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Publication numberUS20030180899 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/242,696
Publication dateSep 25, 2003
Filing dateSep 13, 2002
Priority dateDec 27, 1999
Also published asCN1260265C, CN1322768A, DE60034543D1, DE60034543T2, EP1118629A2, EP1118629A3, EP1118629B1, US6521429, US20010029039
Publication number10242696, 242696, US 2003/0180899 A1, US 2003/180899 A1, US 20030180899 A1, US 20030180899A1, US 2003180899 A1, US 2003180899A1, US-A1-20030180899, US-A1-2003180899, US2003/0180899A1, US2003/180899A1, US20030180899 A1, US20030180899A1, US2003180899 A1, US2003180899A1
InventorsTsutomu Honma, Toyoko Kobayashi, Tetsuya Yano, Shin Kobayashi, Takeshi Imamura, Sakae Suda, Takashi Kenmoku
Original AssigneeTsutomu Honma, Toyoko Kobayashi, Tetsuya Yano, Shin Kobayashi, Takeshi Imamura, Sakae Suda, Takashi Kenmoku
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for producing polyhydroxyalkanoates by utilizing microorganisms
US 20030180899 A1
Abstract
A microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate which comprises one or more of monomer units represented by Formula (1),
where R is at least one selected from the group represented by any one of Formulas (2), (3) and (4);
in Formula (2), R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and q is an integer of 1 to 8;
in Formula (3), R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and r is an integer of 1 to 8;
in Formula (4), R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and s is an integer of 1 to 8. The production method is also disclosed.
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Claims(26)
What is claimed is:
1. A polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising one or more of monomer units represented by Formula (1),
where R is at least one selected from the group represented by any one of Formulas (2), (3) and (4);
in formula (2), R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and q is an integer of 1 to 8;
in formula (3), R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (h), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and r is an integer of 1 to 8;
in formula (4), R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (h), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and s is an integer of 1 to 8;
provided that following R is not selected:
when one kind of R is selected:
R being R1=H and q=2, R being R1=H and q=3 in Formula (2),
R being R2=halogen and r=2, or R being R2=CN and r=3 and
R being R2=NO2 and r=3 in Formula (3);
when two kinds of R are selected:
a combination of R being R1=H and q=3 and 5 respectively in Formula (2),
a combination of R being R2=H and r=2 and 4 respectively,
a combination of R being R2=H and r=2 and 6 respectively, and
a combination of R being R2=halogen and r=2 and 4 respectively in Formula (3);
when three kinds of R are selected:
a combination of R being R1=H and q=3, 5 and 7 respectively in Formula (2),
a combination of R being R2=H and r=1, 3 and 5 respectively, and a combination of R being R2=H and r=2, 4 and 6 respectively in Formula (3).
2. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to claim 1 wherein the monomer unit is 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid unit of Formula (5).
3. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to claim 1 wherein the monomer unit is 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid unit of Formula (6).
4. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to claim 1 wherein the monomer unit is 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl)valeric acid unit of Formula (7).
5. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to claim 1 wherein the monomer unit is 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid unit of Formula (8).
6. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to claim 1 wherein the monomer unit is 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid unit of Formula (6) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid unit of Formula (9).
7. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to claim 1 wherein the monomer unit is 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid unit of Formula (10) and 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid units of Formula (11).
8. The polyhydroxyalkanoate according to any one of claims 1 to 7 wherein a number average molecular weight is 10 to 200 thousands.
9. A process of producing a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising the step of:
culturing a microorganism in a culture medium containing a raw material alkanoate and an yeast extract, wherein the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate utilizing the alkanoate.
10. The process according to claim 9, wherein the alkanoate is represented by Formula (12), and the polyhydroxyalkanoate has one or more of monomer units represented by Formula (13):
wherein in Formula (12), R is at least one selected from the group consisting of Formulas (2), (3) and (4);
wherein in Formula (2), R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and q is an integer of 1 to 8;
in Formula (3), R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and r is an integer of 1 to 8;
in Formula (4), R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and s is an integer of 1 to 8;
wherein R′ is the selected R for the alkanoate or a group having the same R1, R2 or R3 as R but q=q0, q=q0−2, q=q0−4 q=q0−6; or r=r0, r=r0−2, r=r0−4 or r=r0−6; or s=s0 or s=s0−2, s=s0−4 or s=s0−6; wherein q0, r0, and s0 are q, r, or s of the R, and q0−2, r0−2; s0−2, q0−4, r0−4; s0−4, q0−6, r0−6; or s0−6 being integers only more than 1.
11. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formula (5), and the microorganism is cultured in a culture medium containing 4-phenoxybutyric acid of Formula (14) and an yeast extract, the microorganism produces poly-3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid utilizing 4-phenoxybutyric acid.
12. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formula (6), and the culture medium contains 5-phenoxyvaleric acid of Formula (15) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid utilizing 5-phenoxyvaleric acid.
13. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formula (16), the culture medium contains 5-(4-fluorophenoxy)valeric acid of Formula (17) and yeast extract, and the microorganism produces poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy)valeric acid utilizing 5-(4-fluorophenoxy)valeric acid.
14. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formula (9), the culture medium contains 5-phenylvaleric acid of Formula (18) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid utilizing 5-phenylvaleric acid.
15. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formula (7), the culture medium contains 5-(4-fluorophenyl)valeric acid of Formula (19) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl)valeric acid utilizing 5-(4-fluorophenyl)valeric acid.
16. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formula (8), the culture medium contains 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid of Formula (20) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces poly-3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid utilizing 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid.
17. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formulas (6) and (9), the culture medium contains 5-phenoxyvaleric acid of Formula (15), 5-phenylvaleric acid of Formula (18) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid and 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid utilizing 5-phenoxyvaleric acid and 5-phenylvaleric acid.
18. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formulas (10) and (11), the culture medium contains 6-phenylhexanoic acid of Formula (21) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid and 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid utilizing 6-phenylhexanoic acid.
19. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formulas (6) and (22), the culture medium contains 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid of Formula (23) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid utilizing 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid.
20. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formulas (5), (24) and (25), the culture medium contains 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid of Formula (26) and an yeast extract, and the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid utilizing 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid.
21. The process according to claim 10 wherein the monomer unit is of Formulas (6), (22) and (27), the culture medium contains 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid of Formula (28) and an yeast extract, the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid, 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid utilizing 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid.
22. The process according to claim 9 wherein the step of culturing is one step culture in a culture medium containing an alkanoate and an yeast extract.
23. The process according to claim 9 wherein the step of culturing is two step culture in a culture medium containing an alkanoate and an yeast extract followed by culturing in a nitrogen-restricted culture medium containing the alkanoate.
24. The process according to claim 9 which further comprises a step of separation/refinement of the polyhydroxyalkanoate.
25. The process according to claim 9 wherein the microorganism belongs to a genus Pseudomonas.
26. The process according to claim 25 wherein the microorganism is at least one selected from the group consisting of Pseudomonas cichorii YN2 (FERM BP-7375); Pseudomonas cichorii H45 (FERM BP-7374); Pseudomonas putida P91 (FERM BP-7373); and Pseudomonas jessenii P161 (FERM BP-7376).
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention relates to novel polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), as well as a method of producing such a novel PHA by utilizing microorganisms.

