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Publication numberUS20030177725 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/294,486
Publication dateSep 25, 2003
Filing dateNov 13, 2002
Priority dateMar 20, 2002
Publication number10294486, 294486, US 2003/0177725 A1, US 2003/177725 A1, US 20030177725 A1, US 20030177725A1, US 2003177725 A1, US 2003177725A1, US-A1-20030177725, US-A1-2003177725, US2003/0177725A1, US2003/177725A1, US20030177725 A1, US20030177725A1, US2003177725 A1, US2003177725A1
InventorsRoy Gatherum
Original AssigneeGatherum Roy Dean
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Flange and drip edge integrated with window frame
US 20030177725 A1
Abstract
A method and apparatus for providing a flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure. The flashing-integrated window frame includes a window frame and a drip flange. The window frame includes a front and a periphery and the drip flange is configured to extend from a bottom portion of the window frame. The drip flange includes a downward extension configured to extend from the bottom portion of the window frame and an outward extension extending from the downward extension. With this arrangement, the drip flange is configured to substantially direct moisture away from the building structure.
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Claims(51)
What is claimed is:
1. A flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure, comprising:
a window frame having a front and a periphery; and
a drip flange configured to extend from a bottom portion of said window frame, said drip flange including a downward extension extending from said bottom portion of said window frame and an outward extension extending from said downward extension, said drip flange configured to direct moisture away from the building structure.
2. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, further comprising a sealing flange having a face surface and a back surface, said sealing flange extending from said window frame a distance from the periphery of said window frame to provide an effective moisture barrier, and said back surface configured to be positioned against a surface of the building structure.
3. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange extends from said front of said bottom portion of said window frame.
4. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange extends from a peripheral underside portion of said periphery of said bottom portion of said window frame.
5. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 2, wherein said sealing flange extends outward from an entire periphery of said window frame.
6. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange is configured to be formed seamless with said window frame.
7. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said outward extension of said drip flange includes an oblique deflection angle between approximately fifteen degrees and forty-five degrees.
8. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 2, wherein said sealing flange is configured to be formed integrally with said periphery of said window frame.
9. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange comprises a polymeric material.
10. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 2, wherein said sealing flange is configured to extend over a nailing flange of said window frame.
11. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 2, wherein said sealing flange is configured to be attachable to said window frame.
12. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange is configured to be attachable to said bottom portion of said window frame.
13. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange is configured to be removable from said bottom portion of said window frame.
14. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange comprises a folded-back portion wrapped around an under-side portion of said drip flange.
15. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said drip flange comprises a rounded lip at an end of said drip flange.
16. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 14, wherein said drip flange includes an extension extending from said folded-back portion configured to extend substantially vertically downward therefrom.
17. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said flashing-integrated window frame comprises a metallic material.
18. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said flashing-integrated window frame comprises a polymeric material.
19. The flashing-integrated window frame of claim 1, wherein said sealing flange extends from said window frame at least four inches.
20. A flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure, comprising:
a window frame having a front and a periphery, said periphery configured to extend through an exterior treatment of the building structure; and
a drip flange configured to extend from a bottom peripheral portion of said window frame, said drip flange including a downward extension extending from said bottom peripheral portion of said window frame and an outward extension extending outward from said downward extension, said drip flange configured to direct moisture from said window frame away from the exterior treatment of the building structure and configured to substantially obstruct moisture from entering into the exterior treatment below said window frame.
21. A flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture, intrusion in a building structure, comprising:
a window frame having a front and a periphery;
a sealing flange having a face surface and an back surface, said sealing flange configured to extend over a nailing flange extending from the window frame, said sealing flange extending from said window frame a distance from the periphery of said widow frame to provide an effective moisture barrier, and said back surface configured to be positioned between a surface of the building structure and an exterior treatment of the building structure; and
a drip flange configured to extend from a bottom portion of said window frame, said drip flange configured to extend downwardly and outwardly from said bottom portion of said window frame, and configured to direct moisture away from the building structure.
22. A flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure, comprising:
a window frame having a front and a periphery, said periphery configured to extend through an exterior treatment of the building structure; and
a moisture-directing means for directing moisture away from the exterior treatment below said window frame, said moisture-directing means including a downward extension extending from a bottom portion of said window frame and an outward extension extending from said downward extension.
23. A method of forming a flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure, the method comprising:
forming a window frame having a front and a periphery;
forming a drip flange to be disposed along a bottom portion of said window frame; and
configuring said drip flange to include a downward extension extending from said bottom portion of said window frame and an outward extension extending from said downward extension so that said drip flange is configured to direct moisture away from the building structure.
24. The method of claim 23, further comprising forming a sealing flange having a face surface and a back surface, said sealing flange formed to extend outward from said periphery of said window frame.
25. The method of claim 24, further comprising configuring said sealing flange to extend from said window frame so that said back surface abuts a surface of the building structure.
26. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises extending said drip flange from said front of said bottom portion of said window frame.
27. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises extending said drip flange from said periphery of said bottom portion of said window frame.
28. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises seamlessly forming said drip flange with said window frame.
29. The method of claim 23, wherein said configuring said drip flange comprises configuring said outward extension with an oblique deflection angle with respect to said downward extension between approximately fifteen degrees and forty-five degrees.
30. The method of claim 24, wherein said forming said sealing flange comprises configuring said sealing flange to be formed integrally with said periphery of said window frame.
31. The method of claim 24, wherein said forming said sealing flange comprises configuring said sealing flange to be attachable to said window frame.
32. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises configuring said drip flange to be attachable to said window frame.
33. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises configuring said drip flange to be removable from said window frame.
34. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises configuring said drip flange to include a folded-back portion wrapped around an under-side portion of said drip flange.
35. The method of claim 23, wherein said forming said drip flange comprises configuring said drip flange to include a rounded lip at an end of said drip flange.
36. The method of claim 34, wherein said drip flange includes an extension extending from said folded-back portion configured to extend substantially vertically downward therefrom.
37. The method of claim 23, further comprising forming said flashing-integrated window frame from a metallic material.
38. The method of claim 23, further comprising forming said flashing-integrated window frame from a polymeric material.
39. A method of installing a flashing-integrated window frame in an opening defined in a wall of a building structure, the method comprising:
providing said flashing-integrated window frame configured to include a window frame and a drip flange, said drip flange configured to be positioned along a bottom portion of said window frame and configured to include a downward extension configured to extend from said bottom portion of said window frame and an outward extension extending from said downward extension; and
inserting said window frame in the opening of the building structure so that said drip flange is positionable to extend downwardly and outwardly from said bottom portion of said window frame to direct moisture away from the building structure.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein said providing comprises providing a sealing flange configured to extend from a periphery of said window frame a distance to provide an effective moisture barrier.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein said inserting comprises positioning said sealing flange around the periphery of the window frame against a nailing flange of the window frame and the wall of the building structure.
42. The method of claim 41, wherein said inserting comprises positioning said drip flange to extend from a bottom portion of the window frame prior to said inserting said window frame.
43. The method of claim 41, wherein said inserting comprises positioning said drip flange to extend from a bottom portion of the window frame subsequent to said inserting said window frame.
44. The method of claim 40, wherein said inserting comprises inserting said flashing-integrated window frame with said sealing flange and said drip edge attached thereto so that said sealing flange overlies and is positioned against the wall of the building structure.
45. The method of claim 40, wherein said inserting comprises preliminarily attaching said sealing flange to a periphery of said window frame so that said sealing flange is positionable against the wall of the building structure.
46. The method of claim 39, wherein said inserting comprises attaching said drip flange to said bottom portion of said window frame prior to said inserting said window frame.
47. The method of claim 40, wherein said inserting comprises inserting said window frame with said sealing flange attached thereto so that said sealing flange overlies and is positioned against the wall of the building structure.
48. The method of claim 47, wherein said inserting comprises attaching said drip flange to said bottom portion of said window frame subsequent to said inserting said window frame.
49. The method of claim 40, wherein said inserting comprises positioning said sealing flange against the wall around a periphery of the opening therein prior to said inserting said window frame.
50. The method of claim 49, wherein said inserting comprises inserting said window frame in said opening to at least partially abut with said sealing flange.
51. The method of claim 50, wherein said inserting said window frame comprises attaching said drip flange to the bottom portion of the window frame.
Description

[0001] This application claims priority of U.S. Provisional Patent Application serial Nos.: 60/366,679, filed Mar. 20, 2002; 60/407,313, filed Aug. 30, 2002; and, 60/409,411 filed Sep. 9, 2002.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. The Field of the Invention

[0003] The invention relates generally to water management systems for reducing water intrusion in structures. More specifically, the invention relates to flashing systems and flashing configurations for doors, windows, and various utility and pipe-through configurations and for eaves and foundation interfaces, chimney structures, and their incorporation with, and between, exterior treatments, such as stucco, brick, and siding.

[0004] 2. The Background Art

[0005] Since ancient times “Black mold” fungus and other molds having known health risks associated with them have been found growing within the walls of homes and buildings. Such molds can, and have, caused a recognized and serious health threat to home owners and building occupants. The growth of such molds can be facilitated by moisture seeping within the walls of homes and buildings. Conventionally, keeping moisture out of human-built structures has been an ongoing goal. Since mold spores have been found to be a serious health risk of late, due to increased incidence of moisture ingress in newer construction systems, preventing moisture from entering the walls of homes and buildings is considered much more serious and widespread concern than it has previously.

[0006] Wherever discontinuities in exterior treatment exist, for example where openings such as doors and windows are provided, keeping water from entering the wall structures around or through such discontinuities and openings has been problematic. Numerous solutions to this problem have been tried, depending on the type of structure involved. Furthermore, the areas where the walls of a building meet the foundation, particularly in wood frame construction, have been recognized as another area where water can enter, because a construction joint of some type typically is provided there. Likewise where the roof meets the walls, and where one type of exterior treatment meets another (for example brick extends part way up a wall and stucco the remainder of the way to the roofline, for example) provision for water-proofing the exterior of the structure has been a concern. For these and other reasons, the problem of moisture ingress is well recognized in the trades and in the field of architectural design.

[0007] One example in modern construction technology is the problem of sealing around doors and windows positioned in and extending through a stucco exterior treatment. Prior best practice was to install a window in the structure, in which the nailing flanges of the window frame (whether made of polymeric resin, or of aluminum, or some other material) are attached to the exterior sheathing over the frame. This might be before, or after, tar-paper, a plastic fiber-reinforced membrane, such as TYVEK®, or other sealing layer is applied to the sheathing. A sealing strip comprising a laminate of a polymer sheet and a bituminous sealant layer (e.g. the laminate made by Protecto-Wrap Company of Denver, Colo.) is then laid over the bottom nailing flange, and adheres to the flange and paper around the window; and then the strip is usually also stapled to the paper-covered sheathing. Two like sealing strips are then laid down the sides of the window over the nailing flanges and likewise stapled. Then finally a sealing strip is laid over the top window nailing flange, and this strip is usually made long enough to extend outward beyond the sides of the window to lay over the strips laid against the sides of the window. Subsequently the stucco exterior treatment is applied. This usually takes one to several days, depending on when the stucco crew can be scheduled, how long it takes to prepare to apply the particular stucco system used (for example how long it takes to apply the reinforcing mesh), etc.

[0008] In that time, due to heat or cold, the sealing strips can become “unstuck” and not adhere to the paper and/or nailing flange, or they can wrinkle, and can otherwise can provide a less than perfect seal. After the stucco is applied, water can sometimes enter the structure through this interface between the window and the stucco. In a storm for example, water from precipitation may enter by seeping through porous or cracked stucco, around the sealing strips, or behind them if wrinkled or de-laminated from the paper or window. This is highly undesirable, as dry rot, mold spores, structural damage, discoloration of stucco or interior walls, etc. can occur. The leaking condition of the window may require the stucco around the window, the interior finish treatment, and sometimes even the structure around the window to be replaced. Likewise, the same generally applies to door openings, and other places in the structure, such as utility boxes, pipe-throughs, vents, etc. where something passes through the exterior treatment.

