Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20030153060 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/139,218
Publication dateAug 14, 2003
Filing dateMay 3, 2002
Priority dateMay 1, 1998
Also published asUS7049112, US7063972, US7109009, US20030049821, US20030049822, US20030068800, US20030073220, US20030077795, US20030148486, US20030186411
Publication number10139218, 139218, US 2003/0153060 A1, US 2003/153060 A1, US 20030153060 A1, US 20030153060A1, US 2003153060 A1, US 2003153060A1, US-A1-20030153060, US-A1-2003153060, US2003/0153060A1, US2003/153060A1, US20030153060 A1, US20030153060A1, US2003153060 A1, US2003153060A1
InventorsC. Wilson, David Craft, L. Eirich, Mark Eshoo, Krishna Madduri, Cathy Cornett, Alfred Brenner, Maria Tang, John Loper, Martin Gleeson
Original AssigneeWilson C. Ron, Craft David L., Eirich L. Dudley, Mark Eshoo, Madduri Krishna M., Cornett Cathy A., Brenner Alfred A., Maria Tang, Loper John C., Martin Gleeson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genes and proteins related to the omega hydroxylase complex of Candida tropicalis and methods relating thereto
US 20030153060 A1
Abstract
Novel genes have been isolated which encode cytochrome P450 and NADPH reductase enzymes of the ω-hydroxylase complex of C. tropicalis 20336. Vectors including these genes, transfected host cells and transformed host cells are provided. Methods of producing of cytochrome P450 and NADPH reductase enzymes are also provided which involve transforming a host cell with a gene encoding these enzymes and culturing the cells. Methods of increasing the production of a dicarboxylic acid and methods of increasing production of the aforementioned enzymes are also provided which involve increasing in the host cell the number of genes encoding these enzymes. A method for discriminating members of a gene family by quantifying the expression of genes is also provided.
Images(89)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(209)
What is claimed is:
1. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CPRA protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83.
2. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1006-3042 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 81.
3. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 2 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 81.
4. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83.
5. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CPRA protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83.
6. A vector according to claim 5 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1006-3042 of SEQ ID NO: 81
7. A vector according to claim 5 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
8. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 1.
9. A host cell according to claim 8 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
10. A host cell according to claim 9 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
11. A host cell according to claim 10 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
12. A host cell according to claim 11 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
13. A host cell according to claim 12 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
14. A method of producing a CPRA protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
15. The method according to claim 14 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
16. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CPRB protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84.
17. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1033-3069 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 82.
18. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 17 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 82.
19. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84.
20. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CPRB protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84.
21. A vector according to claim 20 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1033-3069 of SEQ ID NO: 82.
22. A vector according to claim 20 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid..
23. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 16.
24. A host cell according to claim 23 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
25. A host cell according to claim 24 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
26. A host cell according to claim 25 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
27. A host cell according to claim 26 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
28. A host cell according to claim 27 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
29. A method of producing a CPRB protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
30. The method according to claim 29 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
31. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A1A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95.
32. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1177-2748 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 85.
33. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 32 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 85.
34. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95.
35. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A1A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95.
36. A vector according to claim 35 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1177-2748 of SEQ ID NO: 85.
37. A vector according to claim 35 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
38. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 31.
39. A host cell according to claim 38 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
40. A host cell according to claim 39 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
41. A host cell according to claim 40 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
42. A host cell according to claim 41 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
43. A host cell according to claim 42 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
44. A method of producing a CYP52A1A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
45. The method according to claim 44 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
46. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A2A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96.
47. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1199-2767 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 86.
48. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 47 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 86.
49. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96.
50. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A2A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96.
51. A vector according to claim 50 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1199-2767 of SEQ ID NO: 86.
52. A vector according to claim 50 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
53. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 46.
54. A host cell according to claim 53 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
55. A host cell according to claim 54 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
56. A host cell according to claim 55 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
57. A host cell according to claim 56 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
58. A host cell according to claim 57 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
59. A method of producing a CYP52A2A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
60. The method according to claim 59 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
61. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A2B protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97.
62. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1072-2640 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 87.
63. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 62 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 87.
64. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97.
65. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A2B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97.
66. A vector according to claim 65 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1072-2640 of SEQ ID NO: 87.
67. A vector according to claim 65 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
68. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 61.
69. A host cell according to claim 68 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
70. A host cell according to claim 69 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
71. A host cell according to claim 70 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
72. A host cell according to claim 71 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
73. A host cell according to claim 72 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
74. A method of producing a CYP52A2B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
75. The method according to claim 74 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
76. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A3A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98.
77. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1126-2748 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 88.
78. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 77 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 88.
79. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98.
80. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A3A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98.
81. A vector according to claim 80 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1126-2748 of SEQ ID NO: 88.
82. A vector according to claim 80 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
83. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 76.
84. A host cell according to claim 83 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
85. A host cell according to claim 84 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
86. A host cell according to claim 85 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
87. A host cell according to claim 86 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
88. A host cell according to claim 87 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
89. A method of producing a CYP52A3A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
90. The method according to claim 89 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
91. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A3B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99.
92. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 913-2535 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 89.
93. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 92 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 89.
94. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99.
95. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A3B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99.
96. A vector according to claim 95 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 913-2535 of SEQ ID NO: 89.
97. A vector according to claim 95 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
98. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 91.
99. A host cell according to claim 98 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
100. A host cell according to claim 99 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
101. A host cell according to claim 100 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
102. A host cell according to claim 101 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
103. A host cell according to claim 102 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
104. A method of producing a CYP52A3B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
105. The method according to claim 104 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
106. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A5A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100.
107. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1103-2656 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 90.
108. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 107 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 90.
109. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100.
110. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A5A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100.
111. A vector according to claim 110 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1103-2656 OF SEQ ID NO: 90.
112. A vector according to claim 110 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
113. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 106.
114. A host cell according to claim 113 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
115. A host cell according to claim 114 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
116. A host cell according to claim 115 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
117. A host cell according to claim 116 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
118. A host cell according to claim 117 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
119. A method of producing a CYP52A5A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
120. The method according to claim 119 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
121. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A5B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101.
122. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1142-2695 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 91.
123. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 122 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 91.
124. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101.
125. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A5B protein including the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101.
126. A vector according to claim 125 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1142-2695 of SEQ ID NO: 91.
127. A vector according to claim 125 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
128. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 121.
129. A host cell according to claim 128 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
130. A host cell according to claim 129 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
131. A host cell according to claim 130 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
132. A host cell according to claim 131 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
133. A host cell according to claim 132 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
134. A method of producing a CYP52A5B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
135. The method according to claim 134 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
136. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A8A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102.
137. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 464-2002 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 92.
138. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 137 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 92.
139. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102.
140. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A8A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102.
141. A vector according to claim 140 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 464-2002 of SEQ ID NO: 92.
142. A vector according to claim 140 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
143. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 136.
144. A host cell according to claim 143 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
145. A host cell according to claim 144 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
146. A host cell according to claim 145 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
147. A host cell according to claim 146 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
148. A host cell according to claim 147 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
149. A method of producing a CYP52A8A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
150. The method according to claim 149 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
151. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A8B protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103.
152. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 1017-2555 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 93.
153. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 152 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 93.
154. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103.
155. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A8B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103.
156. A vector according to claim 155 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 1017-2555 of SEQ ID NO: 93.
157. A vector according to claim 155 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
158. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 151.
159. A host cell according to claim 158 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
160. A host cell according to claim 159 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
161. A host cell according to claim 160 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
162. A host cell according to claim 161 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
163. A host cell according to claim 162 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
164. A method of producing a CYP52A8B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
165. The method according to claim 164 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
166. Isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52D4A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104.
167. Isolated nucleic acid comprising a coding region defined by nucleotides 767-2266 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 94.
168. Isolated nucleic acid according to claim 167 comprising the nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 94.
169. Isolated protein comprising an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104.
170. A vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52D4A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104.
171. A vector according to claim 170 wherein the nucleotide sequence is set forth in nucleotides 767-2266 of SEQ ID NO: 94.
172. A vector according to claim 170 wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of plasmid, phagemid, phage and cosmid.
173. A host cell transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid of claim 166.
174. A host cell according to claim 173 wherein the host cell is a yeast cell.
175. A host cell according to claim 174 wherein the yeast cell is a Candida sp.
176. A host cell according to claim 175 wherein the Candida sp. is Candida tropicalis.
177. A host cell according to claim 176 wherein the Candida tropicalis is Candida tropicalis 20336.
178. A host cell according to claim 177 wherein the Candida tropicalis is H5343 ura−.
179. A method of producing a CYP52D4A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 comprising:
a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104; and
b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.
180. The method according to claim 179 wherein the step of culturing the cell comprises adding an organic substrate to media containing the cell.
181. A method for discriminating members of a gene family by quantifying the amount of target mRNA in a sample comprising:
a) providing an organism containing a target gene;
b) culturing the organism with an organic substrate which causes upregulation in the activity of the target gene;
c) obtaining a sample of total RNA from the organism at a first point in time;
d) combining at least a portion of the sample of the total RNA with a known amount of competitor RNA to form an RNA mixture, wherein the competitor RNA is substantially similar to the target mRNA but has a lesser number of nucleotides compared to the target mRNA;
e) adding reverse transcriptase to the RNA mixture in a quantity sufficient to form corresponding target DNA and competitor DNA;
f) conducting a polymerase chain reaction in the presence of at least one primer specific for at least one substantially non-homologous region of the target DNA within the gene family, the primer also specific for the competitor DNA;
g) repeating steps (c-f) using increasing amounts of the competitor RNA while maintaining a substantially constant amount of target RNA;
(h) determining the point at which the amount of target DNA is substantially equal to the amount of competitor DNA;
(i) quantifying the results by comparing the ratio of the concentration of unknown target to the known concentration of competitor; and
(j) obtaining a sample of total RNA from the organism at another point in time and repeating steps (d-i).
182. A method according to claim 181 wherein the target gene is selected from the group consisting of a CPR gene and a CYP gene.
183. A method according to claim 182 wherein the CPR gene is selected from the group consisting of a CPRA gene (SEQ ID NO: 81) and a CPRB gene (SEQ ID NO: 82).
184. A method according to claim 182 wherein the CYP gene is selected from the group consisting of CYP52A1A gene (SEQ ID NO: 85), CYP52A2A gene (SEQ ID NO: 86), CYP52A2B gene (SEQ ID NO: 87), CYP52A3A gene (SEQ ID NO: 88), CYP52A3B gene (SEQ ID NO. 89), CYP52A5A gene (SEQ ID NO: 90), CYP52A5B gene (SEQ ID NO: 91), CYP52A8A gene (SEQ ID NO: 92), CYP52A8B gene (SEQ ID NO: 93) and CYP52D4A gene (SEQ ID NO: 94).
185. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CPRA genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CPRA genes which encode a CPRA protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CPRA gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
186. A method for increasing the production of a CPRA protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CPRA protein with an increased copy number of a CPRA gene that encodes the CPRA protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CPRA gene.
187. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CPRB genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CPRB genes which encode a CPRB protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CPRB gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
188. A method for increasing the production of a CPRB protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CPRB protein with an increased copy number of a CPRB gene that encodes the CPRB protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CPRB gene.
189. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A1A genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A1A genes which encode a CYP52A1A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A2A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
190. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A1A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A1A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A1A gene that encodes the CYP52A1A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A1A gene.
191. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A2A genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A2A genes which encode a CYP52A2A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A2A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
192. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A2A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A2A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A2A gene that encodes the CYP52A2A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A2A gene.
193. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A2B genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A2B genes which encode a CYP52A2B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A2B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
194. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A2B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A2B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A2B gene that encodes the CYP52A2B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A2B gene.
195. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A3A genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A3A genes which encode a CYP52A3A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A3A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
196. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A3A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A3A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A3A gene that encodes the CYP52A3A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A3A gene.
197. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A3B genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A3B genes which encode a CYP52A3B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A3B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
198. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A3B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A3B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A3B gene that encodes the CYP52A3B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A3B gene.
199. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A5A genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A5A genes which encode a CYP52A5A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A5A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
200. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A5A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A5A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A5A gene that encodes the CYP52A5A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A5A gene.
201. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A5B genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A5B genes which encode a CYP52A5B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A5B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
202. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A5B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A5B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A5B gene that encodes the CYP52A5B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A5B gene.
203. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A8A genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A8A genes which encode a CYP52A8A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A8A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
204. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A8A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A8A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A8A gene that encodes the CYP52A8A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A8A gene.
205. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A8B genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A8B genes which encode a CYP52A8B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A8B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
206. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A8B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A8B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A8B gene that encodes the CYP52A8B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A8B gene.
207. A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid comprising:
a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52D4A genes;
b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52D4A genes which encode a CYP52D4A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104;
c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52D4A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.
208. A method for increasing the production of a CYP52D4A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 comprising:
a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52D4A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52D4A gene that encodes the CYP52D4A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104; and
b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52D4A gene.
209. A method for discriminating members of a gene family according to claim 181 wherein culturing the organism with the organic substrate is accomplished in a fermentor.
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/123,555 filed Mar. 10, 1999, U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/103,099 filed Oct. 5, 1998, and U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/083,798 filed May 1, 1998.

BACKGROUND

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The present invention relates to novel genes which encode enzymes of the ω-hydroxylase complex in yeast Candida tropicalis strains. In particular, the invention relates to novel genes encoding the cytochrome P450 and NADPH reductase enzymes of the ω-hydroxylase complex in yeast Candida tropicalis, and to a method of quantitating the expression of genes.

[0004] 2. Description of the Related Art

[0005] Aliphatic dioic acids are versatile chemical intermediates useful as raw materials for the preparation of perfumes, polymers, adhesives and macrolid antibiotics. While several chemical routes to the synthesis of long-chain alpha, ω-dicarboxylic acids are available, the synthesis is not easy and most methods result in mixtures containing shorter chain lengths. As a result, extensive purification steps are necessary. While it is known that long-chain dioic acids can also be produced by microbial transformation of alkanes, fatty acids or esters thereof, chemical synthesis has remained the most commercially viable route, due to limitations with the current biological approaches.

[0006] Several strains of yeast are known to excrete alpha, ω-dicarboxylic acids as a byproduct when cultured on alkanes or fatty acids as the carbon source. In particular, yeast belonging to the Genus Candida, such as C. albicans, C. cloacae, C. guillermondii, C. intermedia, C. lipolytica, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis and C. zeylenoides are known to produce such dicarboxylic acids (Agr. Biol. Chem. 35: 2033-2042 (1971)). Also, various strains of C. tropicalis are known to produce dicarboxylic acids ranging in chain lengths from C11 through C18 (Okino et al., B M Lawrence, B D Mookherjee and B J Willis (eds), in Flavors and Fragrances: A World Perspective. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Essential Oils, Flavors and Fragrances, Elsevier Science Publishers BV Amsterdam (1988)), and are the basis of several patents as reviewed by Bühler and Schindler, in Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Biotechnology, H. J. Rehm and G. Reed (eds), Vol. 169, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim (1984).

[0007] Studies of the biochemical processes by which yeasts metabolize alkanes and fatty acids have revealed three types of oxidation reactions: α-oxidation of alkanes to alcohols, ω-oxidation of fatty acids to alpha, ω-dicarboxylic acids and the degradative β-oxidation of fatty acids to CO2 and water. The first two types of oxidations are catalyzed by microsomal enzymes while the last type takes place in the peroxisomes. In C. tropicalis, the first step in the ω-oxidation pathway is catalyzed by a membrane-bound enzyme complex (ω-hydroxylase complex) including a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and a NADPH cytochrome reductase. This hydroxylase complex is responsible for the primary oxidation of the terminal methyl group in alkanes and fatty acids (Gilewicz et al., Can. J. Microbiol. 25:201 (1979)). The genes which encode the cytochrome P450 and NADPH reductase components of the complex have previously been identified as P450ALK and P450RED respectively, and have also been cloned and sequenced (Sanglard et al., Gene 76:121-136 (1989)). P450ALK has also been designated P450ALK1. More recently, ALK genes have been designated by the symbol CYP and RED genes have been designated by the symbol CPR. See, e.g., Nelson, Pharmacogenetics 6(1):1-42 (1996), which is incorporated herein by reference. See also Ohkuma et al., DNA and Cell Biology 14:163-173 (1995), Seghezzi et al., DNA and Cell Biology, 11:767-780 (1992) and Kargel et al., Yeast 12:333-348 (1996), each incorporated herein by reference. For example, P450ALK is also designated CYP52 according to the nomenclature of Nelson, supra. Fatty acids are ultimately formed from alkanes after two additional oxidation steps, catalyzed by alcohol oxidase (Kemp et al., Appl. Microbiol. and Biotechnol. 28: 370-374 (1988)) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The fatty acids can be further oxidized through the same or similar pathway to the corresponding dicarboxylic acid. The ω-oxidation of fatty acids proceeds via the ω-hydroxy fatty acid and its aldehyde derivative, to the corresponding dicarboxylic acid without the requirement for CoA activation. However, both fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids can be degraded, after activation to the corresponding acyl-CoA ester through the β-oxidation pathway in the peroxisomes, leading to chain shortening. In mammalian systems, both fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid products of ω-oxidation are activated to their CoA-esters at equal rates and are substrates for both mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation (J. Biochem., 102:225-234 (1987)). In yeast, β-oxidation takes place solely in the peroxisomes (Arg.Biol.Chem. 49:1821-1828 (1985)).

[0008] It has recently been determined that certain eukaryotes, e.g., certain yeast, do not adhere, in some respects, to the “universal” genetic code which provides that particular codons (triplets of nucleic acids) code for specific amino acids. Indeed, the genetic code is “universal” because it is virtually the same in all living organisms. Certain Candida sp. are now known to translate the CTG codon (which, according to the “universal” code designates leucine) as serine. See, e.g., Ueda et al., Biochemie (1994) 76, 1217-1222, where C. tropicalis, C. cylindracea, C. guilliermodii and C. lusitaniae are shown to adhere to the “non-universal” code with respect to the CTG codon. Accordingly, nucleic acid sequences may code for one amino acid sequence in “universal” code organisms and a variant of that amino acid sequence in “non-universal” code organisms depending on the number of CTG codons present in the nucleic acid coding sequence. The difference may become evident when, in the course of genetic engineering, nucleic acid encoding a protein is transferred from a “non-universal” code organism to a “universal” code organism or vice versa. Obviously, there will be a different amino acid sequence depending on which organism is used to express the protein.

[0009] The production of dicarboxylic acids by fermentation of unsaturated C14-C16 monocarboxylic acids using a strain of the species C. tropicalis is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,474,882. The unsaturated dicarboxylic acids correspond to the starting materials in the number and position of the double bonds. Similar processes in which other special microorganisms are used are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,975,234 and 4,339,536, in British Patent Specification 1,405,026 and in German Patent Publications 21 64 626, 28 53 847, 29 37 292, 29 51 177, and 21 40 133.

[0010] Cytochromes P450 (P450s) are terminal monooxidases of a multicomponent enzyme system as described above. They comprise a superfamily of proteins which exist widely in nature having been isolated from a variety of organisms as described e.g., in Nelson, supra. These organisms include various mammals, fish, invertebrates, plants, mollusk, crustaceans, lower eukaryotes and bacteria (Nelson, supra). First discovered in rodent liver microsomes as a carbon-monoxide binding pigment as described, e.g., in Garfinkel, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 77:493-509 (1958), which is incorporated herein by reference, P450s were later named based on their absorption at 450 nm in a reduced-CO coupled difference spectrum as described, e.g., in Omura et al., J. Biol. Chem. 239:2370-2378 (1964), which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0011] P450s catalyze the metabolism of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds (Nelson, supra). Endogenous compounds include steroids, prostanoids, eicosanoids, fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, mammalian alkaloids, leukotrines, biogenic amines and phytolexins (Nelson, supra). P450 metabolism involves such reactions as epoxidation, hydroxylation, deakylation, N-hydroxylation, sulfoxidation, desulfuration and reductive dehalogenation. These reactions generally make the compound more water soluble, which is conducive for excretion, and more electrophilic. These electrophilic products can have detrimental effects if they react with DNA or other cellular constituents. However, they can react through conjugation with low molecular weight hydrophilic substances resulting in glucoronidation, sulfation, acetylation, amino acid conjugation or glutathione conjugation typically leading to inactivation and elimination as described, e.g., in Klaassen et al., Toxicology, 3rd ed, Macmillan, New York, 1986, incorporated herein by reference.

[0012] P450s are heme thiolate proteins consisting of a heme moiety bound to a single polypeptide chain of 45,000 to 55,000 Da. The iron of the heme prosthetic group is located at the center of a protoporphyrin ring. Four ligands of the heme iron can be attributed to the porphyrin ring. The fifth ligand is a thiolate anion from a cysteinyl residue of the polypeptide. The sixth ligand is probably a hydroxyl group from an amino acid residue, or a moiety with a similar field strength such as a water molecule as described, e.g., in Goeptar et al., Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25(1):25-65 (1995), incorporated herein by reference.

[0013] Monooxygenation reactions catalyzed by cytochromes P450 in a eukaryotic membrane-bound system require the transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450 via NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) as described, e.g., in Taniguchi et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 232:585 (1984), incorporated herein by reference. CPR genes are now also referred to as NCP genes. See, e.g., Debacker et al., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 45:1660 (2001). CPR is a flavoprotein of approximately 78,000 Da containing 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and 1 mol of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per mole of enzyme as described, e.g., in Potter et al., J. Biol. Chem. 258:6906 (1983), incorporated herein by reference. The FAD moiety of CPR is the site of electron entry into the enzyme, whereas FMN is the electron-donating site to P450 as described, e.g., in Vermilion et al., J. Biol. Chem. 253:8812 (1978), incorporated herein by reference. The overall reaction is as follows:

H+RH+NADPH+O2→ROH+NADP+H2O

[0014] Binding of a substrate to the catalytic site of P450 apparently results in a conformational change initiating electron transfer from CPR to P450. Subsequent to the transfer of the first electron, O2 binds to the Fe2-P450 substrate complex to form Fe3 +-P450-substrate complex. This complex is then reduced by a second electron from CPR, or, in some cases, NADH via cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase as described, e.g., in Guengerich et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 205:365 (1980), incorporated herein by reference. One atom of this reactive oxygen is introduced into the substrate, while the other is reduced to water. The oxygenated substrate then dissociates, regenerating the oxidized form of the cytochrome P450 as described, e.g., in Klassen, Amdur and Doull, Casarett and Doull's Toxicoloy, Macmillan, New York (1986), incorporated herein by reference.

[0015] The P450 reaction cycle can be short-circuited in such a way that O2 is reduced to O2 and/or H2O2 instead of being utilized for substrate oxygenation. This side reaction is often referred to as the “uncoupling” of cytochrome P450 as described, e.g., in Kuthen et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 126:583 (1982) and Poulos et al., FASEB J. 6:674 (1992), both of which are incorporated herein by reference. The formation of these oxygen radicals may lead to oxidative cell damage as described, e.g., in Mukhopadhyay, J. Biol. Chem. 269(18):13390-13397 (1994) and Ross et al., Biochem. Pharm. 49(7):979-989 (1995), both of which are incorporated herein by reference. It has been proposed that cytochrome b5's effect on P450 binding to the CPR results in a more stable complex which is less likely to become “uncoupled” as described, e.g., in Yamazaki et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 325(2):174-182 (1996), incorporated herein by reference.

[0016] P450 families are assigned based upon protein sequence comparisons. Notwithstanding a certain amount of heterogeneity, a practical classification of P450s into families can be obtained based on deduced amino acid sequence similarity. P450s with amino acid sequence similarity of between about 40-80% are considered to be in the same family, with sequences of about>55% belonging to the same subfamily. Those with sequence similarity of about<40% are generally listed as members of different P450 gene families (Nelson, supra). A value of about>97% is taken to indicate allelic variants of the same gene, unless proven otherwise based on catalytic activity, sequence divergence in non-translated regions of the gene sequence, or chromosomal mapping.

[0017] The most highly conserved region is the HR2 consensus containing the invariant cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus which is required for heme binding as described, e.g., in Gotoh et al. J. Biochem. 93:807-817 (1983) and Motohashi et al., J. Biochem. 101:879-997 (1987), both of which are incorporated herein by reference. Additional consensus regions, including the central region of helix I and the transmembrane region, have also been identified, as described, e.g, in Goeptar et al., supra and Kalb et al., PNAS. 85:7221-7225 (1988), incorporated herein by reference, although the HR2 cysteine is the only invariant amino acid among P450s.

[0018] Short chain (≦C12) aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (diacids) are important industrial intermediates in the manufacture of diesters and polymers, and find application as thermoplastics, plasticizing agents, lubricants, hydraulic fluids, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, surfactants, and adhesives. The high price and limited availability of short chain diacids are due to constraints imposed by the existing chemical synthesis.

[0019] Long-chain diacids (aliphatic α, ω-dicarboxylic acids with carbon numbers of 12 or greater, hereafter also referred to as diacids) (HOOC-(CH2)n-COOH) are a versatile family of chemicals with demonstrated and potential utility in a variety of chemical products including plastics, adhesives, and fragrances. Unfortunately, the full market potential of diacids has not been realized because chemical processes produce only a limited range of these materials at a relatively high price. In addition, chemical processes for the production of diacids have a number of limitations and disadvantages. All the chemical processes are restricted to the production of diacids of specific carbon chain lengths. For example, the dodecanedioic acid process starts with butadiene. The resulting product diacids are limited to multiples of four-carbon lengths and, in practice, only dodecanedioic acid is made. The dodecanedioic process is based on nonrenewable petrochemical feedstocks. The multireaction conversion process produces unwanted byproducts, which result in yield losses, NOx pollution and heavy metal wastes.

[0020] Long-chain diacids offer potential advantages over shorter chain diacids, but their high selling price and limited commercial availability prevent widespread growth in many of these applications. Biocatalysis offers an innovative way to overcome these limitations with a process that produces a wide range of diacid products from renewable feedstocks. However, there is no commercially viable bioprocess to produce long chain diacids from renewable resources.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0021] An isolated nucleic acid is provided which encodes a CPRA protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117. An isolated nucleic acid is also provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1006-3042 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 81. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CPRA protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CPRA protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117. A method of producing a CPRA protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117 is also provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0022] An isolated nucleic acid is provided which encodes a CPRB protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1033-3069 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 82. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CPRB protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CPRB protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118. A method of producing a CPRB protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0023] An isolated nucleic acid is provided which encodes a CYP52A1A protein having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1177-2748 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 85. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A1A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A1A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110. A method of producing a CYP52A1A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0024] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A2A protein is provided which has the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1199-2767 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 86. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A2A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A2A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96. A method of producing a CYP52A2A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0025] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A2B protein is provided which has the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1072-2640 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 87. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A2B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A2B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97. A method of producing a CYP52A2B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0026] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A3A protein is provided which has the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1126-2748 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 88. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A3A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A3A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98. A method of producing a CYP52A3A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0027] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A3B protein is provided having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 913-2535 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 89. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A3B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A3B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111. A method of producing a CYP52A3B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0028] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A5A protein is provided having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1103-2656 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 90. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A5A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A5A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112. A method of producing a CYP52A5A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0029] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A5B protein is provided having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1142-2695 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 91. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A5B protein including the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A5B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113. A method of producing a CYP52A5B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0030] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A8A protein is provided having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 464-2002 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 92. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A8A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A8A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114. A method of producing a CYP52A8A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0031] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52A8B protein is provided having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115. An isolated nucleic acid is provided which includes a coding region defined by nucleotides 1017-2555 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 93. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52A8B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52A8B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115. A method of producing a CYP52A8B protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0032] An isolated nucleic acid encoding a CYP52D4A protein is provided having the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116. An isolated nucleic acid is provided including a coding region defined by nucleotides 767-2266 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 94. An isolated protein is provided which includes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116. A vector is provided which includes a nucleotide sequence encoding CYP52D4A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116. A host cell is provided which is transfected or transformed with the nucleic acid encoding CYP52D4A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116. A method of producing a CYP52D4A protein including an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116 is provided which includes a) transforming a suitable host cell with a DNA sequence that encodes the protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116; and b) culturing the cell under conditions favoring the expression of the protein.

[0033] A method for discriminating members of a gene family by quantifying the amount of target mRNA in a sample is provided which includes a) providing an organism containing a target gene; b) culturing the organism with an organic substrate which causes upregulation in the activity of the target gene; c) obtaining a sample of total RNA from the organism at a first point in time; d) combining at least a portion of the sample of the total RNA with a known amount of competitor RNA to form an RNA mixture, wherein the competitor RNA is substantially similar to the target mRNA but has a lesser number of nucleotides compared to the target mRNA; e) adding reverse transcriptase to the RNA mixture in a quantity sufficient to form corresponding target DNA and competitor DNA; (f) conducting a polymerase chain reaction in the presence of at least one primer specific for at least one substantially non-homologous region of the target DNA within the gene family, the primer also specific for the competitor DNA; g) repeating steps (c-f) using increasing amounts of the competitor RNA while maintaining a substantially constant amount of target RNA; h) determining the point at which the amount of target DNA is substantially equal to the amount of competitor DNA; i) quantifying the results by comparing the ratio of the concentration of unknown target to the known concentration of competitor; and j) obtaining a sample of total RNA from the organism at another point in time and repeating steps (d-i).

[0034] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CPRA genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CPRA genes which encode a CPRA protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CPRA gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0035] A method for increasing the production of a CPRA protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CPRA protein with an increased copy number of a CPRA gene that encodes the CPRA protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 83 or SEQ ID NO: 117; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CPRA gene.

[0036] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CPRB genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CPRB genes which encode a CPRB protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CPRB gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0037] A method for increasing the production of a CPRB protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CPRB protein with an increased copy number of a CPRB gene that encodes the CPRB protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 or SEQ ID NO: 118; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CPRB gene.

[0038] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A1A genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A1A genes which encode a CYP52A1A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A1A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0039] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A1A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A1A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A4A gene that encodes the CYP52A1A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 95 or SEQ ID NO: 110; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A1A gene.

[0040] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A2A genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A2A genes which encode a CYP52A2A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A2A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0041] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A2A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A2A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A2A gene that encodes the CYP52A2A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A2A gene.

[0042] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A2B genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A2B genes which encode a CYP52A2B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A2B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0043] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A2B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A2B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A2B gene that encodes the CYP52A2B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 97; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A2B gene.

[0044] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A3A genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A3A genes which encode a CYP52A3A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates CYP52A3A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0045] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A3A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A3A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A3A gene that encodes the CYP52A3A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A3A gene.

[0046] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A3B genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A3B genes which encode a CYP52A3B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A3B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0047] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A3B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A3B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A3B gene that encodes the CYP52A3B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99 or SEQ ID NO: 111; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A3B gene.

[0048] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A5A genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A5A genes which encode a CYP52A5A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A5A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0049] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A5A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A5A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A5A gene that encodes the CYP52A5A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100 or SEQ ID NO: 112; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A5A gene.

[0050] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A5B genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A5B genes which encode a CYP52A5B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A5B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0051] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A5B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A5B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A5B gene that encodes the CYP52A5B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 or SEQ ID NO: 113; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A5B gene.

[0052] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A8A genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A8A genes which encode a CYP52A8A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A8A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0053] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A8A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A8A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A8A gene that encodes the CYP52A8A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102 or SEQ ID NO: 114; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A8A gene.

[0054] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52A8B genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52A8B genes which encode a CYP52A8B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52A8B gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0055] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52A8B protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52A8B protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52A8B gene that encodes the CYP52A8B protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 103 or SEQ ID NO: 115; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52A8B gene.

[0056] A method for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid is provided which includes a) providing a host cell having a naturally occurring number of CYP52D4A genes; b) increasing, in the host cell, the number of CYP52D4A genes which encode a CYP52D4A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116; c) culturing the host cell in media containing an organic substrate which upregulates the CYP52D4A gene, to effect increased production of dicarboxylic acid.

[0057] A method for increasing the production of a CYP52D4A protein having an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116 is provided which includes a) transforming a host cell having a naturally occurring amount of CYP52D4A protein with an increased copy number of a CYP52D4A gene that encodes the CYP52D4A protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 104 or SEQ ID NO: 116; and b) culturing the cell and thereby increasing expression of the protein compared with that of a host cell containing a naturally occurring copy number of the CYP52D4A gene.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0058]FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of cloning vector pTriplEx from Clontech™ Laboratories, Inc. Selected restriction sites within the multiple cloning site are shown.

[0059]FIG. 2A is a map of the ZAP Express™ vector.

[0060]FIG. 2B is a schematic representation of cloning phagemid vector pBK-CMV.

[0061]FIG. 3 is a double stranded DNA sequence of a portion of the 5 prime coding region of the CYP52A5A gene (SEQ ID NO: 36), the non-coding or antisense sequence (SEQ ID NO: 108), primer 7581-97F (SEQ ID NO: 47) and primer 7581-97M (SEQ ID NO: 48).

[0062]FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic representation of highly conserved regions of CYP and CPR gene protein sequences. Helix I represents the putative substrate binding site and HR2 represents the heme binding region. The FMN, FAD and NADPH binding regions are indicated below the CPR gene.

[0063]FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM1 containing the truncated CPRA gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0064]FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM4 containing the truncated CPRA gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0065]FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM9 containing the CPRB gene (SEQ ID NO: 82) present in the pBK-CMV vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0066]FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM11 containing the CYP52A1A gene (SEQ ID NO: 85) present in the pBK-CMV vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0067]FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM12 containing the CYP52A8A gene (SEQ ID NO: 92) present in the pBK-CMV vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0068]FIG. 10 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM13 containing the CYP52D4A gene (SEQ ID NO: 94) present in the pBK-CMV vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0069]FIG. 11 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM14 containing the CYP52A2B gene (SEQ ID NO: 87) present in the pBK-CMV vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0070]FIG. 12 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pHKM15 containing the CYP52A8B gene (SEQ ID NO: 93) present in the pBK-CMV vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0071] FIGS. 13A-13D show the complete DNA sequences including regulatory and coding regions for the CPRA gene (SEQ ID NO: 81) and CPRB gene (SEQ ID NO: 82) from C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. FIGS. 13A-13D show regulatory and coding region alignment of these sequences. Asterisks indicate conserved nucleotides. The start codons are underlined and the last amino acid coding codons immediately before the stop codon are underlined.

[0072]FIG. 14 shows the amino acid sequence of the CPRA (SEQ ID NO: 83) and CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 84) proteins from C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 and alignment of these amino acid sequences. Asterisks indicate residues which are not conserved.

[0073] FIGS. 15A-15M show the complete DNA sequences including regulatory and coding regions for the following genes from C. tropicalis ATCC 20366: CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 85), CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86), CYP52A2B (SEQ ID NO: 87), CYP52A3A (SEQ ID NO: 88), CYP52A3B (SEQ ID NO: 89), CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO. 90), CYP52A5B (SEQ ID NO: 91), CYP52A8A (SEQ ID NO: 92), CYP52A8B (SEQ ID NO: 93), and CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO: 94). FIGS. 15A-15M show regulatory and coding region alignment of these sequences. Asterisks indicate conserved nucleotides. The start codons are underlined and the last amino acid coding codons immediately before the stop codon are underlined.

[0074] FIGS. 16A-16C show the amino acid sequences encoding the CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 95), CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 96), CYP52A2B (SEQ ID NO: 97), CYP52A3A (SEQ ID NO: 98), CYP52A3B (SEQ ID NO: 99), CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO: 100), CYP52A5B (SEQ ID NO: 101), CYP52A8A (SEQ ID NO: 102), CYP52A8B (SEQ ID NO: 103) and CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO. 104) proteins from C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. Asterisks indicate identical residues and dots indicate conserved residues.

[0075]FIG. 17 is a diagrammatic representation of the pTAg PCR product cloning vector (commercially available from R&D Systems, Minneapolis, Minn.).

[0076]FIG. 18 is a plot of the log ratio (U/C) of unknown target DNA product to competitor DNA product versus the concentration of competitor mRNA. The plot is used to calculate the target messenger RNA concentration in a quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR).

[0077]FIG. 19 is a graph showing the relative induction of C. tropicalis ATCC 20962 CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO: 90) by the addition of the fatty acid substrate Emersol® 267 to the growth medium.

[0078]FIG. 20 is a graph showing the induction of C. tropicalis ATCC 20962 CYP52and CPR genes by Emersol® 267. P450 genes CYP52A3A (SEQ ID NO: 88), CYP52A3B (SEQ ID NO: 89), and CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO: 94) are expressed at levels below the detection level of the QC-RT-PCR assay.

[0079]FIG. 21 is a scheme to integrate selected genes into the genome of Candida tropicalis strains and recovery of URA3A selectable marker.

[0080]FIG. 22 is a schematic representation of the transformation of C. tropicalis H5343 ura3 with CYP and/or CPR genes. Only one URA3 locus needs to be functional. There are a total of 6 possible ura3 targets (5ura3A loci-2 pox4 disruptions, 2 pox 5 disruptions, 1 ura3A locus; and 1 ura3B locus).

[0081]FIG. 23 is the complete DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 105) encoding URA3A from C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 and the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein (SEQ ID NO: 106).

[0082]FIG. 24 is a schematic representation of the plasmid pURAin, the base vector for integrating selected genes into the genome of C. tropicalis. The detailed construction of pURAin is described in the text.

[0083]FIG. 25 is a schematic representation of the plasmid pNEB193 cloning vector (commercially available from New England Biolabs, Beverly, Mass.).

[0084]FIG. 26 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pPA15 containing the truncated CYP52A2A gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0085]FIG. 27 is a schematic representation of pURA2in, the base vector is constructed in pNEB193 which contains the 8 bp recognition sequences for Asc I, Pac I and Pmc I. URA3A (SEQ ID NO: 105) and CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) do not contain these 8 bp recognition sites. URA3A is inverted so that the transforming fragment will attempt to recircularize prior to integration. An Asc I/Pme I fragment was used to transform H5343 ura.

[0086]FIG. 28 shows a scheme to detect integration of CYP52A2A gene (SEQ ID NO: 86) into the genome of H5343 ura. In all cases, hybridization band intensity could reflect the number of integrations.

[0087]FIG. 29 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pPA57 containing the truncated CYP52A3A gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0088]FIG. 30 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pPA62 containing the truncated CYP52A3B gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0089]FIG. 31 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pPAL3 containing the truncated CYP52A5A gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0090]FIG. 32 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pPA5 containing the truncated CYP52A5A gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0091]FIG. 33 is a diagrammatic representation of the plasmid pPA18 containing the truncated CYP52D4A gene present in the pTriplEx vector. A detailed restriction map of only the sequenced region is shown at the top. The bar indicates the open reading frame. The direction of transcription is indicated by an arrow under the open reading frame.

[0092]FIG. 34 is a graph showing the expression of CYP52A1 (SEQ ID NO: 85), CYP52A2(SEQ ID NO: 86) and CYP52A5 genes (SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91) from C. tropicalis 20962 in a fermentor run upon the addition of amounts of the substrate oleic acid or tridecane in a spiking experiment.

[0093]FIG. 35 depicts a scheme used for the extraction and analysis of diacids and monoacids from fermentation broths.