[0003] 2. Related Background Art

[0004] Synthetic polymers derived from petroleum have been used as plastics etc. for a long time. Recently, the treatment of the used plastics has become one of serious social problems. These synthetic polymers have advantages of hard-to-decompose have been used in the place of metal or glass materials. On mass consumption and mass disposal, however, this feature of hard-to-decompose makes them accumulated in waste-disposal facilities, or when they are burned, it causes increased carbon dioxide exhaust, and harmful substances such as dioxin and endocrine-disruptors may be generated to cause environmental pollution.

[0005] On the other hand, polyesters produced by microorganisms (hereinafter referred to as microbial polyesters) can be biologically degraded to be incorporated in a natural recycling system. Thus they would not remain in natural environment without causing pollution, in contrast to the numerous usual synthetic polymer compounds. Furthermore, since the biodegradability dispenses with incinerating treatment, microbial polyesters are effective from the standpoint of the prevention of air pollution and global warming, and usable as plastics to maintain the environment. In addition, their potential as soft materials for medical use has been investigated (Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 5-159, Nos. 6-169980, 6-169988, 6-225921, etc.).

[0006] Heretofore, various bacteria have been reported to produce and accumulate PHB or copolymers of other hydroxyalkanoic acids in the cells (Handbook of Biodegradable Plastics, ed. by Biodegradable Plastics Society, published by N.T.S., p. 178-197 (1995)). Microbial PHA thus obtained is known to have various compositions and structures depending on the class of microorganisms used, medium composition, culture conditions, etc. during production, and many studies related to the control of composition and structure of PHA products have been conducted to improve PHA properties.

[0007] For example, Alcaligenes eutropus H16 ATCC No. 17699 and its mutants can produce copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvaleric acid (3HV) at a various composition ratio by varying carbon sources during culture (Published Japanese Translation of PCT International Publication Nos. 6-15604, 7-14352, 8-19227, etc.).

[0008] Japanese Patent No. 2642937 discloses that Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC29347, when given acyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons as a carbon source, produces PHA having a monomer unit of 3-hydroxyalkanoate of 6 to 12 carbon atoms.