[0009] Also, while stucco has been discussed thus far, the same problems, though they may be addressed slightly differently in each case, apply to exterior siding, brick, stone, and other treatments applied to the exterior. One solution is to additionally provide a metal or polymeric resin flashing to problem areas, with a similar object as is done in roofing, to provide for water management around the problem areas and to minimize intrusion of water by directing it over or around such problem areas. Usually such a flashing, when provided, is applied above the opening, the object being to direct water out and around or over the opening without entering it. One difficulty with the prior solutions is that water can sometimes seep back under conventional flashing, especially where no sealant is provided between the flashing and the window, or a provided sealant has de-laminated due to age and hot/cold temperature cycling, for example. Often wind or lawn sprinkler jets can drive water up under flashing of conventional configuration. The result can include the above-referenced recognized problems resulting from water intrusion.

[0010] Another problem area is the interface between the chimney and its covering structure. Usually a chimney-bonnet structure is used over the top of the chimney. However, conventionally in stucco construction a metal chimney-bonnet is made oversized, and does not always prevent moisture from seeping into or being driven into gaps between the chimney and bonnet structure. Such water entering the gaps can result in the above-referenced recognized problems in the frame and otherwise within the structure of the chimney.

[0011] Another problem area is the interface between an exterior treatment covering a building frame and a cement foundation. Here, water from roof runoff splashing up and against the structure, from melting snow, from ponding water if adequate drainage around the structure is not provided, etc. can work through porous materials, unsealed material interfaces, and cracks that can open with time, and can seep into the framed walls and/or the basement or first floor of the structure (especially with slab on grade construction in the latter case). Therefore, providing for water management at the structure/foundation interface is also critical.

[0012] Likewise, at the eaves of a structure, water management has also been recognized as very important. If water can get behind the exterior wall treatment at the top, such as at the eaves, then it can damage the whole wall structure, top to bottom. Likewise, at a junction of two exterior treatments water can sometimes seep into cracks and joints. For example, the situation mentioned above where brick may transition to stucco at some point up a wall, water management at the joint is problematic, and is as critical as that around openings, if for no other reason that there may be a great length of such a joint, even extending completely around a structure, providing increased opportunity for a crack to open, etc. and allow seepage of water into the structure.

[0013] Current best practice is using window drip flashing along the top of the brick, and laying up the stucco over this. However water can still get behind this arrangement and into the structure, especially in the cases of melting snow and wind-driven rain or sleet.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0014] It has been recognized that further improvement in water management at critical areas such as those mentioned above will yield benefits of lower incidence of harmful mold spores, dry rot and other structural damage; decreased incidence of interior water damage such as unsightly stains, etc. Further, cost savings to constructors, who will have fewer costly repairs to new construction, and to homeowners, who will have less costly repairs after a builder s warranties have expired, will be realized by more reliably excluding water from the structure.

[0015] The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus of forming and installing a flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure. The flashing-integrated window frame includes a window frame and a drip flange. The window frame includes a front and a periphery and the drip flange is configured to extend from a bottom portion of the window frame. The drip flange includes a downward extension configured to extend from the bottom portion of the window frame and an outward extension extending from the downward extension. With this arrangement, the drip flange is configured to substantially direct moisture away from the building structure.

[0016] In one aspect of the invention, the flashing-integrated window frame can include a sealing flange having a face surface and a back surface. The sealing flange can be formed and configured to extend from the window frame a distance from the periphery of the window frame to provide an effective moisture barrier and the back surface is configured to be positioned against a wall of the building structure.

[0017] In another aspect of the invention, the drip flange can be formed and configured to extend from the front of the bottom portion of the window frame. The drip flange can also be formed and configured to extend from a peripheral underside portion of the periphery of the bottom portion of the window frame.

[0018] In another aspect of the invention, the drip flange can be formed and configured to be seamless with the window frame so as to be a unitary structure with the window frame. The drip flange also can be formed and configured to be both attachable and removable with respect to the window frame.

[0019] In still another aspect of the invention, the outward extension of the drip flange can include an oblique deflection angle with respect to the downward extension of between approximately fifteen degrees and forty-five degrees.

[0020] Another aspect of the invention provides that an end of the drip flange can include a rounded lip. The drip flange also can include a folded-back portion wrapped around an under-side portion of the drip flange. Such a folded-back portion can be formed and configured to include an extension extending from the folded-back portion configured to extend substantially vertically downward therefrom.

[0021] In still another aspect of the invention, the sealing flange extends outward from an entire periphery of the window frame. The sealing flange can extend from the periphery of the window frame at least four inches.

[0022] In another aspect of the invention, the sealing flange is configured to be formed integrally with the periphery of the window frame. The sealing flange can also be formed and configured to be attachable with respect to the window frame.

[0023] In still another aspect of the invention, the drip flange can be formed from a polymeric resin. Further, the flashing-integrated window frame can be formed from a metallic material, a polymeric material, or both.

[0024] In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a flashing-integrated window frame configured to reduce moisture intrusion in a building structure. The flashing-integrated window frame includes a window frame having a front and a periphery, wherein the periphery is configured to extend through an exterior treatment of the building structure. The flashing-integrated window frame also includes a moisture-directing means for directing moisture away from the exterior treatment below said window frame. Such a moisture-directing means includes a downward extension extending from a bottom portion of the window frame and an outward extension extending from the downward extension.

[0025] The present invention can also be directed to a method of installing the flashing-integrated window frame in an opening defined in a wall of a building structure. In the method, the flashing-integrated window frame is provided, the flashing-integrated window frame configured to include a window frame and a drip flange. The drip flange is configured to be positioned along a bottom portion of the window frame and is configured to include a downward extension configured to extend from the bottom portion of the window frame and an outward extension extending from the downward extension. The window frame is inserted in the opening of the building structure so that the drip flange is positionable to extend downwardly and outwardly from the bottom portion of the window frame to direct moisture away from the building structure.

[0026] In one aspect of the method, the flashing-integrated window frame can provide a sealing flange configured to extend from a periphery of the window frame a distance to provide an effective moisture barrier. The window frame can be positioned in the opening, after which, the sealing flange can be positioned to extend over a nailing flange of the window frame and the wall of the building structure. With this arrangement, the drip flange can be positioned on the window frame subsequently or before the window frame is positioned in the opening.

[0027] In one embodiment, the window frame can be positioned in the opening with the sealing flange and the drip edge therewith so that the sealing flange overlies and abuts the wall of the building structure. In another embodiment, the sealing flange is preliminarily attached to a periphery of the window frame so that the sealing flange is positioned against the wall of the building structure. The drip flange can also be preliminarily attached to the bottom portion of the window frame prior to inserting the flashing-integrated window frame.

[0028] In another embodiment, the flashing-integrated window frame can be inserted in the opening of the building structure with the sealing flange attached thereto so that said sealing flange overlies and abuts the face surface of the building structure, after which, the drip flange can be attached to the bottom portion of the window frame with the window frame already inserted in the building structure.

[0029] In still another embodiment, the sealing flange can be positioned on the wall proximate the periphery of the opening of the building structure, after which, the window frame can be inserted in the opening to abut with the sealing flange. Once the window frame and sealing flange are properly positioned and attached, the drip flange can be attached to the bottom portion of the window frame.

[0030] Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art through consideration of the ensuing description, the accompanying drawings, and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0031]FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view, partially in cut-away, of a water management system in one embodiment of the invention, and adapted for a window, or doorframe, or other through-wall feature, a window being shown by way of example;

[0032]FIG. 2 is a perspective view partially in section taken along line 2-2 in FIG. 1, and partially in cut-away, of a bottom flashing element of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 illustrating features thereof in greater detail;

[0033]FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view, taken along line 3-3 in FIG. 1, of a portion of the flashing system installed below the window of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, an exterior finish below the window being shown in outline, and omitting representation of a sealant which can be located between the lower flashing element and the bottom of the window frame, and which would be pressed very thin and present as a line in this cross section view;

[0034]FIG. 3(a) is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a portion of the flashing system installed below the window of the embodiment shown in FIG. 3 with an exterior finish below the window and extending beyond a front portion of the window shown in outline;

[0035]FIG. 3(b) is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a portion of the flashing system installed below the window of the embodiment shown in FIG. 3 with an exterior finish below the window and extending beyond a front portion of the window shown in outline;

[0036]FIG. 4 is a perspective view, partially in cut-away, partially in section taken along line 4-4 through any one of the two sides and one top flashing pieces in FIG. 1;

[0037]FIG. 5 is an enlarged view, taken at line 5-5 in FIG. 4, of a portion of that view showing further details;

[0038]FIG. 5a is an enlarged view taken along line 5-5 in FIG. 4, of a portion of that view in the another embodiment where the flashing does not come around the side of the window frame and across a portion of the front of the window frame, as in FIG. 5, but rather folds back upon its self along the side portion of the window frame extending out from the wall;

[0039]FIG. 5b is an enlarged view, taken along line 5-5 in FIG. 4 in another embodiment, similar to that of FIG. 5a but wherein a sealing flange terminates in a free end of a flange which is configured to lay along side a side portion of the window frame extending out from the wall;

[0040]FIG. 6 is an enlarged view, taken at line 6-6 in FIG. 1, of a portion of the top flashing piece showing further detail and possible additional embodiments in outline;

[0041]FIG. 7 is a perspective view of another embodiment integral in a window frame unit, wherein the flashing is combined with the nail flange, and the drip flange is integrally connected to the bottom of the outer bottom of the window by molding or welding in a unitary construction or by attachment by adhesive or fasteners;

[0042]FIG. 7(a) is a perspective view of another embodiment depicting a sealing flange being positioned, in outline, around a window frame having a drip flange positionable at a bottom portion thereof, the window frame previously inserted and positioned in an opening in the wall of the building structure;

[0043]FIG. 8 is an enlarged view, taken along line 8-8 in FIG. 7 of a bottom portion of the window frame of FIG. 7 showing additional details;

[0044]FIG. 8(a) is a partial cross-sectional view of a bottom portion of the window frame, depicting the drip flange being attached to the window frame with an adhesive;

[0045]FIG. 8(b) is a partial cross-sectional view of the bottom portion of the window frame, depicting the drip flange attached to the window frame with a channel and protrusion arrangement;

[0046]FIG. 8(c) is a partial cross-sectional view of the bottom portion of the window frame, depicting the drip flange attached to a bottom peripheral portion of the window frame with the channel and protrusion arrangement;

[0047]FIG. 9 is a similar view as that of FIG. 8 of another embodiment wherein the drip flange is positioned back from the front of the window under the bottom, rather than flush with the front face of the frame;

[0048]FIG. 10 is an exploded perspective view, partially in cut-away of another embodiment of the invention, additional variations being shown in outline, e.g. whether molded or folded, in the later case having seams shown in outline;

[0049]FIG. 11 is a perspective exploded view of another embodiment of the invention similar to that shown in FIG. 10 showing one example of a cut and folded metal construction with additional pieces to be soldered, welded or otherwise sealingly attached, shown before (left side), and after (right side), attachment;

[0050]FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view, taken along line 12-12 in FIG. 13, of another embodiment illustrating adaptation for use with certain exterior surface treatments, for example stonework, such as water management in a stonework to stucco interface;

[0051]FIG. 12(a) is a cross-sectional view of a flashing member in another embodiment illustrating an application of the flashing member disposed between two exterior treatments, for example, brick work and a stucco interface;

[0052]FIG. 12(b) is a simplified side view of the flashing member illustrated in FIG. 12(a);

[0053]FIG. 12(c) is a cross-sectional view of a flashing member disposed between two exterior treatments in still another embodiment illustrating the flashing member having a j-channel portion configured to receive one of the exterior treatments;

[0054]FIG. 12(d) is a simplified side view of the flashing member illustrated in FIG. 12(c);

[0055]FIG. 12(e) is a simplified side view of a flashing member configured to be disposed between two exterior treatments in another embodiment illustrating the flashing member having a j-channel portion configured to receive one of the exterior treatments;

[0056]FIG. 13 is a perspective view, partially in section, partially in cut-away, illustrating an application of the flashing embodiment shown in FIG. 12;

[0057]FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view, taken along line 14-14 in FIG. 15, illustrating adaptation for use with certain exterior surface treatments, for example brick work, such as water management in a brick work to stucco interface;

