed of resistor Rbias and capacitor Cbias. The VCC_FILTER signal also provides a filtered power supply signal to a buffer circuit that drives transmission gate switches (Figure 3). Use of the low pass filter also enables low power operation because capacitor Cbias blocks direct current from flowing.
  • [0022]
    Referring to FIG. 3, a control gate switch G0 includes a buffer circuit 302 and a transmission gate T0. Buffer circuit 302 is used to decouple transmission gate switch T0 from logic circuit that produces signal S0. This is to prevent noise generated in the chipset logic circuit from reaching oscillator circuit 100 through transmission gate switch T0. Buffer circuit 302 is powered by the Vcc FILTER signal. Use of Vcc FILTER signal is required to prevent unwanted noise in the RTC power supply signal from interfering with the operation of oscillator circuit 100. Additional buffer circuits (having the same configuration as buffer circuit 302) are provided to decouple transmission gate switches T1 to T9 from the logic circuits that produce signals S1 to S9.
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 4 shows an example of an on-chip capacitor bank constructed from “depletion mode” NMOS transistors. An on-chip capacitor bank 402 includes an on-chip capacitor array 404 and control gates G10 to G14. Capacitor array 404 includes depletion mode NMOS capacitors C10 to C14, each of which is made of an N-type MOSFET, with one terminal of the capacitor being the gate node of the MOSFET, and the other terminal of the capacitor being the source-drain connected node of the MOSFET.
  • [0024]
    When NMOS capacitors are used, it is not necessary to use Vcc FILTER signal to bias the capacitors into saturation. This is because a depletion mode transistor has a negative threshold voltage, so a channel is formed for all non-negative oscillation voltage levels, and thus provides a greater capacitance. Because Vcc FILTER is used only to power the logic gates of buffer circuit 302, smaller values for resistor Rbias and capacitor Cbias can be used. This allows for reduction of the size of the capacitor bank 402 because the “series effect” of the capacitor bank and the capacitor Cbias is eliminated.
  • [0025]
    An advantage of using tunable capacitor banks 106, 108 is that the computer system can dynamically adjust the oscillating frequency of oscillator circuit 100 based on a reference time signal. The computer may log on to the Internet at regular time intervals, and compare the system time signal with a reference time signal, such as that provided by the NIST Internet Time Service. Based on the difference between the system time and reference time, chipset 114 may change the setting of registers 118 to select a different arrangement of capacitors in capacitor banks 106 and 108. By selecting a slightly higher or lower amount of capacitance to be connected to crystal resonator 102, chipset 114 can fine-tune the oscillating frequency of oscillator circuit 100. After each adjustment, the chipset register setting are latched by latches 120 so that oscillator circuit 100 can provide accurate time signals even after system is powered down or off.
  • [0026]
    Another advantage of using tunable capacitor banks in an oscillator circuit is that adjustment of the oscillation frequency can be performed after the hardware connections of the electronic components and circuit boards are fixed. Due to tolerances in the components and boards, the actual capacitance connected to the crystal resonator is often slightly different from the capacitance values in the original design. By adjusting the amount of capacitance provided by the tunable capacitor banks, oscillation frequency can be tuned without altering any hardware component or connection. The adjustment can be done manually or automatically through appropriate software.
  • [0027]
    Use of tunable capacitor banks is not limited to the RTC circuit of computer systems. All circuits that require fine-tuning of an accurate amount of capacitance may use a tunable capacitor bank. All electronic devices that require an accurate oscillating signal may use tunable capacitor banks to fine-tune the oscillation frequency. The fine-tuning of the oscillation frequency may be used to compensate changes in temperature and humidity, or to compensate manufacturing tolerances. Such fine-tuning of the oscillation frequency after hardware connections are fixed allows more flexibility in the selection of electronic components and circuit board layout designs.
  • [0028]
    Referring to FIG. 5, an electronic device 500 includes a chipset 508 that has a RTC circuit 514 that provides a stable clock signal. RTC circuit 514 includes two tunable on-chip capacitor banks connected to each of the two terminals of a resonator 102. The RTC circuit 514 is powered by both a main power supply and a battery supply so that it can keep the oscillation even when the main power supply is shut off.