[0094]FIG. 36 is a graph showing the induction of expression of CYP52A1A , CYP52A2A and CYP52A5A in a fermentor run upon addition of the substrate octadecane. No induction of CYP52A3A or CYP52A3B was observed under these conditions.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0095] Diacid productivity is improved according to the present invention by selectively increasing enzymes which are known to be important to the oxidation of organic substrates such as fatty acids composing the desired feed. According to the present invention, ten CYP genes and two CPR genes of C. tropicalis have been identified and characterized that relate to participation in the ω-hydroxylase complex catalyzing the first step in the ω-oxidation pathway. In addition, a novel quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR) assay is used to measure gene expression in the fermentor under conditions of induction by one or more organic substrates as defined herein. Based upon QC-RT-PCR results, three CYP genes, CYP52A1, CYP52A2and CYP52A5, have been identified as being of greater importance for the ω-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. Amplification of the CPR gene copy number improves productivity. The QC-RT-PCR assay indicates that both CYP and CPR genes appear to be under tight regulatory control.

[0096] In accordance with the present invention, a method for discriminating members of a gene family by quantifying the amount of target mRNA in a sample is provided which includes a) providing an organism containing a target gene; b) culturing the organism with an organic substrate which causes upregulation in the activity of the target gene; c) obtaining a sample of total RNA from the organism at a first point in time; d) combining at least a portion of the sample of the total RNA with a known amount of competitor RNA to form an RNA mixture, wherein the competitor RNA is substantially similar to the target mRNA but has a lesser number of nucleotides compared to the target mRNA; e) adding reverse transcriptase to the RNA mixture in a quantity sufficient to form corresponding target DNA and competitor DNA; (f) conducting a polymerase chain reaction in the presence of at least one primer specific for at least one substantially non-homologous region of the target DNA within the gene family, the primer also specific for the competitor DNA; g) repeating steps (c-f) using increasing amounts of the competitor RNA while maintaining a substantially constant amount of target RNA; h) determining the point at which the amount of target DNA is substantially equal to the amount of competitor DNA; i) quantifying the results by comparing the ratio of the concentration of unknown target to the known concentration of competitor; and j) obtaining a sample of total RNA from the organism at another point in time and repeating steps (d-i).

[0097] In addition, modification of existing promoters and/or the isolation of alternative promoters provides increased expression of CYP and CPR genes. Strong promoters are obtained from at least four sources: random or specific modifications of the CYP52A2 promoter, CYP52A5 promoter, CYP52A1 promoter, the selection of a strong promoter from available Candida β-oxidation genes such as POX4 and POX5, or screening to select another suitable Candida promoter.

[0098] Promoter strength can be directly measured using QT-RT-PCR to measure CYP and CPR gene expression in Candida cells isolated from fermentors. Enzymatic assays and antibodies specific for CYP and CPR proteins are used to verify that increased promoter strength is reflected by increased synthesis of the corresponding enzymes. Once a suitable promoter is identified, it is fused to the selected CYP and CPR genes and introduced into Candida for construction of a new improved production strain. It is contemplated that the coding region of the CYP and CPR genes can be fused to suitable promoters or other regulatory sequences which are well known to those skilled in the art.

[0099] In accordance with the present invention, studies on C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 have identified six unique CYP genes and four potential alleles. QC-RT-PCR analyses of cells isolated during the course of the fermentation bioconversions indicate that at least three of the CYP genes are induced by fatty acids and at least two of the CYP genes are induced by alkanes. See FIG. 34. Two of the CYP genes are highly induced indicating participation in the ω-hydroxylase complex which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the oxidation of fatty acids to the corresponding diacids.

[0100] The biochemical characterizations of each P450 enzyme herein is used to tailor the C. tropicalis host for optimal diacid productivity and is used to select P450 enzymes to be amplified based upon the fatty acid content of the feedstream. CYP gene(s) encoding P450 enzymes that have a low specific activity for the fatty acid or alkane substrate of choice are targeted for inactivation, thereby reducing the physiological load on the cell.

[0101] Since it has been demonstrated that CPR can be limiting in yeast systems, the removal of non-essential P450s from the system can free electrons that are being used by non-essential P450s and make them available to the P450s important for diacid productivity. Moreover, the removal of non-essential P450s can make available other necessary but potentially limiting components of the P450 system (i.e., available membrane space, heme and/or NADPH).

[0102] Diacid productivity is thus improved by selective integration, amplification, and over expression of CYP and CPR genes in the C. tropicalis production host.

[0103] It should be understood that host cells into which one or more copies of desired CYP and/or CPR genes have been introduced can be made to include such genes by any technique known to those skilled in the art. For example, suitable host cells include procaryotes such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomous sp., Actinomycetes sp., Eschericia sp., Mycobacterium sp., and eukaryotes such as yeast, algae, insect cells, plant cells and filamentous fungi. Suitable host cells are preferably yeast cells such as Yarrowia, Bebaromyces, Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and Pichia and more preferably those of the Candida genus. Preferred species of Candida are tropicalis, maltosa, apicola, paratropicalis, albicans, cloacae, guillermondii, intermedia, lipolytica, parapsilosis and zeylenoides. Certain preferred stains of Candida tropicalis are listed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,254,466, incorporated herein by reference.

[0104] Vectors such as plasmids, phagemids, phages or cosmids can be used to transform or transfect suitable host cells. Host cells may also be transformed by introducing into a cell a linear DNA vector(s) containing the desired gene sequence. Such linear DNA may be advantageous when it is desirable to avoid introduction of non-native (foreign) DNA into the cell. For example, DNA consisting of a desired target gene(s) flanked by DNA sequences which are native to the cell can be introduced into the cell by electroporation, lithium acetate transformation, spheroplasting and the like. Flanking DNA sequences can include selectable markers and/or other tools for genetic engineering.

[0105] It should be understood that, depending on whether a transformed organism utilizes the universal genetic code or the non-universal genetic code known, e.g., in connection with C. tropicalis, slight differences can be manifest in the amino acid sequences of protein-products. Thus, nucleotide sequences containing a CTG codon produce proteins containing a CTG encoded leucine in prokaryotes such as E. coli and a CTG encoded serine in non-universal coding eukaryotes such as C. tropicalis. For example, the CYP52A1A gene contains one CTG codon starting at position 1354 which is translated as a leucine in E. coli and a serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CYP52A1A protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 95 and SEQ. ID. NO: 110); the CYP52A3B gene contains one CTG codon starting at position 2449 which is translated as a leucine in E. coli and a serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CYP52A3B protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 99 and SEQ. ID NO: 111); the CYP52A5A gene contains two CTG codons starting, respectively, at positions 1883 and 2570, which are translated as leucine in E. coli and serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CYP52A5A protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 100 and SEQ. ID. NO: 112); the CYP52A5B gene contains two CTG codons starting, respectively, at positions 1922 and 2609, which are translated as leucine in E. coli and serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CYP52A5B protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 101 and SEQ. ID. NO: 113); the CYP52A8 gene contains one CTG codon starting at position 659, which is translated as a leucine in E. coli and a serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CYP52A8B protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 103 and SEQ. ID. NO: 115); the CYP52D4A gene contains three CTG codons starting, respectively, at positions 1247, 1412 and 1757, which are translated as leucine in E. coli and as serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CYP5234A protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 104 and SEQ. ID. NO: 116); the CPRA (NCP1A) gene contains one CTG codon starting at position 1153 which is translated as a leucine in E. coli and as a serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CPRA (NCP1A ) protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 83 and SEQ. ID. NO: 117); the CPRG (NCP1B) gene contains one CTG codon starting at position 1180 which is translated as a leucine in E. coli and as a serine in C. tropicalis, leading to two versions of the CPRB (NCP1B) protein (SEQ. ID. NO: 84 and SEQ. ID. NO: 118).

[0106] A suitable organic substrate herein can be any organic compound that is biooxidizable to a mono- or polycarboxylic acid. Such a compound can be any saturated or unsaturated aliphatic compound or any carbocyclic or heterocyclic aromatic compound having at least one terminal methyl group, a terminal carboxyl group and/or a terminal functional group which is oxidizable to a carboxyl group by biooxidation. A terminal functional group which is a derivative of a carboxyl group may be present in the substrate molecule and may be converted to a carboxyl group by a reaction other than biooxidation. For example, if the terminal group is an ester that neither the wild-type C. tropicalis nor the genetic modifications described herein will allow hydrolysis of the ester functionality to a carboxyl group, then a lipase can be added during the fermentation step to liberate free fatty acids. Suitable organic substrates include, but are not limited to, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and combinations thereof.

[0107] Alkanes are a type of saturated organic substrate which are useful herein. The alkanes can be linear or cyclic, branched or straight chain, substituted or unsubstituted. Particularly preferred alkanes are those having from about 4 to about 25 carbon atoms, examples of which include but are not limited to butane, hexane, octane, nonane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, octadecane and the like.

[0108] Examples of unsaturated organic substrates which can be used herein include but are not limited to internal olefins such as 2-pentene, 2-hexene, 3-hexene, 9-octadecene and the like; unsaturated carboxylic acids such as 2-hexenoic acid and esters thereof, oleic acid and esters thereof including triglyceryl esters having a relatively high oleic acid content, erucic acid and esters thereof including triglyceryl esters having a relatively high erucic acid content, ricinoleic acid and esters thereof including triglyceryl esters having a relatively high ricinoleic acid content, linoleic acid and esters thereof including triglyceryl esters having a relatively high linoleic acid content; unsaturated alcohols such as 3-hexen-1-ol, 9-octadecen-1-ol and the like; unsaturated aldehydes such as 3-hexen-1-al, 9-octadecen-1-al and the like. In addition to the above, an organic substrate which can be used herein include alicyclic compounds having at least one internal carbon-carbon double bond and at least one terminal methyl group, a terminal carboxyl group and/or a terminal functional group which is oxidizable to a carboxyl group by biooxidation. Examples of such compounds include but are not limited to 3,6-methyl, 1,4-cyclohexadiene; 3-methylcyclohexene; 3-methyl-1, 4-cyclohexadiene and the like.

[0109] Examples of the aromatic compounds that can be used herein include but are not limited to arenes such as o-, m-, p-xylene; o-, m-, p-methyl benzoic acid; dimethyl pyridine, and the like. The organic substrate can also contain other functional groups that are biooxidizable to carboxyl groups such as an aldehyde or alcohol group. The organic substrate can also contain other functional groups that are not biooxidizable to carboxyl groups and do not interfere with the biooxidation such as halogens, ethers, and the like.

[0110] Examples of saturated fatty acids which may be applied to cells incorporating the present CYP and CPR genes include caproic, enanthic, caprylic, pelargonic, capric, undecylic, lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, behenic acids and combinations thereof. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids which may be applied to cells incorporating the present CYP and CPR genes include palmitoleic, oleic, erucic, linoleic, linolenic acids and combinations thereof. Alkanes and fractions of alkanes may be applied which include chain links from C12 to C24 in any combination. An example of a preferred fatty acid mixtures are Emersol® 267 and Tallow, both commercially available from Henkel Chemicals Group, Cincinnati, Ohio. The typical fatty acid composition of Emersol® 267 and Tallow is as follows:

TALLOW E267
C14:0 3.5% 2.4%
C14:1 1.0% 0.7%
C15:0 0.5%
C16:0 25.5%  4.6%
C16:1 4.0% 5.7%
C17:0 2.5%
C17:1 5.7%
C18:0 19.5%  1.0%
C18:1 41.0%  69.9% 
C18:2 2.5% 8.8%
C18:3 0.3%
C20:0 0.5%
C20:1 0.9%

[0111] The following examples are meant to illustrate but not to limit the invention. All relevant microbial strains and plasmids are described in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively.

TABLE 1
List of Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis strains
STRAIN GENOTYPE SOURCE
E.Coli
XL1 Blue- endA1, gyrA96, hsdR17, lac, Stratagene, La Jolla,
MRF recA1, relA1, supE44, thi-1, [F′ CA
lacl′Z M15, proAB, Tn10]
BM25.8 SupE44, thi (lac-proAB) [F′ Clontech, Palo Alto,
traD36, proAB, lacl′Z M15] CA
λimm434 (kan′)P1 (cam′)
hsdR ()
XLOLR (mcrA)183 (mcrCB-hsdSMR- Stratagene, La Jolla,
mrr)173 endA1 thi-1 recA1 CA
gyrA96 relA1 Iac [F′ proAB
lacl′Z M15Tn10 (Tet) Su
(nonsuppressing λ′(lamda
resistant)
C. tropicalis
ATCC20336 Wild-type American Type
Culture Collection,
Rockville, MD
ATCC750 Wild-type American Type
Culture Collection,
Rockville, MD
ATCC 20962 ura3A/una3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A
H5343 ura- ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3-
HDC1 ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3::URA3A-CYP52A2A
HDC5 ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3::URA3A-CYP52A3A
HDC10 ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3::URA3A-CPRB
HDC15 ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3::URA3A-CYP52A5A
HDC20 ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3::URA3A-CYP52A2A +
CPR B (CYP and CPR have
opposite 5′ to 3′ orientation with
respect to each other)
HDC23 ura3A/ura3B, Henkel
pox4A::ura3A/pox4B::ura3A,
pox5::ura3A/pox5::URA3A,
ura3::URA3A-CYP52A2A +
CPR B (CYP and CPR have
same 5′ to 3′ orientation with
respect to each other)

[0112]

TABLE 2
List of plasmids isolated from genomic libraries and constructed for use
in gene integrations.
Base Insert Plasmid
Plasmid vector Insert Size size Description
pURAin pNEB193 URA3A 1706 bp 4399 bp pNEB193 with the URA3A gene
inserted in the AscI - PmeI site,
generating a PacI site
pURA 2in pURAin CYP52A2A 2230 bp 6629 bp pURAin containing a PCR
CYP52A2A allele containing
PacI restriction sites
pURA pURAin CPRB 3266 bp 7665 bp pURAin containing a PCR
REDB in CPRB allele containing PacI
restriction sites
pHKM1 pTriplEx Truncated Approx. Approx. A truncated CPRA gene
CPRA gene 3.8 kb 7.4 kb obtained by first screening library
containing the 5′ untranslated
region and 1.2 kb open reading frame
pHKM4 PTriplEx Truncated Approx. Approx. A truncated CPRA gene
CPRA gene 5 kb 8.6 kb obtained by screening second
library containing the 3′
untranslated region end sequence
pHKM9 pBC- CPRB Approx. Approx. CPRB allele isolated from the
CMV gene 5.39 kb 9.8 kb third library
pHKM11 pBC- CYP52A1A Approx. Approx. CYP52A1A isolated from the
CMV 5 kb 9.5 kb third library
pHKM12 pBC- CYP52A8A Approx. Approx. CYP52A8A isolated from the
CMV 7.5 kb 12 kb third library
pHKM13 pBC- CYP52D4A Approx. Approx. CYP52D4A isolated from the
CMV 7.3 kb 11.8 kb third library
pHKM14 pBC- CYP52A2B Approx. Approx. CYP52A2B isolated from the
CMV 6 kb 10.5 kb third library
pHKM 15 pBC- CYP52A8B Approx. Approx. CYP52A8B isolated from the
CMV 6.6 kb 11.1 kb third library
pPAL3 pTriplEx CYP52A5A 4.4 kb Approx. CYP52A5A isolated from the 1st
8.1 kb library
pPA5 pTriplEx CYP52A5B 4.1 kb Approx. CYP52A5B isolated from the
7.8 kb 2nd library
pPA15 pTriplEx CYP52A2A 6.0 kb Approx. CYP52A2A isolated from the
9.7 kb 2nd library
pPA57 pTriplEx CYP52A3A 5.5 kb Approx. CYP52A3A isolated from the
9.2 kb 2nd library
pPA62 pTriplEx CYP52A3B 6.0 kb Approx. CYP52A3B isolated from the
9.7 kb 2nd library

EXAMPLE 1 Purification of Genomic DNA from Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336

[0113] A. Construction of Genomic Libraries

[0114] 50 ml of YEPD broth (see Table 9) was inoculated with a single colony of C. tropicalis 20336 from YEPD agar plate and grown overnight at 30° C. 5 ml of the overnight culture was inoculated into 100 ml of fresh YEPD broth and incubated at 30° C. for 4 to 5 hr with shaking. Cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed twice with sterile distilled water and resuspended in 4 ml of spheroplasting buffer (1 M Sorbitol, 50 mM EDTA, 14 mM mercaptoethanol) and incubated for 30 min at 37° C. with gentle shaking. 0.5 ml of 2 mg/ml zymolyase (ICN Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) was added and incubated at 37° C. with gentle shaking for 30 to 60 min. Spheroplast formation was monitored by SDS lysis. Spheroplasts were harvested by brief centrifugation (4,000 rpm, 3 min) and were washed once with the spheroplast buffer without mercaptoethanol. Harvested spheroplasts were then suspended in 4 ml of lysis buffer (0.2 M Tris/pH 8.0, 50 mM EDTA, 1% SDS) containing 100 μg/ml RNase (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) and incubated at 37° C. for 30 to 60 min.

[0115] Proteins were denatured and extracted twice with an equal volume of chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (24:1) by gently mixing the two phases by hand inversions. The two phases were separated by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 10 min and the aqueous phase containing the high-molecular weight DNA was recovered. To the aqueous layer NaCl was added to a final concentration of 0.2 M and the DNA was precipitated by adding 2 vol of ethanol. Precipitated DNA was spooled with a clean glass rod and resuspended in TE buffer (10 mM Tris/pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA) and allowed to dissolve overnight at 4° C. To the dissolved DNA, RNase free of any DNase activity (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) was added to a final concentration of 50 μg/ml and incubated at 37° C. for 30 min. Then protease (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) was added to a final concentration of 100 μg/ml and incubated at 55 to 60° C. for 30 min. The solution was extracted once with an equal volume of phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) and once with equal volume of chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (24:1). To the aqueous phase 0.1 vol of 3 M sodium acetate and 2 volumes of ice cold ethanol (200 proof) were added and the high molecular weight DNA was spooled with a glass rod and dissolved in 1 to 2 ml of TE buffer.

[0116] B. Genomic DNA Preparation for PCR Amplification of CYP and CPR Genes

[0117] Five 5 ml of YPD medium was inoculated with a single colony and grown at 30° C. overnight The culture was centrifuged for 5 min at 1200×g. The supernatant was removed by aspiration and 0.5 ml of a sorbitol solution (0.9 M sorbitol, 0.1 M Tris-Cl pH 8.0, 0.1 M EDTA) was added to the pellet. The pellet was resuspended by vortexing and 1 μl of 2-mercaptoethanol and 50 μl of a 10 μg/ml zymolyase solution were added to the mixture. The tube was incubated at 37° C. for 1 hr on a rotary shaker (200 rpm). The tube was then centrifuged for 5 min at 1200×g and the supernatant was removed by aspiration. The protoplast pellet was resuspended in 0.5 ml 1×TE (10 mM Tris-Cl pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA) and transferred to a 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube. The protoplasts were lysed by the addition of 50 μl 10% SDS followed by incubation at 65° C. for 20 min. Next, 200 μl of 5M potassium acetate was added and after mixing, the tube was incubated on ice for at least 30 min. Cellular debris was removed by centrifugation at 13,000×g for 5 min. The supernatant was carefully removed and transferred to a new microfuge tube. The DNA was precipitated by the addition of 1 ml 100% (200proof) ethanol followed by centrifugation for 5 min at 13,000×g. The DNA pellet was washed with 1 ml 70% ethanol followed by centrifugation for 5 min at 13,000×g. After partially drying the DNA under a vacuum, it was resuspended in 200 μl of 1×TE. The DNA concentration was determined by ratio of the absorbance at 260 nm/280 nm (A260/280).

EXAMPLE 2 Construction of Candida tropicalis 20336 Genomic Libraries

[0118] Three genomic libraries of C. tropicalis were constructed, two at Clontech Laboratories, Inc., (Palo Alto, Calif.) and one at Henkel Corporation (Cincinnati, Ohio).

[0119] A. Clontech Libraries

[0120] The first Clontech library was made as follows: Genomic DNA was prepared from C. tropicalis 20336 as described above, partially digested with EcoRI and size fractionated by gel electrophoresis to eliminate fragments smaller than 0.6 kb. Following size fractionation, several ligations of the EcoRI genomic DNA fragments and lambda (λ) TriplEx™ vector (FIG. 1) arms with EcoRI sticky ends were packaged into λ phage heads under conditions designed to obtain one million independent clones. The second genomic library was constructed as follows: Genomic DNA was digested partially with Sau3A1 and size fractionated by gel electrophoresis. The DNA fragments were blunt ended using standard protocols as described, e.g., in Sambrook et al, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2ed. Cold Spring Harbor Press, USA (1989), incorporated herein by reference. The strategy was to fill in the Sau3A1 overhangs with Klenow polymerase (Life Technologies, Grand Island, N.Y.) followed by digestion with S1 nuclease (Life Technologies, Grand Island, N.Y.). After S1 nuclease digestion the fragments were end filled one more time with Klenow polymerase to obtain the final blunt-ended DNA fragments. EcoRI linkers were ligated to these blunt-ended DNA fragments followed by ligation into the λTriplEx vector. The resultant library contained approximately 2×106 independent clones with an average insert size of 4.5 kb.

[0121] B. Henkel Library

[0122] The third genomic library was constructed at Henkel Corporation using λZAP Express™ vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, Calif.) (FIG. 2). Genomic DNA was partially digested with Sau3A1 and fragments in the range of 6 to 12 kb were purified from an agarose gel after electrophoresis of the digested DNA. These DNA fragments were then ligated to BamHI digested λZAP Express™ vector arms according to manufacturers protocols. Three ligations were set up to obtain approximately 9.8×105 independent clones. All three libraries were pooled and amplified according to manufacturer instructions to obtain high-titre (>109 plaque forming units/ml) stock for long-term storage. The titre of packaged phage library was ascertained after infection of E. coli XL1Blue-MRF' cells. E. coli XL1Blue-MRF' were grown overnight in either in LB medium or NZCYM (Table 9) containing 10 mM MgSO4 and 0.2% maltose at 37° C. or 30° C., respectively with shaking. Cells were then centrifuged and resuspended in 0.5 to 1 volume of 10 mM MgSO4. 200 μl of this E. coli culture was mixed with several dilutions of packaged phage library and incubated at 37° C. for 15 min. To this mixture 2.5 ml of LB top agarose or NZCYM top agarose (maintained at 60° C.) (see Table 9) was added and plated on LB agar or NCZYM agar (see Table 9) present in 82 mm petri dishes. Phage were allowed to propagate overnight at 37° C. to obtain discrete plaques and the phage titre was determined.

EXAMPLE 3 Screening of Genomic Libraries

[0123] Both λTriplEx™ and λZAP Express™ vectors are phagemid vectors that can be propagated either as phage or plasmid DNA (after conversion of phage to plasmid). Therefore, the genomic libraries constructed in these vectors can be screened either by plaque hybridization (screening of lambda form of library) or by colony hybridization (screening plasmid form of library after phage to plasmid conversion). Both vectors are capable of expressing the cloned genes and the main difference is the mechanism of excision of plasmid from the phage DNA. The cloning site in λTriplEx™ is located within a plasmid which is present in the phage and is flanked by loxP site (FIG. 1). When λTriplEx™ is introduced into E. coli strain BM25.8 (supplied by Clontech), the Cre recombinase present in BM25.8 promotes the excision and circularization of plasmid pTriplEx from the phage λTriplEx™ at the loxP sites. The mechanism of excision of plasmid pBK-CMV from phage λXZAP Express™ different. It requires the assistance of a helper phage such as ExAssist™ (Stratagene) and an E. coli strain such as XLOR (Stratagene). Both pTriplEx and pBK-CMV can replicate autonomously in E. coli.

[0124] A. Screening Genomic Libraries (Plasmid Form)

[0125] 1) Colony Lifts

[0126] A single colony of E. coli BM25.8 was inoculated into 5 ml of LB containing 50 μg/ml kanamycin, 10 mM MgSO4 and 0.1% maltose and grown overnight at 31° C., 250 rpm. To 200 μl of this overnight culture (˜4×108 cells) 1 μl of phage library (2-5×106 plaque forming units) and 150 μl LB broth were added and incubated at 31° C. for 30 min after which 400 μl of LB broth was added and incubated at 31° C., 225 rpm for 1 h. This bacterial culture was diluted and plated on LB agar containing 50 μg/ml ampicillin (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.) and kanamycin (Sigma Chemical Company) to obtain 500 to 600 colonies/plate. The plates were incubated at 37° C. for 6 to 7 hrs until the colonies became visible. The plates were then stored at 4° C. for 1.5 h before placing a Colony/Plaque Screen™ Hybridization Transfer Membrane disc (DuPont NEN Research Products, Boston, Mass.) on the plate in contact with bacterial colonies. The transfer of colonies to the membrane was allowed to proceed for 3 to 5 min. The membrane was then lifted and placed on a fresh LB agar (see Table 9) plate containing 200 μg/ml of chloramphenicol with the side exposed to the bacterial colonies facing up. The plates containing the membranes were then incubated at 37° C. overnight in order to allow full development of the bacterial colonies. The LB agar plates from which colonies were initially lifted were incubated at 37° C. overnight and stored at 4° C. for future use. The following morning the membranes containing bacterial colonies were lifted and placed on two sheets of Whatman 3M (Whatman, Hillsboro, Oreg.) paper saturated with 0.5 N NaOH and left at room temperature (RT) for 3 to 6 min to lyse the cells. Additional treatment of membranes was as described in the protocol provided by NEN Research Products.

[0127] 2) DNA Hybridizations

[0128] Membranes were dried overnight before hybridizing to oligonucleotide probes prepared using a non-radioactive ECL™ 3′-oligolabelling and detection system from Amersham Life Sciences (Arlington Heights, Ill.). DNA labeling, prehybridization and hybridizations were performed according to manufacturer's protocols. After hybridization, membranes were washed twice at room temperature in 5×SSC, 0.1% SDS (in a volume equivalent to 2 ml/cm2 of membrane) for 5 min each followed by two washes at 50° C. in 1×SSC, 0.1% SDS (in a volume equivalent to 2 ml/cm2 of membrane) for 15 min each. The hybridization signal was then generated and detected with Hyperfilm ECL™ (Amersham) according to manufacturer's protocols. Membranes were aligned to plates containing bacterial colonies from which colony lifts were performed and colonies corresponding to positive signals on X-ray were then isolated and propagated in LB broth. Plasmid DNA's were isolated from these cultures and analyzed by restriction enzyme digestions and by DNA sequencing.

[0129] B. Screening Genomic Libraries (Plaque Form)

[0130] 1) λ Library Plating

[0131]E. coli XL1Blue-MRF' cells were grown overnight in LB medium (25 ml) containing 10 mnM MgSO4 and 0.2% maltose at 37° C., 250 rpm. Cells were then centrifuged (2,200×g for 10 min) and resuspended in 0.5 volumes of 10 mM MgSO4. 500 μl of this E. coli culture was mixed with a phage suspension containing 25,000 amplified lambda phage particles and incubated at 37° C. for 15 min. To this mixture 6.5 ml of NZCYM top agarose (maintained at 60° C.) (see Chart) was added and plated on 80-100 ml NCZYM agar (see Chart) present in a 150 mm petridish. Phage were allowed to propagate overnight at 37° C. to obtain discrete plaques. After overnight growth plates were stored in a refrigerator for 1-2 hr before plaque lifts were performed.

[0132] 2) Plaque Lift and DNA Hybridizations

[0133] Magna Lift™ nylon membranes (Micron Separations, Inc., Westborough, Mass.) were placed on the agar surface in complete contact with λ plaques and transfer of plaques to nylon membranes was allowed to proceed for 5 min at RT. After plaque transfer the membrane was placed on 2 sheets of Whatman 3M™ (Whatman, Hillsboro, Oreg.) filter paper saturated with a 0.5 N NaOH, 1.0 M NaCl solution and left for 10 min at RT to denature DNA. Excess denaturing solution was removed by blotting briefly on dry Whatman 3M paper. Membranes were then transferred to 2 sheets of Whatman 3M™ paper saturated with 0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 1.5 M NaCl and left for 5 min to neutralize. Membranes were then briefly washed in 200-500 ml of 2×SSC, dried by air and baked for 30-40 min at 80° C. The membranes were then probed with labelled DNA.

[0134] Membranes were prewashed with a 200-500 ml solution of 5×SSC, 0.5% SDS, 1 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) for 1-2 hr at 42° C. with shaking (60 rpm) to get rid of bacterial debris from the membranes. The membranes were prehybridized for 1-2 hr at 42° C. with (in a volume equivalent to 0.125-0.25 ml/cm2 of membrane) ECL Gold™ buffer (Amersham) containing 0.5 M NaCl and 5% blocking reagent. DNA fragments that were used as probes were purified from agarose gel using a QIAEX II™ gel extraction kit (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) according to manufacturers protocol and labeled using an Amersham ECL™ direct nucleic acid labeling kit (Amersham). Labeled DNA (5-10 ng/ml hybridization solution) was added to the prehybridized membranes and the hybridization was allowed to proceed overnight. The following day membranes were washed with shaking (60 rpm) twice at 42° C. for 20 min each time in (in a volume equivalent to 2 ml/cm2 of membrane) a buffer containing either 0.1 (high stringency) or 0.5 (low stringency)×SSC, 0.4% SDS and 360 g/l urea. This was followed by two 5 min washes at room temperature in (in a volume equivalent to 2 ml/cm2 of membrane) 2×SSC. Hybridization signals were generated using the ECL™ nucleic acid detection reagent and detected using Hyperfilm ECL™ (Amersham).

[0135] Agar plugs which contained plaques corresponding to positive signals on the X-ray film were taken from the master plates using the broad-end of Pasteur pipet. Plaques were selected by aligning the plates with the x-ray film. At this stage, multiple plaques were generally taken. Phage particles were eluted from the agar plugs by soaking in 1 ml SM buffer (Sambrook et al., supra) overnight. The phage eluate was then diluted and plated with freshly grown E. coli XL1Blue-MRF′ cells to obtain 100-500 plaques per 85 mm NCZYM agar plate. Plaques were transferred to Magna Lift nylon membranes as before and probed again using the same probe. Single well-isolated plaques corresponding to signals on X-ray film were picked by removing agar plugs and eluting the phage by soaking overnight in 0.5 ml SM buffer.

[0136] C. Conversion of λ Clones to Plasmid Form

[0137] The lambda clones isolated were converted to plasmid form for further analysis. Conversion from the plaque to the plasmid form was accomplished by infecting the plaques into E. coli strain BM25.8. The E. coli strain was grown overnight at 31° C., 250 rpm in LB broth containing 10 mM MgSO4 and 0.2% maltose until the OD600 reached 1.1-1.4. Ten milliliters of the overnight culture was removed and mixed with 100 μl of 1 M MgCl2. A 200 μl volume of cells was removed, mixed with 150 μl of eluted phage suspension and incubated at 31° C. for 30 min. LB broth (400 μl) was added to the tube and incubation was continued at 31° C. for 1 hr with shaking, 250 rpm. 1-10 μl of the infected cell suspension was plated on LB agar containing 100 μg/ml ampicillin (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.). Well-isolated colonies were picked and grown overnight in 5 ml LB broth containing 100 μg/ml ampicillin at 37° C., 250 rpm. Plasmid DNA was isolated from these cultures and analyzed. To convert the λZAP Express™ vector to plasmid form E. coli strains XL1Blue-F′ and XLOR were used. The conversion was performed according to the manufacturer's (Stratagene) protocols for single-plaque excision.

EXAMPLE 4 Transformation of C. tropicalis H5343 ura

[0138] A. Transformation of C. tropicalis H5343 by Electroporation

[0139] 5 ml of YEPD was inoculated with C. tropicalis H5343 ura from a frozen stock and incubated overnight on a New Brunswick shaker at 30° C. and 170 rpm. The next day, 10 μl of the overnight culture was inoculated into 100 ml YEPD and growth was continued at 30° C., 170 rpm. The following day the cells were harvested at an OD600 of 1.0 and the cell pellet was washed one time with sterile ice-cold water. The cells were resuspended in ice-cold sterile 35% Polyethylene glycol (4,000 MW) to a density of 5×108 cells/ml. A 0.1 ml volume of cells were utilized for each electroporation. The following electroporation protocol was followed: 1.0 μg of transforming DNA was added to 0.1 ml cells, along with 5 μg denatured, sheared calf thymus DNA and the mixture was allowed to incubate on ice for 15 min. The cell solution was then transferred to an ice-cold 0.2 cm electroporation cuvette, tapped to make sure the solution was on the bottom of the cuvette and electroporated. The cells were electroporated using an Invitrogen electroporator (Carlsbad, Calif.) at 450 Volts, 200 Ohms and 250 μF. Following electroporation, 0.9 ml SOS media (1M Sorbitol, 30% YEPD, 10 mM CaCl2) was added to the suspension. The resulting culture was grown for 1 hr at 30° C., 170 rpm. Following the incubation, the cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 1500×g for 5 min. The electroporated cells were resuspended in 0.2 ml of 1M sorbitol and plated on synthetic complete media minus uracil (SC-uracil) (Nelson, supra). In some cases the electroporated cells were plated directly onto SC-uracil. Growth of transformants was monitored for 5 days. After three days, several transformants were picked and transferred to SC-uracil plates for genomic DNA preparation and screening.

[0140] B. Transformation of C. tropicalis Using Lithium Acetate

[0141] The following protocol was used to transform C. tropicalis in accordance with the procedures described in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Supplement 5, 13.7.1 (1989), incorporated herein by reference.

[0142] 5 ml of YEPD was inoculated with C. tropicalis H5343 urafrom a frozen stock and incubated overnight on a New Brunswick shaker at 30° C. and 170 rpm. The next day, 10 μl of the overnight culture was inoculated into 50 ml YEPD and growth was continued at 30° C., 170 rpm. The following day the cells were harvested at an OD600 of 1.0. The culture was transferred to a 50 ml polypropylene tube and centrifuged at 1000×g for 10 min. The cell pellet was resuspended in 10 ml sterile TE (10 mM Tris-Cl and 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0). The cells were again centrifuged at 1000×g for 10 min and the cell pellet was resuspended in 10 ml of a sterile lithium acetate solution [LiAc (0.1 M lithium acetate, 10 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA)]. Following centrifugation at 1000×g for 10 min., the pellet was resuspended in 0.5 ml LiAc. This solution was incubated for one hour at 30° C. while shaking gently at 50 rpm. A 0.1 ml aliquot of this suspension was incubated with 5 μg of transforming DNA at 30° C. with no shaking for 30 min. A 0.7 ml PEG solution (40% wt/vol polyethylene glycol 3340, 0.1 M lithium acetate, 10 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA) was added and incubated at 30° C. for 45 min. The tubes were then placed at 42° C. for 5 min. A 0.2 ml aliquot was plated on synthetic complete media minus uracil (SC-uracil) (Kaiser et al. Methods in Yeast Genetics, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, USA, 1994, incorporated herein by reference). Growth of transformants was monitored for 5 days. After three days, several transformants were picked and transferred to SC-uracil plates for genomic DNA preparation and screening.

EXAMPLE 5 Plasmid DNA Isolation

[0143] Plasmid DNA were isolated from E. coli cultures using Qiagen plasmid isolation kit (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) according to manufacturer's instructions.

EXAMPLE 6 DNA Sequencing and Analysis

[0144] DNA sequencing was performed at Sequetech Corporation (Mountain View, Calif.) using Applied Biosystems automated sequencer (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, Calif.). DNA sequences were analyzed with Mac Vector and Gene Works software packages (Oxford Molecular Group, Campbell, Calif.).

EXAMPLE 7 PCR Protocols

[0145] PCR amplification was carried out in a Perkin Elmer Thermocycler using the AmpliTaqGold enzyme (Perkin Elmer Cetus, Foster City, Calif.) kit according to manufacturer's specifications. Following successful amplification, in some cases, the products were digested with the appropriate enzymes and gel purified using QiaexII (Qiagen, Chatsworth, Calif.) as per manufacturer instructions. In specific cases the Ultma Taq polymerase (Perkin Elmer Cetus, Foster City, Calif.) or the Expand Hi-Fi Taq polymerase (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, Ind.) were used per manufacturer's recommendations or as defined in Table 3.

TABLE 3
PCR amplification conditions used with different primer combinations.
TEMPLATE
PRIMER DENATURING ANNEALING EXTENSION CYCLE
COMBINATION Taq CONDITION TEMP/TIME TEMP/TIME Number
3674-41-1/41-2/41-4 + Ampli-Taq 94 C./30 sec 55 C./30 sec 72 C./1 min 30
3674-41-4 Gold
URA Primer 1a Ampli-Taq 95 C./1 min 70 C./1 min 72 C./2 min 35
URA Primer 1b Gold
URA Primer 2a Ampli-Taq 95 C./1 min 70 C./1 min 72 C./2 min 35
URA Primer 2b Gold
CYP2A #1 Ampli-Taq 95 C./1 min 70 C./1 min 72 C./2 min 35
CYP2A #2 Gold
CYP3A #1 Ultma Taq 95 C./1 min 70 C./1 min 72 C./1 min 30
CYP3A #2
CPRB #1 Expand 94 C./15 sec 50 C./30 sec 68 C./3 min 10
CPRB #2 Hi-Fi 94 C./15 sec 50 C./30 sec 68 C./3 min + 15
Taq 20 sec/cycle
CYP5A #1 Expand 94 C./15 sec 50 C./30 sec 68 C./3 min 10
CYP5A #2 Hi-Fi 94 C./15 sec 50 C./30 sec 68 C./3 min + 15
Taq 20 sec/cycle

[0146] Table 4 below contains a list of primers (SEQ ID NOS: 1-35) used for PCR amplification to construct gene integration vectors or to generate probes for gene detection and isolation.