[0009] Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 5-74492 discloses the method comprising contacting a microorganism of Methylobacterium sp., Paracoccus sp., Alcaligenes sp., or Pseudomonas sp. with a primary alcohol of 3 to 7 carbon atoms, thereby allowing to produce a copolymer of 3HB and 3HV.

[0010] Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open Nos. 5-93049 and 7-265065 disclose that Aeromonas caviae can produce, by using oleic acid and olive oil as carbon sources, a binary copolymer of 3HB and 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid (3HHx).

[0011] Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 9-191893 discloses that Comamonas acidovorans IFO13852 can produce, by using gluconic acid and 1,4-butanediol as a carbon source, a polyester having monomer units of 3HB and 4-hydroxybutyric acid.

[0012] Furthermore, certain microorganisms has been reported to produce PHA having various substituents such as groups derived from unsaturated hydrocarbons, ester group, allyl group, cyano group, nitro group, groups derived from halogenated hydrocarbon, and epoxide. Thus, there have been started several attempts to improve the properties of microbial PHA by using such a technique. Examples of microbial polyester having such substituents are described in FEMS Microbiology Letters, 128 (1995) p.219-228, in detail. Makromol. Chem., 191, 1957-1965, 1990, Macromolecules, 24, 5256-5260, 1991, and Chirality, 3, 492-494, 1991 report that Pseudomonas oleovorans produces PHA comprising a monomer unit of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV), and changes in polymer properties probably due to the presence of the monomer unit of 3HPV.

[0013] As stated above, microbial PHA of various compositions/structures can be obtained by varying the microorganism, medium composition, culture conditions, etc. for polymer production. Their physical properties, however, are still insufficient for plastics. In order to further extend the application field, it is important to investigate more extensively the improvement of properties, and it is, therefore, essential to develop and search PHA made of structurally various monomer units, methods of producing them, as well as microorganisms capable of efficiently producing the desired PHA.

[0014] On the other hand, those PHA having introduced substituents in the side chains as described above, can be expected to be developed as functional polymer having useful functions and properties by selecting the substituent to be introduced according to the desired properties, etc. It is also important to develop and search PHA satisfying both functionality and biodegradability, methods of producing them, as well as microorganisms capable of efficiently producing desired PHA.

[0015] One example of such PHA having a substituent introduced in side chains is PHA having phenoxy in side chains.

[0016] For example, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 195, 1655-1672 (1994) reports that Pseudomonas oleovorans produces PHA containing units of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid, from 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid.

[0017] Macromolecules, 29, 3432-3435 (1996) also reports that Pseudomonas oleovorans can be used to produce PHA containing 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxyburyric acid and 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid units from 6-phenoxyhexanoic acid, PHA containing 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid units from 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid, and PHA containing 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid units from 11-phenoxyunndecanoic acid. The polymer yield is as follows.

[0018] Furthermore, Can. J. Microbiol., 41, 32-43 (1995) reports that when given octanoic acid and p-cyanophenoxyhexanoic acid or p-nitrophenoxyhexanoic acid as substrates, Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC29347 or Pseudomonas putida KT2442 can produce PHA containing a monomer unit of 3-hydroxy-p-cyanophenoxyhexanoic acid or 3-hydroxy-p-nitrophenoxyhexanoic acid.

[0019] Japanese Patent No. 2989175 describes a homopolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-(monofluorophenoxy)pentanoate (3H5(MFP)P) unit or 3-hydroxy-5-(difluorophenoxy)pentanoate (3H5(DFP)P) unit, a copolymer containing at least one of 3H5(MFP)P unit and 3H5(DFP)P unit, Pseudomonas putida which can produce such polymers; and a method of producing the above polymers by using a Pseudomonas sp.

[0020] Such productions are conducted by 2-step culture described below. Culture period: step 1-24 hours; step 2-96 hours.

[0021] Substrates in each step and polymers obtained are as follows.

[0022] (1) Polymer obtained: 3H5(MFP)P homopolymer

[0023] Substrates in step 1: citric acid, yeast extract

[0024] Substrates in step 2: monofluorophenoxyundecanoic acid

[0025] (2) Polymer obtained: 3H5(DFP)P homopolymer

[0026] Substrates in step 1: citric acid, yeast extract

[0027] Substrates in step 2: difluorophenoxyundecanoic acid

[0028] (3) Polymer obtained: 3H5(MFP)P copolymer

[0029] Substrates in step 1: octanoic or nonanoic acid, yeast extract

[0030] Substrates in step 2: monofluorophenoxyundecanoic acid

[0031] (4) Polymer obtained: 3H5(MFP)P homopolymer

[0032] Substrates in step 1: octanoic or nonanoic acid, yeast extract

[0033] Substrates in step 2: difluorophenoxyundecanoic acid

[0034] It describes that the microorganism can assimilate substituted aliphatic acids of a medium chain length to produce a polymer having phenoxy group substituted with 1 to 2 fluorine atoms at the end of a side chain, and such a polymer has stereoregularity and water repellency while keeping a high melting point and a good processibility.