[0058]FIG. 15 is a perspective view, partially in section, partially in cut-away, illustrating an application of the flashing embodiment shown in FIG. 14;

[0059]FIG. 16 is a perspective view, partially in section, partially in cut-away, of another embodiment illustration of adaptation for use with a sloped top portion of certain exterior surface treatments, such as eliminating the need for fair raking in brick work, and how it can be integrated into a flashing system for transition to stucco or another exterior treatment, or directly with flashing around a roof at the eaves, gable(s), a pediment, etc.;

[0060]FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment configured for water management at a structure wall/foundation interface incorporated in a structure having a brick exterior there;

[0061]FIG. 18 is an enlarged cross-sectional view, taken in the area of line 18-18 in FIG. 17;

[0062]FIG. 18(a) is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a flashing member having a j-channel portion configured for water management at a wall/foundation interface incorporated for a stucco exterior treatment;

[0063]FIG. 18(b) is a simplified side view of another embodiment of the flashing member having the j-channel portion configured for water management at a wall/foundation interface incorporated for a stucco exterior treatment;

[0064]FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment configured for water management at a structure wall/foundation interface incorporated in a structure having a stucco exterior there;

[0065]FIG. 20 is an enlarged cross-sectional view, taken in the area of line 20-20 in FIG. 19;

[0066]FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional view, taken along line 21-21 in FIG. 22 of an embodiment configured for water management at a structure wall/roof eaves interface incorporated in a structure, the sheathing and roof truss of which is shown only in outline for relative position;

[0067]FIG. 22 is a perspective view, partially in section, partially in cut-away, illustrating incorporation of the flashing shown in FIG. 21 in a roof cave, configured to both allow airflow and protect the structure from water intrusion at a top portion of the exterior wall;

[0068]FIG. 23 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a flashing member having an upper portion and a lower portion configured for water management at a wall/roof structure interface of a building structure;

[0069] FIGS. 23(a) through 23(i) are cross-sectional views of other flashing member configurations similar to FIG. 23, the flashing member configurations each having an upper portion and a lower portion configured for water management at a wall/roof structure interface of a building structure;

[0070]FIG. 24 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a flashing member interconnected to vents at an cave portion of a building structure and positioned intermediate the roof structure and an upper portion of a wall;

[0071]FIG. 25 is a cross-sectional view of a flashing member of another embodiment to that depicted in FIGS. 19 and 20, configured for water management at a structure wall/foundation interface incorporated in a structure having a stucco exterior treatment;

[0072]FIG. 26 is a perspective view the flashing member depicted in FIG. 25, illustrating a unitary flashing member including j-channel flashing, an extension member with a drip flange with an alternative downward extension shown in outline;

[0073]FIG. 27 is a perspective view of alternative configurations A through H of the flashing member depicted in FIGS. 25 and 26, each of which include a j-channel flashing, an extension member and a drip flange;

[0074]FIG. 28 is a perspective exploded view of a flashing system for a door frame, illustrating a door frame having brick molding formed therearound, flashing pieces formed to abut the brick molding and mold flashing configured to cover the brick molding and a portion of the flashing pieces;

[0075]FIG. 29 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 29-29 in FIG. 28 of the mold flashing prior to being inserted over the molding and a portion of the flashing piece;

[0076]FIG. 29(a) is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the mold flashing depicted in FIGS. 28 and 29, illustrating a mold flashing configured to abut with a side flashing piece positioned on an inside surface of a door frame;

[0077]FIG. 29(b) is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the mold flashing depicted in FIGS. 28 and 29, illustrating a mold flashing incorporated with a side flashing piece as a unitary structure, the side flashing piece configured to be positioned on an inside surface of the door frame;

[0078]FIG. 29(c) is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the mold flashing depicted in FIGS. 28 and 29, illustrating a mold flashing incorporating a side flashing piece and wall flashing portion in a one-piece-structure;

[0079]FIG. 30 is a perspective exploded view of a flashing system for a door frame, illustrating mold flashing formed and configured to fit over existing brick molding around an already existing door frame;

[0080]FIG. 31 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 31-31 in FIG. 30 of the mold flashing prior to being inserted over the existing brick molding;

[0081]FIG. 32 is a cross-sectional view of a flashing system incorporated with a utility structure having a cylindrical-shaped extension from a building structure;

[0082]FIG. 33 is a front view of a flashing member with a circular-shaped opening, depicting cut-out lines and fold lines to form flange pieces in the flashing member;

[0083]FIG. 34 is a perspective exploded view of the flashing system and a utility structure, depicting the flashing member disposed around the utility structure and a cone flashing configured to be disposed over the flashing member and utility structure;

[0084]FIG. 35 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a flashing system incorporated with a utility structure having a rectangular-shaped extension from a building structure;

[0085]FIG. 36 is a front view of a main flashing member with a rectangular-shaped opening, depicting cut-out lines and fold lines to form flange pieces in the main flashing member;

[0086]FIG. 37 is a perspective exploded view of the flashing system having a main flashing member and an outer flashing member with a drip flange depicted to correspondingly and respectively fit over a rectangular-shaped utility structure;

[0087]FIG. 38 is a perspective exploded view of a flashing system composed of flashing members, a chimney-bonnet and a chimney, depicting by out-line the flashing members insertable between the chimney and the chimney-bonnet; and

[0088]FIG. 39 is a perspective view of the chimney having the flashing system assembled with the chimney-bonnet.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0089] For the purposes of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the exemplary embodiments illustrated in the drawings, and specific language will be used to describe the same. It will nevertheless be understood that no limitation of the scope of the invention is thereby intended.

[0090] With reference to FIG. 1 of the drawing figures, which are given by way of example, and not by way of limitation, a flashing system 10 in one embodiment comprises metal or plastic flashing pieces 12, 13, 14, 15 which cooperate to form a water-tight seal around a window 16 in a wall structure 18. Taking as an example the case of a stucco exterior treatment, though the invention can be applicable to other exterior treatments, such as stone, siding, brick, etc., frame members 19, 21, cooperate with exterior sheathing 20, such as exterior grade medium density fiberboard, ply-board or the like to form a wall structure. The wall defines an opening which receives the window 16. This is usually before, but can be after, an exterior waterproofing layer i.e. moisture barrier (sometimes called “vapor barrier”) 22 is applied to the sheathing, as shown in FIG. 3. The waterproof layer can be, for example, a bituman-impregnated felt, i.e. “tar paper”, TYVEK® or a suitable substitute, and is generally applied by nailing or stapling it to the sheathing. A nailing flange 24 of the window can be inside or outside the paper 22, though even when the window is installed after the moisture barrier is applied to the wall the barrier membrane is usually brought out over the nailing flange, at least on top of the window. In either case, the bottom nailing flange should go over the moisture barrier if best practice is followed, so as to better shed water.

[0091] The system in the illustrated embodiment is installed by first installing a bottom flashing member 12 underneath the bottom of the window. As will be appreciated with respect to FIGS. 2 and 3, this is to provide a seal below the window. This can be by virtue of a seal between the bottom piece 12 and the window, and between a downwardly extending flashing portion 26, and the moisture barrier. The bottom flashing member is also configured to direct water coming off the bottom of the window, for example from weep holes 28, and otherwise off the window, downwardly and outwardly by virtue of a drip flange 30 which in the illustrated embodiment extends downwardly for some length, usually from zero to about 1″, for example about ½″, and outwardly at an oblique deflection angle, for example an angle of about thirty degrees. This inclined portion can extend from zero to about ¾″. This guides water 32 so that it drips down and away from the front face of the exterior treatment 34 (in this case stucco) and does not immediately contact it. Although the water may drip down free of the wall, or may be blown back into the wall by wind lower down in its fall, at least it is not a more concentrated stream of water running off the window immediately below it as would otherwise be the case. This drip flange 30 acts to protect the stucco beneath the window 16 from discoloration or deterioration due to excessive water exposure and attendant biological growth. As is well known, stucco is not entirely water-tight, and water can more readily seep back underneath the window were it not for the bottom piece 12 thus configured.

[0092] As can be seen, “wing” portions 35 of the bottom piece 12 extend outwardly beyond the sides of the window for some distance 36, commensurate with the depth of the flashing portion 26. Typically, this distance will be between about 3 or 4 inches and about 16 inches. This outwardly extending wing portion 35 is present on both sides of the bottom piece 12 below the window.

[0093] A bead of sealant (not shown) can be applied to the top of the bottom piece 12 or the bottom of the window before installing the bottom piece. This can be flattened and provide a continuous seal by pushing up the flashing piece against the bottom of the window. In another embodiment, an adhesive foam strip can be provided along a top portion 37 of the flashing piece. This foam sealing strip can provide a seal by virtue of a restoring force of the foam causing it to fill the space when the bottom piece 12 is pushed up against the window. An adhesive foam laminate, or another suitable sealing strip with suitable adhesive, can be used to stick to both the flashing and the window in another embodiment. In one example, an adhesive foam tape strip can be applied to the top of the flashing, leaving a peel-back paper backing over the side of the tape that will stick to the bottom of the window until just before installation.

[0094] Furthermore, when the bottom piece 12, is cut, tabs 38 remain. The tabs 38 can be folded up around the bottom outer portion of the window 16. While these tabs are optional, there is little incremental cost to providing them as the metal would otherwise need to be removed in any event. In one embodiment, a seal, such as a bead of sealant or the adhesive foam strip described above, can be provided on these tabs also. The tabs 38 can provide additional interlocking and water resistance around the corner regions formed by flashing pieces 12, 13, 14 and 15.

[0095] In one embodiment, the flashing piece 12 is attached by staples or other fasteners directly through the flashing piece 12. In another embodiment, a laminate sealing strip 40 of a polymeric sheet and bituminous sealant, as mentioned above, is applied over a portion of the flashing piece 12 and then staples or other fasteners are driven through the laminate and the flashing and the paper 22, into the sheathing 20. This way, the sealant of the laminate is drawn in to seal the staple holes made in the flashing piece 12.

[0096] Next, two side flashing pieces, 13, 14 are set up against the sides of the window 16. These pieces, as can more clearly be seen with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5, cooperate with the window 16 to provide a water-tight seal around the window 16. A sealing flange 45, extends outward at a right angle against a side of the frame across the window 16 from the flashing portion 26. The sealing flange can double back on itself behind to provide a smooth edge 44 and increased strength. In one embodiment a foam seal strip 46 can be provided. The foam seal can be for example, a foam tape with adhesive on both sides which adheres to a turned back portion 48 of the sealing flange 45, and also to a side portion 51 of the window 16. In another embodiment a bead of sealant 47 can be used between the sealing flange 45 and the window frame. In another embodiment, the sealing flange extends around the front periphery 50 of the window frame, and a flange 42 extends inwardly 45 at a right angle to the sealing flange, over an outer periphery of the window frame. The doubled-back portion 48 mentioned can be provided on the portion of the sealing flange adjacent the front of the window, rather than on the side of the window. Again the folded back portion provides a finished edge.

[0097] These side pieces also have portions of the outwardly extending flashing portion 26 which extend above and below the window, which for convenient reference will also be called wing portions 35. These overlap the similar wing portions 35 of the bottom sealing flange member 12, which has previously been attached. They also extend above the window 16 a distance 52 less than or equal to the width of a top flashing piece 15, to be discussed. As will be appreciated, that dimension, 52, can be the same, greater, or lesser, than the width 36 of the side pieces 13 and 14. Also, the width 52 can be the same as, or different than, the distance 36 of the side members 13 or 14, and can be the same lesser or greater than a thickness 52 of the bottom member 12. As will be appreciated, in the illustrated embodiment these dimensions are the same and the pieces overlap by the same amount, however, such dimensions are not so limited. The important consideration is that they are configured so that they shed water; that is to say, that the top flashing number extends over top the side pieces, which extend overtop the bottom flashing.

[0098] As discussed before in connection with the bottom piece 12, the sealing flanges can have folding tab portions 38, which fold under and over the outwardly extending portion of the window 16 and cooperate with the other flashing members to provide a more water-tight seal. As will be appreciated, the bottom tab portions 38 on the side flashing pieces 13 and 14 will fold under the window and also behind the drip flange 30, up against a bottom inner portion (54 in FIG. 3) of the bottom flashing member 12.