TABLE 4
Primer table for PCR amplification to construct gene integration vectors, to
generate probes for gene isolation and detection and to obtain DNA sequence of
constructs. (A-deoxyadenosine triphosphate [dATP], G-deoxyguanosine triphosphate
[dGTP], C-deoxycytosine triphosphate [dCTP], T-deoxythymidine triphosphate [dTTP],
Y-dCTP or dTTP, R-dATP or dGTP, W-dATP or dTTP, M-dATP or dCTP, N-
dATP or dCTP or dGTP or dTTP).
Patent PCR
Target Primer Lab Primer Product
gene(s) Name Name Sequence (5′ to 3′) Size
CYP52A2 CYP2A#1 3659-72M CCTTAATTAAATGCACGAAGCGGAGATAAAAG (SEQ ID NO:1) 2230 bp
A
CYP2A#2 3659-72N CCTTAATTAAGCATAAGCTTGCTCGAGTCT (SEQ ID NO:2)
CYP52A3 CYP3A#1 3659-720 CCTTAATTAAACGCAATGGGAACATGGAGTG (SEQ ID NO:3) 2154 bp
A
CYP3A#2 3659-72P CCTTAATTAATCGCACTACGGTTATTGGTATCAG (SEQ ID NO:4)
CYP52A5 CYP5A#1 3659-72K CCTTAATTAATCAAAGTACGTTCAGGCGG (SEQ ID NO:5) 3298 bp
A
CYP5A#2 3659-72L CCTTAATTAAGGCAGACAACAACTTGGCAAAGTC (SEQ ID NO:6)
CPRB CPRB#1 3698-20A CCTTAATTAAGAGGTCGTTGGTTGAGTTTC (SEQ ID NO:7) 3266 bp
CPRB#2 3698-20B CCTTAATTAATTGATAATGACGTFGCGGG (SEQ ID NO:8)
URA3A URA 3698-7C AGGCGCGCCGGAGTCCAAAAAGACCAACCTCTG (SEQ ID NO:9)  956 bp
Primer 1a
URA 8698-7D CCTTAATTAATACGTGGATACCTTCAAGCAAGTG (SEQ ID NO:10)
Primer 1b
URA3A URA 3698-7A CCTTAATTAAGCTCACGAGTTTTGGGATTTTCGAG (SEQ ID NO:11)  750 bp
Primer 2a
URA 3698-7B GGGTTTAAACCGCAGAGGTTGGTTTTTGGACTC (SEQ ID NO:12)
Primer 2b
GGGTTTAAAC- Pme I restriction site (SEQ ID NO:13)
AGGCGCGCC- AscI restriction site (SEQ ID NO:14)
CGTTAATTAA - Pad restriction site (SEQ ID NO:15)
CPR FMN1 3674-41-4 TCYCAAACWGGTACWGCWGAA (SEQ ID NO:16)
CPR FMN2 3674-41-2 GGTTTGGGTAAYTCWACTTAT (SEQ ID NO:17)
CPR FAD 367441.3 CGTTATTAYTCYATTTCTTC (SEQ ID NO:18)
CPR NADPH 3674-41-4 GCMACACCRGTACCTGGACC (SEQ ID NO:19)
CPR PRK1.F3 PRK1.F3 ATCCCAATCGTAATCAGC (SEQ ID NO:20)
CPR PRK1.F5 PRK1.F5 ACTTGTCTTCGTTTAGCA (SEQ ID NO:21)
CPR PRK4.R20 PRK4.R20 CTACGTCTGTGGTGATGC (SEQ ID NO:22)
CYP UCup1 UCup1 CGNGAYACNACNGCNGG (SEQ ID NO:23)
CYP UCup2 UCup2 AGRGAYACNACNGCNGG (SEQ ID NO:24)
CYP UCdown1 UCdown1 AGNGCRAAYTGYTGNCC (SEQ ID NO:25)
CYP UCdown2 UCdown2 YAANGCRAAYTGYTGNCC (SEQ ID NO:26)
CYP HerneB1 HemeB1 ATTCAACGGTGGTCCAAGAATCTGTTTGG (SEQ ID NO:27)
CYP 2,3,5P 2,3,5P GAGCTATGTTGAGACCACAGTTTGC (SEQ ID NO:28)
CYP 2,3,5M 2,3,5M CTTCAGTTAAAGCAAATTGTTTGGCC (SEQ ID NO:29)
TriplEx Triplex5′ Triplex5′ CTCGGGAAGCGCGCCATTGTGTTGG (SEQ ID NO:30)
vector
pTriplEx Triplex3′ Triplex3′ TAATACGACTCACTATAGGGCGAATTGGC (SEQ ID NO:31)
vector
CYP Cyp52a Cyp52a TGRYTCAAACCATCTYTCTGG (SEQ ID NO:32)
CYP Cyp52b Cyp52b GGACCGGCGTTAAAGGG (SEQ ID NO:33)
CYP Cyp52c Cyp52c CATAGTCGWATYATGCTTAGACC (SEQ ID NO:34)
CYP Cyp52d Cyp52d GGACCACCATTGAATGG (SEQ ID NO:35)

EXAMPLE 8 Yeast Colony PCR Procedure for Confirmation of Gene Integration into the Genome of C. tropicalis

[0147] Single yeast colonies were removed from the surface of transformation plates, suspended in 50 μl of spheroplasting buffer (50 mM KCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.3, 1.0 mg/ml Zymolyase, 5% glycerol) and incubated at 37° C. for 30 min. Following incubation, the solution was heated for 10 min at 95° C. to lyse the cells. Five μl of this solution was used as a template in PCR. Expand Hi-Fi Taq polymerase (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, Ind.) was used in PCR coupled with a gene-specific primer (gene to be integrated) and a URA3 primer. If integration did occur, amplification would yield a PCR product of predicted size confirming the presence of an integrated gene.

EXAMPLE 9 Fermentation Method for Gene Induction Studies

[0148] A fermentor was charged with a semi-synthetic growth medium having the composition 75 g/l glucose (anhydrous), 6.7 g/l Yeast Nitrogen Base (Difco Laboratories), 3 g/l yeast extract, 3 g/l ammonium sulfate, 2 g/l monopotassium phosphate, 0.5 g/l sodium chloride. Components were made as concentrated solutions for autoclaving then added to the fermentor upon cooling final pH approximately 5.2. This charge was inoculated with 5-10% of an overnight culture of C. tropicalis ATCC 20962 prepared in YM medium (Difco Laboratories) as described in the methods of Examples 17 and 20 of U.S. Pat. No. 5,254,466, which is incorporated herein by reference. C. tropicalis ATCC 20962 is a POX 4 and POX 5 disrupted C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. Air and agitation were supplied to maintain the dissolved oxygen at greater than about 40% of saturation versus air. The pH was maintained at about 5.0 to 8.5 by the addition of 5N caustic soda on pH control. Both a fatty acid feedstream (commercial oleic acid in this example) having a typical composition: 2.4% C14; 0.7% C141; 4.6% C16; 5.7% C161; 5.7% C171; 1.0% C18; 69.9% C18.1; 8.8% C182; 0.30% C18.3; 0.90% C20-1 and a glucose co-substrate feed were added in a feedbatch mode beginning near the end of exponential growth. Caustic was added on pH control during the bioconversion of fatty acids to diacids to maintain the pH in the desired range. Typically, samples for gene induction studies were collected just prior to starting the fatty acid feed and over the first 10 hours of bioconversion. Determination of fatty acid and diacid content was determined by a standard methyl ester protocol using gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Gene induction was measured using the QC-RT-PCR protocol described in this application.

EXAMPLE 10 RNA Preparation

[0149] The first step of this protocol involves the isolation of total cellular RNA from cultures of C. tropicalis. The cellular RNA was isolated using the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) as follows: 2 ml samples of C. tropicalis cultures were collected from the fermentor in a standard 2 ml screw capped Eppendorf style tubes at various times before and after the addition of the fatty acid or alkane substrate. Cell samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen or a dry-ice/alcohol bath after their harvesting from the fermentor. To isolate total RNA from the samples, the tubes were allowed to thaw on ice and the cells pelleted by centrifugation in a microfuge for 5 minutes (min) at 4° C. and the supernatant was discarded while keeping the pellet ice-cold. The microfuge tubes were filled ⅔ full with ice-cold Zirconia/Silica beads (0.5 mm diameter, Biospec Products, Bartlesville, Okla.) and the tube filled to the top with ice-cold RLT* lysis buffer (* buffer included with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit). Cell rupture was achieved by placing the samples in a mini bead beater (Biospec Products, Bartlesville, Okla.) and immediately homogenized at full speed for 2.5 min. The samples were allowed to cool in a ice water bath for 1 minute and the homogenization/cool process repeated two more times for a total of 7.5 min homogenization time in the beadbeater. The homogenized cells samples were microfuged at full speed for 10 min and 700 μl of the RNA containing supernatant removed and transferred to a new eppendorf tube. 700 μl of 70% ethanol was added to each sample followed by mixing by inversion. This and all subsequent steps were performed at room temperature. Seven hundred microliters of each ethanol treated sample were transferred to a Qiagen RNeasy spin column, followed by centrifugation at 8,000×g for 15 sec. The flow through was discarded and the column reloaded with the remaining sample (700 μl) and re-centrifuged at 8,000×g for 15 sec. The column was washed once with 700 μl of buffer RW1*, and centrifuged at 8,000×g for 15 sec and the flow through discarded. The column was placed in a new 2 ml collection tube and washed with 500 μl of RPE* buffer and the flow through discarded. The RPE* wash was repeated with centrifugation at 8,000×g for 2 min and the flow through discarded. The spin column was transferred to a new 1.5 ml collection tube and 100 μl of RNase free water added to the column followed by centrifugation at 8,000×g for 15 seconds. An additional 75 μl of RNase free water was added to the column followed by centrifugation at 8,000×g for 2 min. RNA eluted in the water flow through was collected for further purification.

[0150] The RNA eluate was then treated to remove contaminating DNA. Twenty microliters of 10×DNase I buffer (0.5 M tris (pH 7.5), 50 mM CaCl2, 100 mM MgCl2), 10 μl of RNase-free DNase I (2 Units/μl, Ambion Inc., Austin, Tex.) and 40 units Rnasin (Promega Corporation, Madison, Wis.) were added to the RNA sample. The mixture was then incubated at 37° C. for 15 to 30 min. Samples were placed on ice and 250 μl Lysis buffer RLT* and 250 μl ethanol (200 proof) added. The samples were then mixed by inversion. The samples were transferred to Qiagen RNeasy spin columns and centrifuged at 8,000×g for 15 sec and the flow through discarded. Columns were placed in new 2 ml collection tubes and washed twice with 500 μl of RPE* wash buffer and the flow through discarded. Columns were transferred to new 1.5 ml eppendorf tubes and RNA was eluated by the addition of 100 μl of DEPC treated water followed by centrifugation at 8,000×g for 15 sec. Residual RNA was collected by adding an additional 50 μl of RNase free water to the spin column followed by centrifugation at full speed for 2 min. 10 μl of the RNA preparation was removed and quantified by the (A260 280) method. RNA was stored at −70° C. Yields were found to be 30-100 μg total RNA per 2.0 ml of fermentation broth.

EXAMPLE 11 Quantitative Competitive Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-RT-PCR) Protocol

[0151] QC-RT-PCR is a technique used to quantitate the amount of a specific RNA in a RNA sample. This technique employs the synthesis of a specific DNA molecule that is complementary to an RNA molecule in the original sample by reverse transcription and its subsequent amplification by polymerase chain reaction. By the addition of various amounts of a competitor RNA molecule to the sample one can determine the concentration of the RNA molecule of interest (in this case the mRNA transcripts of the CYP and CPR genes). The levels of specific mRNA transcripts were assayed over time in response to the addition of fatty acid and/or alkane substrates to the growth medium of fermentation grown C. tropicalis cultures for the identification and characterization of the genes involved in the oxidation of these substrates. This approach can be used to identify the CYP and CPR genes involved in the oxidation of any given substrate based upon their transcriptional regulation.

[0152] A. Primer Design

[0153] The first requirement for QC-RT-PCR is the design of the primer pairs to be used in the reverse transcription and subsequent PCR reactions. These primers need to be unique and specific to the gene of interest. As there is a family of genetically similar CYP genes present in C. tropicalis 20336, care had to be taken to design primer pairs that would be discriminating and only amplify the gene of interest, in this example the CYP52A5 gene. In this manner, unique primers directed to substantially non-homologous (aka variable) regions within target members of a gene family are constructed. What constitutes substantially non-homologous regions is determined on a case by case basis. Such unique primers should be specific enough to anneal the non-homologous region of the target gene without annealing to other non-target members of the gene family. By comparing the known sequences of the members of a gene family, non-homologous regions are identified and unique primers are constructed which will anneal to those regions. It is contemplated that non-homologous regions herein would typically exhibit less than about 85% homology but can be more homologous depending on the positions which are conserved and stringency of the reaction. After conducting PCR, it may be helpful to check the reaction product to assure it represents the unique target gene product. If not, the reaction conditions can be altered in terms of stringency to focus the reaction to the desired target. Alternatively a new primer or new non-homologous region can be chosen. Due to the high level of homology between the genes of the CYP52A family, the most variable 5 prime region of the CYP52A5 coding sequence was targeted for the design of the primer pairs. In FIG. 3, a portion of the 5 prime coding region for the CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO: 36) allele of C. tropicalis 20336 is shown. The boxed sequences in FIG. 3 are the sequences of the forward and backwards primers (SEQ ID NOS: 47 and 48) used to quantitate expression of both alleles of this gene. The actual reverse primer (SEQ ID NO: 48) contains one less adenine than that shown in FIG. 3. Primers used to measure the expression of specific C. tropicalis 20336 genes using the QC-RT-PCR protocol are listed in Table 5 (SEQ ID NOS: 37-58).

TABLE 5
Primer used to measure C. tropicalis gene expression in
the QC-RT-PCR reactions.
Primer
Name Direction Target Sequence
3737-89F F CYP52A1A CCGATGAAGTTTTCGACGAGTACCC (SEQ ID NO:37)
3737-89B B CYP52A1A AAGGCTTTAACGTGTCCAATCTGGTC (SEQ ID NO:38)
alk2aF1 F CYP52A2A ATTATCGCCACATACTTCACCAAATGG (SEQ ID NO:39)
alk2aB5 B CYP52A2A CGAGATCGTGGATACGCTGGAGTG (SEQ ID NO:40)
7581-178-3 F CYP52A3A GCCACTCGGTAACTTTGTCAGGGAC (SEQ ID NO:41)
7581-178-4 B CYP52A3A CATTGAACTGAGTAGCCAAAACAGCC (SEQ ID NO:42)
3737-5OF F CYP52A3A CCTACGTTTGGTATCGCTACTCCGTTG (SEQ ID NO:43)
CYP52A3B
3737.50B B CYP52A3A TTTCCAGCCAGCACCGTCCAAG (SEQ ID NO:44)
CYP52A3B
3737-175F F CYP52D4A GCAGAGCCGATCTATGTTTGCGTCC (SEQ ID NO:45)
3737-175B B CYP52D4A TCATTGAATGCTTCCAGGAACCTCG (SEQ ID NO:46)
7581-97-F F CYP52A5A& AAGAGGGCAGGGGTCAAGAG (SEQ ID NO:47)
CYP52A5B
7581-97-M B CYP52A5A& TCCATGTGAAGATCCCATCAC (SEQ ID NO:48)
CYP52A5B
4P-2 F CYP52A8A CTTGAAGGCCGTGYFGAACG (SEQ ID NO:49)
4M-1 B CYP52A8A CAGGATTTGTCTGAGTTGCCG (SEQ ID NO:50)
3737-52F F POX4A& CCATTGCCTTGAGATACGCCATTGGTAG (SEQ ID NO:51)
POX4B
3737-52B B POX4A& AGCCTTGGTGTCGTTCTTTTCAACGG (SEQ ID NO:52)
POX4B
3737-53F F POX5A TTGGGTTTGTTTGTTTCCTGTGTCCG (SEQ ID NO:53)
3737-53B B POX5A CCTTTGACCTTCAATCTGGCGTAGACG (SEQ ID NO:54)
F33 F CPRA GGTTTGCTGAATACGCTGAAGGTGATG (SEQ ID NO:55)
B63 B CPRA TGGAGCTGAACAACTCTCTCGTCTCGG (SEQ ID NO:56)
3737-133F F CPRA & TTCCTCAACACGGACAGCGG (SEQ ID NO:57)
CPRB
3737-133B B CPRA & AGTCAACCAGGTGTGGAACTCGTC (SEQ ID NO:58)
CPRB

[0154] B. Design and Synthesis of the Competitor DNA Template

[0155] The competitor RNA is synthesized in vitro from a competitor DNA template that has the T7 polymerase promoter and preferably carries a small deletion of e.g., about 10 to 25 nucleotides relative to the native target RNA sequence. The DNA template for the in-vitro synthesis of the competitor RNA is synthesized using PCR primers that are between 46 and 60 nucleotides in length. In this example, the primer pairs for the synthesis of the CYP52A5competitor DNA are shown in Tables 6 and 7 (SEQ ID NOS: 59 AND 60).

TABLE 6
Forward and Reverse primers used to synthesize the
competitor RNA template for the QC-RT-PCR
measurement of CYP52ASA gene expression.
Forward CYP52A5A GGATCCTAATACGACTCAC (SEQ ID NO:59)
Primer TATAGGGAGGAAGAGGGCA
GGGCTCAAGAG
Reverse CYP52A5A TCCATGTGAAGATCCCATC (SEQ ID NO:60)
Primer ACGAGTGTGCCTCTTGCCC
AAAG

[0156]

TABLE 7
Primers for the synthesis of the QC-RT-PCR competitor RNA templates
Primer
Name Direction Target Sequence 5′-3′
3737-89C F CYP52A1A GGATCCTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCCGAT (SEQ ID NO: 61)
GAAGTTTTCGACGAGTACCC
3737-89D B CYP52A1A AAGGCTTTAACGTGTCCAATGTGGTC (SEQ ID NO: 62)
AACATAGCTCTGGAGTGCTTCCAACC
7581-137-A F CYP5242A GGATCCTAACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGATTAT (SEQ ID NO: 63)
CGCCACATACTTCACCAAATGG
7581-137-B B CYP52A2A CGAGATCGTGGATACGCTGGAGTGCGTCGCTT (SEQ ID NO: 64)
CTTCTTCAACAATTCAAG
7581-137-D B CYP52A3A CATTGAACTGAGTAGCCAAAACAGCCCATGGTTT (SEQ ID NO: 65)
CAATCAATGGGAGGC
7581-137-C F CYP52A3A GGATCCTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGGCCAC (SEQ ID NO: 66)
TCGGTAACTTTGTCAGGGAC
3737-50-D F CYP52A3A GGATCCTAATACGAGTCACTATAGGGAGGCCTAC (SEQ ID NO: 67)
& GTTTGGTATCGCTACTCCGTTG
CYP52A3B
3737-50-C B CYP52A3A TTTCCAGCCAGCACCGTCCAAGCAACAAGGAGTA (SEQ ID NO: 68)
& CAAGAAATCGTGTC
CYP52A3B
3737-175C F CYP52D4A GGATCCTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGGCAGA (SEQ ID NO: 69)
GCCGATCTATGTTGCGTCC
3737-175D B CYP52D4A TCATTGAATGCTTCCAGGAACCTCGCCACATCCAT (SEQ ID NO: 70)
CGAGAACCGG
7581-97-A F CYP52A5A GGATCCTATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGAAGAG (SEQ ID NO: 59)
& GGCAGGGCTCAAGAG
CYP52A5B
7581-97-B B CYP52A5A TCCATGTGAAGATCCCATCACGAGTGTGCGTCTT (SEQ ID NO: 60)
& GCCCAAAG
CYP52A5B
4P-2/T7 F CYP52A8A GGATCCTAATACGAGTCACTATAGGGAGGCTTGA (SEQ ID NO: 71)
AGGCCGTGTTGAACG
4M-3/4M-1 B CYP52A8A CAGGATTTGTCTGAGTTGCCGCCTGATCAAGATA (SEQ ID NO: 72)
GGATCCTTGCCG
3737-26-D F CPRA GGATCCTAATACGAGTCACTATAGGGAGGGGTTT (SEQ ID NO: 73)
GCTGAATACGCTGAAGGTGATG
3737-26-C B CPRA TGGAGCTGAACAACTCTCTCGTCTCGGGTGGTCG (SEQ ID NO: 74)
AATGGACCCTTGGTCAAG
3737-133C F CPRA & GGATCCTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGTTCCT (SEQ ID NO: 75)
CPRB CAACACGGACAGCGG
3737-133D B CPRA & AGTCAACCAGGTGTGGAACTCGTCGGTGGCAACA (SEQ ID NO: 76)
CPRB ATGAAAAACACCAAG
3737-52-C F POX4A & GGATCCATATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCCATT (SEQ ID NO: 77)
POX4B GCCTTGAGATACGCCATTGGTAG
3737-52-D B POX4A & AGCCTTGGTGTCGTTCTTTTCAACGGAAGGTGGT (SEQ ID NO: 78)
POX4B CTCGATGGTGTGTTCAACC
3737-53-C F POX5A GGATCCTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGTTGGG (SEQ ID NO: 79)
TTTGTTTCCTGTGTCCG
3737-53-D B POX5A CCTTTGACCTTCAATCTGGCGTAGACGCAGCACC (SEQ ID NO: 80)
ACCGATCCACCACTTG

[0157] F-Forward B-Backward

[0158] The forward primer (SEQ ID NO: 59) contains the T7 promoter consensus sequence “GGATCCTAATACGA CTCACTATAGGG AGG” (SEQ ID NO: 109) fused to the primer 7581-97-F sequence (SEQ ID NO: 47). The Reverse Primer (SEQ ID NO: 60) contains the sequence of primer 7581-97M (SEQ ID NO: 48) followed by the 20 bases of upstream sequence with a 18 base pair deletion between the two blocks of the CYP52A5 sequence. The forward primer was used with the corresponding reverse primer to synthesize the competitor DNA template. The primer pairs were combined in a standard Taq Gold polymerase PCR reaction according to the manufacturer's recommended conditions (Perkin-Elmer/Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.). The PCR reaction mix contained a final concentration of 250 nM each primer and 10 ng C. tropicalis chromosomal DNA for template. The reaction mixture was placed in a thermocycler for 25 to 35 cycles using the highest annealing temperature possible during the PCR reactions to assure a homogeneous PCR product (in this case 62° C.). The PCR products were either gel purified or filtered purified to remove un-incorporated nucleotides and primers. The competitor template DNA was then quantified using the (A260/280) method. Primers used in QC-RT-PCR experiments for the synthesis of various competitive DNA templates are listed in Table 7 (SEQ ID NOS: 61-80).

[0159] C. Synthesis of the Competitor RNA

[0160] Competitor template DNA was transcribed In-Vitro to make the competitor RNA using the Megascript T7 kit from Ambion Biosciences (Ambion Inc., Austin, Tex.). 250 nanograms (ng) of competitor DNA template and the in-vitro transcription reagents are mixed according to the directions provided by the manufacturer. The reaction mixture was incubated for 4 hours at 37° C. The resulting RNA preparations were then checked by gel electrophoresis for the conditions giving the highest yields and quality of competitor RNA. This often required optimization according to the manufacturer's specifications. The DNA template was then removed using DNase I as described in the Ambion kit. The RNA competitor was then quantified by the (A260 280) method. Serial dilution's of the RNA (1 ng/μl to 1 femtogram (fg)/μl) were made for use in the QC-RT-PCR reactions and the original stocks stored at −70° C.

[0161] D. QC-RT-PCR Reactions

[0162] QC-RT-PCR reactions were performed using rTth polymerase from Perkin-Elmer(Perkin-Elmer/Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) according to the manufacturer's recommended conditions. The reverse transcription reaction was performed in a 10 μl volume with a final concentrations of 200 μM for each dNTP, 1.25 units rTth polymerase, 1.0 mM MnCl2, 1× of the 10×buffer supplied with the Enzyme from the manufacturer, 100 ng of total RNA isolated from a fermentor grown culture of C. tropicalis and 1.25 μM of the appropriate reverse primer. To quantitate CYP52A5 expression in C. tropicalis an appropriate reverse primer was 7581-97M (SEQ ID NO: 48). Several reaction mixes were prepared for each RNA sample characterized. To quantitate CYP52A5 expression a series of 8 to 12 of the previously described QC-RT-PCR reaction mixes were aliquoted to different reaction tubes. To each tube 1 μl of a serial dilution containing from 100 pg to 100 fg CYP52A5 competitor RNA per μl was added bringing the final reaction mixtures up to the final volume of 10 μl. The QC-RT-PCR reaction mixtures were mixed and incubated at 70° C. for 15 min according to the manufacturer's recommended times for reverse transcription to occur. At the completion of the 15 minute incubation, the sample temperature was reduced to 4° C. to stop the reaction and 40 μl of the PCR reaction mix added to the reaction to bring the total volume up to 50 μl. The PCR reaction mix consists of an aqueous solution containing 0.3125 μM of the forward primer 7581-97F (SEQ ID NO: 47), 3.125 mM MgCl2 and 1×chelating buffer supplied with the enzyme from Perkin-Elmer. The reaction mixtures were placed in a thermocycler (Perkin-Elmer GeneAmp PCR System 2400, Perkin-Elmer/Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) and the following PCR cycle performed: 94° C. for 1 min. followed by 94° C. for 10 seconds followed by 58° C. for 40 seconds for 17 to 22 cycles. The PCR reaction was completed with a final incubation at 58° C. for 2 min followed by 4° C. In some reactions where no detectable PCR products were produced the samples were returned the thermocycler for additional cycles, this process was repeated until enough PCR products were produced to quantify using HPLC. The number of cycles necessary to produce enough PCR product is a function of the amount of the target mRNA in the 100 ng of total cellular RNA. In cultures where the CYP52A5 gene is highly expressed there is sufficient CMP52A5 mRNA message present and less PCR cycles (≦17) are required to produce quantifiable amount of PCR product. The lower the concentrations of the target mRNA present the more PCR cycles are required to produce a detectable amount of product. These QC-RT-PCR procedures were applied to all the target genes listed in Table 5 using the respective primers indicated therein.

[0163] E. HPLC Quantification

[0164] Upon completion of the QC-RT-PCR reactions the samples were analyzed and quantitated by HPLC. Five to fifteen microliters of the QC-RT-PCR reaction mix was injected into a Waters Bio-Compatible 625 HPLC with an attached Waters 484 tunable detector. The detector was set to measure a wave length of 254 nm. The HPLC contained a Sarasep brand DNASep™ column (Sarasep, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) which was placed within the oven and the temperature set for 52° C. The column was installed according to the manufacturer's recommendation of having 30 cm. of heated PEEK tubing installed between the injector and the column. The system was configured with a Sarasep brand Guard column positioned before the injector. In addition, there was a 0.22 μm filter disk just before the column, within the oven. Two Buffers were used to create an elution gradient to resolve and quantitate the PCR products from the QC-RT-PCR reactions. Buffer-A consists of 0.1 M tri-ethyl ammonium acetate (TEAA) and 5% acetonitrile (volume to volume). Buffer-B consists of 0.1 M TEAA and 25% acetonitrile (volume to volume). The QC-RT-PCR samples were injected into the HPLC and the linear gradient of 75% buffer-A/25% buffer-B to 45% buffer-A/55% B was run over 6 min at a flow rate of 0.85 ml per minute. The QC-RT-PCR product of the competitor RNA being 18 base pairs smaller is eluted from the HPLC column before the QC-RT-PCR product from the CYP52A5 mRNA(U). The amount of the QC-RT-PCR products are plotted and quantitated with an attached Waters Corporation 745 data module. The log ratios of the amount of CYP52A5 mRNA QC-RT-PCR product (U) to competitor QC-RT-PCR product (C), as measured by peak areas, was plotted and the amount of competitor RNA required to equal the amount of CYP52A5 mRNA product determined. In the case of each of the target genes listed in Table 5, the competitor RNA contained fewer base pairs as compared to the native target mRNA and eluted before the native mRNA in a manner similar to that demonstrated by CYP52A5. HPLC quantification of the genes was conducted as above.

EXAMPLE 12 Evaluation of New Strains in Shake Flasks

[0165] The CYP and CPR amplified strains such as strains HDC10, HDC15, HDC20 and HDC23 (Table 1) and H5343 were evaluated for diacid production in shake flasks. A single colony for each strain was transferred from a YPD agar plate into 5 ml of YPD broth and grown overnight at 30° C., 250 rpm. An inoculum was then transferred into 50 ml of DCA2 medium (Table 9) and grown for 24 h at 30° C., 300 rpm. The cells were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 min and resuspended in 50 ml of DCA3 medium (Table 9) and grown for 24 h at 30° C., 300 rpm. 3% oleic acid w/v was added after 24 h growth in DCA3 medium and the cultures were allowed to bioconvert oleic acid for 48 h. Samples were harvested and the diacid and monoacid concentrations were analyzed as per the scheme given in FIG. 35. Each strain was tested in duplicate and the results shown in Table 8 represent the average value from two flasks.

TABLE 8
Bioconversion of oleic acid by different
recombinant strains of Candida tropicalis
Conversion to
Oleic diacid Specific Conversion
Strain (%) (g diacid/g biomass
H5343 41.9 0.53
HDC 10-2 50.5 0.85
HDC 15 54.4 0.85
HDC 20-1 45.1 0.72
HDC 20-2 45.3 0.58
HDC 23-2 55.2 0.84
HDC 23-3 58.8 0.89

EXAMPLE 13 Cloning and Characterization of C. tropicalis 20336 Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase (CYP) and Cytochrome P450 NADPH Oxidoreductase (CPR) Genes

[0166] To clone CYP and CPR genes several different strategies were employed. Available CYP amino acid sequences were aligned and regions of similarity were observed (FIG. 4). These regions corresponded to described conserved regions seen in other cytochrome P450 families (Goeptar et al., supra and Kalb et al. supra). Proteins from eight eukaryotic cytochrome P450 families share a segmented region of sequence similarity. One region corresponded to the HR2 domain containing the invariant cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus which is required for heme binding while the other region corresponded to the central region of the I helix thought to be involved in substrate recognition (FIG. 4). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to these highly conserved regions of the CYP52 gene family present in Candida maltosa and Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 were designed and used to amplify DNA fragments of CYP genes from C. tropicalis 20336 genomic DNA. These discrete PCR fragments were then used as probes to isolate full-length CYP genes from the C. tropicalis 20336 genomic libraries. In a few instances oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved regions were directly used as probes to isolate full-length CYP genes from genomic libraries. In the case of CPR a heterologous probe based upon the known DNA sequence for the CPR gene from C. tropicalis 750 was used to isolate the C. tropicalis 20336 CPR gene.

[0167] A. Cloning of the CPR Gene from C. tropicalis 20336

[0168] 1) Cloning of the CPRA Allele

[0169] Approximately 25,000 phage particles from the first genomic library of C. tropicalis 20336 were screened with a 1.9 kb BamHI-NdeI fragment from plasmid pCU3RED (See Picattagio et al., Bio/Technology 10:894-898 (1992), incorporated herein by reference) containing most of the C. tropicalis 750 CPR gene. Five clones that hybridized to the probe were isolated and the plasmid DNA from these lambda clones was rescued and characterized by restriction enzyme analysis. The restriction enzyme analysis suggested that all five clones were identical but it was not clear that a complete CPR gene was present.

[0170] PCR analysis was used to determine if a complete CPR gene was present in any of the five clones. Degenerate primers were prepared for highly conserved regions of known CPR genes (See Sutter et al., J. Biol. Chem. 265:16428-16436 (1990), incorporated herein by reference) (FIG. 4). Two Primers were synthesized for the FMN binding region (FMN1, SEQ ID NO: 16 and FMN2, SEQ ID NO: 17). One primer was synthesized for the FAD binding region (FAD, SEQ ID NO: 18), and one primer for the NADPH binding region (NADPH, SEQ ID NO: 19) (Table 4). These four primers were used in PCR amplification experiments using as a template plasmid DNA isolated from four of the five clones described above. The FMN (SEQ ID NOS: 16 and 17) and FAD (SEQ ID NO: 18) primers served as forward primers and the NADPH primer (SEQ ID NO: 19) as the reverse primer in the PCR reactions. When different combinations of forward and reverse primers were used, no PCR products were obtained from any of the plasmids. However, all primer combinations amplified expected size products with a plasmid containing the C. tropicalis 750 CPR gene (positive control). The most likely reason for the failure of the primer pairs to amplify a product, was that all four of clones contained a truncated CPR gene. One of the four clones (pHKM1) was sequenced using the Triplex 5′ (SEQ ID NO: 30) and the Triplex 3′ (SEQ ID NO: 31) primers (Table 4) which flank the insert and the multiple cloning site on the cloning vector, and with the degenerate primer based upon the NADPH binding site described above. The NADPH primer (SEQ ID NO: 19) failed to yield any sequence data and this is consistent with the PCR analysis. Sequences obtained with Triplex primers were compared with C. tropicalis 750 CPR sequence using the MacVector™ program (Oxford Molecular Group, Campbell, Calif.). Sequence obtained with the Triplex 3′ primer (SEQ ID NO: 31) showed similarity to an internal sequence of the C. tropicalis 750 CPR gene confirming that pHKM1 contained a truncated version of a 20336 CPR gene, pHKM1 had a 3.8 kb insert which included a 1.2 kb coding region of the CPR gene accompanied by 2.5 kb of upstream DNA (FIG. 5). Approximately 0.85 kb of the 20336 CPR gene encoding the C-terminal portion of the CPR protein is missing from this clone.

[0171] Since the first Clontech library yielded only a truncated CPR gene, the second library prepared by Clontech was screened to isolate a full-length CPR gene. Three putative CPR clones were obtained. The three clones, having inserts in the range of 5-7 kb, were designated pHKM2, pHKM3 and pHKM4. All three were characterized by PCR using the degenerate primers described above. Both pHKM2 and pHKM4 gave PCR products with two sets of internal primers. pHKM3 gave a PCR product only with the FAD (SEQ ID NO: 18) and NADPH (SEQ ID NO: 19) primers suggesting that this clone likely contained a truncated CPR gene. All three plasmids were partially sequenced using the two Triplex primers and a third primer whose sequence was selected from the DNA sequence near the truncated end of the CPR gene present in pHKM1. This analysis confirmed that both pHKM2 & 4 have sequences that overlap pHKM1 and that both contained the 3′ region of CPR gene that is missing from pHKM1. Portions of inserts from pHKM1 and pHKM4 were sequenced and a full-length CPR gene was identified. Based on the DNA sequence and PCR analysis, it was concluded that pHKM1 contained the putative promoter region and 1.2 kb of sequence encoding a portion (5′ end) of a CPR gene. pHKM4 had 1.1 kb of DNA that overlapped pHKM1 and contained the remainder (3′ end) of a CPR gene along with a downstream untranslated region (FIG. 6). Together these two plasmids contained a complete CPRA gene with an upstream promoter region. CPRA is 4206 nucleotides in length (SEQ ID NO: 81) and includes a regulatory region and a protein coding region (defined by nucleotides 1006-3042) which is 2037 base pairs in length and codes for a putative protein of 679 amino acids (SEQ ID NO: 83) (FIGS. 13 and 14). In FIG. 13, the asterisks denote conserved nucleotides between CPRA and CPRB, bold denotes protein coding nucleotides, and the start and stop codons are underlined. The CPRA protein, when analyzed by the protein alignment program of the GeneWorks™ software package (Oxford Molecular Group, Campbell, Calif.), showed extensive homology to CPR proteins from C. tropicalis 750 and C. maltosa.

[0172] 2) Cloning of the CPRB Allele

[0173] To clone the second CPRB allele, the third genomic library, prepared by Henkel, was screened using DNA fragments from pHKM1 and pHKM4 as probes. Five clones were obtained and these were sequenced with the three internal primers used to sequence CPRA. These primers were designated PRK1.F3 (SEQ ID NO: 20), PRK1.F5 (SEQ ID NO: 21) and PRK4.R20 (SEQ ID NO: 22) (Table 4). and the two outside primers (M13-20 and T3 [Stratagene]) for the polylinker region present in the pBK-CMV cloning vector. Sequence analysis suggested that four of these clones, designated pHKM5 to 8, contained inserts which were identical to the CPRA allele isolated earlier. All four seemed to contain a full length CPR gene. The fifth clone was very similar to the CPRA allele, especially in the open reading frame region where the identity was very high. However, there were significant differences in the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions. This suggested that the fifth clone was the allele to CPRA. The plasmid was designated pHKM9 (FIG. 7) and a 4.14 kb region of this plasmid was sequenced and the analysis of this sequence confirmed the presence of the CPRB allele (SEQ ID NO: 82), which includes a regulatory region and a protein coding region (defined by nucleotides 1033-3069) (FIG. 13). The amino acid sequence of the CPRB protein is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 84 (FIG. 14).

[0174] B. Cloning of C. tropicalis 20336 (CYP) Genes

[0175] 1) Cloning of CYP52A2A, CYP52A3A & 3B and CYP52A5A & 5B

[0176] Clones carrying CYP52A2A, A3A, A3B, A5A and A5B genes were isolated from the first and second Clontech genomic libraries using an oligonucleotide probe (HemeB1, SEQ ID NO: 27) whose sequence was based upon the amino acid sequence for the highly conserved heme binding region present throughout the CYP52 family. The first and second libraries were converted to the plasmid form and screened by colony hybridizations using the HemeB1 probe (SEQ ID NO: 27) (Table 4). Several potential clones were isolated and the plasmid DNA was isolated from these clones and sequenced using the HemeB1 oligonucleotide (SEQ ID NO: 27) as a primer. This approach succeeded in identifying five CYP52 genes. Three of the CYP genes appeared unique, while the remaining two were classified as alleles. Based upon an arbitrary choice of homology to CYP52 genes from Candida maltosa, these five genes and corresponding plasmids were designated CYP52A2A (pPA15 [FIG. 26]), CYP52A3A (pPA57 [FIG. 29]), CYP52A3B (pPA62 [FIG. 30]), CYP52A5A (pPAL3 [FIG. 31]) and CYP52A5B (pPA5 [FIG. 32]). The complete DNA sequence including regulatory and protein coding regions of these five genes was obtained and confirmed that all five were CYP52 genes (FIG. 15). In FIG. 15, the asterisks denote conserved nucleotides among the CYP genes. Bold indicates the protein coding nucleotides of the CYP genes, and the start and stop codons are underlined. The CYP52A2A gene as represented by SEQ ID NO: 86 has a protein coding region defined by nucleotides 1199-2767 and the encoded protein has an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 96. The CYP52A3A gene as represented by SEQ ID NO: 88 has a protein encoding region defined by nucleotides 1126-2748 and the encoded protein has an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98. The CYP52A3B gene as represented by SEQ ID NO: 89 has a protein coding defined by nucleotides 913-2535 and the encoded protein has an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99. The CYP52A5A gene as represented by SEQ ID NO: 90 has a protein coding region defined by nucleotides 1103-2656 and the encoded protein has an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100. The CYP52A5B gene as represented by SEQ ID NO: 91 has a protein coding region defined by nucleotides 1142-2695 and the encoded protein has an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101.

[0177] 2) Cloning of CYP52A1A and CYP52A8A

[0178] CYP52A1A and CYP52A8A genes were isolated from the third genomic library using PCR fragments as probes. The PCR fragment probe for CYP52A1 was generated after PCR amplification of 20336 genomic DNA with oligonucleotide primers that were designed to amplify a region from the Helix I region to the HR2 region using all available CYP52 genes from National Center for Biotechnology Information. Degenerate forward primers UCup1 (SEQ ID NO: 23) and UCup2 (SEQ ID NO: 24) were designed based upon an amino acid sequence (-RDTTAG-) from the Helix I region (Table 4). Degenerate primers UCdown1 (SEQ ID NO: 25) and UCdown2 (SEQ ID NO: 26) were designed based upon an amino acid sequence (-GQQFAL-) from the HR2 region (Table 4). For the reverse primers, the DNA sequence represents the reverse complement of the corresponding amino acid sequence. These primers were used in pairwise combinations in a PCR reaction with Stoffel Taq DNA polymerase (Perkin-Elmer Cetus, Foster City, Calif.) according to the manufacturer's recommended procedure. A PCR product of approximately 450 bp was obtained. This product was purified from agarose gel using Gene-clean™ (Bio 101, LaJolla, Calif.) and ligated to the pTAG™ vector (FIG. 17) (R&D systems, Minneapolis, Minn.) according to the recommendations of the mamnfacturer. No treatment was necessary to clone into pTAG because it employs the use of the TA cloning technique. Plasmids from several transformants were isolated and their inserts were characterized. One plasmid contained the PCR clone intact. The DNA sequence of the PCR fragment (designated 44CYP3, SEQ ID NO: 107) shared homology with the DNA sequences for the CYP52A1 gene of C. maltosa and the CYP52A3 gene of C. tropicalis 750. This fragment was used as a probe in isolating the C. tropicalis 20336 CYP52A1 homolog. The third genomic library was screened using the 44CYP3 PCR probe (SEQ ID NO: 107) and a clone (pHKM11) that contained a full-length CYP52 gene was obtained (FIG. 8). The clone contained a gene having regulatory and protein coding regions. An open reading frame of 1572 nucleotides encoded a CYP52 protein of 523 amino acids (FIGS. 15 and 16). This CYP52 gene was designated CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 85) since its putative amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 95) was most similar to the CYP52A1 protein of C. maltosa. The protein coding region of the CYP52A1A gene is defined by nucleotides 1177-2748 of SEQ ID NO: 85.