  • [0029]
    Chipset 508 includes a set of latches that store a set of register bit values used to control the selection of on-chip capacitors in the capacitor banks. When chipset 508 is delivered to a manufacturer of device 500, the latches store default values. When the manufacturer designs a circuit board using the chipset 508, the manufacturer may decide to modify the values stored in the latches by writing new register bit values into a BIOS 116.
  • [0030]
    When the battery is first inserted to provide power to RTC circuit 514, the register bit values are read from BIOS 116 and passed to the latches. Chipset 508 includes a register that stores a “capacitor-set flag” which is used to track whether the register bit values need to be updated. Initially, the capacitor-set flag is set to “0”. Every time electronic device 500 boots, the capacitor-set flag is checked. If the flag is set to “1”, the latch values are not changed. If the flag equals “0”, the register bit values stored in BIOS 116 are read and used to overwrite the values previously stored in the latches. The capacitor-set flag is then set to “1”.
  • [0031]
    A user can overwrite the register bit values stored in BIOS 116. The user then sets the capacitor-set flag to “1” to prevent BIOS 116 from overwriting the user-defined settings when device 500 boots the next time. The latch settings may also be modified by an operating system (OS) running on device 500. For example, the OS may perform an adjustment to the clock signal. An accurate reference time signal is received from an input/output device 510. The OS controls chipset 508 to adjust the latch settings according to the reference time signal so that RTC circuit 514 provides an accurate time signal. The OS then sets the capacitor-set flag to “1” to prevent BIOS 116 from overwriting the latch settings. The register bit values defined by the user or operating system are maintained in the latches as long as the battery continues to provide power to the latches and the RTC circuit.
  • [0032]
    Device 500 further includes a processor 502 that processes data and a memory device 504 that stores data. The electronic device 500 may be a computer, a handheld device, a consumer electronics device, or any other device that requires an accurate time signal.
  • [0033]
    A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, the capacitor bank may incorporate a greater number of capacitors to provide a greater range of capacitance selection. The capacitance values of the capacitors in the capacitor bank may have some relationship other than a binary-weighted relationship so as to provide different capacitance combinations. The capacitors in the capacitor bank may be on-chip poly-capacitors or on-chip metal capacitors. The capacitors in the capacitor bank may even include discrete capacitors that are not made on a semiconductor chip. The external capacitors CL1 and CL2 may be connected in series to resonator 102 such that resonator 102 operate in a series resonance mode. For the capacitor bank of FIG. 2, a series connection with resistor Rbias and capacitor Cbias is not required if the oscillator signals remain above the threshold voltage of the capacitors in the capacitor bank. Device 500 may save the latch settings in a file in a hard drive 512. The file is loaded each time after device 500 is booted and used to set the chipset registers to select appropriate capacitors in the capacitor banks. This prevents the loss of latch settings in the event that the battery power is lost. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4582434 *Apr 23, 1984Apr 15, 1986Heath CompanyTime corrected, continuously updated clock
US4977380 *Dec 2, 1988Dec 11, 1990Actran Systems, Inc.Electronically tuned electro-acoustic power oscillator
US5323066 *Jun 1, 1992Jun 21, 1994Motorola, Inc.Method and apparatus for performing power on reset initialization in a data processing system
US5391999 *Dec 2, 1993Feb 21, 1995Motorola Inc.Glitchless switched-capacitor biquad low pass filter
US5546055 *Aug 24, 1995Aug 13, 1996Dallas Semiconductor Corp.Crystal oscillator bias stabilizer
US5801411 *Jan 11, 1996Sep 1, 1998Dallas Semiconductor Corp.Integrated capacitor with reduced voltage/temperature drift
US5914513 *May 18, 1998Jun 22, 1999The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of IllinoisElectronically tunable capacitor
US6181184 *Jun 3, 1998Jan 30, 2001Fujitsu LimitedVariable delay circuit and semiconductor intergrated circuit device
US6734483 *Aug 17, 2001May 11, 2004Stmicroelectronics S.A.Process for fabricating a capacitor within an integrated circuit, and corresponding integrated circuit
US20010050598 *Jan 14, 2000Dec 13, 2001Jean-Marc MourantBand-Switched Integrated Voltage Controlled Oscillator
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6791428 *Dec 30, 2002Sep 14, 2004Intel CorporationDuty cycle tuner for low power real time clock oscillator
US7486153Apr 4, 2005Feb 3, 2009Nxp, B.V.Circuit and method for controlling an oscillation loop
US7714684May 6, 2008May 11, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic resonator performance enhancement using alternating frame structure