[0099] As discussed before, the flashing pieces 13, 14 are attached by staples, or other fasteners. Laminate sealing strips 56 can also be used, as described above.

[0100] Completing the flashing of the window, the top flashing piece 15 is fit over the top of the window 16, and wing portions 35 of this top piece overlap the upwardly extending wing portions of the side pieces 13 and 14. The sealing flange 42 of the top piece extends out over the outwardly extending portion of the window, and contacts the top side of the window in a sealing engagement. As before discussed, a bead of sealant or an adhesive foam sealing strip can be provided to improve the water-tightness of the seal between the top flange member and the window. In another embodiment the sealing flange turns and extends downward over a front face 50 of the window in a sealing engagement, as before described with reference to the side pieces 13 and 14. The top piece can be further appreciated with reference to FIG. 6, where different, other embodiments are shown in outline form. In one embodiment the sealing flange 42 extends over the front of the window and is trimmed back at an angle 58 which can be for example forty-five degrees. Likewise, the tab portion 38, which folds down, (if provided) can be cut back by an angle 60 from the front, to hide the front edge under stucco (not shown) to be applied. For example, this angle 60 can be between about five and fifteen degrees in the illustrated embodiment. In another embodiment the tab 38 can be brought downward commensurate with a front portion of the sealing flange 42 and then cut back at another angle 62, for example forty-five degrees. In another embodiment the top can be dressed by cutting back the tab at an angle 64 from a top front corner 66. For example, that angle can be forty-five degrees.

[0101] A further sealing laminate strip 68 can be applied over the top flashing piece 15 to seal any holes made by staples 70 or other fasteners driven through the flashing, as described above.

[0102] As will be appreciated, a sealing flange 45 alone extending from flashing pieces 13, 14 and 15 can be provided without the inwardly extending sealing flange portion 42 (shown in outline). The sealing flange still acts to provide a sealing engagement with a side portion extending inward from the front face 50 of the window. Also, in this embodiment, tabs 38 (shown in outline) may, or may not, be employed in attaching the flashing pieces 12, 13, 14 and 15.

[0103] Turning to FIG. 3(a), another embodiment of the bottom flashing piece 560 is illustrated in a side view in relation to the window 16 and exterior treatment 34. This embodiment provides bottom flashing piece 560 in the case of the exterior treatment 34 extending outward beyond the front portion 50 of the window 16. The bottom flashing piece 560 can include a sealing portion 562, a flashing portion 564 and a drip flange 566. The sealing portion 562 is configured to abut with a bottom portion of the window 16 while the flashing portion 564 is configured to lay against the wall below the window 16. The flashing member in embodiment is similar to the bottom flashing piece depicted in FIG. 3, except this bottom flashing piece extends beyond the front portion 50 of the window 16 to accommodate an exterior treatment 34 also extending beyond the front portion 50 of the window 16.

[0104] Depending on the exterior treatment 34 placed under the bottom flashing piece, the sealing portion 562 can extend outwardly as needed to cover the top of the treatment. The drip flange 566 is formed and configured to extend outwardly and downward from an end of the sealing flange, configured to direct water 32 from the window 16 and away from the exterior treatment 34. The drip flange 566 can include a folded back portion 568 and a rounded lip at an end thereof. The folded-back portion 568 can provide a finished edge and added strength to the drip flange 566 as such drip flange is exposed to view and to potential knocks and bumps thereto. The portion of the sealing flange 562 extending outward beyond the window frame can be given a slight downward inclination to better shed water.

[0105]FIG. 3(b) depicts another embodiment of a bottom flashing piece 570 in relation to an exterior treatment 34 that extends beyond a front portion 50 of a window 16. The bottom flashing piece is similar to bottom flashing piece 560 (FIG. 3(a)), except bottom flashing piece 570 includes front portion 576 extending between the sealing flange 572 and the drip flange 578. The front portion 576 is formed so as to be substantially perpendicular with respect to the sealing flange 572 and extend in a plane substantially parallel with the flashing portion 574. As in the previous embodiment, the sealing flange 572 is configured to abut a bottom portion of the window 16 and the flashing portion 574 is configured to abut with a moisture barrier 22 and the exterior sheathing 20 on a wall of the building structure. The exterior treatment 34 is applied under the bottom flashing piece 570 with the front portion 576 and the drip flange 578 extending over a top portion of the exterior treatment 34. The drip flange 548 is formed and configured to extend outwardly and downward from the front portion 576 with a folded back portion 549 at an end thereof. With this arrangement, moisture 32 is directed from the window 16 partially over an exposed portion of the sealing flange, over the front portion 576 and drip flange 578 and away from the exterior treatment 34.

[0106] With reference now to FIG s. 7, 8 and 9, in other embodiments, the invention can be implemented by incorporating salient features directly in the window 72. For example, this can be done by molding the features in a window frame formed of a polymeric resin. The sealing flashing described above can be provided by extending a nailing flange outward to form a sealing flange 74 around the outer periphery of the window. For example, this flange could extend farther, for example 6″ rather than the 1″ or 2″ nailing flange commonly provided. Again, the reason for extending this flange is to prevent water leaking back into the structure from the joint between the stucco and the window 72 at a forwardly extending portion 76 which comes outward through the exterior treatment. Again, for sake of convenience, we will discuss this embodiment in connection with a stucco exterior treatment, but as will be appreciated, the same is applicable to other exterior treatments such as the brick and siding mentioned. A bottom drip flange 78, again extending downwardly some distance from an ⅛″ to a {fraction (1/2)}″ to as much as ¾″, for example, and then outward at an oblique deflection angle 80 of between about fifteen and forty-five degrees (and in the illustrated example about thirty degrees) is provided. This drip flange portion can be molded unitary, or can be afterwards attached by heat welding, solvent welding, ultrasonic welding, or otherwise as is known in the art to join pieces of polymeric resin.

[0107] With reference particularly to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, in one embodiment the drip flange 78 can extend downwardly from an outward face 82 of the window, and in another embodiment the drip flange 78 a can be set back to depend downwardly from a bottom portion 84 of the frontwardly projecting portion 76 of the window 72. As will be appreciated, which of the embodiments (that of FIG. 8 or FIG. 9) is provided, depends on many factors, such as the exterior treatment to be used, the distance which the forwardly extending portion 76 extends outward from the sealing flange portion 74. In another example, the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 8 could be used with a stucco pop-out, whereas that of FIG. 9 could be used without a stucco pop-out.

[0108] With respect to FIG. 7(a), in another embodiment which incorporates salient features directly in a window 740, the window 740 includes a window frame 742 defining a face surface 744 and a periphery 746. The window frame can also include a drip flange 760 positionable at a bottom portion of the window frame 742. The window frame 742 can be inserted into an opening of a building structure and attached to a wall defining the opening by fastening the window frame to the wall through a nailing flange 748. With the window frame 742 positioned and attached to the wall, a sealing flange 750 can be positioned over and around the periphery 746 of the window frame 742. The sealing flange 750 can include a back surface 752 and a front surface 754 and defines a sealing flange opening 756 therethrough. The sealing flange 750 can be positioned so that window frame 742 extends through the sealing flange opening 756 (shown in outline) so that the back surface 752 partially abuts against the nailing flange 748 and partially the wall of the building structure. The sealing flange 750 extends outward from the periphery 746 of the window frame 742 a distance so as to provide an effective moisture barrier. It can be adhesively or otherwise fastened to the nailing flange and the wall of the building structure. A bead of sealant can be applied between the nailing flange and the sealing flange, which forms a moisture tight seal when the sealing flange is pressed against the nailing flange. Such an effective moisture barrier can extend anywhere from about three or four inches to about 16 inches, typically 6 to 9 inches. With this arrangement, an exterior treatment, such as stucco, can be placed over the wall and the sealing flange 750 to abut against the periphery 446 of the window frame 742.

[0109] The drip flange 760 can be unitary and seamlessly formed with the window frame 742. Also, the drip flange 760 can be configured to be attachable to the window frame 742 either prior to or subsequent to inserting the window frame 742 into the opening of the building structure. The drip flange 760 can also be configured to be removable from the window frame 742.

[0110] FIGS. 8(a) through 8(c) illustrate various examples of how an attachable drip flange 760 can be implemented. Turning first to FIG. 8(a), the drip flange can include a downward extension 762 and an outward extension 764. The downward extension 762 can be configured to extend downward from a bottom portion of the window frame 742 and the outward extension 764 can be configured to extend outward from an end of the downward extension 762. With the downward extension 762 and outward extension 764, the drip flange 760 configured to direct moisture away from the exterior treatment below the window frame 742. In this embodiment, the drip flange can be attached to the bottom portion of the window frame 742 with a suitable adhesive 766.

[0111] In another embodiment, FIG. 8(b) illustrates the drip flange 760 attachable to the bottom portion of the window frame 742 by a laterally sliding arrangement. In this arrangement, the bottom portion of the window frame 742 can include a channel 768 that corresponds with an elongate protrusion 770 extending from an end portion of the drip flange 760. The drip flange 760 can be positioned so that the elongate protrusion 770 sits adjacently to a side of the channel 768 to a position so that the drip flange 760 can be slid laterally therein. In an alternative method of attaching the elongate protrusion 770 can be engaged with the channel 768 by positioning the elongate protrusion 770 in front of the channel 768 and forced therein, wherein the drip flange 760 is attached to the bottom portion of the window frame 742 by an interference fit.

[0112] With respect to FIG. 8(c), the channel 768 can be formed in a bottom peripheral portion of the window frame 742. The drip flange 760 can then be attached to the bottom portion of the window frame 742, similar to that shown in FIG. 8(b), by laterally sliding the elongate protrusion 770 through the channel 768 or by forcing the elongate protrusion 770 into the channel 768 to be attached by an interference fit.

[0113] With reference now to FIG. 10, in another embodiment the water management system comprises a unitary flashing piece 90, which can be formed of polymeric resin, for example by a molding process. In this embodiment, the flashing piece is sized to fit over a window 92 previously attached to a wall 94. The unitary piece is substantially the same as the four-piece system, but is made specifically with the same dimensions as the window 92 to cooperate therewith to provide the same advantages for that window specifically. A sealing strip 96, for example the adhesive foam tape described above, or a bead of sealant, is attached to the inner surface 98 of the unitary flashing element 90, to provide the configuration described above in connection with the four-piece unit. The unitary flashing piece in this embodiment can be attached by fasteners, such as staples, as described above, and also in another embodiment a sealant strip can be used to seal the holes through a flashing portion 102, as described above.

[0114] In this embodiment also, a lower drip flange 104 is provided, substantially as described above. In the polymeric resin embodiment, the drip flange can be molded unitary with the rest of the unit, or can be added by heat welding, solvent welding, ultrasonic welding, etc, or can be attached on site as described above.

[0115] In another embodiment, the unitary flashing unit 106 illustrated in FIG. 11 is formed of a metal material. In the illustrated embodiment, the unit is formed by cutting out the center, and folding the bottom drip flange 108 and a top window enclosing flange 110 from the unitary sheet. Side portions 112, 114 are formed of separate folded metal pieces, which are pushed through the opening from behind, and welded, brazed, or are otherwise sealingly attached to the rest of the unitary sheet 106 at least along an attachment flange 116 provided on each metal piece. A portion 118 of the upper window and casing portion 110 is folded around behind the two side extension pieces 116 provided 112, 114, and is folded back on itself to interlock. This configuration provides a dressed appearance, similar to that which is provided by the embodiment using four-pieces described above, when completed.