[0179] A similar approach was taken to clone CYP52A8A. A PCR fragment probe for CYP52A8 was generated using primers for highly conserved sequences of CYP52A3, CYP52A2 and CYP52A5 genes of C. tropicalis 750. The reverse primer (primer 2,3,5,M) (SEQ ID NO: 29) was designed based on the highly conserved heme binding region (Table 4). The design of the forward primer (primer 2,3,5,P) (SEQ ID NO: 28) was based upon a sequence conserved near the N-terminus of the CYP52A3, CYP52A2 and CYP52A5 genes from C. tropicalis 750 (Table 4). Amplification of 20336 genomic DNA with these two primers gave a mixed PCR product. One amplified PCR fragment was 1006 bp long (designated DCA1002). The DNA sequence for this fragment was determined and was found to have 85% identity to the DNA sequence for the CYP52D4 gene of C. tropicalis 750. When this PCR product was used to screen the third genomic library one clone (pHKM12) was identified that contained a full-length CYP52 gene along with 5′ and 3′ flanking sequences (FIG. 9). The CYP52 gene included regulatory and protein coding regions with an open reading frame of 1539 nucleotides long which encoded a putative CYP52 protein of 512 amino acids (FIGS. 15 and 16). This gene was designated as CYP52A8A (SEQ ID NO: 92) since its amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 102) was most similar to the CYP52A8 protein of C. maltosa. The protein coding region of the CYP52A8A gene is defined by nucleotides 464-2002 of SEQ ID NO: 92. The amino acid sequence of the CYP52A8A protein is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 102.

[0180] 3) Cloning of CYP52D4A

[0181] The screening of the second genomic library with the HemeB1 (SEQ ID NO: 27) primer (Table 4) yielded a clone carrying a plasmid (pPA18) that contained a truncated gene having homology with the CYP52D4 gene of C. maltosa (FIG. 33). A 1.3 to 1.5-kb EcoRI-SstI fragment from pPA18 containing part of the truncated CYP gene was isolated and used as a probe to screen the third genomic library for a full length CYP52 gene. One clone (pHKM13) was isolated and found to contain a full-length CYP gene with extensive 5′ and 3′ flanking sequences (FIG. 10). This gene has been designated as CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO: 94) and the complete DNA including regulatory and protein coding regions (coding region defined by nucleotides 767-2266) and putative amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 104) of this gene is shown in FIGS. 15 and 16. CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO: 94) shares the greatest homology with the CYP52D4 gene of C. maltosa.

[0182] 4) Cloning of CYP52A2B and CYP52A8B

[0183] A mixed probe containing CYP52A1A, A2A, A3A, D4A, A5A and A8A genes was used to screen the third genomic library and several putative positive clones were identified. Seven of these were sequenced with the degenerate primers Cyp52a (SEQ ID NO: 32), Cyp52b (SEQ ID NO: 33), Cyp52c (SEQ ID NO: 34) and Cyp52d (SEQ ID NO: 35) shown in Table 4. These primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the four CYP52 subfamilies, namely CYP52A, B, C & D. Sequences from two clones, pHKM14 and pHKM15 (FIGS. 11 and 12), shared considerable homology with DNA sequence of the C. tropicalis 20336 CYP52A2 and CYP52A8 genes, respectively. The complete DNA (SEQ ID NO: 87) including regulatory and protein coding regions (coding region defined by nucleotides 1072-2640) and putative amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 97) of the CYP52 gene present in pHKM14 suggested that it is CYP52A2B (FIGS. 15 and 16). The complete DNA (SEQ ID NO: 93) including regulatory and protein coding regions (coding region defined by nucleotides 1017-2555) and putative amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 103) of the CYP52 gene present in pHKM15 suggested that it is CYP52A8B (FIGS. 15 and 16).

EXAMPLE 14 Identification of CYP and CPR Genes Induced by Selected Fatty Acid and Alkane Substrates

[0184] Genes whose transcription is turned on by the presence of selected fatty acid or alkane substrates have been identified using the QC-RT-PCR assay. This assay was used to measure (CYP) and (CPR) gene expression in fermentor grown cultures C. tropicalis ATCC 20962. This method involves the isolation of total cellular RNA from cultures of C. tropicalis and the quantification of a specific mRNA within that sample through the design and use of sequence specific QC-RT-PCR primers and an RNA competitor. Quantification is achieved through the use of known concentrations of highly homologous competitor RNA in the QC-RT-PCR reactions. The resulting QC-RT-PCR amplified cDNA's are separated and quantitated through the use of ion pairing reverse phase HPLC. This assay was used to characterize the expression of CYP52 genes of C. tropicalis ATCC 20962 in response to various fatty acid and alkane substrates. Genes which were induced were identified by the calculation of their mRNA concentration at various times before and after induction. FIG. 18 provides an example of how the concentration of mRNA for CYP52A5can be calculated using the QC-RT-PCR assay. The log ratio of unknown (U) to competitor product (C) is plotted versus the concentration of competitor RNA present in the QC-RT-PCR reactions. The concentration of competitor which results in a log ratio of U/C of zero, represents the point where the unknown messenger RNA concentration is equal to the concentration of the competitor. FIG. 18 allows for the calculation of the amount of CYP52A5message present in 100 ng of total RNA isolated from cell samples taken at 0, 1, and 2 hours after the addition of Emersol® 267 in a fermentor run. From this analysis, it is possible to determine the concentration of the CYP52A5 mRNA present in 100 ng of total cellular RNA. In the plot contained in FIG. 18 it takes 0.46 pg of competitor to equal the number of mRNA's of CYP52A5 in 100 ng of RNA isolated from cells just prior (time 0) to the addition of the substrate, Emersol® 267. In cell samples taken at one and two hours after the addition of Emersol® 267 it takes 5.5 and 8.5 pg of competitor RNA, respectively. This result demonstrates that CYP52A5 (SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91) is induced more than 18 fold within two hours after the addition of Emersol® 267. This type of analysis was used to demonstrate that CYP52A5 (SEQ ID NO: 90 and 91) is induced by Emersol® 267. FIG. 19 shows the relative amounts of CYP52A5 (SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91) expression in fermentor runs with and without Emersol® 267 as a substrate. The differences in the CYP52A5 (SEQ. ID NOS: 90 and 91) expression patterns are due to the addition of Emersol® 267 to the fermentation medium.

[0185] This analysis clearly demonstrates that expression of CYP52A5(SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91) in C. tropicalis 20962 is inducible by the addition of Emersol® 267 to the growth medium. This analysis was performed to characterize the expression of CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86), CYP52A3AB (SEQ ID NOS: 88 and 89), CYP52A8A (SEQ ID NO: 92), CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 85), CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO: 94) and CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) in response to the presence of Emersol® 267 in the fermentation medium (FIG. 20). The results of these analysis' indicate, that like the CYP52A5gene (SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91) of C. tropicalis 20962, the CYP52A2A gene (SEQ ID NO: 86) is inducible by Emersol® 267. A small induction is observed for CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 85) and CYP52A8A (SEQ ID NO: 92). In contrast, any induction for CYP52D4A (SEQ ID NO: 94), CYP52A3A (SEQ ID NO: 88), CYP52A3B (SEQ ID NO: 89) is below the level of detection of the assay. CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) is moderately induced by Emersol® 267, four to five fold. The results of these analysis are summarized in FIG. 20. FIG. 34 provides an example of selective induction of CYP52A genes. When pure fatty acid or alkanes are spiked into a fermentor containing C. tropicalis 20962 or a derivative thereof, the transcriptional activation of CYP52A genes was detected using the QC-RT-PCR assay. FIG. 34 shows that pure oleic acid (C18:1) strongly induces CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) while inducing CYP5245(SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91). In the same fermentor addition of pure alkane (tridecane) shows strong induction of both CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 85). However, tridecane did not induce CYP52A5(SEQ ID NOS: 90 and 91). In a separate fermentation using ATCC 20962, containing pure octadecane as the substrate, induction of CYP52A2A, CYP52A5A and CYP52A1A is detected (see FIG. 36). The foregoing demonstrates selective induction of particular CYP genes by specific substrates, thus providing techniques for selective metabolic engineering of cell strains. For example, if tridecane modification is desired, organisms engineered for high levels of CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CYP52A1A (SEQ ID NO: 85) activity are indicated. If oleic acid modification is desired, organisms engineered for high levels of CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) activity are indicated.

EXAMPLE 15 Integration of Selected CYP and CPR Genes into the Genome of Candida tropicalis

[0186] In order to integrate selected genes into the chromosome of C. tropicalis 20336 or its descendants, there has to be a target DNA sequence, which may or may not be an intact gene, into which the genes can be inserted. There must also be a method to select for the integration event. In some cases the target DNA sequence and the selectable marker are the same and, if so, then there must also be a method to regain use of the target gene as a selectable marker following the integration event. In C. tropicalis and its descendants, one gene which fits these criteria is URA3A, encoding orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase. Using it as a target for integration, ura variants of C. tropicalis can be transformed in such a way as to regenerate a URA+ genotype via homologous recombination (FIG. 21). Depending upon the design of the integration vector, one or more genes can be integrated into the genome at the same time. Using a split URA3A gene oriented as shown in FIG. 22, homologous integration would yield at least one copy of the gene(s) of interest which are inserted between the split portions of the URA3A gene. Moreover, because of the high sequence similarity between URA3A and URA3B genes, integration of the construct can occur at both the URA3A and URA3B loci. Subsequently, an oligonucleotide designed with a deletion in a portion of the URA gene based on the identical sequence across both the URA3A and URA3B genes, can be utilized to yield C. tropicalis transformants which are once again ura but which still carry one or more newly integrated genes of choice (FIG. 21). ura variants of C. tropicalis can also be isolated via other methods such as classical mutagenesis or by spontaneous mutation. Using well established protocols, selection of ura strains can be facilitated by the use of 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) as described, e.g., in Boeke et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 197:345-346, (1984), incorporated herein by reference. The utility of this approach for the manipulation of C. tropicalis has been well documented as described, e.g., in Picataggio et al., Mol. and Cell. Biol. 11:4333-4339 (1991); Rohrer et al., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36:650-654 (1992); Picataggio et al., Bio/Technology 10:894-898 (1992); U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,648,247; 5,620,878; 5,204,252; 5,254,466, all of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0187] A. Construction of a URA Integration Vector, pURAin.

[0188] Primers were designed and synthesized based on the 1712 bp sequence of the URA3A gene of C. tropicalis 20336 (see FIG. 23). The nucleotide sequence of the URA3A gene of C. tropicalis 20336 is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 105 and the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 106. UR43A Primer Set #1a (SEQ ID NO: 9) and #1b (SEQ ID NO: 10) (Table 4) was used in PCR with C. tropicalis 20336 genomic DNA to amplify URA3A sequences between nucleotide 733 and 1688 as shown in FIG. 23. The primers are designed to introduce unique 5′ AscI and 3′ PacI restriction sites into the resulting amplified URA3A fragment. AscI and PacI sites were chosen because these sites are not present within CYP or CPR genes identified to date. URA3A Primer Set #2 was used in PCR with C. tropicalis 20336 genomic DNA as a template, to amplify URA3A sequences between nucleotide 9 and 758 as shown in FIG. 23. URA3A Primer set #2a (SEQ ID NO: 11) and #2b (SEQ ID NO: 12) (Table 4) was designed to introduce unique 5′ PacI and 3′ PmeI restriction sites into the resulting amplified URA3A fragment. The PmeI site is also not present within CYP and CPR genes identified to date. PCR fragments of the URA3A gene were purified, restricted with AscI, PacI and PmeI restriction enzymes and ligated to a gel purified, QiaexII cleaned AscI-PmeI digest of plasmid pNEB193 (FIG. 25) purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverly, Mass.). The ligation was performed with an equimolar number of DNA termini at 16° C. for 16 hr using T4 DNA ligase (New England Biolabs). Ligations were transformed into E. coli XL1-Blue cells (Stratagene, LaJolla, Calif.) according to manufacturers recommendations. White colonies were isolated, grown, plasmid DNA isolated and digested with AscI-PmeI to confirm insertion of the modified URA3A into pNEB193. The resulting base integration vector was named pURAin (FIG. 24).

[0189] B. Amplification of CYP52A2A, CYP52A3A, CYP52A5A and CPRB from C. tropicalis 20336 Genomic DNA

[0190] The genes encoding CYP52A2A, (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CYP52A3A (SEQ ID NO: 88) from C. tropicalis 20336 were amplified from genomic clones (pPA15 and pPA57, respectively) (FIGS. 26 and 29) via PCR using primers (Primer CYP2A#1, SEQ ID NO: 1 and Primer CYP2A#2, SEQ ID NO: 2 for CYP52A2A) (Primer CYP3A#1, SEQ ID NO: 3 and Primer CYP3A#2, SEQ ID NO: 4 for CYP52A3A) to introduce Pad cloning sites. These PCR primers were designed based upon the DNA sequence determined for CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) (FIG. 15). The AmpliTaq Gold PCR kit (Perkin Elmer Cetus, Foster City, Calif.) was used according to manufacturers specifications. The CYP52A2A PCR amplification product was 2,230 base pairs in length, yielding 496 bp of DNA upstream of the CYP52A2A start codon and 168 bp downstream of the stop codon for the CYP52A2A ORF. The CYP52A3A PCR amplification product was 2154 base pairs in length, yielding 437 bp of DNA upstream of the CYP52A3A start codon and 97 bp downstream of the stop codon for the CYP52A3A ORF. The CYP52A3A PCR amplification product was 2154 base pairs in length, yielding 437 bp of DNA upstream of the CYP52A3A start codon and 97 bp downstream of the stop codon for the CYT52A3A ORF.

[0191] The gene encoding CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO: 90) from C. tropicalis 20336 was amplified from genomic DNA via PCR using primers (Primer CYP 5A#1, SEQ ID NO: 5 and Primer CYP 5A#2, SEQ ID NO: 6) to introduce PacI cloning sites. These PCR primers were designed based upon the DNA sequence determined for CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO: 90). The Expand Hi-Fi Taq PCR kit (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, Ind.) was used according to manufacturers specifications. The CYP52A5A PCR amplification product was 3,298 base pairs in length.

[0192] The gene encoding CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) from C. tropicalis 20336 was amplified from genomic DNA via PCR using primers (CPR B#1, SEQ ID NO: 7 and CPR B#2, SEQ ID NO: 8) based upon the DNA sequence determined for CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) (FIG. 13). These primers were designed to introduce unique PacI cloning sites. The Expand Hi-Fi Taq PCR kit (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, Ind.) was used according to manufacturers specifications. The CPRB PCR product was 3266 bp in length, yielding 747 bp pf DNA upstream of the CPRB start codon and 493 bp downstream of the stop codon for the CPRB ORF. The resulting PCR products were isolated via agarose gel electrophoresis, purified using QiaexII and digested with PacI. The PCR fragments were purified, desalted and concentrated using a Microcon 100 (Anicon, Beverly, Mass.).

[0193] The above described amplification procedures are applicable to the other genes listed in Table 5 using the respectively indicated primers.

[0194] C. Cloning of CYP and CPR Genes into pURAin.

[0195] The next step was to clone the selected CYP and CPR genes into the pURAin integration vector. In a preferred aspect of the present invention, no foreign DNA other than that specifically provided by synthetic restriction site sequences are incorporated into the DNA which was cloned into the genome of C. tropicalis, i.e., with the exception of restriction site DNA only native C. tropicalis DNA sequences are incorporated into the genome. pURAin was digested with PacI, Qiaex II cleaned, and dephosphorylated with Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP) (United States Biochemical, Cleveland, Ohio) according the manufacturer's recommendations. Approximately 500 ng of PacI linearized pURAin was dephosphorylated for 1 hr at 37° C. using SAP at a concentration of 0.2 Units of enzyme per 1 pmol of DNA termini. The reaction was stopped by heat inactivation at 65° C. for 20 min.

[0196] The CYP52A2A PacI fragment derived using the primer shown in Table 4 was ligated to plasmid pURAin which had also been digested with PacI. PacI digested pURAin was dephosphorylated, and ligated to the CYP52A2A ULTMA PCR product as described previously. The ligation mixture was transformed into E. coli XL1 Blue MRF' (Stratagene) and 2 resistant colonies were selected and screened for correct constructs which should contain vector sequence, the inverted URA3A gene, and the amplified CYP52A2A gene (SEQ ID NO: 86) of 20336. AscI-PmeI digestion identified one of the two constructs, plasmid pURA2in, as being correct (FIG. 27). This plasmid was sequenced and compared to CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) to confirm that PCR did not introduce DNA base changes that would result in an amino acid change.

[0197] Prior to its use, the CPRB PacI fragment derived using the primers shown in Table 4 was sequenced and compared to CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) to confirm that PCR did not introduce DNA base pair changes that would result in an amino acid change. Following confirmation, CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) was ligated to plasmid pURAin which had also been digested with PacI. PacI digested pURAin was dephosphorylated, and ligated to the CPR Expand Hi-Fi PCR product as described previously. The ligation mixture was transformed into E. coli XL1 Blue MRF' (Stratagene) and several resistant colonies were selected and screened for correct constructs which should contain vector sequence, the inverted URA3A gene, and the amplified CPRB gene (SEQ ID NO: 82) of 20336. AscI-PmeI digestion confirmed a successful construct, pURAREDBin.

[0198] In a manner similar to the above, each of the other CYP and CPR genes disclosed herein are cloned into pURAin. PacI fragments of these genes, whose sequences are given in FIGS. 13 and 15, are derivable by methods known to those skilled in the art.

[0199] 1) Construction of Vectors Used to Generate HDC 20 and HDC 23

[0200] A previously constructed integration vector containing CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82), pURAREDBin, was chosen as the starting vector. This vector was partially digested with PacI and the linearized fragment was gel-isolated. The active PacI was destroyed by treatment with T4 DNA polymerase and the vector was re-ligated. Subsequent isolation and complete digestion of this new plasmid yielded a vector now containing only one active PacI site. This fragment was gel-isolated, dephosphorylated and ligated to the CYP52A2A PacI fragment. Vectors that contain the CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) genes oriented in the same direction, pURAin CPR 2A S, as well as opposite directions (5′ ends connected), pURAin CPR 2A O, were generated.

[0201] D. Confirmation of CYP Integration (FIG. 21 for Integration Scheme) into the Genome of C. tropicalis

[0202] Based on the construct, pURA2in, used to transform H5343 ura, a scheme to detect integration was devised. Genomic DNA from transformants was digested with Dra III and Spe I which are enzymes that cut within the URA34A, and URA3B genes but not within the integrated CYP52A2A gene. Digestion of genomic DNA where an integration had occurred at the URA3A or URA3B loci would be expected to result in a 3.5 kb or a 3.3 kb fragment, respectively (FIG. 28). Moreover, digestion of the same genomic DNA with PacI would yield a 2.2 kb fragment characteristic for the integrated CYP52A2A gene (FIG. 28). Southern hybridizations of these digests with fragments of the CYP52A2A gene were used to screen for these integration events. Intensity of the band signal from the Southern using PacI digestion was used as a measure of the number of integration events, ((i.e. the more copies of the CYP52A2A gene (SEQ ID NO: 86) which are present, the stronger the hybridization signal)).

[0203]C. tropicalis H5343 transformed URA prototrophs were grown at 30° C., 170 rpm, in 10 ml SC-uracil media for preparation of genomic DNA. Genomic DNA was isolated by the method described previously. Genomic DNA was digested with SpeI and DraIII. A 0.95% agarose gel was used to prepare a Southern hybridization blot. The DNA from the gel was transferred to a MagnaCharge nylon filter membrane (MSI Technologies, Westboro, Mass.) according to the alkaline transfer method of Sambrook et al., supra. For the Southern hybridization, a 2.2 kb CYP52A2A DNA fragment was used as a hybridization probe. 300 ng of CYP52A2A DNA was labeled using a ECL Direct labeling and detection system (Amersham) and the Southern was processed according to the ECL kit specifications. The blot was processed in a volume of 30 ml of hybridization fluid corresponding to 0.125 ml/cm2. Following a prehybridization at 42° C. for 1 hr, 300 ng of CYP52A2A probe was added and the hybridization continued for 16 hr at 42° C. Following hybridization, the blots were washed two times for 20 min each at 42° C. in primary wash containing urea. Two 5 min secondary washes at RT were conducted, followed by detection according to directions. The blots were exposed for 16 hours (hr) as recommended.

[0204] Integration was confirmed by the detection of a SpeI-DraIII 3.5 kb fragment from the genomic DNA of the transformants but not with the C. tropicalis 20336 control. Subsequently, a PacI digestion of the genomic DNA of the positive transformants, followed by a Southern hybridization using an CYP52A2A gene probe, confirmed integration by the detection of a 2.2 kb fragment. The resulting CYP52A2A integrated strain was named HDCl (see Table 1).

[0205] In a manner similar to the above, each of the genes contained in the PacI fragments which are described in Section 3c above were confirmed for integration into the genome of C. tropicalis.

[0206] Transformants generated by transformation with the vectors, pURAin CPR 2A S or pURAin CPR 2A O, were analyzed by Southern hybridization for integration of both the CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) genes tandemly. Three strains were generated in which the CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) genes integrated are in the opposite orientation (HDC 20-1, HDC 20-2 and HDC 20-3) and three were generated with the CYP52A2A (SEQ ID NO: 86) and CPRB (SEQ ID NO: 82) genes integrated in the same orientation (HDC 23-1, HDC 23-2 and HDC 23-3), Table 1.

[0207] E. Confirmation of CPRB Integration into H5343 ura

[0208] Seven transformants were screened by colony PCR using CPRB primer #2 (SEQ ID NO: 8) and a URA3A-specific primer. In five of the transformants, successful integration was detected by the presence of a 3899 bp PCR product. This 3899 bp PCR product represents the CPRB gene adjacent to the URA3A gene in the genome of H5343 thereby confirming integration. The resulting CPRB integrated strains were named HDC10-1 and HDC10-2 (see Table 1).

[0209] F. Strain Evaluation.

[0210] As determined by quantitative PCR, when compared to parent H5343, HDC10-1 contained three additional copies of the reductase gene and HDC10-2 contained four additional copies of the reductase gene. Evaluations of HDC20-1, HDC20-2 and HDC20-3 based on Southern hybridization data indicates that HDC20-1 contained multiple integrations, i.e., 2 to 3 times that of HDC20-2 or HDC20-3. Evaluations of HDC23-1, HDC23-2, and HDC23-3 based on Southern hybridization data indicates that HDC23-3 contained multiple integrations, i.e., 2 to 3 times that of HDC23-1 or HDC23-2. The data in Table 8 indicates that the integration of components of the ω-hydroxylase complex have a positive effect on the improvement of Candida tropicalis ATCC 20962 as a biocatalyst. The results indicate that CYP52A5A (SEQ ID NO: 90) is an important gene for the conversion of oleic acid to diacid. Surprisingly, tandem integrations of CYP and CPR genes oriented in the opposite direction (HDC 20 strains) seem to be less productive than tandem integrations oriented in the same direction (HDC 23 strains), Tables 1 and 8.

TABLE 9
Media Composition
LB Broth
Bacto Tryptone 10 g
Bacto Yeast Extract 5 g
Sodium Chloride 10 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
LB Agar
Bacto Tryptone 10 g
Bacto Yeast Extract 5 g
Sodium Chloride 10 g
Agar 15 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
LB Top Agarose
Bacto Tryptone 10 g
Bacto Yeast Extract 5 g
Sodium Chloride 10 g
Agarose 7 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
NZCYM Broth
Bacto Casein Digest 10 g
Bacto Casamino Acids 1 g
Bacto Yeast Extract 5 g
Sodium Chloride 5 g
Magnesium Sulfate 0.98 g
(anhydrous)
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
NZCYM Agar
Bacto Casein Digest 10 g
Bacto Casamino Acids 1 g
Bacto Yeast Extract 5 g
Sodium Chloride 5 g
Magnesium Sulfate 0.98 g
(anhydrous)
Agar 15 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
NZCYM Top Agarose
Bacto Casein Digest 10 g
Bacto Casamino Acids 1 g
Bacto Yeast Extract 5 g
Sodium Chloride 5 g
Magnesium Sulfate 0.98 g
(anhydrous)
Agarose 7 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
YEPD Broth
Bacto Yeast Extract 10 g
Bacto Peptone 20 g
Glucose 20 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
YEPD Agar*
Bacto Yeast Extract 10 g
Bacto Peptone 20 g
Glucose 20 g
Agar 20 g
Distilled Water 1,000 ml
SC - uracil*
Bacto-yeast nitrogen base without amino acids 6.7 g
Glucose 20 g
Bacto-agar 20 g
Drop-out mix 2 g
Distilled water 1,000 ml
DCA2 medium g/l
Peptone 3.0
Yeast Extract 6.0
Sodium Acetate 3.0
Yeast Nitrogen Base (Difco) 6.7
Glucose (anhydrous) 50.0
Potassium Phosphate (dibasic, trihydrate) 7.2
Potassium Phosphate (monobasic, anhydrous) 9.3
DCA3 medium g/l
0.3 M Phosphate buffer containing, pH 7.5
Glycerol 50
Yeast Nitrogen base (Difco) 6.7
Drop-out mix
Adenine 0.5 g
Arginine 2 g
Aspartic acid 2 g
Glutamine 2 g
Glycine 2 g
Inositol 2 g
Leucine 10 g
Methionine 2 g
Phenylalanine 2 g
Serine 2 g
Tryptophan 2 g
Valine 2 g
Alanine 2 g
Asparagine 2 g
Cysteine 2 g
Glutamic acid 2 g
Histidine 2 g
Isoleucine 2 g
Lysine 2 g
para-Aminobenzoic acid 0.2 g
Proline 2 g
Threonine 2 g
Tyrosine 2 g

[0211] It will be understood that various modifications may be made to the embodiments and/or examples disclosed herein. Thus, the above description should not be construed as limiting, but merely as exemplifications of preferred embodiments. Those skilled in the art will envision other modifications within the scope and spirit of the claims appended hereto.