US7732977Apr 30, 2008Jun 8, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore)Transceiver circuit for film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) transducers
US7737807Oct 18, 2005Jun 15, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic galvanic isolator incorporating series-connected decoupled stacked bulk acoustic resonators
US7746677Mar 9, 2006Jun 29, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.AC-DC converter circuit and power supply
US7791434Dec 22, 2004Sep 7, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic resonator performance enhancement using selective metal etch and having a trench in the piezoelectric
US7802349May 15, 2007Sep 28, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Manufacturing process for thin film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) filters
US7855618Apr 30, 2008Dec 21, 2010Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Bulk acoustic resonator electrical impedance transformers
US8080854Dec 22, 2008Dec 20, 2011Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Electronic device on substrate with cavity and mitigated parasitic leakage path
US8143082Mar 14, 2007Mar 27, 2012Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Wafer bonding of micro-electro mechanical systems to active circuitry
US8188810Jul 19, 2010May 29, 2012Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic resonator performance enhancement using selective metal etch
US8193877Nov 30, 2009Jun 5, 2012Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Duplexer with negative phase shifting circuit
US8230562Nov 9, 2007Jul 31, 2012Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Method of fabricating an acoustic resonator comprising a filled recessed region
US8238129Apr 20, 2010Aug 7, 2012Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.AC-DC converter circuit and power supply
US8248185Jun 24, 2009Aug 21, 2012Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic resonator structure comprising a bridge
US8350445Jun 24, 2011Jan 8, 2013Avago Technologies Wireless Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Bulk acoustic resonator comprising non-piezoelectric layer and bridge
US8575820Mar 29, 2011Nov 5, 2013Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Stacked bulk acoustic resonator
US8796904Oct 31, 2011Aug 5, 2014Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Bulk acoustic resonator comprising piezoelectric layer and inverse piezoelectric layer
US8902023Nov 25, 2009Dec 2, 2014Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic resonator structure having an electrode with a cantilevered portion
US8922302Aug 24, 2011Dec 30, 2014Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Acoustic resonator formed on a pedestal
US8962443Jan 31, 2011Feb 24, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Semiconductor device having an airbridge and method of fabricating the same
US8981876Mar 5, 2007Mar 17, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Piezoelectric resonator structures and electrical filters having frame elements
US9048812Aug 12, 2011Jun 2, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Bulk acoustic wave resonator comprising bridge formed within piezoelectric layer
US9083302Aug 12, 2011Jul 14, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Stacked bulk acoustic resonator comprising a bridge and an acoustic reflector along a perimeter of the resonator
US9136818Mar 29, 2011Sep 15, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Stacked acoustic resonator comprising a bridge
US9148117Jun 24, 2011Sep 29, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Coupled resonator filter comprising a bridge and frame elements
US9154112Feb 28, 2011Oct 6, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Coupled resonator filter comprising a bridge
US9203374Jun 2, 2011Dec 1, 2015Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Film bulk acoustic resonator comprising a bridge
US9243316Jan 22, 2010Jan 26, 2016Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Method of fabricating piezoelectric material with selected c-axis orientation
US20040124934 *Dec 30, 2002Jul 1, 2004Chinnugounder SenthilkumarDuty cycle tuner for low power real time clock oscillator
US20070086080 *Oct 18, 2005Apr 19, 2007Larson John D IiiAcoustic galvanic isolator incorporating series-connected decoupled stacked bulk acoustic resonators
US20070164827 *Apr 4, 2005Jul 19, 2007Franck CastexCircuit and method for controlling an oscillation loop
US20070211504 *Mar 9, 2006Sep 13, 2007Mark UnkrichAC-DC converter circuit and power supply
US20090146531 *May 15, 2007Jun 11, 2009Ruby Richard CManufacturing Process For Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Filters
US20110068880 *Mar 24, 2011Gavin HoMicromechanical network
WO2011035200A1 *Sep 17, 2010Mar 24, 2011Gavin HoMicromechanical network
Classifications
U.S. Classification331/100
International ClassificationH03B5/36
Cooperative ClassificationH03B5/368
European ClassificationH03B5/36C1
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jan 17, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: INTEL CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SENTHILKUMAR, CHINNUGOUNDER;FULTON, ROBERT;LEE, TEA;REEL/FRAME:012532/0962;SIGNING DATES FROM 20020114 TO 20020117