[0116] With reference now to FIG s. 12 and 13, the problem of moisture control at an interface between two exterior treatments is addressed. In the case where the exterior treatment 119 includes stone work below, and stucco 130 above, a flashing 120 can be configured to direct moisture outward and over the lower exterior treatment 119, by means of a drip flange 122 similar to that described above. Water 124 is directed outward to fall away from the face of the stonework exterior treatment. In one embodiment, a portion 126 extends from a flashing portion 120 adjacent the (covered) face of the sheathing to a front portion 123 extending downward over the exterior treatment 119. The portion 126 is inclined at a slight angle 128 to lessen the tendency for water to pool there. A front portion 123 can extend over the exterior treatment a distance to facilitate an effective moisture barrier. Such a distance can extend between about ¼ inch to three inches, and for example, can be about % inches. The front portion is configured to be positioned against the face surface of the exterior treatment 119 to reduce moisture entering therebehind. Once the flashing 120 is positioned, a stucco 130 exterior treatment can be applied over the flashing portion 120; however, other exterior treatments can also be used, for example wood or metal horizontal siding, brick, board and batten siding, etc.

[0117] With reference now to FIG s. 14 and 15, in another embodiment a flashing strip 132 can be configured to fit over top another exterior treatment 134, such as a brick exterior treatment, at an upper edge. Again, this is to deflect water 136 outward and away from the exterior treatment 134. This illustrated embodiment, the drip flange 138 can further comprise a downwardly extending flange portion 140 which provides greater depth of the drip flange downward from the top of the exterior treatment 134. As will be appreciated, this feature can be deleted in another embodiment. A portion 142 of the flashing adjacent a top of the brick work can be inclined at a first smaller angle 143, while a second portion 144 is disposed at a second, steeper angle 145. Extending between the portion 142 and the drip flange 138, a front portion 137 can be provided and configured to be positioned against the face of the exterior treatment 134. Similar to the embodiment just previously described, the front portion 137 extends a distance to facilitate providing an effective moisture barrier so as to reduce moisture from entering therebehind. The inclined portions 144, 142 are provided to discourage water ponding within an exterior treatment, such as stucco 146, siding, etc.; and, rather, encourages water to run off.

[0118] Moreover, with both the embodiments illustrated in FIG s. 12 through 15, if a brick work, exterior treatment is used above the flashing, (and stonework below, for example) the sloping portions (126 in FIG. 12, 142 and 144 in FIG. 14) support a back edge (not shown) of a brick, and the widening gap, as it extends outward, will be filled with mortar, and is usually provided with weep holes. In any case, it has been found that the sloping configuration helps the bottom portion of a brick exterior treatment dry more quickly, as the water moves outwardly and downwardly along the inclined portion of the flashing 120, 132.

[0119] Referring to FIGS. 12(a) and 12(b), another embodiment, similar to that previously described in FIGS. 12 through 15, is illustrated. In particular, a flashing member 310 is sized and configured to be positioned between a first exterior treatment 304 and a second exterior treatment 306, wherein a top surface 305 of the first exterior treatment 304 is at an angle, such as an angled brick cap or brick sill course 308.

[0120] The flashing member 310 illustrated in FIGS. 12a, b is L-shaped having an upper portion 312 which can be positioned behind a moisture barrier 313 and a base portion 314. The base portion 314 can be substantially orthogonal with respect to the upper portion 312, or the base portion 314 can be sloped (not shown), such as the sloped portion 126 described in FIG. 12. Such base portion 314 can extend outward as far as needed, depending on the exterior treatment 304. The base portion 314 also can include a drip flange 316 extending outwardly downward from an end of the base portion 314. Such a drip flange 316 can include a folded back portion 318 wrapping around adjacent an under-side surface of the drip flange 316. Such a folded back portion 318 forms a rounded lip 324 providing a dressed edge at a tip of the drip flange 316, which meets the downward slope of the sill course 308.

[0121] With this arrangement, the flange member 310 is sized and configured to be disposed proximate the top surface 305 of the first exterior treatment 304. In particular, a back surface 322 of the upper portion 312 is configured to attach to the wall sheathing 302 so that a bottom surface 324 of the base portion 314 adjacently faces the top surface 305 of the first exterior treatment 304. Attaching of the flashing member 310 can be accomplished with a suitable adhesive and/or fasteners, or other suitable means. With the flashing member so attached and positioned, a second exterior treatment 306 may then be placed against the wall. The second exterior treatment 306 may include, but is not limited to, stucco, siding, stone work and/or brick work.

[0122] FIGS. 12(c) and 12(d) illustrate another embodiment of a flashing member 330, similar to that described in FIGS. 12(a) and 12(b), except in this embodiment, the flashing member 330 includes a j-channel portion 334. The flashing member 330 is configured to be positioned over a top surface 305 of a first exterior treatment 304, such as an angled brick cap or sill course 308. The flashing member 330 includes a back surface 344 configured to be positioned against a wall sheathing 302 and a moisture barrier 313 is positioned over an upper portion 332. The j-channel portion of the flashing member be u-shaped or v-shaped, or another shape suitable for disposition at a bottom portion of a second exterior treatment 306 (shown in outline), such as a stucco treatment.

[0123] The flashing member 330 also includes an upper rear j-channel portion 336, a drip flange 340 and a base portion 338, the base portion 338 being intermediate the upper rear j-channel portion 336 and the drip flange 340. The upper rear j-channel portion 336 extends up and rearward from the j-channel portion 334 and, more specifically, extends from the channel portion 334 through multiple bends in the flashing member 330 around the channel portion 334. The channel portion 334 can include multiple weep holes 335 extending through the channel portion 334. Such weep holes 335 allow moisture 346 from the second exterior treatment 306 to escape through the weep holes 335 toward the drip flange 340. Due to the series of bends around the channel portion 334, the weep holes 335 extend through two structural layers of the channel portion 334. With this arrangement, the upper rear j-channel portion 336 extends at least to a height of the channel portion 334 to catch moisture 346 that may wick upward between the upper j-channel portion 336 and the upper flashing portion 332 as moisture 346 flows through the weep holes 335. The j-channel portion 332 is sized and configured to receive a second exterior treatment, namely stucco.

[0124] The upper portion 332 extends to a height to provide an effective flashing to reduce ingress of moisture 346, and the base portion 338 and drip flange are configured to direct moisture 346 received though the weep holes 335 from the second exterior treatment away from a back portion of the first exterior treatment 304.

[0125] The drip flange 340 can include a folded-back portion 342 that wraps around an under side of the drip flange 340. The folded-back portion 342 provides a dressed edge and added strength to the flashing member 330 to better withstand potential knocks and blows to the flashing member 340, since such drip flange 320 will be exposed on the building structure. The flashing member 330 can be attached by adhesively attaching the back surface 344 to the wall and/or the flashing member 330 can be attached with fasteners 307 through the upper portion 332 of the flashing member 330.

[0126]FIG. 12(e) illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 350 having a j-channel portion 354, similar to that described in FIGS. 12(c) and 12(d). In this embodiment, the j-channel portion 352 includes a channel portion 354 for receiving the second exterior treatment 306. The flashing member 350 includes an upper portion 352 which doubles back from a top of the flashing to a base portion 358 below the j-channel portion 354. The base portion 358 is configured to extend laterally from a back portion 356 of the upper portion 352 and is configured to extend below the channel portion 354 to a drip flange 360. The drip flange 360 can be configured to extend outwardly downward with an incline and can include a folded-back portion 362 for added strength to the flashing member 350. In this manner, moisture 366 can be directed through weep holes 355 in the channel portion 354 and directed over the base portion 358 and drip flange 360, thereby allowing moisture 366 to escape from the second exterior treatment 306 and flow away from a back portion of the first exterior treatment 304.

[0127] With reference now to FIG. 16, in another embodiment, similar to that discussed above and illustrated in FIG s. 14 and 15, a flashing strip 150 is configured to fit over an inclined portion 152 of an upper portion of a brickwork exterior treatment 154. A drip flange 156 and downwardly depending portion 158 below that, are made wide enough to cover the stepping setbacks of the bricks of the exterior treatment 154, and can be, for example, up to 3″, or more, in total depth 160 from a sloping portion 162 which extends outward and downward from the sheathing 20 of the structure. This flashing 150 can be configured to form a set back area, and be exposed between the top of the brick 154 and the eaves 164, in which case the flashing will be exposed, or to provide a transition to stucco 166 extending between the brick work and structure above, such as the eaves 164. In the former case, the flashing is tucked behind a structure, such as an eave 168 covering a roof overhang. Such additional structure may be attached to the flashing 150 and the sheathing 20 in an overlapping portion 170, for example by staples, screws, nails, or other fasteners. Where stucco 166 is applied, the cave 168 can attach to the stucco in an overlapping portion 171.

[0128] Like the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 12 through 15, the configuration shown in FIG. 16 assures that water will be deflected outward and over, and away from behind the brick exterior treatment 154. It may be used to obtain architectural effects, for example it may fill an aesthetic function, as well as a practical one of keeping water out of a top portion of a wall of a structure.

[0129] With reference now to FIGS. 17 and 18, another problematic area, as mentioned, is the interface between a foundation 172, and an exterior treatment, for example brick work 174. A flashing 176 attached to the sheathing 20 of the structure extends underneath the brick work, and over top the foundation, to extend down the front of the foundation and is positioned against the foundation 172 over a distance 178 extending between approximately ¼ inch and 3 inches, for example, about ¾ inch. A drip flange 180 which can be folded back, as described above, is provided to direct water 182 out and over the outside of the foundation 172 which can be covered by a finish coating 184 for example. Such a coating 184 can extend to an underside of the drip flange 180, and which may abut with the drip flange 180 or leave a gap 181 therebetween. The flashing member is positioned underneath a moisture barrier 183 in the illustrated embodiment.

[0130] The flashing can be provided with a sloping portion 186 extending between the sheathing 20 and outside front corner 188 of the foundation. If a brick exterior treatment is to be supported, a grout 190 is laid down on top of the foundation before the flashing is applied, to provide support for the weight of the exterior brick work when the grout has set up. When the brickwork 174 is placed on top of the flashing 176, mortar 192 fills the outward widening space between a back bottom corner 194 of the bottom course of bricks, and the front of the exterior. Again, this provides a sloping surface to direct water outward and away from the bottom of the brick exterior treatment. As will be appreciated, weep holes are periodically provided in the bottom of brickwork, and this sloping surface will provide a sloping weep hole as well.

[0131] Similar to the flashing utilized in FIGS. 17 and 18, FIG. 18(a) illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 375 incorporating a j-channel portion 377 configured to receive an exterior treatment 374 (shown in outline), such as a stucco exterior treatment. In this embodiment, the flashing member 375 can include an upper portion 376 having at its base a channel portion 377 with weep holes 378 defined therethrough. The flashing member 375 also can include a back portion 379, a base portion 380 and a front portion 381, wherein the base portion 380 extends between the back portion 379 and the front portion 381. The back portion 379 is formed to extend from a series of bends around the channel portion 377. The back portion 379 extends upward behind the j-channel portion 377 at least a height of the channel portion 377. The base portion 380 extends laterally from an end of the back portion 379 below the channel portion 377 and is configured to extend along a top surface 372 of the foundation 371. The base portion 380 can include, but is not so limited, a downward slope toward the front portion 381 of the flashing member 375. The front portion 381 extends downward and is configured to be positioned against the face surface 373 of the foundation 371. Such a front portion 381 is configured to extend a distance 382 to facilitate provision of an effective barrier to water getting up under and behind the flashing. Such effective moisture barrier can extend the distance 382 so as to reduce the likelihood of moisture 386 penetrating upward behind the front portion 381 and onto the top surface 372 of the foundation 371. The effective moisture barrier can also extend a distance 382 so that a sealant, such as silicone, bitumen, or other caulking, can be applied between the front portion 381 and the face surface 373 of the foundation 371. The distance 382 can range from approximately a ¼ inch to 3 inches, or more, for example, ¾ inch.

[0132] The front portion 381 can include a drip flange 383 configured to extend outwardly downward from an end of the front portion 381. The drip flange 383 can include a folded-back portion 384 for added strength. The drip flange 383 can also include a downward extension 385 (shown in outline), which can extend a distance configured to provide the effective moisture barrier so as to prevent moisture from entering therebehind.

[0133] In one embodiment, the effective moisture barrier can extend a distance so as to facilitate providing a sealant between an end of the downward extension 385 and the face surface 373 of the foundation 371. In this embodiment, in order to facilitate moisture to more freely escape from behind the flashing, weep holes can be provided through the folded-back portion 384 of the drip flange 383.