1 118 1 32 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 1 ccttaattaa atgcacgaag cggagataaa ag 32 2 30 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 2 ccttaattaa gcataagctt gctcgagtct 30 3 31 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 3 ccttaattaa acgcaatggg aacatggagt g 31 4 34 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 4 ccttaattaa tcgcactacg gttattggta tcag 34 5 29 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 5 ccttaattaa tcaaagtacg ttcaggcgg 29 6 34 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 6 ccttaattaa ggcagacaac aacttggcaa agtc 34 7 31 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 7 ccttaattaa gaggtcgttg gttgagtttt c 31 8 29 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 8 ccttaattaa ttgataatga cgttgcggg 29 9 33 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 9 aggcgcgccg gagtccaaaa agaccaacct ctg 33 10 34 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 10 ccttaattaa tacgtggata ccttcaagca agtg 34 11 35 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 11 ccttaattaa gctcacgagt tttgggattt tcgag 35 12 35 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 12 gggtttaaac cgcagaggtt ggtctttttg gactc 35 13 10 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 13 gggtttaaac 10 14 9 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 14 aggcgcgcc 9 15 10 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 15 ccttaattaa 10 16 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 16 tcycaaacwg gtacwgcwga a 21 17 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 17 ggtttgggta aytcwactta t 21 18 18 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 18 cgttattatc atttcttc 18 19 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 19 gcmacaccrg tacctggacc 20 20 18 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 20 atcccaatcg taatcagc 18 21 18 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 21 acttgtcttc gtttagca 18 22 18 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 22 ctacgtctgt ggtgatgc 18 23 17 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 23 cgngayacna cngcngg 17 24 17 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 24 agrgayacna cngcngg 17 25 17 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artifiical Sequence Primer 25 agngcraayt gytgncc 17 26 18 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 26 yaangcraay tgytgncc 18 27 29 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 27 attcaacggt ggtccaagaa tctgtttgg 29 28 25 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 28 gagctatgtt gagaccacag tttgc 25 29 26 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 29 cttcagttaa agcaaattgt ttggcc 26 30 25 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 30 ctcgggaagc gcgccattgt gttgg 25 31 29 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 31 taatacgact cactataggg cgaattggc 29 32 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 32 tgrytcaaac catctytctg g 21 33 17 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 33 ggaccggcgt taaaggg 17 34 23 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 34 catagtcgwa tyatgcttag acc 23 35 17 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 35 ggaccaccat tgaatgg 17 36 540 DNA Candida tropicalis 36 atgattgaac aactcctaga atattggtat gtcgttgtgc cagtgttgta catcatcaaa 60 caactccttg catacacaaa gactcgcgtc ttgatgaaaa agttgggtgc tgctccagtc 120 acaaacaagt tgtacgacaa cgctttcggt atcgtcaatg gatggaaggc tctccagttc 180 aagaaagagg gcagggctca agagtacaac gattacaagt ttgaccactc caagaaccca 240 agcgtgggca cctacgtcag tattcttttc ggcaccagga tcgtcgtgac caaagatcca 300 gagaatatca aagctatttt ggcaacccag tttggtgatt tttctttggg caagaggcac 360 actcttttta agcctttgtt aggtgatggg atcttcacat tggacggcga aggctggaag 420 cacagcagag ccatgttgag accacagttt gccagagaac aagttgctca tgtgacgtcg 480 ttggaaccac acttccagtt gttgaagaag catattctta agcacaaggg tgaatacttt 540 37 25 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 37 ccgatgaagt tttcgacgag taccc 25 38 26 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 38 aaggctttaa cgtgtccaat ctggtc 26 39 27 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 39 attatcgcca catacttcac caaatgg 27 40 24 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 40 cgagatcgtg gatacgctgg agtg 24 41 25 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 41 gccactcggt aactttgtca gggac 25 42 26 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 42 cattgaactg agtagccaaa acagcc 26 43 27 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 43 cctacgtttg gtatcgctac tccgttg 27 44 22 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 44 tttccagcca gcaccgtcca ag 22 45 24 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 45 gcagagccga tctatgttgc gtcc 24 46 25 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 46 tcattgaatg cttccaggaa cctcg 25 47 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 47 aagagggcag ggctcaagag 20 48 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 48 tccatgtgaa gatcccatca c 21 49 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 49 cttgaaggcc gtgttgaacg 20 50 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 50 caggatttgt ctgagttgcc g 21 51 28 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 51 ccattgcctt gagatacgcc attggtag 28 52 26 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 52 agccttggtg tcgttctttt caacgg 26 53 26 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 53 ttgggtttgt ttgtttcctg tgtccg 26 54 27 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 54 cctttgacct tcaatctggc gtagacg 27 55 26 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 55 gtttgctgaa tacgctgaag gtgatg 26 56 27 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 56 tggagctgaa caactctctc gtctcgg 27 57 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 57 ttcctcaaca cggacagcgg 20 58 24 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 58 agtcaaccag gtgtggaact cgtc 24 59 49 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 59 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggagga agagggcagg gctcaagag 49 60 42 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 60 tccatgtgaa gatcccatca cgagtgtgcc tcttgcccaa ag 42 61 54 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 61 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggc cgatgaagtt ttcgacgagt accc 54 62 52 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 62 aaggctttaa cgtgtccaat ctggtcaaca tagctctgga gtgcttccaa cc 52 63 56 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 63 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggagga ttatcgccac atacttcacc aaatgg 56 64 52 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 64 cgagatcgtg gatacgctgg agtgcgtcgc tcttcttctt caacaattca ag 52 65 49 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 65 cattgaactg agtagccaaa acagcccatg gtttcaatca atgggaggc 49 66 54 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 66 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggg ccactcggta actttgtcag ggac 54 67 56 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 67 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggc ctacgtttgg tatcgctact ccgttg 56 68 48 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 68 tttccagcca gcaccgtcca agcaacaagg agtacaagaa atcgtgtc 48 69 53 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 69 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggg cagagccgat ctatgttgcg tcc 53 70 45 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 70 tcattgaatg cttccaggaa cctcgccaca tccatcgaga accgg 45 71 49 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 71 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggc ttgaaggccg tgttgaacg 49 72 46 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 72 caggatttgt ctgagttgcc gcctgatcaa gataggatcc ttgccg 46 73 56 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 73 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggg gtttgctgaa tacgctgaag gtgatg 56 74 52 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 74 tggagctgaa caactctctc gtctcgggtg gtcgaatgga cccttggtca ag 52 75 49 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 75 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggt tcctcaacac ggacagcgg 49 76 49 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 76 agtcaaccag gtgtggaact cgtcggtggc aacaatgaaa aacaccaag 49 77 57 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 77 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggc cattgccttg agatacgcca ttggtag 57 78 53 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 78 agccttggtg tcgttctttt caacggaagg tggtctcgat ggtgtgttca acc 53 79 55 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 79 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggaggt tgggtttgtt tgtttcctgt gtccg 55 80 50 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 80 cctttgacct tcaatctggc gtagacgcag caccaccgat ccaccacttg 50 81 4206 DNA Candida tropicalis 81 catcaagatc atctatgggg ataattacga cagcaacatt gcagaaagag cgttggtcac 60 aatcgaaaga gcctatggcg ttgccgtcgt tgaggcaaat gacagcacca acaataacga 120 tggtcccagt gaagagcctt cagaacagtc cattgttgac gcttaaggca cggataatta 180 cgtggggcaa aggaacgcgg aattagttat ggggggatca aaagcggaag atttgtgttg 240 cttgtgggtt ttttccttta tttttcatat gatttctttg cgcaagtaac atgtgccaat 300 ttagtttgtg attagcgtgc cccacaattg gcatcgtgga cgggcgtgtt ttgtcatacc 360 ccaagtctta actagctcca cagtctcgac ggtgtctcga cgatgtcttc ttccacccct 420 cccatgaatc attcaaagtt gttgggggat ctccaccaag ggcaccggag ttaatgctta 480 tgtttctccc actttggttg tgattggggt agtctagtga gttggagatt ttcttttttt 540 cgcaggtgtc tccgatatcg aaatttgatg aatatagaga gaagccagat cagcacagta 600 gattgccttt gtagttagag atgttgaaca gcaactagtt gaattacacg ccaccacttg 660 acagcaagtg cagtgagctg taaacgatgc agccagagtg tcaccaccaa ctgacgttgg 720 gtggagttgt tgttgttgtt gttggcaggg ccatattgct aaacgaagac aagtagcaca 780 aaacccaagc ttaagaacaa aaataaaaaa aattcatacg acaattccaa agccattgat 840 ttacataatc aacagtaaga cagaaaaaac tttcaacatt tcaaagttcc ctttttccta 900 ttacttcttt tttttcttct ttccttcttt ccttctgttt ttcttacttt atcagtcttt 960 tacttgtttt tgcaattcct catcctcctc ctactcctcc tcaccatggc tttagacaag 1020 ttagatttgt atgtcatcat aacattggtg gtcgctgtag ccgcctattt tgctaagaac 1080 cagttccttg atcagcccca ggacaccggg ttcctcaaca cggacagcgg aagcaactcc 1140 agagacgtct tgctgacatt gaagaagaat aataaaaaca cgttgttgtt gtttgggtcc 1200 cagacgggta cggcagaaga ttacgccaac aaattgtcca gagaattgca ctccagattt 1260 ggcttgaaaa cgatggttgc agatttcgct gattacgatt gggataactt cggagatatc 1320 accgaagaca tcttggtgtt tttcattgtt gccacctatg gtgagggtga acctaccgat 1380 aatgccgacg agttccacac ctggttgact gaagaagctg acactttgag taccttgaaa 1440 tacaccgtgt tcgggttggg taactccacg tacgagttct tcaatgccat tggtagaaag 1500 tttgacagat tgttgagcga gaaaggtggt gacaggtttg ctgaatacgc tgaaggtgat 1560 gacggtactg gcaccttgga cgaagatttc atggcctgga aggacaatgt ctttgacgcc 1620 ttgaagaatg atttgaactt tgaagaaaag gaattgaagt acgaaccaaa cgtgaaattg 1680 actgagagag acgacttgtc tgctgctgac tcccaagttt ccttgggtga gccaaacaag 1740 aagtacatca actccgaggg catcgacttg accaagggtc cattcgacca cacccaccca 1800 tacttggcca gaatcaccga gacgagagag ttgttcagct ccaaggacag acactgtatc 1860 cacgttgaat ttgacatttc tgaatcgaac ttgaaataca ccaccggtga ccatctagct 1920 atctggccat ccaactccga cgaaaacatt aagcaatttg ccaagtgttt cggattggaa 1980 gataaactcg acactgttat tgaattgaag gcgttggact ccacttacac catcccattc 2040 ccaaccccaa ttacctacgg tgctgtcatt agacaccatt tagaaatctc cggtccagtc 2100 tcgagacaat tctttttgtc aattgctggg tttgctcctg atgaagaaac aaagaaggct 2160 tttaccagac ttggtggtga caagcaagaa ttcgccgcca aggtcacccg cagaaagttc 2220 aacattgccg atgccttgtt atattcctcc aacaacgctc catggtccga tgttcctttt 2280 gaattcctta ttgaaaacgt tccacacttg actccacgtt actactccat ttcgtcttcg 2340 tcattgagtg aaaagcaact catcaacgtt actgcagttg ttgaagccga agaagaagct 2400 gatggcagac cagtcactgg tgttgtcacc aacttgttga agaacgttga aattgtgcaa 2460 aacaagactg gcgaaaagcc acttgtccac tacgatttga gcggcccaag aggcaagttc 2520 aacaagttca agttgccagt gcatgtgaga agatccaact ttaagttgcc aaagaactcc 2580 accaccccag ttatcttgat tggtccaggt actggtgttg ccccattgag aggttttgtc 2640 agagaaagag ttcaacaagt caagaatggt gtcaatgttg gcaagacttt gttgttttat 2700 ggttgcagaa actccaacga ggactttttg tacaagcaag aatgggccga gtacgcttct 2760 gttttgggtg aaaactttga gatgttcaat gccttctcca gacaagaccc atccaagaag 2820 gtttacgtcc aggataagat tttagaaaac agccaacttg tgcacgagtt gttgactgaa 2880 ggtgccatta tctacgtctg tggtgatgcc agtagaatgg ctagagacgt gcagaccaca 2940 atttccaaga ttgttgctaa aagcagagaa attagtgaag acaaggctgc tgaattggtc 3000 aagtcctgga aggtccaaaa tagataccaa gaagatgttt ggtagactca aacgaatctc 3060 tctttctccc aacgcattta tgaatcttta ttctcattga agctttacat atgttctaca 3120 ctttattttt tttttttttt ttattattat attacgaaac ataggtcaac tatatatact 3180 tgattaaatg ttatagaaac aataactatt atctactcgt ctacttcttt ggcattgaca 3240 tcaacattac cgttcccatt accgttgccg ttggcaatgc cgggatattt agtacagtat 3300 ctccaatccg gatttgagct attgtagatc agctgcaagt cattctccac cttcaaccag 3360 tacttatact tcatctttga cttcaagtcc aagtcataaa tattacaagt tagcaagaac 3420 ttctggccat ccacgatata gacgttattc acgttattat gcgacgtatg gatgtggtta 3480 tccttattga acttctcaaa cttcaaaaac aaccccacgt cccgcaacgt cattatcaac 3540 gacaagttct ggctcacgtc gtcggagctc gtcaagttct caattagatc gttcttgtta 3600 ttgatcttct ggtactttct caattgctgg aacacattgt cctcgttgtt caaatagatc 3660 ttgaacaact ttttcaacgg gatcaacttc tcaatctggg ccaagatctc cgccgggatc 3720 ttcagaaaca agtcctgcaa cccctggtcg atggtctccg ggtacaacaa gtccaagggg 3780 cagaagtgtc taggcacgtg tttcaactgg ttcaacgaac atgttcgaca gtagttcgag 3840 ttatagttat cgtacaacca ttttggtttg atttcgaaaa tgacggagct gatgccatca 3900 ttctcctggt tcctctcata gtacaactgg cacttcttcg agaggctcaa ttcctcgtag 3960 ttcccgtcca agatattcgg caacaagagc ccgtaccgct cacggagcat caagtcgtgg 4020 ccctggttgt tcaacttgtt gatgaagtcc gaggtcaaga caatcaactg gatgtcgatg 4080 atctggtgcg ggaacaagtt cttgcatttt agctcgatga agtcgtacaa ctcacacgtc 4140 gagatatact cctgttcctc cttcaagagc cggatccgca agagcttgtg cttcaagtag 4200 tcgttg 4206 82 4145 DNA Candida tropicalis 82 tatatgatat atgatatatc ttcctgtgta attattattc gtattcgtta atacttacta 60 catttttttt tctttattta tgaagaaaag gagagttcgt aagttgagtt gagtagaata 120 ggctgttgtg catacgggga gcagaggaga gtatccgacg aggaggaact gggtgaaatt 180 tcatctatgc tgttgcgtcc tgtactgtac tgtaaatctt agatttccta gaggttgttc 240 tagcaaataa agtgtttcaa gatacaattt tacaggcaag ggtaaaggat caactgatta 300 gcggaagatt ggtgttgcct gtggggttct tttatttttc atatgatttc tttgcgcgag 360 taacatgtgc caatctagtt tatgattagc gtacctccac aattggcatc ttggacgggc 420 gtgttttgtc ttaccccaag ccttatttag ttccacagtc tcgacggtgt ctcgccgatg 480 tcttctccca cccctcgcag gaatcattcg aagttgttgg gggatctcct ccgcagttta 540 tgttcatgtc tttcccactt tggttgtgat tggggtagcg tagtgagttg gtgattttct 600 tttttcgcag gtgtctccga tatcgaagtt tgatgaatat aggagccaga tcagcatggt 660 atattgcctt tgtagataga gatgttgaac aacaactagc tgaattacac accaccgcta 720 aacgatgcgc acagggtgtc accgccaact gacgttgggt ggagttgttg ttggcagggc 780 catattgcta aacgaagaga agtagcacaa aacccaaggt taagaacaat taaaaaaatt 840 catacgacaa ttccacagcc atttacataa tcaacagcga caaatgagac agaaaaaact 900 ttcaacattt caaagttccc tttttcctat tacttctttt tttctttcct tcctttcatt 960 tcctttcctt ctgcttttat tactttacca gtcttttgct tgtttttgca attcctcatc 1020 ctcctcctca ccatggcttt agacaagtta gatttgtatg tcatcataac attggtggtc 1080 gctgtggccg cctattttgc taagaaccag ttccttgatc agccccagga caccgggttc 1140 ctcaacacgg acagcggaag caactccaga gacgtcttgc tgacattgaa gaagaataat 1200 aaaaacacgt tgttgttgtt tgggtcccag accggtacgg cagaagatta cgccaacaaa 1260 ttgtcaagag aattgcactc cagatttggc ttgaaaacca tggttgcaga tttcgctgat 1320 tacgattggg ataacttcgg agatatcacc gaagatatct tggtgttttt catcgttgcc 1380 acctacggtg agggtgaacc taccgacaat gccgacgagt tccacacctg gttgactgaa 1440 gaagctgaca ctttgagtac tttgagatat accgtgttcg ggttgggtaa ctccacctac 1500 gagttcttca atgctattgg tagaaagttt gacagattgt tgagtgagaa aggtggtgac 1560 agatttgctg aatatgctga aggtgacgac ggcactggca ccttggacga agatttcatg 1620 gcctggaagg ataatgtctt tgacgccttg aagaatgact tgaactttga agaaaaggaa 1680 ttgaagtacg aaccaaacgt gaaattgact gagagagatg acttgtctgc tgccgactcc 1740 caagtttcct tgggtgagcc aaacaagaag tacatcaact ccgagggcat cgacttgacc 1800 aagggtccat tcgaccacac ccacccatac ttggccagga tcaccgagac cagagagttg 1860 ttcagctcca aggaaagaca ctgtattcac gttgaatttg acatttctga atcgaacttg 1920 aaatacacca ccggtgacca tctagccatc tggccatcca actccgacga aaacatcaag 1980 caatttgcca agtgtttcgg attggaagat aaactcgaca ctgttattga attgaaggca 2040 ttggactcca cttacaccat tccattccca actccaatta cttacggtgc tgtcattaga 2100 caccatttag aaatctccgg tccagtctcg agacaattct ttttgtcgat tgctgggttt 2160 gctcctgatg aagaaacaaa gaagactttc accagacttg gtggtgacaa acaagaattc 2220 gccaccaagg ttacccgcag aaagttcaac attgccgatg ccttgttata ttcctccaac 2280 aacactccat ggtccgatgt tccttttgag ttccttattg aaaacatcca acacttgact 2340 ccacgttact actccatttc ttcttcgtcg ttgagtgaaa aacaactcat caatgttact 2400 gcagtcgttg aggccgaaga agaagccgat ggcagaccag tcactggtgt tgttaccaac 2460 ttgttgaaga acattgaaat tgcgcaaaac aagactggcg aaaagccact tgttcactac 2520 gatttgagcg gcccaagagg caagttcaac aagttcaagt tgccagtgca cgtgagaaga 2580 tccaacttta agttgccaaa gaactccacc accccagtta tcttgattgg tccaggtact 2640 ggtgttgccc cattgagagg tttcgttaga gaaagagttc aacaagtcaa gaatggtgtc 2700 aatgttggca agactttgtt gttttatggt tgcagaaact ccaacgagga ctttttgtac 2760 aagcaagaat gggccgagta cgcttctgtt ttgggtgaaa actttgagat gttcaatgcc 2820 ttctctagac aagacccatc caagaaggtt tacgtccagg ataagatttt agaaaacagc 2880 caacttgtgc acgaattgtt gaccgaaggt gccattatct acgtctgtgg tgacgccagt 2940 agaatggcca gagacgtcca gaccacgatc tccaagattg ttgccaaaag cagagaaatc 3000 agtgaagaca aggccgctga attggtcaag tcctggaaag tccaaaatag ataccaagaa 3060 gatgtttggt agactcaaac gaatctctct ttctcccaac gcatttatga atattctcat 3120 tgaagtttta catatgttct atatttcatt ttttttttat tatattacga aacataggtc 3180 aactatatat acttgattaa atgttataga aacaataatt attatctact cgtctacttc 3240 tttggcattg gcattggcat tggcattggc attgccgttg ccgttggtaa tgccgggata 3300 tttagtacag tatctccaat ccggatttga gctattgtaa atcagctgca agtcattctc 3360 caccttcaac cagtacttat acttcatctt tgacttcaag tccaagtcat aaatattaca 3420 agttagcaag aacttctggc catccacaat atagacgtta ttcacgttat tatgcgacgt 3480 atggatatgg ttatccttat tgaacttctc aaacttcaaa aacaacccca cgtcccgcaa 3540 cgtcattatc aacgacaagt tctgactcac gtcgtcggag ctcgtcaagt tctcaattag 3600 atcgttcttg ttattgatct tctggtactt tctcaactgc tggaacacat tgtcctcgtt 3660 gttcaaatag atcttgaaca acttcttcaa gggaatcaac ttttcgatct gggccaagat 3720 ttccgccggg atcttcagaa acaagtcctg caacccctgg tcgatggtct cggggtacaa 3780 caagtctaag gggcagaagt gtctaggcac gtgtttcaac tggttcaagg aacatgttcg 3840 acagtagttc gagttatagt tatcgtacaa ccactttggc ttgatttcga aaatgacgga 3900 gctgatccca tcattctcct ggttcctttc atagtacaac tggcatttct tcgagagact 3960 caactcctcg tagttcccgt ccaagatatt cggcaacaag agcccgtagc gctcacggag 4020 catcaagtcg tggccctggt tgttcaactt gttgatgaag tccgatgtca agacaatcaa 4080 ctggatgtcg atgatctggt gcggaaacaa gttcttgcac tttagctcga tgaagtcgta 4140 caact 4145 83 679 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 83 Met Ala Leu Asp Lys Leu Asp Leu Tyr Val Ile Ile Thr Leu Val Val 1 5 10 15 Ala Val Ala Ala Tyr Phe Ala Lys Asn Gln Phe Leu Asp Gln Pro Gln 20 25 30 Asp Thr Gly Phe Leu Asn Thr Asp Ser Gly Ser Asn Ser Arg Asp Val 35 40 45 Leu Leu Thr Leu Lys Lys Asn Asn Lys Asn Thr Leu Leu Leu Phe Gly 50 55 60 Ser Gln Thr Gly Thr Ala Glu Asp Tyr Ala Asn Lys Leu Ser Arg Glu 65 70 75 80 Leu His Ser Arg Phe Gly Leu Lys Thr Met Val Ala Asp Phe Ala Asp 85 90 95 Tyr Asp Trp Asp Asn Phe Gly Asp Ile Thr Glu Asp Ile Leu Val Phe 100 105 110 Phe Ile Val Ala Thr Tyr Gly Glu Gly Glu Pro Thr Asp Asn Ala Asp 115 120 125 Glu Phe His Thr Trp Leu Thr Glu Glu Ala Asp Thr Leu Ser Thr Leu 130 135 140 Lys Tyr Thr Val Phe Gly Leu Gly Asn Ser Thr Tyr Glu Phe Phe Asn 145 150 155 160 Ala Ile Gly Arg Lys Phe Asp Arg Leu Leu Ser Glu Lys Gly Gly Asp 165 170 175 Arg Phe Ala Glu Tyr Ala Glu Gly Asp Asp Gly Thr Gly Thr Leu Asp 180 185 190 Glu Asp Phe Met Ala Trp Lys Asp Asn Val Phe Asp Ala Leu Lys Asn 195 200 205 Asp Leu Asn Phe Glu Glu Lys Glu Leu Lys Tyr Glu Pro Asn Val Lys 210 215 220 Leu Thr Glu Arg Asp Asp Leu Ser Ala Ala Asp Ser Gln Val Ser Leu 225 230 235 240 Gly Glu Pro Asn Lys Lys Tyr Ile Asn Ser Glu Gly Ile Asp Leu Thr 245 250 255 Lys Gly Pro Phe Asp His Thr His Pro Tyr Leu Ala Arg Ile Thr Glu 260 265 270 Thr Arg Glu Leu Phe Ser Ser Lys Asp Arg His Cys Ile His Val Glu 275 280 285 Phe Asp Ile Ser Glu Ser Asn Leu Lys Tyr Thr Thr Gly Asp His Leu 290 295 300 Ala Ile Trp Pro Ser Asn Ser Asp Glu Asn Ile Lys Gln Phe Ala Lys 305 310 315 320 Cys Phe Gly Leu Glu Asp Lys Leu Asp Thr Val Ile Glu Leu Lys Ala 325 330 335 Leu Asp Ser Thr Tyr Thr Ile Pro Phe Pro Thr Pro Ile Thr Tyr Gly 340 345 350 Ala Val Ile Arg His His Leu Glu Ile Ser Gly Pro Val Ser Arg Gln 355 360 365 Phe Phe Leu Ser Ile Ala Gly Phe Ala Pro Asp Glu Glu Thr Lys Lys 370 375 380 Ala Phe Thr Arg Leu Gly Gly Asp Lys Gln Glu Phe Ala Ala Lys Val 385 390 395 400 Thr Arg Arg Lys Phe Asn Ile Ala Asp Ala Leu Leu Tyr Ser Ser Asn 405 410 415 Asn Ala Pro Trp Ser Asp Val Pro Phe Glu Phe Leu Ile Glu Asn Val 420 425 430 Pro His Leu Thr Pro Arg Tyr Tyr Ser Ile Ser Ser Ser Ser Leu Ser 435 440 445 Glu Lys Gln Leu Ile Asn Val Thr Ala Val Val Glu Ala Glu Glu Glu 450 455 460 Ala Asp Gly Arg Pro Val Thr Gly Val Val Thr Asn Leu Leu Lys Asn 465 470 475 480 Val Glu Ile Val Gln Asn Lys Thr Gly Glu Lys Pro Leu Val His Tyr 485 490 495 Asp Leu Ser Gly Pro Arg Gly Lys Phe Asn Lys Phe Lys Leu Pro Val 500 505 510 His Val Arg Arg Ser Asn Phe Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn Ser Thr Thr Pro 515 520 525 Val Ile Leu Ile Gly Pro Gly Thr Gly Val Ala Pro Leu Arg Gly Phe 530 535 540 Val Arg Glu Arg Val Gln Gln Val Lys Asn Gly Val Asn Val Gly Lys 545 550 555 560 Thr Leu Leu Phe Tyr Gly Cys Arg Asn Ser Asn Glu Asp Phe Leu Tyr 565 570 575 Lys Gln Glu Trp Ala Glu Tyr Ala Ser Val Leu Gly Glu Asn Phe Glu 580 585 590 Met Phe Asn Ala Phe Ser Arg Gln Asp Pro Ser Lys Lys Val Tyr Val 595 600 605 Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Glu Asn Ser Gln Leu Val His Glu Leu Leu Thr 610 615 620 Glu Gly Ala Ile Ile Tyr Val Cys Gly Asp Ala Ser Arg Met Ala Arg 625 630 635 640 Asp Val Gln Thr Thr Ile Ser Lys Ile Val Ala Lys Ser Arg Glu Ile 645 650 655 Ser Glu Asp Lys Ala Ala Glu Leu Val Lys Ser Trp Lys Val Gln Asn 660 665 670 Arg Tyr Gln Glu Asp Val Trp 675 84 679 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 84 Met Ala Leu Asp Lys Leu Asp Leu Tyr Val Ile Ile Thr Leu Val Val 1 5 10 15 Ala Val Ala Ala Tyr Phe Ala Lys Asn Gln Phe Leu Asp Gln Pro Gln 20 25 30 Asp Thr Gly Phe Leu Asn Thr Asp Ser Gly Ser Asn Ser Arg Asp Val 35 40 45 Leu Leu Thr Leu Lys Lys Asn Asn Lys Asn Thr Leu Leu Leu Phe Gly 50 55 60 Ser Gln Thr Gly Thr Ala Glu Asp Tyr Ala Asn Lys Leu Ser Arg Glu 65 70 75 80 Leu His Ser Arg Phe Gly Leu Lys Thr Met Val Ala Asp Phe Ala Asp 85 90 95 Tyr Asp Trp Asp Asn Phe Gly Asp Ile Thr Glu Asp Ile Leu Val Phe 100 105 110 Phe Ile Val Ala Thr Tyr Gly Glu Gly Glu Pro Thr Asp Asn Ala Asp 115 120 125 Glu Phe His Thr Trp Leu Thr Glu Glu Ala Asp Thr Leu Ser Thr Leu 130 135 140 Arg Tyr Thr Val Phe Gly Leu Gly Asn Ser Thr Tyr Glu Phe Phe Asn 145 150 155 160 Ala Ile Gly Arg Lys Phe Asp Arg Leu Leu Ser Glu Lys Gly Gly Asp 165 170 175 Arg Phe Ala Glu Tyr Ala Glu Gly Asp Asp Gly Thr Gly Thr Leu Asp 180 185 190 Glu Asp Phe Met Ala Trp Lys Asp Asn Val Phe Asp Ala Leu Lys Asn 195 200 205 Asp Leu Asn Phe Glu Glu Lys Glu Leu Lys Tyr Glu Pro Asn Val Lys 210 215 220 Leu Thr Glu Arg Asp Asp Leu Ser Ala Ala Asp Ser Gln Val Ser Leu 225 230 235 240 Gly Glu Pro Asn Lys Lys Tyr Ile Asn Ser Glu Gly Ile Asp Leu Thr 245 250 255 Lys Gly Pro Phe Asp His Thr His Pro Tyr Leu Ala Arg Ile Thr Glu 260 265 270 Thr Arg Glu Leu Phe Ser Ser Lys Glu Arg His Cys Ile His Val Glu 275 280 285 Phe Asp Ile Ser Glu Ser Asn Leu Lys Tyr Thr Thr Gly Asp His Leu 290 295 300 Ala Ile Trp Pro Ser Asn Ser Asp Glu Asn Ile Lys Gln Phe Ala Lys 305 310 315 320 Cys Phe Gly Leu Glu Asp Lys Leu Asp Thr Val Ile Glu Leu Lys Ala 325 330 335 Leu Asp Ser Thr Tyr Thr Ile Pro Phe Pro Thr Pro Ile Thr Tyr Gly 340 345 350 Ala Val Ile Arg His His Leu Glu Ile Ser Gly Pro Val Ser Arg Gln 355 360 365 Phe Phe Leu Ser Ile Ala Gly Phe Ala Pro Asp Glu Glu Thr Lys Lys 370 375 380 Thr Phe Thr Arg Leu Gly Gly Asp Lys Gln Glu Phe Ala Thr Lys Val 385 390 395 400 Thr Arg Arg Lys Phe Asn Ile Ala Asp Ala Leu Leu Tyr Ser Ser Asn 405 410 415 Asn Thr Pro Trp Ser Asp Val Pro Phe Glu Phe Leu Ile Glu Asn Ile 420 425 430 Gln His Leu Thr Pro Arg Tyr Tyr Ser Ile Ser Ser Ser Ser Leu Ser 435 440 445 Glu Lys Gln Leu Ile Asn Val Thr Ala Val Val Glu Ala Glu Glu Glu 450 455 460 Ala Asp Gly Arg Pro Val Thr Gly Val Val Thr Asn Leu Leu Lys Asn 465 470 475 480 Ile Glu Ile Ala Gln Asn Lys Thr Gly Glu Lys Pro Leu Val His Tyr 485 490 495 Asp Leu Ser Gly Pro Arg Gly Lys Phe Asn Lys Phe Lys Leu Pro Val 500 505 510 His Val Arg Arg Ser Asn Phe Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn Ser Thr Thr Pro 515 520 525 Val Ile Leu Ile Gly Pro Gly Thr Gly Val Ala Pro Leu Arg Gly Phe 530 535 540 Val Arg Glu Arg Val Gln Gln Val Lys Asn Gly Val Asn Val Gly Lys 545 550 555 560 Thr Leu Leu Phe Tyr Gly Cys Arg Asn Ser Asn Glu Asp Phe Leu Tyr 565 570 575 Lys Gln Glu Trp Ala Glu Tyr Ala Ser Val Leu Gly Glu Asn Phe Glu 580 585 590 Met Phe Asn Ala Phe Ser Arg Gln Asp Pro Ser Lys Lys Val Tyr Val 595 600 605 Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Glu Asn Ser Gln Leu Val His Glu Leu Leu Thr 610 615 620 Glu Gly Ala Ile Ile Tyr Val Cys Gly Asp Ala Ser Arg Met Ala Arg 625 630 635 640 Asp Val Gln Thr Thr Ile Ser Lys Ile Val Ala Lys Ser Arg Glu Ile 645 650 655 Ser Glu Asp Lys Ala Ala Glu Leu Val Lys Ser Trp Lys Val Gln Asn 660 665 670 Arg Tyr Gln Glu Asp Val Trp 675 85 4115 DNA Candida tropicalis 85 catatgcgct aatcttcttt ttctttttat cacaggagaa actatcccac ccccacttcg 60 aaacacaatg acaactcctg cgtaacttgc aaattcttgt ctgactaatt gaaaactccg 120 gacgagtcag acctccagtc aaacggacag acagacaaac acttggtgcg atgttcatac 180 ctacagacat gtcaacgggt gttagacgac ggtttcttgc aaagacaggt gttggcatct 240 cgtacgatgg caactgcagg aggtgtcgac ttctccttta ggcaatagaa aaagactaag 300 agaacagcgt ttttacaggt tgcattggtt aatgtagtat ttttttagtc ccagcattct 360 gtgggttgct ctgggtttct agaataggaa atcacaggag aatgcaaatt cagatggaag 420 aacaaagaga taaaaaacaa aaaaaaactg agttttgcac caatagaatg tttgatgata 480 tcatccactc gctaaacgaa tcatgtgggt gatcttctct ttagttttgg tctatcataa 540 aacacatgaa agtgaaatcc aaatacacta cactccgggt attgtccttc gttttacaga 600 tgtctcattg tcttactttt gaggtcatag gagttgcctg tgagagatca cagagattat 660 cacactcaca tttatcgtag tttcctatct catgctgtgt gtctctggtt ggttcatgag 720 tttggattgt tgtacattaa aggaatcgct ggaaagcaaa gctaactaaa ttttctttgt 780 cacaggtaca ctaacctgta aaacttcact gccacgccag tctttcctga ttgggcaagt 840 gcacaaacta caacctgcaa aacagcactc cgcttgtcac aggttgtctc ctctcaacca 900 acaaaaaaat aagattaaac tttctttgct catgcatcaa tcggagttat ctctgaaaga 960 gttgcctttg tgtaatgtgt gccaaactca aactgcaaaa ctaaccacag aatgatttcc 1020 ctcacaatta tataaactca cccacatttc cacagaccgt aatttcatgt ctcactttct 1080 cttttgctct tcttttactt agtcaggttt gataacttcc ttttttatta ccctatctta 1140 tttatttatt tattcattta taccaaccaa ccaaccatgg ccacacaaga aatcatcgat 1200 tctgtacttc cgtacttgac caaatggtac actgtgatta ctgcagcagt attagtcttc 1260 cttatctcca caaacatcaa gaactacgtc aaggcaaaga aattgaaatg tgtcgatcca 1320 ccatacttga aggatgccgg tctcactggt attctgtctt tgatcgccgc catcaaggcc 1380 aagaacgacg gtagattggc taactttgcc gatgaagttt tcgacgagta cccaaaccac 1440 accttctact tgtctgttgc cggtgctttg aagattgtca tgactgttga cccagaaaac 1500 atcaaggctg tcttggccac ccaattcact gacttctcct tgggtaccag acacgcccac 1560 tttgctcctt tgttgggtga cggtatcttc accttggacg gagaaggttg gaagcactcc 1620 agagctatgt tgagaccaca gtttgctaga gaccagattg gacacgttaa agccttggaa 1680 ccacacatcc aaatcatggc taagcagatc aagttgaacc agggaaagac tttcgatatc 1740 caagaattgt tctttagatt taccgtcgac accgctactg agttcttgtt tggtgaatcc 1800 gttcactcct tgtacgatga aaaattgggc atcccaactc caaacgaaat cccaggaaga 1860 gaaaactttg ccgctgcttt caacgtttcc caacactact tggccaccag aagttactcc 1920 cagacttttt actttttgac caaccctaag gaattcagag actgtaacgc caaggtccac 1980 cacttggcca agtactttgt caacaaggcc ttgaacttta ctcctgaaga actcgaagag 2040 aaatccaagt ccggttacgt tttcttgtac gaattggtta agcaaaccag agatccaaag 2100 gtcttgcaag atcaattgtt gaacattatg gttgccggaa gagacaccac tgccggtttg 2160 ttgtcctttg ctttgtttga attggctaga cacccagaga tgtggtccaa gttgagagaa 2220 gaaatcgaag ttaactttgg tgttggtgaa gactcccgcg ttgaagaaat taccttcgaa 2280 gccttgaaga gatgtgaata cttgaaggct atccttaacg aaaccttgcg tatgtaccca 2340 tctgttcctg tcaactttag aaccgccacc agagacacca ctttgccaag aggtggtggt 2400 gctaacggta ccgacccaat ctacattcct aaaggctcca ctgttgctta cgttgtctac 2460 aagacccacc gtttggaaga atactacggt aaggacgcta acgacttcag accagaaaga 2520 tggtttgaac catctactaa gaagttgggc tgggcttatg ttccattcaa cggtggtcca 2580 agagtctgct tgggtcaaca attcgccttg actgaagctt cttatgtgat cactagattg 2640 gcccagatgt ttgaaactgt ctcatctgat ccaggtctcg aataccctcc accaaagtgt 2700 attcacttga ccatgagtca caacgatggt gtctttgtca agatgtaaag tagtcgatgc 2760 tgggtattcg attacatgtg tataggaaga ttttggtttt ttattcgttc ttttttttaa 2820 tttttgttaa attagtttag agatttcatt aatacataga tgggtgctat ttccgaaact 2880 ttacttctat cccctgtatc ccttattatc cctctcagtc acatgattgc tgtaattgtc 2940 gtgcaggaca caaactccct aacggactta aaccataaac aagctcagaa ccataagccg 3000 acatcactcc ttcttctctc ttctccaacc aatagcatgg acagacccac cctcctatcc 3060 gaatcgaaga cccttattga ctccataccc acctggaagc ccctcaagcc acacacgtca 3120 tccagcccac ccatcaccac atccctctac tcgacaacgt ccaaagacgg cgagttctgg 3180 tgtgcccgga aatcagccat cccggccaca tacaagcagc cgttgattgc gtgcatactc 3240 ggcgagccca caatgggagc cacgcattcg gaccatgaag caaagtacat tcacgagatc 3300 acgggtgttt cagtgtcgca gattgagaag ttcgacgatg gatggaagta cgatctcgtt 3360 gcggattacg acttcggtgg gttgttatct aaacgaagat tctatgagac gcagcatgtg 3420 tttcggttcg aggattgtgc gtacgtcatg agtgtgcctt ttgatggacc caaggaggaa 3480 ggttacgtgg ttgggacgta cagatccatt gaaaggttga gctggggtaa agacggggac 3540 gtggagtgga ccatggcgac gacgtcggat cctggtgggt ttatcccgca atggataact 3600 cgattgagca tccctggagc aatcgcaaaa gatgtgccta gtgtattaaa ctacatacag 3660 aaataaaaac gtgtcttgat tcattggttt ggttcttgtt gggttccgag ccaatatttc 3720 acatcatctc ctaaattctc caagaatccc aacgtagcgt agtccagcac gccctctgag 3780 atcttattta atatcgactt ctcaaccacc ggtggaatcc cgttcagacc attgttacct 3840 gtagtgtgtt tgctcttgtt cttgatgaca atgatgtatt tgtcacgata cctgaaataa 3900 taaaacatcc agtcattgag cttattactc gtgaacttat gaaagaactc attcaagccg 3960 ttcccaaaaa acccagaatt gaagatcttg ctcaactggt catgcaagta gtagatcgcc 4020 atgatctgat actttaccaa gctatcctct ccaagttctc ccacgtacgg caagtacggc 4080 aacgagctct ggaagctttg ttgtttgggg tcata 4115 86 3948 DNA Candida tropicalis 86 gacctgtgac gcttccggtg tcttgccacc agtctccaag ttgaccgacg cccaagtcat 60 gtaccacttt atttccggtt acacttccaa gatggctggt actgaagaag gtgtcacgga 120 accacaagct actttctccg cttgtttcgg tcaaccattc ttggtgttgc acccaatgaa 180 gtacgctcaa caattgtctg acaagatctc gcaacacaag gctaacgcct ggttgttgaa 240 caccggttgg gttggttctt ctgctgctag aggtggtaag agatgctcat tgaagtacac 300 cagagccatt ttggacgcta tccactctgg tgaattgtcc aaggttgaat acgaaacttt 360 cccagtcttc aacttgaatg tcccaacctc ctgtccaggt gtcccaagtg aaatcttgaa 420 cccaaccaag gcctggaccg gaaggtgttg actccttcaa caaggaaatc aagtctttgg 480 ctggtaagtt tgctgaaaac ttcaagacct atgctgacca agctaccgct gaagtgagag 540 ctgcaggtcc agaagcttaa agatatttat tcattattta gtttgcctat ttatttctca 600 ttacccatca tcattcaaca ctatatataa agttacttcg gatatcattg taatcgtgcg 660 tgtcgcaatt ggatgatttg gaactgcgct tgaaacggat tcatgcacga agcggagata 720 aaagattacg taatttatct cctgagacaa ttttagccgt gttcacacgc ccttctttgt 780 tctgagcgaa ggataaataa ttagacttcc acagctcatt ctaatttccg tcacgcgaat 840 attgaagggg ggtacatgtg gccgctgaat gtgggggcag taaacgcagt ctctcctctc 900 ccaggaatag tgcaacggag gaaggataac ggatagaaag cggaatgcga ggaaaatttt 960 gaacgcgcaa gaaaagcaat atccgggcta ccaggttttg agccagggaa cacactccta 1020 tttctgctca atgactgaac atagaaaaaa caccaagacg caatgaaacg cacatggaca 1080 tttagacctc cccacatgtg atagtttgtc ttaacagaaa agtataataa gaacccatgc 1140 cgtccctttt ctttcgccgc ttcaactttt ttttttttat cttacacaca tcacgaccat 1200 gactgtacac gatattatcg ccacatactt caccaaatgg tacgtgatag taccactcgc 1260 tttgattgct tatagagtcc tcgactactt ctatggcaga tacttgatgt acaagcttgg 1320 tgctaaacca tttttccaga aacagacaga cggctgtttc ggattcaaag ctccgcttga 1380 attgttgaag aagaagagcg acggtaccct catagacttc acactccagc gtatccacga 1440 tctcgatcgt cccgatatcc caactttcac attcccggtc ttttccatca accttgtcaa 1500 tacccttgag ccggagaaca tcaaggccat cttggccact cagttcaacg atttctcctt 1560 gggtaccaga cactcgcact ttgctccttt gttgggtgat ggtatcttta cgttggatgg 1620 cgccggctgg aagcacagca gatctatgtt gagaccacag tttgccagag aacagatttc 1680 ccacgtcaag ttgttggagc cacacgttca ggtgttcttc aaacacgtca gaaaggcaca 1740 gggcaagact tttgacatcc aggaattgtt tttcagattg accgtcgact ccgccaccga 1800 gtttttgttt ggtgaatccg ttgagtcctt gagagatgaa tctatcggca tgtccatcaa 1860 tgcgcttgac tttgacggca aggctggctt tgctgatgct tttaactatt cgcagaatta 1920 tttggcttcg agagcggtta tgcaacaatt gtactgggtg ttgaacggga aaaagtttaa 1980 ggagtgcaac gctaaagtgc acaagtttgc tgactactac gtcaacaagg ctttggactt 2040 gacgcctgaa caattggaaa agcaggatgg ttatgtgttt ttgtacgaat tggtcaagca 2100 aaccagagac aagcaagtgt tgagagacca attgttgaac atcatggttg ctggtagaga 2160 