[0134] With this arrangement, the flashing member 375 is sized and configured to be positioned over the foundation 371 and against the wall 370 so that a back surface of the flashing upper portion 376 and the back portion 379 of the flashing member 375 are positioned against the wall 370, the base portion 380 is positioned over the top surface 372 of the foundation, and the front portion 381 is positioned against the face surface 373 of the foundation to provide the effective moisture barrier described above.

[0135] The flashing member 375 can then be attached by adhesively attaching it to the wall 370 and/or fastening it to the wall 370 with staples, screws or other suitable fasteners. The exterior treatment 374, such as a stucco treatment, can then be applied over the wall 370 so that a bottom portion of the exterior treatment 374 is disposed in the channel portion 377 of the flashing member 375. In this manner, moisture 386 can escape from the bottom portion of the exterior treatment 374 through the weep holes 378 in the channel portion 377 and then be directed away from the foundation 371 over the drip flange 383 of the flashing member 375. In addition, a coating (described in FIGS. 17 and 18) can be applied over the foundation 371 up to an underside of the drip flange 383.

[0136]FIG. 18(b) illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 390 including a j-channel portion 392. In this embodiment, a back portion 394 of the flashing member 390 extends from a top end of an upper front portion 391. The j-channel portion includes weep holes 393 defined therethrough. A base portion 395 extends laterally from a lower end of the back portion 394 and extends below the channel portion 392 to a front portion 396. The front portion 396 extends downward from the base portion 395 and is configured to be positioned against the foundation. The front portion 396 can include a drip flange 397 at a bottom end thereof. The drip flange 397 can include a folded-back portion 398, and it can include a downward extension 399 (shown in outline) configured to extend substantially vertically downward in the same plane as the front portion 396. These features provide the same or similar functions as described above in conjunction with the embodiment just before described. A sealant can be applied between the front portion and/or its downward extension and the foundation.

[0137] With reference now to FIG s. 19 and 20, in another embodiment, a flashing can be configured to perform a similar function at an interface between a foundation 196 and a stucco exterior treatment 198 at the bottom portion of an exterior wall 200. In this case, a flashing 202 extends over the lower portion of the exterior sheathing 20, and then deflects back and under the exterior sheathing to form a foundation contacting portion 204 contacting the foundation wall. In one embodiment, the foundation contacting portion 204 extends downward a distance between ¼ inch to two inches, and for example, approximately ½ inch. A bead of sealant can be provided between the flashing and the foundation at the time of installing the flashing to provide a seal at the foundation contacting portion. The flashing 202 can also include a drip flange 206 extending outwardly downward from an end of the foundation contacting portion 204 to direct water 208 outwardly and over an exterior finish coating 210 applied to the foundation 196. The drip flange 206 can include a folded-back portion 212 folded around an underside of the drip flange 206 for added strength to the drip flange 206. As with other embodiments, the exterior finish coating 210 below the drip flange 206 can be pushed up under it, to reduce moisture ingress. A gap between the finish coat and the drip flange can be provided. This allows moisture that may be trapped therebehind to escape.

[0138] A j-channel flashing is attached to the flashing 202 in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 20. The j-channel 214 is provided with weep holes 216 to accommodate moisture 218 escaping from the bottom of the stucco exterior treatment 198.

[0139] With the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 17 and 18a,b, as well as that of 19 and 20, the height of the flashing, or how far it goes up the exterior wall sheathing 20 of the structure, depends on conditions in a particular application. For example, it can extend up a first height 220 in either case, for example about 6″, or 8″, or so. Or, if snow is expected to lay against the structure, or frequent floods are expected, a taller flange extending up to a second height 222, for example 18″, can be provided to keep moisture from entering the structure at the interface between the foundation (172 in FIG. 17, 196 in FIG. 19), and the structure.

[0140] Turning to FIGS. 25 and 26, in another embodiment of the invention a flashing member 400 having a unitary structure formed and configured to be positioned at a foundation 196 and a stucco exterior treatment 198 interface, provided. The flashing member 400 can include an upper portion 402 having a back surface 404 and an inside surface 406. The flashing is formed and configured to include a channel portion 408 adjacent a bottom portion of the upper portion 402. With this arrangement, the upper portion 402 is positioned and configured such that the channel portion 408 is configured to receive the stucco exterior treatment 198 and the back surface 404 abuts with exterior sheathing 20.

[0141] Typically a moisture barrier wrap 407 is placed over top the upper portion 404, or the upper portion is slid up under it (if the moisture barrier is placed on the structure beforehand). At periodic positions in a bottom surface of the channel portion 408, weep holes 409 can be provided to extend through the channel portion 408 to allow moisture 424 to escape from a bottom portion of the stucco exterior treatment 198. The flashing member 400 can be positioned and attached to the exterior sheathing 20 with fasteners, such as screws, nails or staples, or a suitable adhesive, or another suitable method of attaching the flashing member 400 to the building structure.

[0142] For added strength, and to further prevent moisture from seeping behind the flashing member 400, the flashing member doubles-back around the channel portion 408 to the back surface 404 of the upper portion 402, extending upward at least to a height of a top portion of the channel portion 408 as discussed above. The flashing member 400 then includes a bend that extends downward to form a flashing extension portion 410. Such a flashing extension includes a foundation contacting portion 414 with a back surface 412 configured to be positioned against a portion of the foundation 196. The foundation contacting portion 414 is positioned against and abuts with the foundation 196 along a distance 426. Such a distance abutting the surface of the foundation 196 is configured to facilitate providing an effective moisture barrier, so as to reduce moisture 424 entering upward behind the foundation contacting portion 414 of the flashing extension member 410. In the illustrated embodiment, the distance 426 can extend between approximately ¼ inch to 2 inches for example, and, for example, can be ½ inch.

[0143] The flashing member 400 can include a drip flange 416 which extends from a bottom end of the flashing extension 410. The drip flange 416 is formed and configured to extend outwardly downward from the flashing extension member 410. The drip flange 416 can be configured to include a lip 420 an end thereof so as to accommodate moisture 424 dripping off the end without wicking around to an under-side surface 418 of the drip flange 416. The drip flange 416 can also be formed and configured to include a folded back portion 421 which can wrap around the drip flange 416 to an under-side surface 418 thereof. In another embodiment, the folded back portion 421 can include a downward extension 422. The downward extension 422 can be formed and configured to extend substantially vertically downward so as to abut the surface of the foundation 196. Such a downward extension 422 extends a distance to further facilitate an effective barrier to reduce moisture from entering behind the flashing member 400 and/or wicking upward behind the flashing member 400. After positioning the flashing member 400 to the foundation 196, a coating 210 can be applied to the foundation so that the coating 210 extends to an under-side of the drip flange 416; and, in some cases, such a coating 210 can be applied to cover a portion of the downward extension 422 below the drip flange.

[0144] With reference to FIG. 27, by way of example a number of flashing member configurations A through H formed and configured to be positioned at an interface between a foundation and a stucco exterior treatment are illustrated. Each of the flashing member configurations A through H include a j-channel portion and a flashing extension portion extending downwardly and inwardly from a bottom portion of the channel portion, and a foundation contacting portion, and can include a drip flange extending downwardly outward from the foundation contacting portion of the flashing. Flashing member configurations A through H are depicted by way of example, and other flashing member configurations can be employed having various different dimensions and aspects, depending on factors individual to the particular building structure where it is to be used.

[0145] Turning first to flashing member configuration A, the flashing extension portion 430 is as described above, but having an upward extension portion first extension member 432 extending to a top portion of the j-channel flashing 434. Also, flashing member configuration A does not include the double-back portion around the channel portion 436. Flashing member configuration A is configured such that the j-channel portion 434 can be lifted upward to expose the extension 432 to thereby staple or fasten the otherwise hidden extension portion 432 to the exterior sheathing (20 in FIG. 25) extending over the building structure.

[0146] With respect to flashing member configuration B, such configuration B is similar to flashing member 400 illustrated in FIGS. 25 and 26, except the flashing extension member 440 of configuration B is formed and configured to extend vertically downward to the drip flange 442. As such, it can be used where the sheathing of the frame is flush with the outer surface of the foundation.

[0147] The flashing member configuration C is similar to the flashing 400 discussed above in connection with FIGS. 25, 26 but includes a j-channel flashing 450 with a channel portion 452 having a v-shaped structure. Similar to the embodiment discussed in FIG. 26, the channel portion 452 doubles back around an under-side of the channel portion 452 to at least a height of a top of the channel portion 452. For added support to the channel portion 452, the flashing extension member 454 doubles back proximately midway along the channel portion 452 and extends from the channel portion 452 to a vertical portion 456 of the flashing extension member, which is set back from a vertical plane of the j-channel flashing 450. The vertical portion 456 is formed and configured to contact and abut with a surface of the foundation and is in a vertical plane substantially parallel with the vertical plane of the j-channel portion 450 but set back from it. Therefore it can accommodate building configurations where the sheathing extends down over a top portion of the foundation (as shown in FIG. 25).

[0148] Turning to flashing member configuration D in FIG. 27, it is similar to flashing member configuration C, except a vertical portion 462 of the flashing extension portion 460 is configured to substantially coincide with a vertical plane of the back surface 466 of the j-channel portion 464. Thus it can be used where the sheathing is flush with the outer surface of the foundation.

[0149] With respect to flashing member configuration E, it is similar to the embodiment depicted in FIG. 26, except the flashing extension member 470 extends outwardly downward from a back corner 474 of the channel portion 472 of the j-channel portion 476 to a vertical foundation contacting portion 478 configured to contact and abut with a surface of the building foundation.

[0150] Flashing member configuration F is similar to flashing member configuration C, except the flashing extension member 480 can include a first vertical portion 482 and a second vertical portion 484 with an outwardly downward extension 484 therebetween. The first vertical portion 482 can be formed and configured to be the substantially same vertical plane as the back surface of the j-channel portion 486 and the second vertical portion 484 configured to abut with a surface of the building structure. The first vertical portion 482 and the second vertical portion 484 can be formed and configured to be in substantially parallel planes.

[0151] Turning to flashing member configuration G, it is similar to flashing member configuration A, except the flashing extension member 490 extends to the first extension member 492 in a substantially continuous plane to the top portion of the j-channel portion 494. Thus it can be used where the sheathing 20 is flush with the foundation.

[0152] Now turning to flashing member configuration H, such configuration H is similar to flashing member configuration F, except the first vertical portion 496 of the flashing extension member 497 depends from a back-top portion of the j-channel.

[0153] These various embodiments illustrate how a j-channel can be combined with a flashing at the foundation-structure interface. The unitary construction is cost-effective because a separate j-channel need not be installed. Moreover it will be noted that there are numerous ways to provide the advantages of the invention mentioned above. For example, each of the various embodiments includes a foundation contacting portion and a j-channel portion, as well as an upper flashing portion that can extend upwards adjacent the sheathing 20 and underneath a moisture barrier 407, all to provide an economical means of reducing water intrusion at the foundation-structure interface.

[0154] With reference now to FIGS. 21 and 22, we turn to an upper portion of an exterior treatment, such as stucco 224 where it approaches the eaves 226 of the structure 228. It is important to keep water from entering the structure at the top of the wall, to prevent damage, and mold spore hazards which could occur if moisture can get behind the exterior treatment. This goal is complicated by the fact that venting is used to provide for air flow 230 through vents 232 and into the roof of the structure 228 for cooling purposes (as is known, vents are provided near the top of the roof for this air to escape through once it has absorbed heat from the roof 234). As will be appreciated, this helps the roofing materials 234 used to last longer. But it also provides an opportunity for water to enter the wall. Wind-driven rain or sprinkler water can be driven through the vents and get into the wall behind the exterior treatment.