caccaccgcc ggtttgttgt cgtttgtttt ctttgaattg gccagaaacc cagaagttac 2220 caacaagttg agagaagaaa ttgaggacaa gtttggactc ggtgagaatg ctagtgttga 2280 agacatttcc tttgagtcgt tgaagtcctg tgaatacttg aaggctgttc tcaacgaaac 2340 cttgagattg tacccatccg tgccacagaa tttcagagtt gccaccaaga acactaccct 2400 cccaagaggt ggtggtaagg acgggttgtc tcctgttttg gtgagaaagg gtcagaccgt 2460 tatttacggt gtctacgcag cccacagaaa cccagctgtt tacggtaagg acgctcttga 2520 gtttagacca gagagatggt ttgagccaga gacaaagaag cttggctggg ccttcctccc 2580 attcaacggt ggtccaagaa tctgtttggg acagcagttt gccttgacag aagcttcgta 2640 tgtcactgtc aggttgctcc aggagtttgc acacttgtct atggacccag acaccgaata 2700 tccacctaag aaaatgtcgc atttgaccat gtcgcttttc gacggtgcca atattgagat 2760 gtattagagg gtcatgtgtt attttgattg tttagtttgt aattactgat taggttaatt 2820 catggattgt tatttattga taggggtttg cgcgtgttgc attcacttgg gatcgttcca 2880 ggttgatgtt tccttccatc ctgtcgagtc aaaaggagtt ttgttttgta actccggacg 2940 atgttttaaa tagaaggtcg atctccatgt gattgttttg actgttactg tgattatgta 3000 atctgcggac gttatacaag catgtgattg tggttttgca gccttttgca cgacaaatga 3060 tcgtcagacg attacgtaat ctttgttaga ggggtaaaaa aaaacaaaat ggcagccaga 3120 atttcaaaca ttctgcaaac aatgcaaaaa atgggaaact ccaacagaca aaaaaaaaaa 3180 ctccgcagca ctccgaaccc acagaacaat ggggcgccag aattattgac tattgtgact 3240 tttttacgct aacgctcatt gcagtgtagt gcgtcttaca cggggtattg ctttctacaa 3300 tgcaagggca cagttgaagg tttgcaccta acgttgcccc gtgtcaactc aatttgacga 3360 gtaacttcct aagctcgaat tatgcagctc gtgcgtcaac ctatgtgcag gaaagaaaaa 3420 atccaaaaaa atcgaaaatg cgactttcga ttttgaataa accaaaaaga aaaatgtcgc 3480 acttttttct cgctctcgct ctctcgaccc aaatcacaac aaatcctcgc gcgcagtatt 3540 tcgacgaaac cacaacaaat aaaaaaaaca aattctacac cacttctttt tcttcaccag 3600 tcaacaaaaa acaacaaatt atacaccatt tcaacgattt ttgctcttat aaatgctata 3660 taatggttta attcaactca ggtatgttta ttttactgtt ttcagctcaa gtatgttcaa 3720 atactaacta cttttgatgt ttgtcgcttt tctagaatca aaacaacgcc cacaacacgc 3780 cgagcttgtc gaatagacgg tttgtttact cattagatgg tcccagatta cttttcaagc 3840 caaagtctct cgagttttgt ttgctgtttc cccaattcct aactatgaag ggtttttata 3900 aggtccaaag accccaaggc atagtttttt tggttccttc ttgtcgtg 3948 87 3755 DNA Candida tropicalis 87 gctcaacaat tgtctgacaa gatctcgcaa cacaaggcta acgcctggtt gttgaacact 60 ggttgggttg gttcttctgc tgctagaggt ggtaagagat gttcattgaa gtacaccaga 120 gccattttgg acgctatcca ctctggtgaa ttgtccaagg ttgaatacga gactttccca 180 gtcttcaact tgaatgtccc aacctcctgc ccaggtgtcc caagtgaaat cttgaaccca 240 accaaggcct ggaccgaagg tgttgactcc ttcaacaagg aaatcaagtc tttggctggt 300 aagtttgctg aaaacttcaa gacctatgct gaccaagcta ccgctgaagt tagagctgca 360 ggtccagaag cttaaagata tttattcact atttagtttg cctatttatt tctcatcacc 420 catcatcatt caacaatata tataaagtta tttcggaact catatatcat tgtaatcgtg 480 cgtgttgcaa ttgggtaatt tgaaactgta gttggaacgg attcatgcac gatgcggaga 540 taacacgaga ttatctccta agacaatttt ggcctcattc acacgccctt cttctgagct 600 aaggataaat aattagactt cacaagttca ttaaaatatc cgtcacgcga aaactgcaac 660 aataaggaag gggggggtag acgtagccga tgaatgtggg gtgccagtaa acgcagtctc 720 tctctccccc cccccccccc ccccctcagg aatagtacaa cgggggaagg ataacggata 780 gcaagtggaa tgcgaggaaa attttgaatg cgcaaggaaa gcaatatccg ggctatcagg 840 ttttgagcca ggggacacac tcctcttctg cacaaaaact taacgtagac aaaaaaaaaa 900 aactccacca agacacaatg aatcgcacat ggacatttag acctccccac atgtgaaagc 960 ttctctggcg aaagcaaaaa aagtataata aggacccatg ccttccctct tcctgggccg 1020 tttcaacttt ttctttttct ttgtctatca acacacacac acctcacgac catgactgca 1080 caggatatta tcgccacata catcaccaaa tggtacgtga tagtaccact cgctttgatt 1140 gcttataggg tcctcgacta cttttacggc agatacttga tgtacaagct tggtgctaaa 1200 ccgtttttcc agaaacaaac agacggttat ttcggattca aagctccact tgaattgtta 1260 aaaaagaaga gtgacggtac cctcatagac ttcactctcg agcgtatcca agcgctcaat 1320 cgtccagata tcccaacttt tacattccca atcttttcca tcaaccttat cagcaccctt 1380 gagccggaga acatcaaggc tatcttggcc acccagttca acgatttctc cttgggcacc 1440 agacactcgc actttgctcc tttgttgggc gatggtatct ttaccttgga cggtgccggc 1500 tggaagcaca gcagatctat gttgagacca cagtttgcca gagaacagat ttcccacgtc 1560 aagttgttgg agccacacat gcaggtgttc ttcaagcacg tcagaaaggc acagggcaag 1620 acttttgaca tccaagaatt gtttttcaga ttgaccgtcg actccgccac tgagtttttg 1680 tttggtgaat ccgttgagtc cttgagagat gaatctattg ggatgtccat caatgcactt 1740 gactttgacg gcaaggctgg ctttgctgat gcttttaact actcgcagaa ctatttggct 1800 tcgagagcgg ttatgcaaca attgtactgg gtgttgaacg ggaaaaagtt taaggagtgc 1860 aacgctaaag tgcacaagtt tgctgactat tacgtcagca aggctttgga cttgacacct 1920 gaacaattgg aaaagcagga tggttatgtg ttcttgtacg agttggtcaa gcaaaccaga 1980 gacaggcaag tgttgagaga ccagttgttg aacatcatgg ttgccggtag agacaccacc 2040 gccggtttgt tgtcgtttgt tttctttgaa ttggccagaa acccagaggt gaccaacaag 2100 ttgagagaag aaatcgagga caagtttggt cttggtgaga atgctcgtgt tgaagacatt 2160 tcctttgagt cgttgaagtc atgtgaatac ttgaaggctg ttctcaacga aactttgaga 2220 ttgtacccat ccgtgccaca gaatttcaga gttgccacca aaaacactac ccttccaagg 2280 ggaggtggta aggacgggtt atctcctgtt ttggtcagaa agggtcaaac cgttatgtac 2340 ggtgtctacg ctgcccacag aaacccagct gtctacggta aggacgccct tgagtttaga 2400 ccagagaggt ggtttgagcc agagacaaag aagcttggct gggccttcct tccattcaac 2460 ggtggtccaa gaatttgctt gggacagcag tttgccttga cagaagcttc gtatgtcact 2520 gtcagattgc tccaagagtt tggacacttg tctatggacc ccaacaccga atatccacct 2580 aggaaaatgt cgcatttgac catgtccctt ttcgacggtg ccaacattga gatgtattag 2640 aggatcatgt gttatttttg attggtttag tctgtttgta gctattgatt aggttaattc 2700 acggattgtt atttattgat agggggtgcg tgtgtgtgtg tgtgttgcat tcacatggga 2760 tcgttccagg ttgttgtttc cttccatcct gttgagtcaa aaggagtttt gttttgtaac 2820 tccggacgat gtcttagata gaaggtcgat ctccatgtga ttgtttgact gctactctga 2880 ttatgtaatc tgtaaagcct agacgttatg caagcatgtg attgtggttt ttgcaacctg 2940 tttgcacgac aaatgatcga cagtcgatta cgtaatccat attatttaga ggggtaataa 3000 aaaataaatg gcagccagaa tttcaaacat tttgcaaaca atgcaaaaga tgagaaactc 3060 caacagaaaa aataaaaaaa ctccgcagca ctccgaacca acaaaacaat ggggggcgcc 3120 agaattattg actattgtga ctttttttta ttttttccgt taactttcat tgcagtgaag 3180 tgtgttacac ggggtggtga tggtgttggt ttctacaatg caagggcaca gttgaaggtt 3240 tccacataac gttgcaccat atcaactcaa tttatcctca ttcatgtgat aaaagaagag 3300 ccaaaaggta attggcagac cccccaaggg gaacacggag tagaaagcaa tggaaacacg 3360 cccatgacag tgccatttag cccacaacac atctagtatt cttttttttt tttgtgcgca 3420 ggtgcacacc tggactttag ttattgcccc ataaagttaa caatctcacc tttggctctc 3480 ccagtgtctc cgcctccaga tgctcgtttt acaccctcga gctaacgaca acacaacacc 3540 catgagggga atgggcaaag ttaaacactt ttggtttcaa tgattcctat ttgctactct 3600 cttgttttgt gttttgattt gcaccatgtg aaataaacga caattatata taccttttcg 3660 tctgtcctcc aatgtctctt tttgctgcca ttttgctttt tgctttttgc ttttgcactc 3720 tctcccactc ccacaatcag tgcagcaaca cacaa 3755 88 3900 DNA Candida tropicalis 88 gacatcataa tgacccggtt atttcgccct caggttgctt atttgagccg taaagtgcag 60 tagaaacttt gccttgggtt caaactctag tataatggtg ataactggtt gcactcttgc 120 cataggcatg aaaataggcc gttatagtac tatatttaat aagcgtagga gtataggatg 180 catatgaccg gtttttctat atttttaaga taatctctag taaattttgt attctcagta 240 ggatttcatc aaatttcgca accaattctg gcgaaaaaat gattctttta cgtcaaaagc 300 tgaatagtgc agtttaaagc acctaaaatc acatatacag cctctagata cgacagagaa 360 gctctttatg atctgaagaa gcattagaat agctactatg agccactatt ggtgtatata 420 ttagggattg gtgcaattaa gtacgtacta ataaacagaa gaaaatactt aaccaatttc 480 tggtgtatac ttagtggtga gggacctttt ctgaacattc gggtcaaact tttttttgga 540 gtgcgacatc gatttttcgt ttgtgtaata atagtgaacc tttgtgtaat aaatcttcat 600 gcaagacttg cataattcga gcttgggagt tcacgccaat ttgacctcgt tcatgtgata 660 aaagaaaagc caaaaggtaa ttagcagacg caatgggaac atggagtgga aagcaatgga 720 agcacgccca ggacggagta atttagtcca cactacatct gggggttttt tttttgtgcg 780 caagtacaca cctggacttt agtttttgcc ccataaagtt aacaatctaa cctttggctc 840 tccaactctc tccgccccca aatattcgtt tttacaccct caagctagcg acagcacaac 900 acccattaga ggaatggggc aaagttaaac acttttggct tcaatgattc ctattcgcta 960 ctacattctt ctcttgtttt gtgctttgaa ttgcaccatg tgaaataaac gacaattata 1020 tatacctttt catccctcct cctatatctc tttttgctac attttgtttt ttacgtttct 1080 tgcttttgca ctctcccact cccacaaaga aaaaaaaact acactatgtc gtcttctcca 1140 tcgtttgccc aagaggttct cgctaccact agtccttaca tcgagtactt tcttgacaac 1200 tacaccagat ggtactactt catacctttg gtgcttcttt cgttgaactt tataagtttg 1260 ctccacacaa ggtacttgga acgcaggttc cacgccaagc cactcggtaa ctttgtcagg 1320 gaccctacgt ttggtatcgc tactccgttg cttttgatct acttgaagtc gaaaggtacg 1380 gtcatgaagt ttgcttgggg cctctggaac aacaagtaca tcgtcagaga cccaaagtac 1440 aagacaactg ggctcaggat tgttggcctc ccattgattg aaaccatgga cccagagaac 1500 atcaaggctg ttttggctac tcagttcaat gatttctctt tgggaaccag acacgatttc 1560 ttgtactcct tgttgggtga cggtattttc accttggacg gtgctggctg gaaacatagt 1620 agaactatgt tgagaccaca gtttgctaga gaacaggttt ctcacgtcaa gttgttggag 1680 ccacacgttc aggtgttctt caagcacgtt agaaagcacc gcggtcaaac gttcgacatc 1740 caagaattgt tcttcaggtt gaccgtcgac tccgccaccg agttcttgtt tggtgagtct 1800 gctgaatcct tgagggacga atctattgga ttgaccccaa ccaccaagga tttcgatggc 1860 agaagagatt tcgctgacgc tttcaactat tcgcagactt accaggccta cagatttttg 1920 ttgcaacaaa tgtactggat cttgaatggc tcggaattca gaaagtcgat tgctgtcgtg 1980 cacaagtttg ctgaccacta tgtgcaaaag gctttggagt tgaccgacga tgacttgcag 2040 aaacaagacg gctatgtgtt cttgtacgag ttggctaagc aaaccagaga cccaaaggtc 2100 ttgagagacc agttattgaa cattttggtt gccggtagag acacgaccgc cggtttgttg 2160 tcatttgttt tctacgagtt gtcaagaaac cctgaggtgt ttgctaagtt gagagaggag 2220 gtggaaaaca gatttggact cggtgaagaa gctcgtgttg aagagatctc gtttgagtcc 2280 ttgaagtctt gtgagtactt gaaggctgtc atcaatgaaa ccttgagatt gtacccatcg 2340 gttccacaca actttagagt tgctaccaga aacactaccc tcccaagagg tggtggtgaa 2400 gatggatact cgccaattgt cgtcaagaag ggtcaagttg tcatgtacac tgttattgct 2460 acccacagag acccaagtat ctacggtgcc gacgctgacg tcttcagacc agaaagatgg 2520 tttgaaccag aaactagaaa gttgggctgg gcatacgttc cattcaatgg tggtccaaga 2580 atctgtttgg gtcaacagtt tgccttgacc gaagcttcat acgtcactgt cagattgctc 2640 caggagtttg cacacttgtc tatggaccca gacaccgaat atccaccaaa attgcagaac 2700 accttgacct tgtcgctctt tgatggtgct gatgttagaa tgtactaagg ttgcttttcc 2760 ttgctaattt tcttctgtat agcttgtgta tttaaattga atcggcaatt gatttttctg 2820 ataccaataa ccgtagtgcg atttgaccaa aaccgttcaa actttttgtt ctctcgttga 2880 cgtgctcgct catcagcact gtttgaagac gaaagagaaa attttttgta aacaacactg 2940 tccaaattta cccaacgtga accattatgc aaatgagcgg ccctttcaac tggtcgctgg 3000 aagcattcgg ggatatctac aacgccctta agtttgaaac agacattgat ttagacacca 3060 tagatttcag cggcatcaag aatgaccttg cccacatttt gacgacccca acaccactgg 3120 aagaatcacg ccagaaacta ggcgatggat ccaagcctgt gaccttgccc aatggagacg 3180 aagtggagtt gaaccaagcg ttcctagaag ttaccacatt attgtcgaat gagtttgact 3240 tggaccaatt gaacgcggca gagttgttat actacgctgg cgacatatcc tacaagaagg 3300 gcacatcaat cgcagacagt gccagattgt cttattattt gagagcaaac tacatcttga 3360 acatacttgg gtatttgatt tcgaagcagc gattggattt gatagtcacg gacaacgacg 3420 cgttgtttga tagtattttg aaaagttttg aaaagatcta caagttgata agcgtgttga 3480 acgatatgat tgacaagcaa aaggtgacaa gcgacatcaa cagtctagca ttcatcaatt 3540 gcatcaacta ctcgagaggt caactattct ccgcacacga acttttggga ctggttttgt 3600 ttggattggt cgacatctat ttcaaccagt ttggcacatt agacaactac aagaaggtat 3660 tggcattgat actgaagaac atcagcgatg aagacatctt gatcatacac ttcctcccat 3720 cgacactaca attgtttaag ctggtgttgg acaagaaaga cgacgctgca gttgaacagt 3780 tctacaagta catcacttca acagtgtcac gagactacaa ctccaacatc ggctccacag 3840 ccaaagatga tatcgatttg tccaaaacca aactcagtgg ctttgaggtg ttgacgagtt 3900 89 3668 DNA Candida tropicalis 89 cctgcagaat tcgcggccgc gtcgacagag tagcagttat gcaagcatgt gattgtggtt 60 tttgcaacct gtttgcacga caaatgatcg acagtcgatt acgtaatcca tattatttag 120 aggggtaata aaaaataaat ggcagccaga atttcaaaca ttttgcaaac aatgcaaaag 180 atgagaaact ccaacagaaa aaataaaaaa actccgcagc actccgaacc aacaaaacaa 240 tggggggcgc cagaattatt gactattgtg actttttttt attttttccg ttaactttca 300 ttgcagtgaa gtgtgttaca cggggtggtg atggtgttgg tttctacaat gcaagggcac 360 agttgaaggt ttccacataa cgttgcacca tatcaactca atttatcctc attcatgtga 420 taaaagaaga gccaaaaggt aattggcaga ccccccaagg ggaacacgga gtagaaagca 480 atggaaacac gcccatgaca gtgccattta gcccacaaca catctagtat tctttttttt 540 ttttgtgcgc aggtgcacac ctggacttta gttattgccc cataaagtta acaatctcac 600 ctttggctct cccagtgtct ccgcctccag atgctcgttt tacaccctcg agctaacgac 660 aacacaacac ccatgagggg aatgggcaaa gttaaacact tttggtttca atgattccta 720 tttgctactc tcttgttttg tgttttgatt tgcaccatgt gaaataaacg acaattatat 780 ataccttttc gtctgtcctc caatgtctct ttttgctgcc attttgcttt ttgctttttg 840 cttttgcact ctctcccact cccacaatca gtgcagcaac acacaaagaa gaaaaataaa 900 aaaacctaca ctatgtcgtc ttctccatcg tttgctcagg aggttctcgc taccactagt 960 ccttacatcg agtactttct tgacaactac accagatggt actacttcat ccctttggtg 1020 cttctttcgt tgaacttcat cagcttgctc cacacaaagt acttggaacg caggttccac 1080 gccaagccgc tcggtaacgt cgtgttggat cctacgtttg gtatcgctac tccgttgatc 1140 ttgatctact taaagtcgaa aggtacagtc atgaagtttg cctggagctt ctggaacaac 1200 aagtacattg tcaaagaccc aaagtacaag accactggcc ttagaattgt cggcctccca 1260 ttgattgaaa ccatagaccc agagaacatc aaagctgtgt tggctactca gttcaacgat 1320 ttctccttgg gaactagaca cgatttcttg tactccttgt tgggcgatgg tatttttacc 1380 ttggacggtg ctggctggaa acacagtaga actatgttga gaccacagtt tgctagagaa 1440 caggtttccc acgtcaagtt gttggaacca cacgttcagg tgttcttcaa gcacgttaga 1500 aaacaccgcg gtcagacttt tgacatccaa gaattgttct tcagattgac cgtcgactcc 1560 gccaccgagt tcttgtttgg tgagtctgct gaatccttga gagacgactc tgttggtttg 1620 accccaacca ccaaggattt cgaaggcaga ggagatttcg ctgacgcttt caactactcg 1680 cagacttacc aggcctacag atttttgttg caacaaatgt actggatttt gaatggcgcg 1740 gaattcagaa agtcgattgc catcgtgcac aagtttgctg accactatgt gcaaaaggct 1800 ttggagttga ccgacgatga cttgcagaaa caagacggct atgtgttctt gtacgagttg 1860 gctaagcaaa ctagagaccc aaaggtcttg agagaccagt tgttgaacat tttggttgcc 1920 ggtagagaca cgaccgccgg tttgttgtcg tttgtgttct acgagttgtc gagaaaccct 1980 gaagtgtttg ccaagttgag agaggaggtg gaaaacagat ttggactcgg cgaagaggct 2040 cgtgttgaag agatctcttt tgagtccttg aagtcctgtg agtacttgaa ggctgtcatc 2100 aatgaagcct tgagattgta cccatctgtt ccacacaact tcagagttgc caccagaaac 2160 actacccttc caagaggcgg tggtaaagac ggatgctcgc caattgttgt caagaagggt 2220 caagttgtca tgtacactgt cattggtacc cacagagacc caagtatcta cggtgccgac 2280 gccgacgtct tcagaccaga aagatggttc gagccagaaa ctagaaagtt gggctgggca 2340 tatgttccat tcaatggtgg tccaagaatc tgtttgggtc agcagtttgc cttgactgaa 2400 gcttcatacg tcactgtcag attgctccaa gagtttggaa acttgtccct ggatccaaac 2460 gctgagtacc caccaaaatt gcagaacacc ttgaccttgt cactctttga tggtgctgac 2520 gttagaatgt tctaaggttg cttatccttg ctagtgttat ttatagtttg tgtatttaaa 2580 ttgaatcggc gattgatttt tctggtacta ataactgtag tgggttttga ccaaaaccgt 2640 tcaaactttt tttttttttt tcttccccct accttcgttg ctcgctcatc agcactgttt 2700 gaaaacgaaa aaagaaaatt ttttgtaaac aacattgccc aaacttaccc aacgtgaacc 2760 attataacca aatgagcggc gctttcaact ggtcactgga ggcattcggg gatatctaca 2820 acacccttaa gtttgaggaa gacattgatt tagacaccat agatttcagc ggcatcaaga 2880 atgaccttgt ccacattttg acaaccccaa caccactgga agaatcgcgc cagaaactag 2940 gcgatggatc caagcctgtg gccttgccca atggagacga agtggagttg aaccaagcgt 3000 tcctagaagt taccacatta ttgtcgaacg agtttgactt ggaccaattg aacgcggccg 3060 agttgttata ctacgccggc gacatatcct acaagaaggg cacatcaatt gccgacagtg 3120 ccagattgtc ttactatttg agagcaaact acatcttgaa catacttggg tactttattt 3180 cgaagcagcg attggatgtg atagtcaccg acaacaacgc gttgtttgat aatattttga 3240 aaagttttga aaagatctac aagttgataa gcgcgttgaa cgatatgatt gacaagcaaa 3300 aggtgacaag cgacatcaac agtctagcat ttatcaactg catcaactac tcgaggggtc 3360 aactattctc cgcacacgaa cttttgggac tggttttgtt tggattggtt gacaactatt 3420 tcaaccagtt tggctcatta gacaactaca agaaagtatt ggcattgata ctgaagaaca 3480 tcagtgatga agatatcttg atcgtacgct tcctcccatc gacactacaa ttgtttaagc 3540 tggtgttgga taagaaagac gacgccactg ttgaccagtt ctacaagtac atcacctcaa 3600 cagtgtcgca agactacaac tccaacatcg gagccacagc caaagatgat atcgatttgt 3660 ccaaagcc 3668 90 3826 DNA Candida tropicalis 90 tggagtcgcc agacttgctc acttttgact cccttcgaaa ctcaaagtac gttcaggcgg 60 tgctcaacga aacgctccgt atctacccgg gggtaccacg aaacatgaag acagctacgt 120 gcaacacgac gttgccacgc ggaggaggca aagacggcaa ggaacctatc ttggtgcaga 180 agggacagtc cgttgggttg attactattg ccacgcagac ggacccagag tattttgggg 240 ccgacgctgg tgagtttaag ccggagagat ggtttgattc aagcatgaag aacttggggt 300 gtaaatactt gccgttcaat gctgggccac ggacttgctt ggggcagcag tacactttga 360 ttgaagcgag ctacttgcta gtccggttgg cccagaccta ccgggcaata gatttgcagc 420 caggatcggc gtacccacca agaaagaagt cgttgatcaa catgagtgct gccgacgggg 480 tgtttgtaaa gctttataag gatgtaacgg tagatggata gttgtgtagg aggagcggag 540 ataaattaga tttgattttg tgtaaggttt tggatgtcaa cctactccgc acttcatgca 600 gtgtgtgtga cacaagggtg tactacgtgt gcgtgtgcgc caagagacag cccaaggggg 660 tggtagtgtg tgttggcgga agtgcatgtg acacaacgcg tgggttctgg ccaatggtgg 720 actaagtgca ggtaagcagc gacctgaaac attcctcaac gcttaagaca ctggtggtag 780 agatgcggac caggctattc ttgtcgtgct acccggcgca tggaaaatca actgcgggaa 840 gaataaattt atccgtagaa tccacagagc ggataaattt gcccacctcc atcatcaacc 900 acgccgccac taactacatc actcccctat tttctctctc tctctttgtc ttactccgct 960 cccgtttcct tagccacaga tacacaccca ctgcaaacag cagcaacaat tataaagata 1020 cgccaggccc accttctttc tttttcttca cttttttgac tgcaactttc tacaatccac 1080 cacagccacc accacagccg ctatgattga acaactccta gaatattggt atgtcgttgt 1140 gccagtgttg tacatcatca aacaactcct tgcatacaca aagactcgcg tcttgatgaa 1200 aaagttgggt gctgctccag tcacaaacaa gttgtacgac aacgctttcg gtatcgtcaa 1260 tggatggaag gctctccagt tcaagaaaga gggcagggct caagagtaca acgattacaa 1320 gtttgaccac tccaagaacc caagcgtggg cacctacgtc agtattcttt tcggcaccag 1380 gatcgtcgtg accaaagatc cagagaatat caaagctatt ttggcaaccc agtttggtga 1440 tttttctttg ggcaagaggc acactctttt taagcctttg ttaggtgatg ggatcttcac 1500 attggacggc gaaggctgga agcacagcag agccatgttg agaccacagt ttgccagaga 1560 acaagttgct catgtgacgt cgttggaacc acacttccag ttgttgaaga agcatattct 1620 taagcacaag ggtgaatact ttgatatcca ggaattgttc tttagattta ccgttgattc 1680 ggccacggag ttcttatttg gtgagtccgt gcactcctta aaggacgaat ctattggtat 1740 caaccaagac gatatagatt ttgctggtag aaaggacttt gctgagtcgt tcaacaaagc 1800 ccaggaatac ttggctatta gaaccttggt gcagacgttc tactggttgg tcaacaacaa 1860 ggagtttaga gactgtacca agctggtgca caagttcacc aactactatg ttcagaaagc 1920 tttggatgct agcccagaag agcttgaaaa gcaaagtggg tatgtgttct tgtacgagct 1980 tgtcaagcag acaagagacc ccaatgtgtt gcgtgaccag tctttgaaca tcttgttggc 2040 cggaagagac accactgctg ggttgttgtc gtttgctgtc tttgagttgg ccagacaccc 2100 agagatctgg gccaagttga gagaggaaat tgaacaacag tttggtcttg gagaagactc 2160 tcgtgttgaa gagattacct ttgagagctt gaagagatgt gagtacttga aagcgttcct 2220 taatgaaacc ttgcgtattt acccaagtgt cccaagaaac ttcagaatcg ccaccaagaa 2280 cacgacattg ccaaggggcg gtggttcaga cggtacctcg ccaatcttga tccaaaaggg 2340 agaagctgtg tcgtatggta tcaactctac tcatttggac cctgtctatt acggccctga 2400 tgctgctgag ttcagaccag agagatggtt tgagccatca accaaaaagc tcggctgggc 2460 ttacttgcca ttcaacggtg gtccaagaat ctgtttgggt cagcagtttg ccttgacgga 2520 agctggctat gtgttggtta gattggtgca agagttctcc cacgttaggc tggacccaga 2580 cgaggtgtac ccgccaaaga ggttgaccaa cttgaccatg tgtttgcagg atggtgctat 2640 tgtcaagttt gactagcggc gtggtgaatg cgtttgattt tgtagtttct gtttgcagta 2700 atgagataac tattcagata aggcgagtgg atgtacgttt tgtaagagtt tccttacaac 2760 cttggtgggg tgtgtgaggt tgaggttgca tcttggggag attacacctt ttgcagctct 2820 ccgtatacac ttgtactctt tgtaacctct atcaatcatg tggggggggg ggttcattgt 2880 ttggccatgg tggtgcatgt taaatccgcc aactacccaa tctcacatga aactcaagca 2940 cactaaaaaa aaaaaagatg ttgggggaaa actttggttt cccttcttag taattaaaca 3000 ctctcactct cactctcact ctctccactc agacaaacca accacctggg ctgcagacaa 3060 ccagaaaaaa aaagaacaaa atccagatag aaaaacaaag ggctggacaa ccataaataa 3120 acaatctagg gtctactcca tcttccactg tttcttcttc ttcagactta gctaacaaac 3180 aactcacttc accatggatt acgcaggcat cacgcgtggc tccatcagag gcgaggcctt 3240 gaagaaactc gcagaattga ccatccagaa ccagccatcc agcttgaaag aaatcaacac 3300 cggcatccag aaggacgact ttgccaagtt gttgtctgcc accccgaaaa tccccaccaa 3360 gcacaagttg aacggcaacc acgaattgtc tgaggtcgcc attgccaaaa aggagtacga 3420 ggtgttgatt gccttgagcg acgccacaaa agacccaatc aaagtgacct cccagatcaa 3480 gatcttgatt gacaagttca aggtgtactt gtttgagttg cctgaccaga agttctccta 3540 ctccatcgtg tccaactccg tcaacatcgc cccctggacc ttgctcgggg agaagttgac 3600 cacgggcttg atcaacttgg ccttccagaa caacaagcag cacttggacg aggtcattga 3660 catcttcaac gagttcatcg acaagttctt tggcaacacg gagccgcaat tgaccaactt 3720 cttgaccttg tgcggtgtgt tggacgggtt gattgaccat gccaacttct tgagcgtgtc 3780 ctcgcggacc ttcaagatct tcttgaactt ggactcgtat gtggac 3826 91 3910 DNA Candida tropicalis 91 ttacaatcat ggagctcgct aggaacccag atgtctggga gaagctccgc gaagaggtca 60 acacgaactt tggcatggag tcgccagact tgctcacttt tgactctctt agaagctcaa 120 agtacgttca ggcggtgctc aacgaaacgc ttcgtatcta cccgggggtg ccacgaaaca 180 tgaagacagc tacgtgcaac acgacgttgc cgcgtggagg aggcaaagac ggtaaggaac 240 ctattttggt gcagaagggc cagtccgttg ggttgattac tattgccacg cagacggacc 300 cagagtattt tggggcagat gctggtgagt tcaaaccgga gagatggttt gattcaagca 360 tgaagaactt ggggtgtaag tacttgccgt tcaatgctgg gccccggact tgtttggggc 420 agcagtacac tttgattgaa gcgagctatt tgctagtcag gttggcgcag acctaccggg 480 taatcgattt gctgccaggg tcggcgtacc caccaagaaa gaagtcgttg atcaatatga 540 gtgctgccga tggggtggtt gtaaagtttc acaaggatct agatggatat gtaaggtgtg 600 taggaggagc ggagataaat tagatttgat tttgtgtaag gtttagcacg tcaagctact 660 ccgcactttg tgtgtaggga gcacatactc cgtctgcgcc tgtgccaaga gacggcccag 720 gggtagtgtg tggtggtgga agtgcatgtg acacaatacc ctggttctgg ccaattgggg 780 atttagtgta ggtaagctgc gacctgaaac actcctcaac gcttgagaca ctggtgggta 840 gagatgcggg ccaggaggct attcttgtcg tgctacccgt gcacggaaaa tcgattgagg 900 gaagaacaaa tttatccgtg aaatccacag agcggataaa tttgtcacat tgctgcgttg 960 cccacccaca gcattctctt ttctctctct ttgtcttact ccgctcctgt ttccttatcc 1020 agaaatacac accaactcat ataaagatac gctagcccag ctgtctttct ttttcttcac 1080 tttttttggt gtgttgcttt tttggctgct actttctaca accaccacca ccaccaccac 1140 catgattgaa caaatcctag aatattggta tattgttgtg cctgtgttgt acatcatcaa 1200 acaactcatt gcctacagca agactcgcgt cttgatgaaa cagttgggtg ctgctccaat 1260 cacaaaccag ttgtacgaca acgttttcgg tatcgtcaac ggatggaagg ctctccagtt 1320 caagaaagag ggcagagctc aagagtacaa cgatcacaag tttgacagct ccaagaaccc 1380 aagcgtcggc acctatgtca gtattctttt tggcaccaag attgtcgtga ccaaggatcc 1440 agagaatatc aaagctattt tggcaaccca gtttggcgat ttttctttgg gcaagagaca 1500 cgctcttttt aaacctttgt taggtgatgg gatcttcacc ttggacggcg aaggctggaa 1560 gcatagcaga tccatgttaa gaccacagtt tgccagagaa caagttgctc atgtgacgtc 1620 gttggaacca cacttccagt tgttgaagaa gcatatcctt aaacacaagg gtgagtactt 1680 tgatatccag gaattgttct ttagatttac tgtcgactcg gccacggagt tcttatttgg 1740 tgagtccgtg cactccttaa aggacgaaac tatcggtatc aaccaagacg atatagattt 1800 tgctggtaga aaggactttg ctgagtcgtt caacaaagcc caggagtatt tgtctattag 1860 aattttggtg cagaccttct actggttgat caacaacaag gagtttagag actgtaccaa 1920 gctggtgcac aagtttacca actactatgt tcagaaagct ttggatgcta ccccagagga 1980 acttgaaaag caaggcgggt atgtgttctt gtatgagctt gtcaagcaga cgagagaccc 2040 caaggtgttg cgtgaccagt ctttgaacat cttgttggca ggaagagaca ccactgctgg 2100 gttgttgtcc tttgctgtgt ttgagttggc cagaaaccca cacatctggg ccaagttgag 2160 agaggaaatt gaacagcagt ttggtcttgg agaagactct cgtgttgaag agattacctt 2220 tgagagcttg aagagatgtg agtacttgaa agcgttcctt aacgaaacct tgcgtgttta 2280 cccaagtgtc ccaagaaact tcagaatcgc caccaagaat acaacattgc caaggggtgg 2340 tggtccagac ggtacccagc caatcttgat ccaaaaggga gaaggtgtgt cgtatggtat 2400 caactctacc cacttagatc ctgtctatta tggccctgat gctgctgagt tcagaccaga 2460 gagatggttt gagccatcaa ccagaaagct cggctgggct tacttgccat tcaacggtgg 2520 gccacgaatc tgtttgggtc agcagtttgc cttgaccgaa gctggttacg ttttggtcag 2580 attggtgcaa gagttctccc acattaggct ggacccagat gaagtgtatc caccaaagag 2640 gttgaccaac ttgaccatgt gtttgcagga tggtgctatt gtcaagtttg actagtacgt 2700 atgagtgcgt ttgattttgt agtttctgtt tgcagtaatg agataactat tcagataagg 2760 cgggtggatg tacgttttgt aagagtttcc ttacaaccct ggtgggtgtg tgaggttgca 2820 tcttagggag agatagcacc ttttgcagct ctccgtatac agttttactc tttgtaacct 2880 atgccaatca tgtggggatt cattgtttgc ccatggtggt gcatgcaaaa tccccccaac 2940 tacccaatct cacatgaaac tcaagcacac tagaaaaaaa agatgttgcg tgggttcttt 3000 tgatgttggg gaaaactttc gtttcctttc tcagtaatta aacgttctca ctcagacaaa 3060 ccacctgggc tgcagacaac cagaaaaaac aaaatccaga tagaagaaga aagggctgga 3120 caaccataaa taaacaacct agggtccact ccatctttca cttcttcttc ttcagactta 3180 tctaacaaac gactcacttc accatggatt acgcaggtat cacgcgtggg tccatcagag 3240 gcgaagcctt gaagaaactc gccgagttga ccatccagaa ccagccatcc agcttgaaag 3300 aaatcaacac cggcatccag aaggacgact ttgccaagtt gttgtcttcc accccgaaaa 3360 tccacaccaa gcacaagttg aatggcaacc acgaattgtc cgaagtcgcc attgccaaaa 3420 aggagtacga ggtgttgatt gccttgagcg acgccacgaa agaaccaatc aaagtcacct 3480 cccagatcaa gatcttgatt gacaagttca aggtgtactt gtttgagttg cccgaccaga 3540 agttctccta ctccatcgtg tccaactccg ttaacattgc cccctggacc ttgctcggtg 3600 agaagttgac cacgggcttg atcaacttgg cgttccagaa caacaagcag cacttggacg 3660 aagtcatcga catcttcaac gagttcatcg acaagttctt tggcaacaca gagccgcaat 3720 tgaccaactt cttgaccttg tccggtgtgt tggacgggtt gattgaccat gccaacttct 3780 tgagcgtgtc ctccaggacc ttcaagatct tcttgaactt ggactcgttt gtggacaact 3840 cggacttctt gaacgacgtg gagaactact ccgacttttt gtacgacgag ccgaacgagt 3900 accagaactt 3910 92 3150 DNA Candida tropicalis 92 gaattctttg gatctaattc cagctgatct tgctaatcct tatcaacgta gttgtgatca 60 ttgtttgtct gaattataca caccagtgga agaatatggt ctaatttgca cgtcccactg 120 gcattgtgtg tttgtggggg ggggggggtg cacacatttt tagtgccatt ctttgttgat 180 tacccctccc ccctatcatt cattcccaca ggattagttt tttcctcact ggaattcgct 240 gtccacctgt caaccccccc cccccccccc cccactgccc taccctgccc tgccctgcac 300 gtcctgtgtt ttgtgctgtg tctttcccac gctataaaag ccctggcgtc cggccaaggt 360 ttttccaccc agccaaaaaa acagtctaaa aaatttggtt gatccttttt ggttgcaagg 420 ttttccacca ccacttccac cacctcaact attcgaacaa aagatgctcg atcagatctt 480 acattactgg tacattgtct tgccattgtt ggccattatc aaccagatcg tggctcatgt 540 caggaccaat tatttgatga agaaattggg tgctaagcca ttcacacacg tccaacgtga 600 cgggtggttg ggcttcaaat tcggccgtga attcctcaaa gcaaaaagtg ctgggagact 660 ggttgattta atcatctccc gtttccacga taatgaggac actttctcca gctatgcttt 720 tggcaaccat gtggtgttca ccagggaccc cgagaatatc aaggcgcttt tggcaaccca 780 gtttggtgat ttttcattgg gcagcagggt caagttcttc aaaccattat tggggtacgg 840 tatcttcaca ttggacgccg aaggctggaa gcacagcaga gccatgttga gaccacagtt 900 tgccagagaa caagttgctc atgtgacgtc gttggaacca cacttccagt tgttgaagaa 960 gcatatcctt aaacacaagg gtgagtactt tgatatccag gaattgttct ttagatttac 1020 tgtcgactcg gccacggagt tcttatttgg tgagtccgtg cactccttaa aggacgagga 1080 aattggctac gacacgaaag acatgtctga agaaagacgc agatttgccg acgcgttcaa 1140 caagtcgcaa gtctacgtgg ccaccagagt tgctttacag aacttgtact ggttggtcaa 1200 caacaaagag ttcaaggagt gcaatgacat tgtccacaag tttaccaact actatgttca 1260 gaaagccttg gatgctaccc cagaggaact tgaaaagcaa ggcgggtatg tgttcttgta 1320 tgagcttgtc aagcagacga gagaccccaa ggtgttgcgt gaccagtctt tgaacatctt 1380 gttggcagga agagacacca ctgctgggtt gttgtccttt gctgtgtttg agttggccag 1440 aaacccacac atctgggcca agttgagaga ggaaattgaa cagcagtttg gtcttggaga 1500 agactctcgt gttgaagaga ttacctttga gagcttgaag agatgtgagt acttgaaggc 1560 cgtgttgaac gaaactttga gattacaccc aagtgtccca agaaacgcaa gatttgcgat 1620 taaagacacg actttaccaa gaggcggtgg ccccaacggc aaggatccta tcttgatcag 1680 gaaggatgag gtggtgcagt actccatctc ggcaactcag acaaatcctg cttattatgg 1740 cgccgatgct gctgatttta gaccggaaag atggtttgaa ccatcaacta gaaacttggg 1800 atgggctttc ttgccattca acggtggtcc aagaatctgt ttgggacaac agtttgcttt 1860 gactgaagcc ggttacgttt tggttagact tgttcaggag tttccaaact tgtcacaaga 1920 ccccgaaacc aagtacccac cacctagatt ggcacacttg acgatgtgct tgtttgacgg 1980 tgcacacgtc aagatgtcat aggtttcccc atacaagtag ttcagtaatt atacactgtt 2040 tttactttct cttcatacca aatggacaaa agttttaagc atgcctaaca acgtgaccgg 2100 acaattgtgt cgcactagta tgtaacaatt gtaaaaatag tgtacactaa tttgtggtgg 2160 ccggagataa attacagttt ggttttgtgt aaactcgcgg atatctctgg cagtttctct 2220 tctccgcagc agctttgcca cgggtttgct ctggggccaa caaattcaaa agggggagaa 2280 acttaacacc ccttatctct ccactctagg ttgtagctct tgtggggatg caattgtcgt 2340 acgtttttta tgttttgtct agactttgat gattacgttg gatttcttat gtctgaggcg 2400 tgcttgaaag aagtgtcaaa atgtgacagg cgacgctatt cgacatgaac gcgaaagggt 2460 tatttgcatc aatacgaggg gctgactcta gtctaggatg gcagtcctag gttgcaaaca 2520 tgttgcacca tatccctcct ggagttggtc gacctcgcct acgccaccct cagcgatcgg 2580 cactttccgt tgttcaatat ttctccttcc cattgttcca ggggttatca acaacgttgc 2640 cggcctcctc cccaaattac aagaaaaata aattgtcgca cggcaccgat ctgtcaaaga 2700 tacagataaa ccttaaatct gcaaaaacaa gacccctccc catagcctag aagcaccagc 2760 aagatgatgg agcaactcct ccagtactgg tacatcgcac tctctgtatg gttcatcctt 2820 cgctacttgg cttcccacgc acgagccgtc tacttgcgcc acaagctcgg cgcggcgcca 2880 ttcacgcaca cccagtacga cggctggtat gggttcaagt ttgggcggga gtttctcaag 2940 gcgaagaaga tcgggcggca gacggacttg gtgcatgcgc ggttccgtgg cggcatggac 3000 accttctcga gctacacttt cggcatccat atcatcctta cccgggaccc ggagaacatc 3060 aaggcggtct tggcgacgca gttcgatgac ttctcgctcg gtggcaggat caggttcttg 3120 aagccgttgt tggggtatgg gatattcacg 3150 93 3579 DNA Candida tropicalis 93 aaaaccgata caagaagaag acagtcaaca agaacgttaa tgtcaaccag gcgccaagaa 60 gacggtttgg cggacttgga agaatgtggc atttgcccat gatgtttatg ttctggagag 120 gtttttcaag gaatcgtcat cctccgccac cacaagaacc accagttaac gagatccata 180 ttcacaaccc accgcaaggt gacaatgctc aacaacaaca gcaacaacaa caacccccac 240 aagaacagtg gaataatgcc agtcaacaaa gagtggtgac agacgaggga gaaaacgcaa 300 gcaacagtgg ttctgatgca agatcagcta caccgcttca tcaggaaaag caggagctcc 360 caccaccata tgcccatcac gagcaacacc agcaggttag tgtatagtag tctgtagtta 420 agtcaatgca atgtaccaat aagactatcc cttcttacaa ccaagttttc tgccgcgcct 480 gtctggcaac agatgctggc cgacacactt tcaactgagt ttggtctaga attcttgcac 540 atgcacgaca aggaaactct tacaaagaca acacttgtgc tctgatgcca cttgatcttg 600 ctaagcctta tcaacgtaat tgagatcatt gtttgtctga attatacaca ccagtggaag 660 aatctggtct aatctgcacg cctcatgggc attgtgtgtt ttgggggggg gggggggggt 720 gcacacattt ttagtgcgaa tgtttgtttg ctggttcccc ctcccccctc ccccctatca 780 tgcccacagg attagttttt tcctcactgg aattcgctgt ccacctgtca accccctcac 840 tgccctgccc tgccctgcac gccctgtgtt ttgtgctgtg gcactcccac gctataaaag 900 ccctggcgta cggccaaggt ttttcctcac agccaaaaaa aaatttggct gatccttttg 960 ggctgcaagg tttttcacca ccaccaccac caccacctca actattcaaa caaaggatgc 1020 tcgaccagat cttccattac tggtacattg tcttgccatt gttggtcatt atcaagcaga 1080 tcgtggctca tgccaggacc aattatttga tgaagaagtt gggcgctaag ccattcacac 1140 atgtccaact agacgggtgg tttggcttca aatttggccg tgaattcctc aaagctaaaa 1200 gtgctgggag gcaggttgat ttaatcatct cccgtttcca cgataatgag gacactttct 1260 ccagctatgc ttttggcaac catgtggtgt tcaccaggga ccccgagaat atcaaggcgc 1320 ttttggcaac ccagtttggt gatttttcat tgggaagcag ggtcaaattc ttcaaaccat 1380 tgttggggta cggtatcttc accttggacg gcgaaggctg gaagcacagc agagccatgt 1440 tgagaccaca gtttgccaga gagcaagttg ctcatgtgac gtcgttggaa ccacatttcc 1500 agttgttgaa gaagcatatt cttaagcaca agggtgaata ctttgatatc caggaattgt 1560 tctttagatt taccgttgat tcagcgacgg agttcttatt tggtgagtcc gtgcactcct 1620 taagggacga ggaaattggc tacgatacga aggacatggc tgaagaaaga cgcaaatttg 1680 ccgacgcgtt caacaagtcg caagtctatt tgtccaccag agttgcttta cagacattgt 1740 actggttggt caacaacaaa gagttcaagg agtgcaacga cattgtccac aagttcacca 1800 actactatgt tcagaaagcc ttggatgcta ccccagagga acttgaaaaa caaggcgggt 1860 atgtgttctt gtacgagctt gccaagcaga cgaaagaccc caatgtgttg cgtgaccagt 1920 ctttgaacat cttgttggct ggaagggaca ccactgctgg gttgttgtcc tttgctgtgt 1980 ttgagttggc caggaaccca cacatctggg ccaagttgag agaggaaatt gaatcacact 2040 ttgggctggg tgaggactct cgtgttgaag agattacctt tgagagcttg aagagatgtg 2100 agtacttgaa agccgtgttg aacgaaacgt tgagattaca cccaagtgtc ccaagaaacg 2160 caagatttgc gattaaagac acgactttac caagaggcgg tggccccaac ggcaaggatc 2220 ctatcttgat cagaaagaat gaggtggtgc aatactccat ctcggcaact cagacaaatc 2280 ctgcttatta tggcgccgat gctgctgatt ttagaccgga aagatggttt gagccatcaa 2340 ctagaaactt gggatgggct tacttgccat tcaacggtgg tccaagaatc tgcttgggac 2400 aacagtttgc tttgaccgaa gccggttacg ttttggttag acttgttcag gaattcccta 2460 gcttgtcaca ggaccccgaa actgagtacc caccacctag attggcacac ttgacgatgt 2520 gcttgtttga cggggcatac gtcaagatgc aataggtttt ggtttgactt tgtttccata 2580 tgcaagtagt tcagtaatta cacactaatt tgtggtggcc ggcgataaat taccgtttgg 2640 ttttgtgtaa aaattcggac atctctggtg gtttcccttc tccgcagcag ctttgccacg 2700 ggtttgctct gcggccaaca aattcgaaag gggggggggg gggggagaaa gttaacaccc 2760 cctgttccca ccgtaggctg tagctcttgt ggggggatgt aattgtcgta cgttttcatg 2820 tttggcccag actttgatga ttacgtaggc tttcttatgt ctaaggcgtg cttgacacaa 2880 gtgtcaaaag gtgacaggcg acgttattcg acatgaacgc aaaagggtaa tttgcatcga 2940 tacgaggggt tgcctctggt ctaagaagga ccccccaggt tgcaaacatg ttgcactgca 3000 tcccactcag agttggtcga ccacgcctac gcttaccctc agcgatcggc actttccgtt 3060 gctcaatatt tctctccccc ctgcttcccc ccattgttcc agggattatc aacaacgttg 3120 ccggtctcct ctcccccccc tccccccagt tatgtacaag aaaattaaat tgtcgcacgg 3180 caccgatacg tcaaagatac agagaaacct taatccctcc catagcctag aagcatcaaa 3240 aagatgattg agcaactcct ccagtactgg tacattgcac tccctgtatg gttcattctc 3300 cgctacgtgg cttcccacgc acgaaccatc tacttgcgcc acaagctcgg cgcggcgccg 3360 ttcacgcaca cccagtacga cggatggtat gggttcaagt ttgggcggga gtttctcaag 3420 gcgaagaaga ttggaaggca gacggacttg gtgcatgcgc ggttccgtgg agggggcatg 3480 gatactttct cgagctatac tttcggcatc catatcattc ttactcggga cccggagaac 3540 atcaaggcgg tcttggcgac gcagttcgat gacttttcg 3579 94 3348 DNA Candida tropicalis 94 gatgtggtgc ttgatttctc gagacacatc cttgtgaggt gccatgaatc tgtacctgtc 60 tgtaagcaca gggaactgct tcaacacctt attgcatatt ctgtctattg caagcgtgtg 120 ctgcaacgat atctgccaag gtatatagca gaacgtgctg atggttcctc cggtcatatt 180 ctgttggtag ttctgcaggt aaatttggat