[0155] A top protective flashing piece 236 which accommodates air flow, is provided in this embodiment to extend from the exterior sheathing 20 downward and over an exterior treatment, such as the stucco 224 and down the face thereof for some distance. This distance can be relatively short e.g. first length down to a bottom edge 238 or a longer downward distance to a bottom edge 240; and, in either case, a drip flange 242 can be provided as described above. As will be appreciated, it is more important the farther down the flange bottom 240 is, exposing it to wind-driven water for example. A curving portion 244 extending upward and outward from the moisture barrier 245 and exterior sheathing 20 of the structure, and attaching to the bottom of the roof trusses 246 provides protection for the top of the exterior treatment from moisture which may be driven through the vents 232 in the eaves 226. This can happen, for example, when strong winds drive rain or snow against the side of the structure 228 and at the same time creating a negative pressure at the roof top vents (not shown) which tends to draw the air through the vents 232. In this embodiment such moisture is prevented from entering the structure itself by the curving portion 244, and is directed back downward and outward and over the exterior treatment 224 as in the embodiments described above. As can be appreciated, this provides an extra measure of security that moisture will not enter the structure at the top of the exterior treatment, at the interface between the roof 234 and walls of the structure. An outward edge 248 can be turned back in one embodiment to provide increased stiffness of the outer edge of the flashing piece 236.

[0156]FIG. 23 illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 260 configured to reduce moisture intrusion from entering an upper portion 259 of a wall 250 above vents 255 at the eave portion 254 of the building structure while also accommodating air flow 253 through the vents 255 into the roof structure 256 for cooling purposes. The flashing member 260 can include an upper portion 262 and a lower portion 264 with a bent edge 265, or alternatively, a rounded portion, defined therebetween. The flashing member 260 is formed and configured to be positioned where the trusses 257 of the roof structure 256 meet the upper portion 259 of the wall 250. In particular, the upper portion 262 of the flashing member 260 can be configured to be positioned adjacent the trusses 257 and in some cases, at least partially positioned against the trusses 257. The lower portion 264 of the flashing member 260 can be formed and configured to be positioned against the upper portion 259 of the wall 250. Typically, the wall 250 will have an exterior sheathing 251 and a moisture barrier 252, such as Tyvek®, Bituminous felt, or another suitable barrier in place. As such, the lower portion 264 of the flashing member 260 is configured to be positioned over and against the exterior sheathing 251 and over the moisture barrier which is 252 positioned therebetween after the flashing in installed.

[0157] The lower portion 264 of the flashing member 260 can also include a drip flange 266 (shown in outline) extending outwardly downward from a portion of the lower portion 264 of the flashing member configured to direct moisture from the wall 250 of the building structure. The drip flange 266 can include a folded-back portion 268 (shown in outline) wrapped around an under side of the drip flange 266 for added strength to the drip flange 266. The lower portion 264 of the flashing member is configured to extend a distance 269 downward against the wall 250 below the vents 255 of the eave portion 254 of the building structure. Such a distance 269 can extend from zero to seven inches, or more, below the vents 255 behind the stucco 253. As will be appreciated, if a drip flange 266 is used the stucco can be placed up to, and behind the drip edge, but would not be placed above it.

[0158] The flashing member 260 can be attached with fasteners or, alternatively, can be adhesively attached. In particular, the flashing member 260 can be attached by fastening the lower portion 264 to the wall 250 and/or by fastening the upper portion 262 to the trusses 257 of the roof structure 256. After attaching the flashing member 260 to the building structure, a stucco exterior treatment 258 (shown in outline) can be formed over the wall 250, and the vents 255 can be properly positioned and attached to the wall 250 and roof structure 256. The eave member defining the vents will be attached over, or behind, the stucco 258, depending on which is installed first. With this arrangement, the upper portion 262 of the flashing member 260 facilitates air flow 253 through the vents and into the roof structure 256 while also acting as a guard member to reduce moisture intrusion at the upper portion 259 of the wall 250. Also, the lower portion 264 of the flashing member 260 extends the distance 269 below the vents 255 to reduce moisture intrusion behind the flashing member 260 and thereby reduces moisture from potentially entering the upper portion 259 of the wall 250.

[0159]FIG. 23(a) illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 270, similar to the embodiment described in FIG. 23, except an upper portion 271 of the flashing member 270 extends from a lower portion 272 so that the upper portion is positioned intermediate the vents 255 and the upper portion 259 of the wall 250. In particular, the upper portion 272 is positioned such that the upper portion 271 is substantially free from any contact with the wall 250, roof structure 256 and the vents 255. In an other embodiment, the upper portion 271 can include an end portion 273 (shown in outline) configured to abut with a portion of the trusses 257, and which can be attached thereto.

[0160]FIG. 23(b) illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 275, similar to the embodiment described in FIG. 23(a), except an upper portion 276 of the flashing member 275 includes an abutting flange portion 278. The abutting portion 278 is configured to be positioned against the trusses 257 of the roof structure 256 and directs water downward and outward, away from the wall. Such abutting portion 278 can be attached to the trusses 257 with fasteners as well as a lower portion 277 extending from the upper portion 276 can be attached to the wall 250 with fasteners, as previously described.

[0161]FIG. 23(c) illustrates another embodiment in a flashing member 280 at the upper portion 259 of the wall below the roof structure 256. This embodiment is similar to the embodiment described in FIGS. 23(a) and 23(b), except an upper portion 281 of the flashing member 280 extends substantially orthogonally from a lower portion 282 of the flashing member 280. The flashing member 280 can be readily positioned by positioning the lower portion 282 to the wall 250 so that an end portion of the upper portion 281 abuts a portion of the trusses 257. The upper portion 281 of the flashing member 280 can also include either a hanging portion 283 (shown in outline) or an abutting portion 284 angled from the upper portion 281 to coincide with the angle of the trusses 257.

[0162]FIG. 23(d) illustrates another embodiment for positioning a flashing member 286 at the upper portion 259 of the wall 250 and into the roof structure 256. In this embodiment, the flashing member 286 includes an upper portion 287 and a lower portion 288. The lower portion 288 is formed and configured to be positioned against an upper portion 259 of the wall 250 and to extend below the vents 255 as previously described. The upper portion 287 is formed and configured to extend over the upper portion 259 of the wall 250 and into the trusses 257 of the roof structure 256. With this arrangement, the upper portion 287 can include cut-outs (not shown) sized and configured to extend between each of the trusses 257 over the upper portion 259 of the wall 250.

[0163]FIG. 24 illustrates another embodiment of a flashing member 290 positioned intermediate the vents 255 and the upper portion 259 of the wall. In this embodiment, the flashing member 290 is formed and configured to be attachable to or formed as a unitary structure with the cave member defining vents 255. The flashing member 290 acts as a guard member that directs airflow 253 through the vents 255 and into the trusses 257 of the roof structure 256. Also, the flashing member 290 acts as a guard member to reduce moisture from entering an upper portion 259 of the wall 250. In addition to the flashing member 290, a flashing 292 can also be positioned against an upper portion 259 of the wall 250, which can extend below the vents 255 to reduce moisture from entering therebehind and potentially entering the upper portion 259 of the wall 250.

[0164] With reference to FIGS. 23e through 23 i, a J-channel 293 or other means 294 of providing for an upper termination of a stucco exterior treatment (not shown) can be incorporated into a flashing 295 for use at an eave portion of a structure. A J-channel can be a separate element added to the flashing as in FIG. 23f, or can be formed unitary therewith as shown in FIGS. 23e and 23 g. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 23h, a flange 294 is provided to run stucco up to. In one embodiment (shown in outline) the flange can incorporate a folded-back portion 296. With reference to FIG. 23i, if the top of the stucco is to overlap the flashing for some distance 297 the flange 294 can be incorporated higher on the flashing by providing a separate element (not shown), or providing the bent configuration illustrated.

[0165] In each of the embodiments described in FIGS. 23, 23(a through i), and 24, the flashing member is formed and configured to maintain airflow 253 through the vents 255 into the roof structure 256 as well as reduce moisture intrusion at the upper portion 259 of the wall 250. Other flashing member configurations can be employed having various dimensions. The salient features include, but are not limited to: providing a flashing at an upper portion of the moisture barrier 252, to direct moisture over-top and to the outside of the moisture barrier; protecting the upper portion 259 of a wall 250 from moisture intrusions, particularly that drawn through vents 255 at the eaves.

[0166] Turning now to FIGS. 28 and 29, a flashing system 500 for a door 502 framed with a brick molding 504 around a periphery of the door 502, can be beneficial. This flashing system can be provided during the construction of a door 502 and the molding 504 formed around the periphery thereof. In some embodiments it can be a retrofit to protect the door frame and molding. The flashing system 500 can include a top flashing piece 506, a first side flashing piece 508 and a second side flashing piece 510, each of which can include a flashing portion 512, a sealing flange 514 and tabs 516. The flashing portion 512 extends a distance to facilitate an effective moisture barrier. Such a distance can extend approximately four to sixteen inches, for example.

[0167] The first and second side flashing piece 508 and 510 can be installed by positioning such side flashing pieces 508 and 510 on a wall 503 adjacent first and second sides of the door frame unit 502. In particular, the flashing portion 512 for each of the side flashing pieces 508 and 510 are positioned against the wall 503 so that the sealing flange 514 is positioned against an outer side surface 505 of the brick molding 504. The first and second side flashing pieces 508 and 510 may, or may not, include tabs 516, which are formed and configured to fold over a top surface 507 of the molding 504. The top flashing piece 506 can then be positioned so that the flashing portion 512 is positioned against the wall 503 of the building structure and the sealing flange 514 is positioned against the top surface 507 of the molding 504. Tabs 516 at opposing ends of the sealing flange 514 can then be folded over respective side portions 505 of the molding to abut an outer surface of the sealing flange 514 of the first and second side flashing pieces 508 and 510.

[0168] With each of the top flashing piece 506 and first and second side flashing pieces 508 and 510 in position, a mold flashing 520 can be fit over the molding 504. The mold flashing 520 is generally unshaped, but may be other shapes depending on the dimensions of the brick molding 504, and is formed and configured to fit over the molding 504. The mold flashing 520 can be formed from a metallic material, such as copper, steel, or aluminum, or any other suitable material. The mold flashing 520 is formed and configured to fit over and cover the molding 504 to reduce water damage to the molding 504 and decrease maintenance that may be necessary to preserve the molding 504.

[0169] In one embodiment, the mold flashing 520 can include an facia portion 522, a first side portion 524 and a second side portion 526. The mold flashing 520 is sized and configured to fit over the molding 504 so that the first side portion 524 fits over the outer side surface 505 of the molding 504 with the sealing flange 514 therebetween. Likewise, the second side portion 526 fits over the inner side surface 507 of the molding 504. Each of the first and second side portions 524 and 526 can include a folded back portion 528 to provide added strength and a finished edge to ends of the mold flashing 520.

[0170]FIG. 29(a) illustrates another embodiment in a mold flashing 520. This embodiment is similar to the previous embodiment, except there is an additional side flashing piece 527. Such a side flashing piece 527 is formed and configured to be positioned partially over the molding 504 and partially on the inside surface 529 of the door frame, such as over the door jamb. With the side flashing piece 527 positioned on the inside surface 529 of the door frame, the mold flashing 520 fits over the molding 504 so that the first side portion 524 fits over the sealing flange 514 and the second side portion 526 fits over the inner side surface 507 of the molding 504 and a portion of the side flashing piece 527.

[0171]FIG. 29(b) illustrates another embodiment in a mold flashing 530. The embodiment includes the side flashing piece in the previous embodiment with the mold flashing in a unitary structure. In particular, the mold flashing 530 can include a first side portion 534 and a second side portion 536 each extending from the outer facia portion 532 of the mold flashing 530. The second side portion 536 extends further than the first side portion 534, wherein the second side portion 536 extends over an inside surface 507 of the door frame, such as the door jamb. The first side portion 534 can include a folded back portion 538 for added strength to the mold flashing 530. As in the previous embodiments, this embodiment also is configured to be employed with the flashing portion 512 and sealing flange 514 for each of the top flashing piece 506 and the first and second side flashing pieces 508 and 510.