gtcaggtagt ggagggaggt ttgtatcggt 240 tgtgttttct tcttcctctc tctctgattc aacctccacg tctccttcgg gttctgtgtc 300 tgtgtctgag tcgtactgtt ggattaagtc catcgcatgt gtgaaaaaaa gtagcgctta 360 tttagacaac cagttcgttg ggcgggtatc agaaatagtc tgttgtgcac gaccatgagt 420 atgcaacttg acgagacgtc gttaggaatc cacagaatga tagcaggaag cttactacgt 480 gagagattct gcttagagga tgttctcttc ttgttgattc cattaggtgg gtatcatctc 540 cggtggtgac aacttgacac aagcagttcc gagaaccacc cacaacaatc accattccag 600 ctatcacttc tacatgtcaa cctacgatgt atctcatcac catctagttt cttggcaatc 660 gtttatttgt tatgggtcaa catccaatac aactccacca atgaagaaga aaaacggaaa 720 gcagaatacc agaatgacag tgtgagttcc tgaccattgc taatctatgg ctatatctag 780 tttgctatcg tgggatgtga tctgtgtcgt cttcatttgc gtttgtgttt atttcgggta 840 tgaatattgt tatactaaat acttgatgca caaacatggc gctcgagaaa tcgagaatgt 900 gatcaacgat gggttctttg ggttccgctt acctttgcta ctcatgcgag ccagcaatga 960 gggccgactt atcgagttca gtgtcaagag attcgagtcg gcgccacatc cacagaacaa 1020 gacattggtc aaccgggcat tgagcgttcc tgtgatactc accaaggacc cagtgaatat 1080 caaagcgatg ctatcgaccc agtttgatga cttttccctt gggttgagac tacaccagtt 1140 tgcgccgttg ttggggaaag gcatctttac tttggacggc ccagagtgga agcagagccg 1200 atctatgttg cgtccgcaat ttgccaaaga tcgggtttct catatcctgg atctagaacc 1260 gcattttgtg ttgcttcgga agcacattga tggccacaat ggagactact tcgacatcca 1320 ggagctctac ttccggttct cgatggatgt ggcgacgggg tttttgtttg gcgagtctgt 1380 ggggtcgttg aaagacgaag atgcgaggtt cctggaagca ttcaatgagt cgcagaagta 1440 tttggcaact agggcaacgt tgcacgagtt gtactttctt tgtgacgggt ttaggtttcg 1500 ccagtacaac aaggttgtgc gaaagttctg cagccagtgt gtccacaagg cgttagatgt 1560 tgcaccggaa gacaccagcg agtacgtgtt tctccgcgag ttggtcaaac acactcgaga 1620 tcccgttgtt ttacaagacc aagcgttgaa cgtcttgctt gctggacgcg acaccaccgc 1680 gtcgttatta tcgtttgcaa catttgagct agcccggaat gaccacatgt ggaggaagct 1740 acgagaggag gttatcctga cgatgggacc gtccagtgat gaaataaccg tggccgggtt 1800 gaagagttgc cgttacctca aagcaatcct aaacgaaact cttcgactat acccaagtgt 1860 gcctaggaac gcgagatttg ctacgaggaa tacgacgctt cctcgtggcg gaggtccaga 1920 tggatcgttt ccgattttga taagaaaggg ccagccagtg gggtatttca tttgtgctac 1980 acacttgaat gagaaggtat atgggaatga tagccatgtg tttcgaccgg agagatgggc 2040 tgcgttagag ggcaagagtt tgggctggtc gtatcttcca ttcaacggcg gcccgagaag 2100 ctgccttggt cagcagtttg caatccttga agcttcgtat gttttggctc gattgacaca 2160 gtgctacacg acgatacagc ttagaactac cgagtaccca ccaaagaaac tcgttcatct 2220 cacgatgagt cttctcaacg gggtgtacat ccgaactaga acttgattat gtgtttatgg 2280 ttaatcgggg caaagcactg caagtcattg atgtttgtgg aagcccagca ttggtgttcc 2340 ggagcatcaa taaccaatgt cttgaagggt ttgattttct tgaccttctt cttcctgagc 2400 ttctttccgt caaacttgta cagaatggcc atcatttcag gaacaaccac gtacgacggc 2460 cggtaccgca tctggagtat ctcgccgtcg ttcaagtagc acgaaaacag caacgacgtc 2520 accatctgct tcccaatctt gacacccaca gatacccctg cggcttcatg gatcaaaaac 2580 gtcggcaacc ccgcgtatat gtccatgtaa ttctccatgg ccacctccat caacacactg 2640 atggagcgac tgacggtgcc accactgccc tcggttgagt caaggcagta tgatgccggg 2700 atccagtact ccaatgggaa cctctgcacg gtgtcgctgc agtttttgag gcgtatttcg 2760 atccatgatc gttctttggt gctgtagtat aacgagctct tggtgtcctt gaaatggaac 2820 aggttggatg tgttgttgag tttgtctgcg tgcttggttt gcaagtcttc gatcgagcgt 2880 agtgagtaga cagttggcgg gggtggtggc tcgggcttta ttctgtgttt gtgtttcctt 2940 cttagtcttg gaatgacgct gttatcgacg gttcgtagta taagtagcgc caatatgaga 3000 atgtatatcc gcatcaccca agactcttca gcctgttaca acgactgagg ctgttggccg 3060 tgtgaccaat tggtttcttt ggtgacctag attggtcccg cagggaaagc aagggctgct 3120 aggggggcat accaaacaag gtcgtgtaat cagtatctat ggtgctacca tgtgtgtggt 3180 tggggggaaa ttcccgcatt tttgtgtaac gaaagttcta gaaagttctc gtgggttctg 3240 agaatctgct ggaaccatcc acccgcattt ccgttgccaa agtgggaaga gcaatcaacc 3300 caccctgctt tgcccaatca gccattcccc tgggaatata aattcaac 3348 95 523 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 95 Met Ala Thr Gln Glu Ile Ile Asp Ser Val Leu Pro Tyr Leu Thr Lys 1 5 10 15 Trp Tyr Thr Val Ile Thr Ala Ala Val Leu Val Phe Leu Ile Ser Thr 20 25 30 Asn Ile Lys Asn Tyr Val Lys Ala Lys Lys Leu Lys Cys Val Asp Pro 35 40 45 Pro Tyr Leu Lys Asp Ala Gly Leu Thr Gly Ile Leu Ser Leu Ile Ala 50 55 60 Ala Ile Lys Ala Lys Asn Asp Gly Arg Leu Ala Asn Phe Ala Asp Glu 65 70 75 80 Val Phe Asp Glu Tyr Pro Asn His Thr Phe Tyr Leu Ser Val Ala Gly 85 90 95 Ala Leu Lys Ile Val Met Thr Val Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Val 100 105 110 Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Thr Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Ala His 115 120 125 Phe Ala Pro Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly 130 135 140 Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Asp Gln 145 150 155 160 Ile Gly His Val Lys Ala Leu Glu Pro His Ile Gln Ile Met Ala Lys 165 170 175 Gln Ile Lys Leu Asn Gln Gly Lys Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe 180 185 190 Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp Thr Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser 195 200 205 Val His Ser Leu Tyr Asp Glu Lys Leu Gly Ile Pro Thr Pro Asn Glu 210 215 220 Ile Pro Gly Arg Glu Asn Phe Ala Ala Ala Phe Asn Val Ser Gln His 225 230 235 240 Tyr Leu Ala Thr Arg Ser Tyr Ser Gln Thr Phe Tyr Phe Leu Thr Asn 245 250 255 Pro Lys Glu Phe Arg Asp Cys Asn Ala Lys Val His His Leu Ala Lys 260 265 270 Tyr Phe Val Asn Lys Ala Leu Asn Phe Thr Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Glu 275 280 285 Lys Ser Lys Ser Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr 290 295 300 Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Gln Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Met Val Ala 305 310 315 320 Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Leu Phe Glu Leu 325 330 335 Ala Arg His Pro Glu Met Trp Ser Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Val 340 345 350 Asn Phe Gly Val Gly Glu Asp Ser Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Thr Phe Glu 355 360 365 Ala Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Ile Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu 370 375 380 Arg Met Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro Val Asn Phe Arg Thr Ala Thr Arg Asp 385 390 395 400 Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Ala Asn Gly Thr Asp Pro Ile Tyr 405 410 415 Ile Pro Lys Gly Ser Thr Val Ala Tyr Val Val Tyr Lys Thr His Arg 420 425 430 Leu Glu Glu Tyr Tyr Gly Lys Asp Ala Asn Asp Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg 435 440 445 Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Lys Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Val Pro Phe 450 455 460 Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Val Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu 465 470 475 480 Ala Ser Tyr Val Ile Thr Arg Leu Ala Gln Met Phe Glu Thr Val Ser 485 490 495 Ser Asp Pro Gly Leu Glu Tyr Pro Pro Pro Lys Cys Ile His Leu Thr 500 505 510 Met Ser His Asn Asp Gly Val Phe Val Lys Met 515 520 96 522 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 96 Met Thr Val His Asp Ile Ile Ala Thr Tyr Phe Thr Lys Trp Tyr Val 1 5 10 15 Ile Val Pro Leu Ala Leu Ile Ala Tyr Arg Val Leu Asp Tyr Phe Tyr 20 25 30 Gly Arg Tyr Leu Met Tyr Lys Leu Gly Ala Lys Pro Phe Phe Gln Lys 35 40 45 Gln Thr Asp Gly Cys Phe Gly Phe Lys Ala Pro Leu Glu Leu Leu Lys 50 55 60 Lys Lys Ser Asp Gly Thr Leu Ile Asp Phe Thr Leu Gln Arg Ile His 65 70 75 80 Asp Leu Asp Arg Pro Asp Ile Pro Thr Phe Thr Phe Pro Val Phe Ser 85 90 95 Ile Asn Leu Val Asn Thr Leu Glu Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Ile Leu 100 105 110 Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Ser His Phe 115 120 125 Ala Pro Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Ala Gly Trp 130 135 140 Lys His Ser Arg Ser Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Ile 145 150 155 160 Ser His Val Lys Leu Leu Glu Pro His Val Gln Val Phe Phe Lys His 165 170 175 Val Arg Lys Ala Gln Gly Lys Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe 180 185 190 Arg Leu Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val 195 200 205 Glu Ser Leu Arg Asp Glu Ser Ile Gly Met Ser Ile Asn Ala Leu Asp 210 215 220 Phe Asp Gly Lys Ala Gly Phe Ala Asp Ala Phe Asn Tyr Ser Gln Asn 225 230 235 240 Tyr Leu Ala Ser Arg Ala Val Met Gln Gln Leu Tyr Trp Val Leu Asn 245 250 255 Gly Lys Lys Phe Lys Glu Cys Asn Ala Lys Val His Lys Phe Ala Asp 260 265 270 Tyr Tyr Val Asn Lys Ala Leu Asp Leu Thr Pro Glu Gln Leu Glu Lys 275 280 285 Gln Asp Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp 290 295 300 Lys Gln Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Met Val Ala Gly Arg 305 310 315 320 Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Val Phe Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg 325 330 335 Asn Pro Glu Val Thr Asn Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Asp Lys Phe 340 345 350 Gly Leu Gly Glu Asn Ala Ser Val Glu Asp Ile Ser Phe Glu Ser Leu 355 360 365 Lys Ser Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu 370 375 380 Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro Gln Asn Phe Arg Val Ala Thr Lys Asn Thr Thr 385 390 395 400 Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Lys Asp Gly Leu Ser Pro Val Leu Val Arg 405 410 415 Lys Gly Gln Thr Val Ile Tyr Gly Val Tyr Ala Ala His Arg Asn Pro 420 425 430 Ala Val Tyr Gly Lys Asp Ala Leu Glu Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe 435 440 445 Glu Pro Glu Thr Lys Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Phe Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly 450 455 460 Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Ser 465 470 475 480 Tyr Val Thr Val Arg Leu Leu Gln Glu Phe Ala His Leu Ser Met Asp 485 490 495 Pro Asp Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Lys Lys Met Ser His Leu Thr Met Ser 500 505 510 Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Asn Ile Glu Met Tyr 515 520 97 522 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 97 Met Thr Ala Gln Asp Ile Ile Ala Thr Tyr Ile Thr Lys Trp Tyr Val 1 5 10 15 Ile Val Pro Leu Ala Leu Ile Ala Tyr Arg Val Leu Asp Tyr Phe Tyr 20 25 30 Gly Arg Tyr Leu Met Tyr Lys Leu Gly Ala Lys Pro Phe Phe Gln Lys 35 40 45 Gln Thr Asp Gly Tyr Phe Gly Phe Lys Ala Pro Leu Glu Leu Leu Lys 50 55 60 Lys Lys Ser Asp Gly Thr Leu Ile Asp Phe Thr Leu Glu Arg Ile Gln 65 70 75 80 Ala Leu Asn Arg Pro Asp Ile Pro Thr Phe Thr Phe Pro Ile Phe Ser 85 90 95 Ile Asn Leu Ile Ser Thr Leu Glu Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Ile Leu 100 105 110 Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Ser His Phe 115 120 125 Ala Pro Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Ala Gly Trp 130 135 140 Lys His Ser Arg Ser Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Ile 145 150 155 160 Ser His Val Lys Leu Leu Glu Pro His Met Gln Val Phe Phe Lys His 165 170 175 Val Arg Lys Ala Gln Gly Lys Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe 180 185 190 Arg Leu Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val 195 200 205 Glu Ser Leu Arg Asp Glu Ser Ile Gly Met Ser Ile Asn Ala Leu Asp 210 215 220 Phe Asp Gly Lys Ala Gly Phe Ala Asp Ala Phe Asn Tyr Ser Gln Asn 225 230 235 240 Tyr Leu Ala Ser Arg Ala Val Met Gln Gln Leu Tyr Trp Val Leu Asn 245 250 255 Gly Lys Lys Phe Lys Glu Cys Asn Ala Lys Val His Lys Phe Ala Asp 260 265 270 Tyr Tyr Val Ser Lys Ala Leu Asp Leu Thr Pro Glu Gln Leu Glu Lys 275 280 285 Gln Asp Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp 290 295 300 Arg Gln Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Met Val Ala Gly Arg 305 310 315 320 Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Val Phe Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg 325 330 335 Asn Pro Glu Val Thr Asn Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Asp Lys Phe 340 345 350 Gly Leu Gly Glu Asn Ala Arg Val Glu Asp Ile Ser Phe Glu Ser Leu 355 360 365 Lys Ser Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu 370 375 380 Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro Gln Asn Phe Arg Val Ala Thr Lys Asn Thr Thr 385 390 395 400 Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Lys Asp Gly Leu Ser Pro Val Leu Val Arg 405 410 415 Lys Gly Gln Thr Val Met Tyr Gly Val Tyr Ala Ala His Arg Asn Pro 420 425 430 Ala Val Tyr Gly Lys Asp Ala Leu Glu Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe 435 440 445 Glu Pro Glu Thr Lys Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Phe Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly 450 455 460 Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Ser 465 470 475 480 Tyr Val Thr Val Arg Leu Leu Gln Glu Phe Gly His Leu Ser Met Asp 485 490 495 Pro Asn Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Arg Lys Met Ser His Leu Thr Met Ser 500 505 510 Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Asn Ile Glu Met Tyr 515 520 98 540 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 98 Met Ser Ser Ser Pro Ser Phe Ala Gln Glu Val Leu Ala Thr Thr Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Tyr Ile Glu Tyr Phe Leu Asp Asn Tyr Thr Arg Trp Tyr Tyr Phe 20 25 30 Ile Pro Leu Val Leu Leu Ser Leu Asn Phe Ile Ser Leu Leu His Thr 35 40 45 Arg Tyr Leu Glu Arg Arg Phe His Ala Lys Pro Leu Gly Asn Phe Val 50 55 60 Arg Asp Pro Thr Phe Gly Ile Ala Thr Pro Leu Leu Leu Ile Tyr Leu 65 70 75 80 Lys Ser Lys Gly Thr Val Met Lys Phe Ala Trp Gly Leu Trp Asn Asn 85 90 95 Lys Tyr Ile Val Arg Asp Pro Lys Tyr Lys Thr Thr Gly Leu Arg Ile 100 105 110 Val Gly Leu Pro Leu Ile Glu Thr Met Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala 115 120 125 Val Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Asp 130 135 140 Phe Leu Tyr Ser Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Ala 145 150 155 160 Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Thr Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu 165 170 175 Gln Val Ser His Val Lys Leu Leu Glu Pro His Val Gln Val Phe Phe 180 185 190 Lys His Val Arg Lys His Arg Gly Gln Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu 195 200 205 Phe Phe Arg Leu Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu 210 215 220 Ser Ala Glu Ser Leu Arg Asp Glu Ser Ile Gly Leu Thr Pro Thr Thr 225 230 235 240 Lys Asp Phe Asp Gly Arg Arg Asp Phe Ala Asp Ala Phe Asn Tyr Ser 245 250 255 Gln Thr Tyr Gln Ala Tyr Arg Phe Leu Leu Gln Gln Met Tyr Trp Ile 260 265 270 Leu Asn Gly Ser Glu Phe Arg Lys Ser Ile Ala Val Val His Lys Phe 275 280 285 Ala Asp His Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Glu Leu Thr Asp Asp Asp Leu 290 295 300 Gln Lys Gln Asp Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Ala Lys Gln Thr 305 310 315 320 Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Leu Val Ala 325 330 335 Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Val Phe Tyr Glu Leu 340 345 350 Ser Arg Asn Pro Glu Val Phe Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Val Glu Asn 355 360 365 Arg Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Glu Ala Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Ser Phe Glu 370 375 380 Ser Leu Lys Ser Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Ile Asn Glu Thr Leu 385 390 395 400 Arg Leu Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro His Asn Phe Arg Val Ala Thr Arg Asn 405 410 415 Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Glu Asp Gly Tyr Ser Pro Ile Val 420 425 430 Val Lys Lys Gly Gln Val Val Met Tyr Thr Val Ile Ala Thr His Arg 435 440 445 Asp Pro Ser Ile Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Asp Val Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg 450 455 460 Trp Phe Glu Pro Glu Thr Arg Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Val Pro Phe 465 470 475 480 Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu 485 490 495 Ala Ser Tyr Val Thr Val Arg Leu Leu Gln Glu Phe Ala His Leu Ser 500 505 510 Met Asp Pro Asp Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Lys Leu Gln Asn Thr Leu Thr 515 520 525 Leu Ser Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Asp Val Arg Met Tyr 530 535 540 99 540 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 99 Met Ser Ser Ser Pro Ser Phe Ala Gln Glu Val Leu Ala Thr Thr Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Tyr Ile Glu Tyr Phe Leu Asp Asn Tyr Thr Arg Trp Tyr Tyr Phe 20 25 30 Ile Pro Leu Val Leu Leu Ser Leu Asn Phe Ile Ser Leu Leu His Thr 35 40 45 Lys Tyr Leu Glu Arg Arg Phe His Ala Lys Pro Leu Gly Asn Val Val 50 55 60 Leu Asp Pro Thr Phe Gly Ile Ala Thr Pro Leu Ile Leu Ile Tyr Leu 65 70 75 80 Lys Ser Lys Gly Thr Val Met Lys Phe Ala Trp Ser Phe Trp Asn Asn 85 90 95 Lys Tyr Ile Val Lys Asp Pro Lys Tyr Lys Thr Thr Gly Leu Arg Ile 100 105 110 Val Gly Leu Pro Leu Ile Glu Thr Ile Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala 115 120 125 Val Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Asp 130 135 140 Phe Leu Tyr Ser Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Ala 145 150 155 160 Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Thr Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu 165 170 175 Gln Val Ser His Val Lys Leu Leu Glu Pro His Val Gln Val Phe Phe 180 185 190 Lys His Val Arg Lys His Arg Gly Gln Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu 195 200 205 Phe Phe Arg Leu Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu 210 215 220 Ser Ala Glu Ser Leu Arg Asp Asp Ser Val Gly Leu Thr Pro Thr Thr 225 230 235 240 Lys Asp Phe Glu Gly Arg Gly Asp Phe Ala Asp Ala Phe Asn Tyr Ser 245 250 255 Gln Thr Tyr Gln Ala Tyr Arg Phe Leu Leu Gln Gln Met Tyr Trp Ile 260 265 270 Leu Asn Gly Ala Glu Phe Arg Lys Ser Ile Ala Ile Val His Lys Phe 275 280 285 Ala Asp His Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Glu Leu Thr Asp Asp Asp Leu 290 295 300 Gln Lys Gln Asp Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Ala Lys Gln Thr 305 310 315 320 Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Leu Val Ala 325 330 335 Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Val Phe Tyr Glu Leu 340 345 350 Ser Arg Asn Pro Glu Val Phe Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Val Glu Asn 355 360 365 Arg Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Glu Ala Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Ser Phe Glu 370 375 380 Ser Leu Lys Ser Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Ile Asn Glu Ala Leu 385 390 395 400 Arg Leu Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro His Asn Phe Arg Val Ala Thr Arg Asn 405 410 415 Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Lys Asp Gly Cys Ser Pro Ile Val 420 425 430 Val Lys Lys Gly Gln Val Val Met Tyr Thr Val Ile Gly Thr His Arg 435 440 445 Asp Pro Ser Ile Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Asp Val Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg 450 455 460 Trp Phe Glu Pro Glu Thr Arg Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Val Pro Phe 465 470 475 480 Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu 485 490 495 Ala Ser Tyr Val Thr Val Arg Leu Leu Gln Glu Phe Gly Asn Leu Ser 500 505 510 Leu Asp Pro Asn Ala Glu Tyr Pro Pro Lys Leu Gln Asn Thr Leu Thr 515 520 525 Leu Ser Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Asp Val Arg Met Phe 530 535 540 100 517 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 100 Met Ile Glu Gln Leu Leu Glu Tyr Trp Tyr Val Val Val Pro Val Leu 1 5 10 15 Tyr Ile Ile Lys Gln Leu Leu Ala Tyr Thr Lys Thr Arg Val Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Lys Leu Gly Ala Ala Pro Val Thr Asn Lys Leu Tyr Asp Asn Ala 35 40 45 Phe Gly Ile Val Asn Gly Trp Lys Ala Leu Gln Phe Lys Lys Glu Gly 50 55 60 Arg Ala Gln Glu Tyr Asn Asp Tyr Lys Phe Asp His Ser Lys Asn Pro 65 70 75 80 Ser Val Gly Thr Tyr Val Ser Ile Leu Phe Gly Thr Arg Ile Val Val 85 90 95 Thr Lys Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Ile Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly 100 105 110 Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Lys Arg His Thr Leu Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly 115 120 125 Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala 130 135 140 Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser 145 150 155 160 Leu Glu Pro His Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys 165 170 175 Gly Glu Tyr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp 180 185 190 Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Lys Asp 195 200 205 Glu Ser Ile Gly Ile Asn Gln Asp Asp Ile Asp Phe Ala Gly Arg Lys 210 215 220 Asp Phe Ala Glu Ser Phe Asn Lys Ala Gln Glu Tyr Leu Ala Ile Arg 225 230 235 240 Thr Leu Val Gln Thr Phe Tyr Trp Leu Val Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Arg 245 250 255 Asp Cys Thr Lys Leu Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys 260 265 270 Ala Leu Asp Ala Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Ser Gly Tyr Val 275 280 285 Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp Pro Asn Val Leu Arg 290 295 300 Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly 305 310 315 320 Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg His Pro Glu Ile Trp 325 330 335 Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Gln Gln Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp 340 345 350 Ser Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr 355 360 365 Leu Lys Ala Phe Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Ile Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro 370 375 380 Arg Asn Phe Arg Ile Ala Thr Lys Asn Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly 385 390 395 400 Gly Ser Asp Gly Thr Ser Pro Ile Leu Ile Gln Lys Gly Glu Ala Val 405 410 415 Ser Tyr Gly Ile Asn Ser Thr His Leu Asp Pro Val Tyr Tyr Gly Pro 420 425 430 Asp Ala Ala Glu Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Lys 435 440 445 Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys 450 455 460 Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg 465 470 475 480 Leu Val Gln Glu Phe Ser His Val Arg Leu Asp Pro Asp Glu Val Tyr 485 490 495 Pro Pro Lys Arg Leu Thr Asn Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Gln Asp Gly Ala 500 505 510 Ile Val Lys Phe Asp 515 101 517 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 101 Met Ile Glu Gln Ile Leu Glu Tyr Trp Tyr Ile Val Val Pro Val Leu 1 5 10 15 Tyr Ile Ile Lys Gln Leu Ile Ala Tyr Ser Lys Thr Arg Val Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Gln Leu Gly Ala Ala Pro Ile Thr Asn Gln Leu Tyr Asp Asn Val 35 40 45 Phe Gly Ile Val Asn Gly Trp Lys Ala Leu Gln Phe Lys Lys Glu Gly 50 55 60 Arg Ala Gln Glu Tyr Asn Asp His Lys Phe Asp Ser Ser Lys Asn Pro 65 70 75 80 Ser Val Gly Thr Tyr Val Ser Ile Leu Phe Gly Thr Lys Ile Val Val 85 90 95 Thr Lys Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Ile Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly 100 105 110 Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Lys Arg His Ala Leu Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly 115 120 125 Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ser 130 135 140 Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser 145 150 155 160 Leu Glu Pro His Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys 165 170 175 Gly Glu Tyr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp 180 185 190 Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Lys Asp 195 200 205 Glu Thr Ile Gly Ile Asn Gln Asp Asp Ile Asp Phe Ala Gly Arg Lys 210 215 220 Asp Phe Ala Glu Ser Phe Asn Lys Ala Gln Glu Tyr Leu Ser Ile Arg 225 230 235 240 Ile Leu Val Gln Thr Phe Tyr Trp Leu Ile Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Arg 245 250 255 Asp Cys Thr Lys Leu Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys 260 265 270 Ala Leu Asp Ala Thr Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Gly Gly Tyr Val 275 280 285 Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg 290 295 300 Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly 305 310 315 320 Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Pro His Ile Trp 325 330 335 Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Gln Gln Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp 340 345 350 Ser Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr 355 360 365 Leu Lys Ala Phe Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Val Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro 370 375 380 Arg Asn Phe Arg Ile Ala Thr Lys Asn Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly 385 390 395 400 Gly Pro Asp Gly Thr Gln Pro Ile Leu Ile Gln Lys Gly Glu Gly Val 405 410 415 Ser Tyr Gly Ile Asn Ser Thr His Leu Asp Pro Val Tyr Tyr Gly Pro 420 425 430 Asp Ala Ala Glu Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Arg 435 440 445 Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys 450 455 460 Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg 465 470 475 480 Leu Val Gln Glu Phe Ser His Ile Arg Leu Asp Pro Asp Glu Val Tyr 485 490 495 Pro Pro Lys Arg Leu Thr Asn Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Gln Asp Gly Ala 500 505 510 Ile Val Lys Phe Asp 515 102 512 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 102 Met Leu Asp Gln Ile Leu His Tyr Trp Tyr Ile Val Leu Pro Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Ile Ile Asn Gln Ile Val Ala His Val Arg Thr Asn Tyr Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Lys Leu Gly Ala Lys Pro Phe Thr His Val Gln Arg Asp Gly Trp 35 40 45 Leu Gly Phe Lys Phe Gly Arg Glu Phe Leu Lys Ala Lys Ser Ala Gly 50 55 60 Arg Leu Val Asp Leu Ile Ile Ser Arg Phe His Asp Asn Glu Asp Thr 65 70 75 80 Phe Ser Ser Tyr Ala Phe Gly Asn His Val Val Phe Thr Arg Asp Pro 85 90 95 Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Leu Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly Asp Phe Ser Leu 100 105 110 Gly Ser Arg Val Lys Phe Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly Tyr Gly Ile Phe 115 120 125 Thr Leu Asp Ala Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala Met Leu Arg Pro 130 135 140 Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser Leu Glu Pro His 145 150 155 160 Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys Gly Glu Tyr Phe 165 170 175 Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu 180 185 190 Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Lys Asp Glu Glu Ile Gly 195 200 205 Tyr Asp Thr Lys Asp Met Ser Glu Glu Arg Arg Arg Phe Ala Asp Ala 210 215 220 Phe Asn Lys Ser Gln Val Tyr Val Ala Thr Arg Val Ala Leu Gln Asn 225 230 235 240 Leu Tyr Trp Leu Val Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Lys Glu Cys Asn Asp Ile 245 250 255 Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Asp Ala Thr 260 265 270 Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Gly Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu 275 280 285 Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn 290 295 300 Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala 305 310 315 320 Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Pro His Ile Trp Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu 325 330 335 Glu Ile Glu Gln Gln Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp Ser Arg Val Glu Glu 340 345 350 Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Leu 355 360 365 Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu His Pro Ser Val Pro Arg Asn Ala Arg Phe 370 375 380 Ala Ile Lys Asp Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Pro Asn Gly Lys 385 390 395 400 Asp Pro Ile Leu Ile Arg Lys Asp Glu Val Val Gln Tyr Ser Ile Ser 405 410 415 Ala Thr Gln Thr Asn Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Ala Asp Phe 420 425 430 Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Arg Asn Leu Gly Trp Ala 435 440 445 Phe Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe 450 455 460 Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg Leu Val Gln Glu Phe 465 470 475 480 Pro Asn Leu Ser Gln Asp Pro Glu Thr Lys Tyr Pro Pro Pro Arg Leu 485 490 495 Ala His Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala His Val Lys Met Ser 500 505 510 103 512 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 103 Met Leu Asp Gln Ile Phe His Tyr Trp Tyr Ile Val Leu Pro Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Val Ile Ile Lys Gln Ile Val Ala His Ala Arg Thr Asn Tyr Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Lys Leu Gly Ala Lys Pro Phe Thr His Val Gln Leu Asp Gly Trp 35 40 45 Phe Gly Phe Lys Phe Gly Arg Glu Phe Leu Lys Ala Lys Ser Ala Gly 50 55 60 Arg Gln Val Asp Leu Ile Ile Ser Arg Phe His Asp Asn Glu Asp Thr 65 70 75 80 Phe Ser Ser Tyr Ala Phe Gly Asn His Val Val Phe Thr Arg Asp Pro 85 90 95 Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Leu Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly Asp Phe Ser Leu 100 105 110 Gly Ser Arg Val Lys Phe Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly Tyr Gly Ile Phe 115 120 125 Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala Met Leu Arg Pro 130 135 140 Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser Leu Glu Pro His 145 150 155 160 Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys Gly Glu Tyr Phe 165 170 175 Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu 180 185 190 Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Arg Asp Glu Glu Ile Gly 195 200 205 Tyr Asp Thr Lys Asp Met Ala Glu Glu Arg Arg Lys Phe Ala Asp Ala 210 215 220 Phe Asn Lys Ser Gln Val Tyr Leu Ser Thr Arg Val Ala Leu Gln Thr 225 230 235 240 Leu Tyr Trp Leu Val Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Lys Glu Cys Asn Asp Ile 245 250 255 Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Asp Ala Thr 260 265 270 Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Gly Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu 275 280 285 Ala Lys Gln Thr Lys Asp Pro Asn Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn 290 295 300 Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala 305 310 315 320 Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Pro His Ile Trp Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu 325 330 335 Glu Ile Glu Ser His Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp Ser Arg Val Glu Glu 340 345 350 Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Leu 355 360 365 Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu His Pro Ser Val Pro Arg Asn Ala Arg Phe 370 375 380 Ala Ile Lys Asp Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Pro Asn Gly Lys 385 390 395 400 Asp Pro Ile Leu Ile Arg Lys Asn Glu Val Val Gln Tyr Ser Ile Ser 405 410 415 Ala Thr Gln Thr Asn Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Ala Asp Phe 420 425 430 Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Arg Asn Leu Gly Trp Ala 435 440 445 Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe 450 455 460 Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg Leu Val Gln Glu Phe 465 470 475 480 Pro Ser Leu Ser Gln Asp Pro Glu Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Pro Arg Leu 485 490 495 Ala His Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Tyr Val Lys Met Gln 500 505 510 104 499 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 104 Met Ala Ile Ser Ser Leu Leu Ser Trp Asp Val Ile Cys Val Val Phe 1 5 10 15 Ile Cys Val Cys Val Tyr Phe Gly Tyr Glu Tyr Cys Tyr Thr Lys Tyr 20 25 30 Leu Met His Lys His Gly Ala Arg Glu Ile Glu Asn Val Ile Asn Asp 35 40 45 Gly Phe Phe Gly Phe Arg Leu Pro Leu Leu Leu Met Arg Ala Ser Asn 50 55 60 Glu Gly Arg Leu Ile Glu Phe Ser Val Lys Arg Phe Glu Ser Ala Pro 65 70 75 80 His Pro Gln Asn Lys Thr Leu Val Asn Arg Ala Leu Ser Val Pro Val 85 90 95 Ile Leu Thr Lys Asp Pro Val Asn Ile Lys Ala Met Leu Ser Thr Gln 100 105 110 Phe Asp Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Leu Arg Leu His Gln Phe Ala Pro Leu 115 120 125 Leu Gly Lys Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Pro Glu Trp Lys Gln Ser 130 135 140 Arg Ser Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Lys Asp Arg Val Ser His Ile 145 150 155 160 Leu Asp Leu Glu Pro His Phe Val Leu Leu Arg Lys His Ile Asp Gly 165 170 175 His Asn Gly Asp Tyr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Tyr Phe Arg Phe Ser 180 185 190 Met Asp Val Ala Thr Gly Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val Gly Ser Leu 195 200 205 Lys Asp Glu Asp Ala Arg Phe Leu Glu Ala Phe Asn Glu Ser Gln Lys 210 215 220 Tyr Leu Ala Thr Arg Ala Thr Leu His Glu Leu Tyr Phe Leu Cys Asp 225 230 235 240 Gly Phe Arg Phe Arg Gln Tyr Asn Lys Val Val Arg Lys Phe Cys Ser 245 250 255 Gln Cys Val His Lys Ala Leu Asp Val Ala Pro Glu Asp Thr Ser Glu 260 265 270 Tyr Val Phe Leu Arg Glu Leu Val Lys His Thr Arg Asp Pro Val Val 275 280 285 Leu Gln Asp Gln Ala Leu Asn Val Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr 290 295 300 Ala Ser Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Thr Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Asp His 305 310 315 320 Met Trp Arg Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Val Ile Leu Thr Met Gly Pro Ser 325 330 335 Ser Asp Glu Ile Thr Val Ala Gly Leu Lys Ser Cys Arg Tyr Leu Lys 340 345 350 Ala Ile Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro Arg Asn 355 360 365 Ala Arg Phe Ala Thr Arg Asn Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Pro 370 375 380 Asp Gly Ser Phe Pro Ile Leu Ile Arg Lys Gly Gln Pro Val Gly Tyr 385 390 395 400 Phe Ile Cys Ala Thr His Leu Asn Glu Lys Val Tyr Gly Asn Asp Ser 405 410 415 His Val Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Ala Ala Leu Glu Gly Lys Ser Leu 420 425 430 Gly Trp Ser Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ser Cys Leu Gly 435 440 445 Gln Gln Phe Ala Ile Leu Glu Ala Ser Tyr Val Leu Ala Arg Leu Thr 450 455 460 Gln Cys Tyr Thr Thr Ile Gln Leu Arg Thr Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Lys 465 470 475 480 Lys Leu Val His Leu Thr Met Ser Leu Leu Asn Gly Val Tyr Ile Arg 485 490 495 Thr Arg Thr 105 1712 DNA Candida tropicalis 105 ggtaccgagc tcacgagttt tgggattttc gagtttggat tgtttccttt gttgattgaa 60 ttgacgaaac cagaggtttt caagacagat aagattgggt ttatcaaaac gcagtttgaa 120 atattccagt tggtttccaa gatatcttga agaagattga cgatttgaaa tttgaagaag 180 tggagaagat ctggtttgga ttgttggaga atttcaagaa tctcaagatt tactctaacg 240 acgggtacaa cgagaattgt attgaattga tcaagaacat gatcttggtg ttacagaaca 300 tcaagttctt ggaccagact gagaatgcca cagatataca aggcgtcatg tgataaaatg 360 gatgagattt atcccacaat tgaagaaaga gtttatggaa agtggtcaac cagaagctaa 420 acaggaagaa gcaaacgaag aggtgaaaca agaagaagaa ggtaaataag tattttgtat 480 tatataacaa acaaagtaag gaatacagat ttatacaata aattgccata ctagtcacgt 540 gagatatctc atccattccc caactcccaa gaaaaaaaaa aagtgaaaaa aaaaatcaaa 600 cccaaagatc aacctcccca tcatcatcgt catcaaaccc ccagctcaat tcgcaatggt 660 tagcacaaaa acatacacag aaagggcatc agcacacccc tccaaggttg cccaacgttt 720 attccgctta atggagtcca aaaagaccaa cctctgcgcc tcgatcgacg tgaccacaac 780 cgccgagttc ctttcgctca tcgacaagct cggtccccac atctgtctcg tgaagacgca 840 catcgatatc atctcagact tcagctacga gggcacgatt gagccgttgc ttgtgcttgc 900 agagcgccac gggttcttga tattcgagga caggaagttt gctgatatcg gaaacaccgt 960 gatgttgcag tacacctcgg gggtataccg gatcgcggcg tggagtgaca tcacgaacgc 1020 gcacggagtg actgggaagg gcgtcgttga agggttgaaa cgcggtgcgg agggggtaga 1080 aaaggaaagg ggcgtgttga tgttggcgga gttgtcgagt aaaggctcgt tggcgcatgg 1140 tgaatatacc cgtgagacga tcgagattgc gaagagtgat cgggagttcg tgattgggtt 1200 catcgcgcag cgggacatgg ggggtagaga agaagggttt gattggatca tcatgacgcc 1260 tggtgtgggg ttggatgata aaggcgatgc gttgggccag cagtatagga ctgttgatga 1320 ggtggttctg actggtaccg atgtgattat tgtcgggaga gggttgtttg gaaaaggaag 1380 agaccctgag gtggagggaa agagatacag ggatgctgga tggaaggcat acttgaagag 1440 aactggtcag ttagaataaa tattgtaata aataggtcta tatacataca ctaagcttct 1500 aggacgtcat tgtagtcttc gaagttgtct gctagtttag ttctcatgat ttcgaaaacc 1560 aataacgcaa tggatgtagc agggatggtg gttagtgcgt tcctgacaaa cccagagtac 1620 gccgcctcaa accacgtcac attcgccctt tgcttcatcc gcatcacttg cttgaaggta 1680 tccacgtacg agttgtaata caccttgaag aa 1712 106 267 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 106 Met Val Ser Thr Lys Thr Tyr Thr Glu Arg Ala Ser Ala His Pro Ser 1 5 10 15 Lys Val Ala Gln Arg Leu Phe Arg Leu Met Glu Ser Lys Lys Thr Asn 20 25 30 Leu Cys Ala Ser Ile Asp Val Thr Thr Thr Ala Glu Phe Leu Ser Leu 35 40 45 Ile Asp Lys Leu Gly Pro His Ile Cys Leu Val Lys Thr His Ile Asp 50 55 60 Ile Ile Ser Asp Phe Ser Tyr Glu Gly Thr Ile Glu Pro Leu Leu Val 65 70 75 80 Leu Ala Glu Arg His Gly Phe Leu Ile Phe Glu Asp Arg Lys Phe Ala 85 90 95 Asp Ile Gly Asn Thr Val Met Leu Gln Tyr Thr Ser Gly Val Tyr Arg 100 105 110 Ile Ala Ala Trp Ser Asp Ile Thr Asn Ala His Gly Val Thr Gly Lys 115 120 125 Gly Val Val Glu Gly Leu Lys Arg Gly Ala Glu Gly Val Glu Lys Glu 130 135 140 Arg Gly Val Leu Met Leu Ala Glu Leu Ser Ser Lys Gly Ser Leu Ala 145 150 155 160 His Gly Glu Tyr Thr Arg Glu Thr Ile Glu Ile Ala Lys Ser Asp Arg 165 170 175 Glu Phe Val Ile Gly Phe Ile Ala Gln Arg Asp Met Gly Gly Arg Glu 180 185 190 Glu Gly Phe Asp Trp Ile Ile Met Thr Pro Gly Val Gly Leu Asp Asp 195 200 205 Lys Gly Asp Ala Leu Gly Gln Gln Tyr Arg Thr Val Asp Glu Val Val 210 215 220 Leu Thr Gly Thr Asp Val Ile Ile Val Gly Arg Gly Leu Phe Gly Lys 225 230 235 240 Gly Arg Asp Pro Glu Val Glu Gly Lys Arg Tyr Arg Asp Ala Gly Trp 245 250 255 Lys Ala Tyr Leu Lys Arg Thr Gly Gln Leu Glu 260 265 107 473 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 107 gtcaaagcaa attgttggcc caagcagact cttggaccac cgttgaatgg aacataagcc 60 cagcccaact tcttagtaga tggttcaaac catctttctg gtctgaagtc gttagcgtcc 120 ttaccgtagt attcttccaa acggtgggtc ttgtagacaa cgtaagcaac agtggagcct 180 ttaggaatgt agattgggtc ggtaccgtta gcaccaccac ctcttggcaa agtggtgtct 240 ctggtggcgg ttctaaagtt gacaggaaca gatgggtaca tacgcaaggt ttcgttaagg 300 atagccttca agtattcaca tctcttcaag gcttcgaaag taatttcttc aacgcgggag 360 tcttcaccaa caccaaagtt aacttcgatt tcttctctca acttggacca catctctggg 420 tgtctagcca attcaaacaa agcaaaggac aacaaacccg cggtggtgtc tct 473 108 540 DNA Candida tropicalis 108 tactaacttg ttgaggatct tataaccata cagcaacacg gtcacaacat gtagtagttt 60 gttgaggaac gtatgtgttt ctgagcgcag aactactttt tcaacccacg acgaggtcag 120 tgtttgttca acatgctgtt gcgaaagcca tagcagttac ctaccttccg agaggtcaag 180 ttctttctcc cgtcccgagt tctcatgttg ctaatgttca aactggtgag gttcttgggt 240 tcgcacccgt ggatgcagtc ataagaaaag ccgtggtcct agcagcactg gtttctaggt 300 ctcttatagt ttcgataaaa ccgttgggtc aaaccactaa aaagaaaccc gttctccgtg 360 tgagaaaaat tcggaaacaa tccactaccc tagaagtgta acctgccgct tccgaccttc 420 gtgtcgtctc ggtacaactc tggtgtcaaa cggtctcttg ttcaacgagt acactgcagc 480 aaccttggtg tgaaggtcaa caacttcttc gtataagaat tcgtgttccc acttatgaaa 540 109 29 DNA Bacteriophage T7 109 ggatcctaat acgactcact atagggagg 29 110 523 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 110 Met Ala Thr Gln Glu Ile Ile Asp Ser Val Leu Pro Tyr Leu Thr Lys 1 5 10 15 Trp Tyr Thr Val Ile Thr Ala Ala Val Leu Val Phe Leu Ile Ser Thr 20 25 30 Asn Ile Lys Asn Tyr Val Lys Ala Lys Lys Leu Lys Cys Val Asp Pro 35 40 45 Pro Tyr Leu Lys Asp Ala Gly Leu Thr Gly Ile Ser Ser Leu Ile Ala 50 55 60 Ala Ile Lys Ala Lys Asn Asp Gly Arg Leu Ala Asn Phe Ala Asp Glu 65 70 75 80 Val Phe Asp Glu Tyr Pro Asn His Thr Phe Tyr Leu Ser Val Ala Gly 85 90 95 Ala Leu Lys Ile Val Met Thr Val Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Val 100 105 110 Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Thr Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Ala His 115 120 125 Phe Ala Pro Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly 130 135 140 Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Asp Gln 145 150 155 160 Ile Gly His Val Lys Ala Leu Glu Pro His Ile Gln Ile Met Ala Lys 165 170 175 Gln Ile Lys Leu Asn Gln Gly Lys Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe 180 185 190 Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp Thr Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser 195 200 205 Val His Ser Leu Tyr Asp Glu Lys Leu Gly Ile Pro Thr Pro Asn Glu 210 215 220 Ile Pro Gly Arg Glu Asn Phe Ala Ala Ala Phe Asn Val Ser Gln His 225 230 235 240 Tyr Leu Ala Thr Arg Ser Tyr Ser Gln Thr Phe Tyr Phe Leu Thr Asn 245 250 255 Pro Lys Glu Phe Arg Asp Cys Asn Ala Lys Val His His Leu Ala Lys 260 265 270 Tyr Phe Val Asn Lys Ala Leu Asn Phe Thr Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Glu 275 280 285 Lys Ser Lys Ser Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr 290 295 300 Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Gln Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Met Val Ala 305 310 315 320 Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Leu Phe Glu Leu 325 330 335 Ala Arg His Pro Glu Met Trp Ser Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Val 340 345 350 Asn Phe Gly Val Gly Glu Asp Ser Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Thr Phe Glu 355 360 365 Ala Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Ile Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu 370 375 380 Arg Met Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro Val Asn Phe Arg Thr Ala Thr Arg Asp 385 390 395 400 Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Ala Asn Gly Thr Asp Pro Ile Tyr 405 410 415 Ile Pro Lys Gly Ser Thr Val Ala Tyr Val Val Tyr Lys Thr His Arg 420 425 430 Leu Glu Glu Tyr Tyr Gly Lys Asp Ala Asn Asp Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg 435 440 445 Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Lys Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Val Pro Phe 450 455 460 Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Val Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu 465 470 475 480 Ala Ser Tyr Val Ile Thr Arg Leu Ala Gln Met Phe Glu Thr Val Ser 485 490 495 Ser Asp Pro Gly Leu Glu Tyr Pro Pro Pro Lys Cys Ile His Leu Thr 500 505 510 Met Ser His Asn Asp Gly Val Phe Val Lys Met 515 520 111 540 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 111 Met Ser Ser Ser Pro Ser Phe Ala Gln Glu Val Leu Ala Thr Thr Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Tyr Ile Glu Tyr Phe Leu Asp Asn Tyr Thr Arg Trp Tyr Tyr Phe 20 25 30 Ile Pro Leu Val Leu Leu Ser Leu Asn Phe Ile Ser Leu Leu His Thr 35 40 45 Lys Tyr Leu Glu Arg Arg Phe His Ala Lys Pro Leu Gly Asn Val Val 50 55 60 Leu Asp Pro Thr Phe Gly Ile Ala Thr Pro Leu Ile Leu Ile Tyr Leu 65 70 75 80 Lys Ser Lys Gly Thr Val Met Lys Phe Ala Trp Ser Phe Trp Asn Asn 85 90 95 Lys Tyr Ile Val Lys Asp Pro Lys Tyr Lys Thr Thr Gly Leu Arg Ile 100 105 110 Val Gly Leu Pro Leu Ile Glu Thr Ile Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala 115 120 125 Val Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Thr Arg His Asp 130 135 140 Phe Leu Tyr Ser Leu Leu Gly Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Ala 145 150 155 160 Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Thr Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu 165 170 175 Gln Val Ser His Val Lys Leu Leu Glu Pro His Val Gln Val Phe Phe 180 185 190 Lys His Val Arg Lys His Arg Gly Gln Thr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu 195 200 205 Phe Phe Arg Leu Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu 210 215 220 Ser Ala Glu Ser Leu Arg Asp Asp Ser Val Gly Leu Thr Pro Thr Thr 225 230 235 240 Lys Asp Phe Glu Gly Arg Gly Asp Phe Ala Asp Ala Phe Asn Tyr Ser 245 250 255 Gln Thr Tyr Gln Ala Tyr Arg Phe Leu Leu Gln Gln Met Tyr Trp Ile 260 265 270 Leu Asn Gly Ala Glu Phe Arg Lys Ser Ile Ala Ile Val His Lys Phe 275 280 285 Ala Asp His Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Glu Leu Thr Asp Asp Asp Leu 290 295 300 Gln Lys Gln Asp Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Ala Lys Gln Thr 305 310 315 320 Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Leu Leu Asn Ile Leu Val Ala 325 330 335 Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Val Phe Tyr Glu Leu 340 345 350 Ser Arg Asn Pro Glu Val Phe Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Val Glu Asn 355 360 365 Arg Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Glu Ala Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Ser Phe Glu 370 375 380 Ser Leu Lys Ser Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Ile Asn Glu Ala Leu 385 390 395 400 Arg Leu Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro His Asn Phe Arg Val Ala Thr Arg Asn 405 410 415 Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Lys Asp Gly Cys Ser Pro Ile Val 420 425 430 Val Lys Lys Gly Gln Val Val Met Tyr Thr Val Ile Gly Thr His Arg 435 440 445 Asp Pro Ser Ile Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Asp Val Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg 450 455 460 Trp Phe Glu Pro Glu Thr Arg Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Val Pro Phe 465 470 475 480 Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu 485 490 495 Ala Ser Tyr Val Thr Val Arg Leu Leu Gln Glu Phe Gly Asn Leu Ser 500 505 510 Ser Asp Pro Asn Ala Glu Tyr Pro Pro Lys Leu Gln Asn Thr Leu Thr 515 520 525 Leu Ser Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Asp Val Arg Met Phe 530 535 540 112 517 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 112 Met Ile Glu Gln Leu Leu Glu Tyr Trp Tyr Val Val Val Pro Val Leu 1 5 10 15 Tyr Ile Ile Lys Gln Leu Leu Ala Tyr Thr Lys Thr Arg Val Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Lys Leu Gly Ala Ala Pro Val Thr Asn Lys Leu Tyr Asp Asn Ala 35 40 45 Phe Gly Ile Val Asn Gly Trp Lys Ala Leu Gln Phe Lys Lys Glu Gly 50 55 60 Arg Ala Gln Glu Tyr Asn Asp Tyr Lys Phe Asp His Ser Lys Asn Pro 65 70 75 80 Ser Val Gly Thr Tyr Val Ser Ile Leu Phe Gly Thr Arg Ile Val Val 85 90 95 Thr Lys Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Ile Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly 100 105 110 Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Lys Arg His Thr Leu Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly 115 120 125 Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala 130 135 140 Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser 145 150 155 160 Leu Glu Pro His Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys 165 170 175 Gly Glu Tyr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp 180 185 190 Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Lys Asp 195 200 205 Glu Ser Ile Gly Ile Asn Gln Asp Asp Ile Asp Phe Ala Gly Arg Lys 210 215 220 Asp Phe Ala Glu Ser Phe Asn Lys Ala Gln Glu Tyr Leu Ala Ile Arg 225 230 235 240 Thr Leu Val Gln Thr Phe Tyr Trp Leu Val Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Arg 245 250 255 Asp Cys Thr Lys Ser Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys 260 265 270 Ala Leu Asp Ala Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Ser Gly Tyr Val 275 280 285 Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp Pro Asn Val Leu Arg 290 295 300 Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly 305 310 315 320 Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg His Pro Glu Ile Trp 325 330 335 Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Gln Gln Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp 340 345 350 Ser Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr 355 360 365 Leu Lys Ala Phe Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Ile Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro 370 375 380 Arg Asn Phe Arg Ile Ala Thr Lys Asn Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly 385 390 395 400 Gly Ser Asp Gly Thr Ser Pro Ile Leu Ile Gln Lys Gly Glu Ala Val 405 410 415 Ser Tyr Gly Ile Asn Ser Thr His Leu Asp Pro Val Tyr Tyr Gly Pro 420 425 430 Asp Ala Ala Glu Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Lys 435 440 445 Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys 450 455 460 Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg 465 470 475 480 Leu Val Gln Glu Phe Ser His Val Arg Ser Asp Pro Asp Glu Val Tyr 485 490 495 Pro Pro Lys Arg Leu Thr Asn Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Gln Asp Gly Ala 500 505 510 Ile Val Lys Phe Asp 515 113 517 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 113 Met Ile Glu Gln Ile Leu Glu Tyr Trp Tyr Ile Val Val Pro Val Leu 1 5 10 15 Tyr Ile Ile Lys Gln Leu Ile Ala Tyr Ser Lys Thr Arg Val Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Gln Leu Gly Ala Ala Pro Ile Thr Asn Gln Leu Tyr Asp Asn Val 35 40 45 Phe Gly Ile Val Asn Gly Trp Lys Ala Leu Gln Phe Lys Lys Glu Gly 50 55 60 Arg Ala Gln Glu Tyr Asn Asp His Lys Phe Asp Ser Ser Lys Asn Pro 65 70 75 80 Ser Val Gly Thr Tyr Val Ser Ile Leu Phe Gly Thr Lys Ile Val Val 85 90 95 Thr Lys Asp Pro Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Ile Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly 100 105 110 Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Lys Arg His Ala Leu Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly 115 120 125 Asp Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ser 130 135 140 Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser 145 150 155 160 Leu Glu Pro His Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys 165 170 175 Gly Glu Tyr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp 180 185 190 Ser Ala Thr Glu Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Lys Asp 195 200 205 Glu Thr Ile Gly Ile Asn Gln Asp Asp Ile Asp Phe Ala Gly Arg Lys 210 215 220 Asp Phe Ala Glu Ser Phe Asn Lys Ala Gln Glu Tyr Leu Ser Ile Arg 225 230 235 240 Ile Leu Val Gln Thr Phe Tyr Trp Leu Ile Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Arg 245 250 255 Asp Cys Thr Lys Ser Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys 260 265 270 Ala Leu Asp Ala Thr Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Gly Gly Tyr Val 275 280 285 Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg 290 295 300 Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly 305 310 315 320 Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Pro His Ile Trp 325 330 335 Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Ile Glu Gln Gln Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp 340 345 350 Ser Arg Val Glu Glu Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr 355 360 365 Leu Lys Ala Phe Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Val Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro 370 375 380 Arg Asn Phe Arg Ile Ala Thr Lys Asn Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly 385 390 395 400 Gly Pro Asp Gly Thr Gln Pro Ile Leu Ile Gln Lys Gly Glu Gly Val 405 410 415 Ser Tyr Gly Ile Asn Ser Thr His Leu Asp Pro Val Tyr Tyr Gly Pro 420 425 430 Asp Ala Ala Glu Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Arg 435 440 445 Lys Leu Gly Trp Ala Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys 450 455 460 Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg 465 470 475 480 Leu Val Gln Glu Phe Ser His Ile Arg Ser Asp Pro Asp Glu Val Tyr 485 490 495 Pro Pro Lys Arg Leu Thr Asn Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Gln Asp Gly Ala 500 505 510 Ile Val Lys Phe Asp 515 114 512 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 114 Met Leu Asp Gln Ile Leu His Tyr Trp Tyr Ile Val Leu Pro Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Ile Ile Asn Gln Ile Val Ala His Val Arg Thr Asn Tyr Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Lys Leu Gly Ala Lys Pro Phe Thr His Val Gln Arg Asp Gly Trp 35 40 45 Leu Gly Phe Lys Phe Gly Arg Glu Phe Leu Lys Ala Lys Ser Ala Gly 50 55 60 Arg Ser Val Asp Leu Ile Ile Ser Arg Phe His Asp Asn Glu Asp Thr 65 70 75 80 Phe Ser Ser Tyr Ala Phe Gly Asn His Val Val Phe Thr Arg Asp Pro 85 90 95 Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Leu Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly Asp Phe Ser Leu 100 105 110 Gly Ser Arg Val Lys Phe Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly Tyr Gly Ile Phe 115 120 125 Thr Leu Asp Ala Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala Met Leu Arg Pro 130 135 140 Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser Leu Glu Pro His 145 150 155 160 Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys Gly Glu Tyr Phe 165 170 175 Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu 180 185 190 Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Lys Asp Glu Glu Ile Gly 195 200 205 Tyr Asp Thr Lys Asp Met Ser Glu Glu Arg Arg Arg Phe Ala Asp Ala 210 215 220 Phe Asn Lys Ser Gln Val Tyr Val Ala Thr Arg Val Ala Leu Gln Asn 225 230 235 240 Leu Tyr Trp Leu Val Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Lys Glu Cys Asn Asp Ile 245 250 255 Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Asp Ala Thr 260 265 270 Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Gly Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu 275 280 285 Val Lys Gln Thr Arg Asp Pro Lys Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn 290 295 300 Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala 305 310 315 320 Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Pro His Ile Trp Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu 325 330 335 Glu Ile Glu Gln Gln Phe Gly Leu Gly Glu Asp Ser Arg Val Glu Glu 340 345 350 Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Leu 355 360 365 Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu His Pro Ser Val Pro Arg Asn Ala Arg Phe 370 375 380 Ala Ile Lys Asp Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Pro Asn Gly Lys 385 390 395 400 Asp Pro Ile Leu Ile Arg Lys Asp Glu Val Val Gln Tyr Ser Ile Ser 405 410 415 Ala Thr Gln Thr Asn Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Ala Asp Phe 420 425 430 Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Arg Asn Leu Gly Trp Ala 435 440 445 Phe Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe 450 455 460 Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg Leu Val Gln Glu Phe 465 470 475 480 Pro Asn Leu Ser Gln Asp Pro Glu Thr Lys Tyr Pro Pro Pro Arg Leu 485 490 495 Ala His Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala His Val Lys Met Ser 500 505 510 115 512 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 115 Met Leu Asp Gln Ile Phe His Tyr Trp Tyr Ile Val Leu Pro Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Val Ile Ile Lys Gln Ile Val Ala His Ala Arg Thr Asn Tyr Leu Met 20 25 30 Lys Lys Leu Gly Ala Lys Pro Phe Thr His Val Gln Leu Asp Gly Trp 35 40 45 Phe Gly Phe Lys Phe Gly Arg Glu Phe Leu Lys Ala Lys Ser Ala Gly 50 55 60 Arg Gln Val Asp Leu Ile Ile Ser Arg Phe His Asp Asn Glu Asp Thr 65 70 75 80 Phe Ser Ser Tyr Ala Phe Gly Asn His Val Val Phe Thr Arg Asp Pro 85 90 95 Glu Asn Ile Lys Ala Leu Leu Ala Thr Gln Phe Gly Asp Phe Ser Leu 100 105 110 Gly Ser Arg Val Lys Phe Phe Lys Pro Leu Leu Gly Tyr Gly Ile Phe 115 120 125 Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Gly Trp Lys His Ser Arg Ala Met Leu Arg Pro 130 135 140 Gln Phe Ala Arg Glu Gln Val Ala His Val Thr Ser Leu Glu Pro His 145 150 155 160 Phe Gln Leu Leu Lys Lys His Ile Leu Lys His Lys Gly Glu Tyr Phe 165 170 175 Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Phe Phe Arg Phe Thr Val Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu 180 185 190 Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val His Ser Leu Arg Asp Glu Glu Ile Gly 195 200 205 Tyr Asp Thr Lys Asp Met Ala Glu Glu Arg Arg Lys Phe Ala Asp Ala 210 215 220 Phe Asn Lys Ser Gln Val Tyr Leu Ser Thr Arg Val Ala Leu Gln Thr 225 230 235 240 Leu Tyr Trp Leu Val Asn Asn Lys Glu Phe Lys Glu Cys Asn Asp Ile 245 250 255 Val His Lys Phe Thr Asn Tyr Tyr Val Gln Lys Ala Leu Asp Ala Thr 260 265 270 Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Lys Gln Gly Gly Tyr Val Phe Leu Tyr Glu Leu 275 280 285 Ala Lys Gln Thr Lys Asp Pro Asn Val Leu Arg Asp Gln Ser Leu Asn 290 295 300 Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala 305 310 315 320 Val Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Pro His Ile Trp Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu 325 330 335 Glu Ile Glu Ser His Phe Gly Ser Gly Glu Asp Ser Arg Val Glu Glu 340 345 350 Ile Thr Phe Glu Ser Leu Lys Arg Cys Glu Tyr Leu Lys Ala Val Leu 355 360 365 Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu His Pro Ser Val Pro Arg Asn Ala Arg Phe 370 375 380 Ala Ile Lys Asp Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Pro Asn Gly Lys 385 390 395 400 Asp Pro Ile Leu Ile Arg Lys Asn Glu Val Val Gln Tyr Ser Ile Ser 405 410 415 Ala Thr Gln Thr Asn Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Gly Ala Asp Ala Ala Asp Phe 420 425 430 Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Glu Pro Ser Thr Arg Asn Leu Gly Trp Ala 435 440 445 Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ile Cys Leu Gly Gln Gln Phe 450 455 460 Ala Leu Thr Glu Ala Gly Tyr Val Leu Val Arg Leu Val Gln Glu Phe 465 470 475 480 Pro Ser Leu Ser Gln Asp Pro Glu Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Pro Arg Leu 485 490 495 Ala His Leu Thr Met Cys Leu Phe Asp Gly Ala Tyr Val Lys Met Gln 500 505 510 116 499 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 116 Met Ala Ile Ser Ser Leu Leu Ser Trp Asp Val Ile Cys Val Val Phe 1 5 10 15 Ile Cys Val Cys Val Tyr Phe Gly Tyr Glu Tyr Cys Tyr Thr Lys Tyr 20 25 30 Leu Met His Lys His Gly Ala Arg Glu Ile Glu Asn Val Ile Asn Asp 35 40 45 Gly Phe Phe Gly Phe Arg Leu Pro Leu Leu Leu Met Arg Ala Ser Asn 50 55 60 Glu Gly Arg Leu Ile Glu Phe Ser Val Lys Arg Phe Glu Ser Ala Pro 65 70 75 80 His Pro Gln Asn Lys Thr Leu Val Asn Arg Ala Leu Ser Val Pro Val 85 90 95 Ile Leu Thr Lys Asp Pro Val Asn Ile Lys Ala Met Leu Ser Thr Gln 100 105 110 Phe Asp Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Leu Arg Leu His Gln Phe Ala Pro Leu 115 120 125 Leu Gly Lys Gly Ile Phe Thr Leu Asp Gly Pro Glu Trp Lys Gln Ser 130 135 140 Arg Ser Met Leu Arg Pro Gln Phe Ala Lys Asp Arg Val Ser His Ile 145 150 155 160 Ser Asp Leu Glu Pro His Phe Val Leu Leu Arg Lys His Ile Asp Gly 165 170 175 His Asn Gly Asp Tyr Phe Asp Ile Gln Glu Leu Tyr Phe Arg Phe Ser 180 185 190 Met Asp Val Ala Thr Gly Phe Leu Phe Gly Glu Ser Val Gly Ser Leu 195 200 205 Lys Asp Glu Asp Ala Arg Phe Ser Glu Ala Phe Asn Glu Ser Gln Lys 210 215 220 Tyr Leu Ala Thr Arg Ala Thr Leu His Glu Leu Tyr Phe Leu Cys Asp 225 230 235 240 Gly Phe Arg Phe Arg Gln Tyr Asn Lys Val Val Arg Lys Phe Cys Ser 245 250 255 Gln Cys Val His Lys Ala Leu Asp Val Ala Pro Glu Asp Thr Ser Glu 260 265 270 Tyr Val Phe Leu Arg Glu Leu Val Lys His Thr Arg Asp Pro Val Val 275 280 285 Leu Gln Asp Gln Ala Leu Asn Val Leu Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Thr Thr 290 295 300 Ala Ser Leu Leu Ser Phe Ala Thr Phe Glu Leu Ala Arg Asn Asp His 305 310 315 320 Met Trp Arg Lys Leu Arg Glu Glu Val Ile Ser Thr Met Gly Pro Ser 325 330 335 Ser Asp Glu Ile Thr Val Ala Gly Leu Lys Ser Cys Arg Tyr Leu Lys 340 345 350 Ala Ile Leu Asn Glu Thr Leu Arg Leu Tyr Pro Ser Val Pro Arg Asn 355 360 365 Ala Arg Phe Ala Thr Arg Asn Thr Thr Leu Pro Arg Gly Gly Gly Pro 370 375 380 Asp Gly Ser Phe Pro Ile Leu Ile Arg Lys Gly Gln Pro Val Gly Tyr 385 390 395 400 Phe Ile Cys Ala Thr His Leu Asn Glu Lys Val Tyr Gly Asn Asp Ser 405 410 415 His Val Phe Arg Pro Glu Arg Trp Ala Ala Leu Glu Gly Lys Ser Leu 420 425 430 Gly Trp Ser Tyr Leu Pro Phe Asn Gly Gly Pro Arg Ser Cys Leu Gly 435 440 445 Gln Gln Phe Ala Ile Leu Glu Ala Ser Tyr Val Leu Ala Arg Leu Thr 450 455 460 Gln Cys Tyr Thr Thr Ile Gln Leu Arg Thr Thr Glu Tyr Pro Pro Lys 465 470 475 480 Lys Leu Val His Leu Thr Met Ser Leu Leu Asn Gly Val Tyr Ile Arg 485 490 495 Thr Arg Thr 117 679 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 117 Met Ala Leu Asp Lys Leu Asp Leu Tyr Val Ile Ile Thr Leu Val Val 1 5 10 15 Ala Val Ala Ala Tyr Phe Ala Lys Asn Gln Phe Leu Asp Gln Pro Gln 20 25 30 Asp Thr Gly Phe Leu Asn Thr Asp Ser Gly Ser Asn Ser Arg Asp Val 35 40 45 Leu Ser Thr Leu Lys Lys Asn Asn Lys Asn Thr Leu Leu Leu Phe Gly 50 55 60 Ser Gln Thr Gly Thr Ala Glu Asp Tyr Ala Asn Lys Leu Ser Arg Glu 65 70 75 80 Leu His Ser Arg Phe Gly Leu Lys Thr Met Val Ala Asp Phe Ala Asp 85 90 95 Tyr Asp Trp Asp Asn Phe Gly Asp Ile Thr Glu Asp Ile Leu Val Phe 100 105 110 Phe Ile Val Ala Thr Tyr Gly Glu Gly Glu Pro Thr Asp Asn Ala Asp 115 120 125 Glu Phe His Thr Trp Leu Thr Glu Glu Ala Asp Thr Leu Ser Thr Leu 130 135 140 Lys Tyr Thr Val Phe Gly Leu Gly Asn Ser Thr Tyr Glu Phe Phe Asn 145 150 155 160 Ala Ile Gly Arg Lys Phe Asp Arg Leu Leu Ser Glu Lys Gly Gly Asp 165 170 175 Arg Phe Ala Glu Tyr Ala Glu Gly Asp Asp Gly Thr Gly Thr Leu Asp 180 185 190 Glu Asp Phe Met Ala Trp Lys Asp Asn Val Phe Asp Ala Leu Lys Asn 195 200 205 Asp Leu Asn Phe Glu Glu Lys Glu Leu Lys Tyr Glu Pro Asn Val Lys 210 215 220 Leu Thr Glu Arg Asp Asp Leu Ser Ala Ala Asp Ser Gln Val Ser Leu 225 230 235 240 Gly Glu Pro Asn Lys Lys Tyr Ile Asn Ser Glu Gly Ile Asp Leu Thr 245 250 255 Lys Gly Pro Phe Asp His Thr His Pro Tyr Leu Ala Arg Ile Thr Glu 260 265 270 Thr Arg Glu Leu Phe Ser Ser Lys Asp Arg His Cys Ile His Val Glu 275 280 285 Phe Asp Ile Ser Glu Ser Asn Leu Lys Tyr Thr Thr Gly Asp His Leu 290 295 300 Ala Ile Trp Pro Ser Asn Ser Asp Glu Asn Ile Lys Gln Phe Ala Lys 305 310 315 320 Cys Phe Gly Leu Glu Asp Lys Leu Asp Thr Val Ile Glu Leu Lys Ala 325 330 335 Leu Asp Ser Thr Tyr Thr Ile Pro Phe Pro Thr Pro Ile Thr Tyr Gly 340 345 350 Ala Val Ile Arg His His Leu Glu Ile Ser Gly Pro Val Ser Arg Gln 355 360 365 Phe Phe Leu Ser Ile Ala Gly Phe Ala Pro Asp Glu Glu Thr Lys Lys 370 375 380 Ala Phe Thr Arg Leu Gly Gly Asp Lys Gln Glu Phe Ala Ala Lys Val 385 390 395 400 Thr Arg Arg Lys Phe Asn Ile Ala Asp Ala Leu Leu Tyr Ser Ser Asn 405 410 415 Asn Ala Pro Trp Ser Asp Val Pro Phe Glu Phe Leu Ile Glu Asn Val 420 425 430 Pro His Leu Thr Pro Arg Tyr Tyr Ser Ile Ser Ser Ser Ser Leu Ser 435 440 445 Glu Lys Gln Leu Ile Asn Val Thr Ala Val Val Glu Ala Glu Glu Glu 450 455 460 Ala Asp Gly Arg Pro Val Thr Gly Val Val Thr Asn Leu Leu Lys Asn 465 470 475 480 Val Glu Ile Val Gln Asn Lys Thr Gly Glu Lys Pro Leu Val His Tyr 485 490 495 Asp Leu Ser Gly Pro Arg Gly Lys Phe Asn Lys Phe Lys Leu Pro Val 500 505 510 His Val Arg Arg Ser Asn Phe Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn Ser Thr Thr Pro 515 520 525 Val Ile Leu Ile Gly Pro Gly Thr Gly Val Ala Pro Leu Arg Gly Phe 530 535 540 Val Arg Glu Arg Val Gln Gln Val Lys Asn Gly Val Asn Val Gly Lys 545 550 555 560 Thr Leu Leu Phe Tyr Gly Cys Arg Asn Ser Asn Glu Asp Phe Leu Tyr 565 570 575 Lys Gln Glu Trp Ala Glu Tyr Ala Ser Val Leu Gly Glu Asn Phe Glu 580 585 590 Met Phe Asn Ala Phe Ser Arg Gln Asp Pro Ser Lys Lys Val Tyr Val 595 600 605 Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Glu Asn Ser Gln Leu Val His Glu Leu Leu Thr 610 615 620 Glu Gly Ala Ile Ile Tyr Val Cys Gly Asp Ala Ser Arg Met Ala Arg 625 630 635 640 Asp Val Gln Thr Thr Ile Ser Lys Ile Val Ala Lys Ser Arg Glu Ile 645 650 655 Ser Glu Asp Lys Ala Ala Glu Leu Val Lys Ser Trp Lys Val Gln Asn 660 665 670 Arg Tyr Gln Glu Asp Val Trp 675 118 679 PRT CANDIDATROPICALIS 118 Met Ala Leu Asp Lys Leu Asp Leu Tyr Val Ile Ile Thr Leu Val Val 1 5 10 15 Ala Val Ala Ala Tyr Phe Ala Lys Asn Gln Phe Leu Asp Gln Pro Gln 20 25 30 Asp Thr Gly Phe Leu Asn Thr Asp Ser Gly Ser Asn Ser Arg Asp Val 35 40 45 Leu Ser Thr Leu Lys Lys Asn Asn Lys Asn Thr Leu Leu Leu Phe Gly 50 55 60 Ser Gln Thr Gly Thr Ala Glu Asp Tyr Ala Asn Lys Leu Ser Arg Glu 65 70 75 80 Leu His Ser Arg Phe Gly Leu Lys Thr Met Val Ala Asp Phe Ala Asp 85 90 95 Tyr Asp Trp Asp Asn Phe Gly Asp Ile Thr Glu Asp Ile Leu Val Phe 100 105 110 Phe Ile Val Ala Thr Tyr Gly Glu Gly Glu Pro Thr Asp Asn Ala Asp 115 120 125 Glu Phe His Thr Trp Leu Thr Glu Glu Ala Asp Thr Leu Ser Thr Leu 130 135 140 Arg Tyr Thr Val Phe Gly Leu Gly Asn Ser Thr Tyr Glu Phe Phe Asn 145 150 155 160 Ala Ile Gly Arg Lys Phe Asp Arg Leu Leu Ser Glu Lys Gly Gly Asp 165 170 175 Arg Phe Ala Glu Tyr Ala Glu Gly Asp Asp Gly Thr Gly Thr Leu Asp 180 185 190 Glu Asp Phe Met Ala Trp Lys Asp Asn Val Phe Asp Ala Leu Lys Asn 195 200 205 Asp Leu Asn Phe Glu Glu Lys Glu Leu Lys Tyr Glu Pro Asn Val Lys 210 215 220 Leu Thr Glu Arg Asp Asp Leu Ser Ala Ala Asp Ser Gln Val Ser Leu 225 230 235 240 Gly Glu Pro Asn Lys Lys Tyr Ile Asn Ser Glu Gly Ile Asp Leu Thr 245 250 255 Lys Gly Pro Phe Asp His Thr His Pro Tyr Leu Ala Arg Ile Thr Glu 260 265 270 Thr Arg Glu Leu Phe Ser Ser Lys Glu Arg His Cys Ile His Val Glu 275 280 285 Phe Asp Ile Ser Glu Ser Asn Leu Lys Tyr Thr Thr Gly Asp His Leu 290 295 300 Ala Ile Trp Pro Ser Asn Ser Asp Glu Asn Ile Lys Gln Phe Ala Lys 305 310 315 320 Cys Phe Gly Leu Glu Asp Lys Leu Asp Thr Val Ile Glu Leu Lys Ala 325 330 335 Leu Asp Ser Thr Tyr Thr Ile Pro Phe Pro Thr Pro Ile Thr Tyr Gly 340 345 350 Ala Val Ile Arg His His Leu Glu Ile Ser Gly Pro Val Ser Arg Gln 355 360 365 Phe Phe Leu Ser Ile Ala Gly Phe Ala Pro Asp Glu Glu Thr Lys Lys 370 375 380 Thr Phe Thr Arg Leu Gly Gly Asp Lys Gln Glu Phe Ala Thr Lys Val 385 390 395 400 Thr Arg Arg Lys Phe Asn Ile Ala Asp Ala Leu Leu Tyr Ser Ser Asn 405 410 415 Asn Thr Pro Trp Ser Asp Val Pro Phe Glu Phe Leu Ile Glu Asn Ile 420 425 430 Gln His Leu Thr Pro Arg Tyr Tyr Ser Ile Ser Ser Ser Ser Leu Ser 435 440 445 Glu Lys Gln Leu Ile Asn Val Thr Ala Val Val Glu Ala Glu Glu Glu 450 455 460 Ala Asp Gly Arg Pro Val Thr Gly Val Val Thr Asn Leu Leu Lys Asn 465 470 475 480 Ile Glu Ile Ala Gln Asn Lys Thr Gly Glu Lys Pro Leu Val His Tyr 485 490 495 Asp Leu Ser Gly Pro Arg Gly Lys Phe Asn Lys Phe Lys Leu Pro Val 500 505 510 His Val Arg Arg Ser Asn Phe Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn Ser Thr Thr Pro 515 520 525 Val Ile Leu Ile Gly Pro Gly Thr Gly Val Ala Pro Leu Arg Gly Phe 530 535 540 Val Arg Glu Arg Val Gln Gln Val Lys Asn Gly Val Asn Val Gly Lys 545 550 555 560 Thr Leu Leu Phe Tyr Gly Cys Arg Asn Ser Asn Glu Asp Phe Leu Tyr 565 570 575 Lys Gln Glu Trp Ala Glu Tyr Ala Ser Val Leu Gly Glu Asn Phe Glu 580 585 590 Met Phe Asn Ala Phe Ser Arg Gln Asp Pro Ser Lys Lys Val Tyr Val 595 600 605 Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Glu Asn Ser Gln Leu Val His Glu Leu Leu Thr 610 615 620 Glu Gly Ala Ile Ile Tyr Val Cys Gly Asp Ala Ser Arg Met Ala Arg 625 630 635 640 Asp Val Gln Thr Thr Ile Ser Lys Ile Val Ala Lys Ser Arg Glu Ile 645 650 655 Ser Glu Asp Lys Ala Ala Glu Leu Val Lys Ser Trp Lys Val Gln Asn 660 665 670 Arg Tyr Gln Glu Asp Val Trp 675

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7223266Jul 10, 2003May 29, 2007Cardiodex Ltd.Methods and apparatus for hemostasis following arterial catheterization
US20130267012 *May 22, 2013Oct 10, 2013The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaHost Cells and Methods for Producing Diacid Compounds
Classifications
U.S. Classification435/189, 536/23.2, 435/254.22, 435/69.1, 435/320.1
International ClassificationC12P7/44, C07K14/40, C12N9/02
Cooperative ClassificationC12N9/0071, C12N9/0077, C12P7/44, C07K14/40, C12N9/0042
European ClassificationC12N9/00P8F2D, C12N9/00P30, C12N9/00P30E, C07K14/40, C12P7/44