[0172] With respect to FIG. 29(c), in another embodiment a mold flashing 560 is sized and configured to fit over a brick molding 504 on a wall 503 adjacent a door 502. In this embodiment, the mold flashing and the flashing piece are formed as a unitary structure. In particular, the mold flashing 560 includes an outer portion 564 and first and second side portions 566 and 568 extending laterally from opposing ends of the outer facia portion 564. As in previously described embodiments, the mold flashing is sized and configured to fit over molding 504 at the periphery of a door so that the first and second side portions 566 and 568 are configured to fit over respective outer and inner side surfaces 505 and 507 of the molding 504. The mold flashing 560 also includes a wall flashing portion 562 extending laterally from an end of the first side portion 566. The wall flashing portion 562 is configured to be positioned against the wall 503 so that the first side portion 566 abuts with the outer surface 505 of the molding 504. The second side portion 568 is sized and configured to be positioned over the inner side surface 507 of the molding 504 and at least partially over an inner surface 529 of the door frame, such as the doorjamb.

[0173] Turning to FIGS. 30 and 31, a “retro-fit” flashing 550 is formed and configured to fit over a brick molding 540 of an already existing door 544. The mold flashing 550 can be generally L-shaped. The mold flashing 550 can include a front facia portion 552 and a side portion 554 with folded back portions 558 at each free end of the front portion 552 and side portion 554. The mold flashing 550 can be installed by positioning an inside surface 555 of the mold flashing 540 against the outside exposed surface 541 of the molding 540. The front portion 552 can further include an extension portion 556 formed and configured to extend over a portion of the exterior structure 542 adjacent the molding 540. The extension portion can be configured to contact on an exterior treatment and to cover cracks that can open up between an exterior treatment and the brick molding. With this arrangement, the mold flashing 550 forms an exterior protective cover that covers the already existing molding 540, that maintains a clean finished look, and decreases maintenance that would otherwise have been necessary to preserve a pleasing appearance of the existing molding 540.

[0174] With reference to FIG. 31(a), in another embodiment the flashing 550 can incorporate a jamb extension portion 560 configured to cover the weather-exposed portion of the doorframe 540. An outer flange 562 is shortened, as it will need to be inserted between the brick molding and an exterior treatment, which may be a tight fit, or require making a slot around the outer edge of the brick mold to receive it. A serrated edge 563 can be provided to ease insertion into a gap between the brick molding and an exterior treatment, which may contain caulk. In another embodiment a folded back portion 564 is provided to add strength and provide a finished edge.

[0175]FIGS. 32 through 34 illustrate a flashing system 590 for a utility structure 580. The flashing system 590 in this embodiment is configured to fit around a utility structure 580 having a cylindrical-shaped extension from a building structure, such as a pipe for a water faucet or an electrical conduit. The flashing system 590 can include a main flashing portion 592, including bendable flange pieces 594. In one embodiment the system can further comprise a further flashing 596. The main flashing portion 592 and flange pieces 594 can be formed and configured by providing an opening 598 defined in the main flashing portion 592 and then cutting along cut lines 599 to form the flange pieces 594. The main flashing portion is disposed over the utility structure 580 through the opening 598 so that a back surface of the main flashing portion 592 abuts and is attached to an exterior sheathing 582 of a wall of the building structure. The flange pieces 594 can then be fitted and manipulated to abut the utility structure 580. Note that pipes or conduits having diameters between the hole 598 diameter and the diameter of the flange portion 597 can be accommodated. In one embodiment the further flashing 596 can be formed and configured to fit around the utility structure 580 and, more particularly, fitted around the flange pieces 594. Typically, an upper half of the flashing is tucked under the moisture barrier 595, while a lower half is outside the moisture barrier. This can be done by slipping the flashing through a slit 597 in the moisture barrier membrane, and this helps prevent moisture intrusion. With this arrangement, an exterior treatment 584 can then be placed over the main flashing portion 592.

[0176]FIGS. 35 through 37 illustrate another embodiment of a flashing system 610 for a utility structure 600. The flashing system 610 in this embodiment is configured to fit around a utility structure 600 having a rectangular-shaped extension from a building structure, such as an electrical outlet box shown. The flashing system 610 can be formed and configured to include a main flashing portion 612, and can further comprise an outer flashing member 620 in one embodiment. The main flashing portion 612 can include an opening 618 defined therein with flange pieces 614 extending outward from the main flashing portion 612 and around a periphery of the opening 618. The flange pieces can be formed by cutting, snipping, or stamping along cut-out lines 599 and then folding them back along fold-lines 617. The main flashing portion 612 is formed and configured to be disposed around the utility structure 600 so that a back surface of the main flashing portion 612 abuts an exterior sheathing 602 or wall of the building structure and the flange pieces 614 abut with peripheral sides of the utility structure 600. Here again, an upper half of the flashing can be underneath the moisture barrier membrane, and a lower half can be outside it.

[0177] The outer flashing member 620 can be a unitary structure, or fabricated from multiple flashing pieces, namely, a bottom flashing piece 622, first and second side flashing pieces 624 and 626 and a top flashing piece 628. Each of the flashing pieces 622 through 628 can be pre-formed and attached together so that the flashing pieces are sized for standard-sized utility structures, such as electrical outlet boxes. In cases where the utility structure is not a standard size, each of the flashing pieces can be formed and configured to match the necessary size of a particular utility structure 600 and to correspond with the sizing of the main flashing portion 612 and the opening therein 618. With the outer flashing member 620 positioned and attached to abut the main flashing portion 612 and flange pieces 614, an exterior treatment 604 is formed over the main flashing portion 612 so that an end portion of the exterior treatment 604 abuts portions of the outer flashing member 620. The bottom flashing piece is formed and configured to include a drip flange 630 which extends outwardly downward over a portion of the exterior treatment 604 configured to direct moisture away from such exterior treatment 604. A sealant or foam strip as discussed above can be used to provide additional water-tightness. In one embodiment the main flashing 612 is used, but the outer flashing 620 is omitted.

[0178] Turning now to FIGS. 38 and 39, a flashing system 710 for a chimney-bonnet 704 positioned on a chimney 700 of a building structure is illustrated. The chimney-bonnet 704 can be one of the many chimney cap structures known in the art. Typically, the chimney-bonnet is formed as a crown or cap for the chimney which accommodates a flue 710, which allows smoke to escape from the chimney.

[0179] The flashing system 710 configured to be positioned with the chimney-bonnet can include a first flashing member 712, a second flashing member 714, a third flashing member 716 and a fourth flashing member 718, each of which are formed and configured to abut with and fit on a first, second, third and fourth side of an upper portion 702 of the chimney 700 and fit under a lower portion 706 of the chimney-bonnet 704. Each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 include an abutting portion 720 and a fascia portion 722. The abutting portion 702 is formed and configured to be disposed between an inside surface at the lower portion 706 of the chimney-bonnet 704 and the upper portion 702 of the chimney 700, and lay against or abut an outer wall of the chimney.

[0180] The abutting portion can be formed so as to extend in a substantially parallel plane as the upper portion 701 of the chimney 700. The fascia portion 722 is formed and configured to extend outwardly downward from the abutting portion 720. Such a facia portion 722 can include a rippled extension for ornamental effect or can include a planar extension, or can include a rounded surface, each configured to direct moisture away from the chimney 700.

[0181] Each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 can also include an extension portion 724 and a downward extension 726. The extension portion 724 can be formed and configured to extend inward from the facia portion 722. Such extension portion 724 is sized to extend toward the chimney 700 and can abut therewith. The downward extension 726 is formed and configured to extend downward from an end of the extension portion 724 along side the chimney and to abut the chimney 700. The downward extension 726 extends a distance configured to facilitate an effective moisture barrier. Such an effective moisture barrier can discourage moisture from wicking therebehind and/or facilitate placing a sealant between the downward extension 726 and the chimney as discussed above.

[0182] To install the flashing system 710 in one example method, an exterior sheathing is provided and overlaid over at least an outside surface of the chimney 700 by a moisture barrier. The chimney-bonnet 704 is positioned over the chimney 700 so that a lower portion 706 of the chimney-bonnet 704 is disposed over an upper portion 702 of the chimney 700. A gap is provided between the lower portion 706 of the chimney bonnet 704 and the upper portion 702 of the chimney that is sized and configured to receive the abutting portion 720 of each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718.

[0183] With the chimney-bonnet 704 positioned, the abutting portion 720 for each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 can be inserted in the gap at corresponding first, second, third and fourth sides of the chimney-bonnet 704 and chimney 700, as depicted in outline. As such, the downward extension 726 is positioned along side the chimney and/or positioned to abut with a surface of the chimney 700 and, particularly, with an exterior sheathing or the like. The abutting portion 720 for each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 can be secured to the chimney 700 by suitable fasteners, such as for example, staples, screws, nails, or other fasteners, or a suitable adhesive. Also, the downward extension 726 can be secured to the chimney with suitable fasteners. Such fasteners may be employed by pneumatically shooting the fasteners through the lower portion 706 of the chimney bonnet 704 so that such fasteners extend through the abutting portion 720 and into the upper portion 702 of the chimney 700. Fasteners can also be used to interconnect each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 together between adjacent abutting portions 720, facia portions 722, extension portions 724 and/or downward extensions 726. A sealant can be used at the corner joints.

[0184] In another embodiment, the flashing can be pre-assembled and then placed on the chimney. In this later case, the chimney bonnet is placed afterward. A unitary structure, or a prefabricated one where the corners are sealed, welded, braised or soldered can be advantageous.

[0185] An exterior treatment can then be applied to the outer surface of the chimney 700, which can extend up to and/or at least partially over the end downward extension portion 726 of each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 so that the exterior treatment is disposed under and proximate to the extension portion 724 and/or the fascia portion 722 of the flashing system 710. In this manner, the facia portion 722 is configured to extend over and beyond the outer surface of the exterior treatment disposed against the chimney so that moisture is directed away from the exterior treatment via such facia portion 722. As will be appreciated, in one embodiment the flashing can comprise just the abutting portion 720 and fascia portion 722, and the stucco or other exterior treatment is laid up underneath and behind the fascia portion, so that moisture is directed outward and away from the exterior treatment.

[0186] The flashing system 710 having each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 can be pieced and attached together during the installation of the flashing system 710 to the chimney 700 and chimney-bonnet 704. On the other hand, each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 can be pieced together initially to form a one-piece structure. In such a case, the abutting portion of each of the flashing members 712, 714, 716 and 718 can include an inner lip configured to hang the one-piece structure to a top surface of the chimney 700, or another suitable hanging mechanism such as a wire, in which case the one-piece structure is disposed over the chimney 700, after which, the chimney-bonnet 704 is disposed and secured to the abutting portion 720 of the flashing members and the chimney 700.

[0187] The various types of flashings as set forth above can be installed by a flashing crew of one or more individuals. Such a flashing crew can work around and in conjunction with other trades, such as the individuals framing the building structure, applying and/or forming the exterior treatments, and installing the windows. The flashing crew can install various flashing systems and flashing members to any and all openings and changes in the exterior treatments on the building structure, such as that previously set forth, namely windows, doors, utility-type openings, interfaces between the wall and eaves of the building structure, interfaces between the foundation and various exterior treatments, interfaces between roof and various exterior treatments, and interfaces between two types of exterior treatments.

[0188] As will be appreciated, the flashing system described herein provides improved water-tightness of structures, and particularly reduces water ingress at critical points, such as joints and interfaces between two differing exterior treatments, at the roof line, and at the foundation, structure wall interface. Moreover, the system in accordance with the invention can be implemented with minimal additional cost, and the benefit of lower maintenance cost over the life of the structure, and the prevention of water damage which could otherwise occur providing substantial cost savings overall. Further, the system as illustrated herein mitigates the formation of mold, and mold spores, and the like, which can be harmful to the health of the occupants of the structure.

[0189] While several embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it will be appreciated that various modifications can be made without departing from the invention, which is defined by the appended claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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US8047483Aug 10, 2010Nov 1, 2011Tapco International CorporationAdjustable mounting bracket assembly for exterior siding
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US8584416Dec 2, 2005Nov 19, 2013Alabama Metal Industries CorporationMovement control screed
US8733721Jan 8, 2008May 27, 2014Board Mount Inc.Board mount
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/302.1, 52/62, 52/58, 52/209
International ClassificationE04F19/02, E02D31/02, E04B1/70, E06B1/62, E04F19/00
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/70, E06B1/62, E04F19/02, E06B2001/628, E02D31/02, E04F19/00
European ClassificationE04B1/70, E06B1/62, E04F19/02