[0035] It has been reported a PHA containing a cyclohexyl group in its monomer unit is expected to exhibit polymer properties differing from a PHA containing an usual aliphatic hydroxyalkanoic acid as a unit, as well as its production by Pseudomonas oleovorans (Macromolecules, 30, 1611-1615 (1997)).

[0036] According to this report, Pseudomonas oleovorans is cultured in a medium containing nonanoic acid (hereinafter referred to as NA), and 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid (hereinafter referred to as CHBA) or 5-cyclohexylvaleric acid (hereinafter referred to as CHVA) to obtain PHA made of a cyclohexyl-containing unit and a unit derived from nonanoic acid (each proportion is unknown).

[0037] By varying the ratio of CHBA to NA under the conditions that the total concentration of substrates is 20 mM, the results shown in Table 2 were obtained. In Table 2, CDW: Cell mass (dry weight) (mg/L); PDW: polymer mass (dry weight) (mg/L); and Yield: PDW/CDW (%).

[0038] In this case, however, the polymer yield per culture (w/v) was insufficient, and nonanoic acidderived aliphatic hydroxyalkanoic acid units were present in the resultant PHA.

[0039] As described above, to produce PHA having various introduced substituents in the side chain, as with the above Pseudomonas oleovorans, an alkanoate having a substituent to be introduced has been utilized not only as a polymer raw material but also as a carbon source for growth.

[0040] Such a method to utilize an alkanoate having a substituent to be introduced into the polymer, not only as a raw material for the polymer but also as a carbon source for growth expects to supply the carbon source and energy source as the acetyl-CoA formed by β-oxidation of the alkanoate. In such a method, however, acetyl-CoA would not be formed by β-oxidation unless the substrate has a certain chain length, so that there is a serious problem that the alkanoate available as the substrate for PHA is limited. In general, p-oxidation generates a new substrate, of which chain length is shorter by two methylene units at a time, and they are incorporated as the monomer units of PHA, synthesized PHA is often a copolymer consisting of monomer units each differing by two methylene chains in the chain length. In the foregoing report, the produced polymer is a copolymer consisting of three monomer units, that is, 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid derived from the substrate 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid and 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid being metabolic by-products. Thus, PHA consisting of a single monomer unit is hard to obtain by this method. Furthermore, in the method depending on the acetyl-CoA formed by β-oxidation as the carbon and energy source, there are such problems as slow growth rate of the microorganism, slow synthesis of PHA, and low yield of PHA.

[0041] Thus, usually the microorganism is grown in a medium containing a medium-length aliphatic acid such as octanoic acid and nonanoic acid, etc. as a carbon source for growth in addition to the alkanoate having a substituent to be introduced, and then PHA is extracted.

[0042] The PHA produced by the above method, however, contains monomer units having a substituent to be introduced and monomer units derived from the carbon source for growth (for example, 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 3-hydroxynonanoic acid). The polymer of such a medium chain length (mcl) monomer unit is adhesive at ambient temperature, and, when mixed with the desired PHA, significantly lowers the glass transition point (Tg). Thus, to obtain a polymer being solid at ambient temperature, contamination of mcl-monomer units is undesirable. In addition, the presence of heterogeneous side chains is known to interfere with intramolecular or intermolecular interactions due to the side chain structure, and significantly affects crystallinity and orientation. In order to improve the polymer properties and endowment of functions, a mixture of such mcl-monomer units is a serious problem. One means to solve this problem is to add a purification step to separate and remove such unintended polymers of mcl-monomer units derived from the carbon source for growth and to obtain PHA consisting only of a monomer unit having a specific substituent. Nevertheless, operations become troublesome and a significant decrease of the yield is inevitable. A more important problem is the fact that, if the intended monomer units form a copolymer with the unintended monomer units, it is very difficult to remove the unintended monomer units only. In particular, when the PHA containing monomer units having such groups as the groups derived from unsaturated hydrocarbons, ester groups, aryl group, cyano group, nitro group, groups derived from halogenated hydrocarbons and epoxide as side chain structure, mcl-monomer units often form a copolymer with the intended monomer unit, so it is very difficult to remove mcl-monomer units after the PHA synthesis.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0043] The present invention can solve the above problems. The object of the present invention is to provide a PHA containing monomer units of various structures having substituents useful for device materials, medical materials, etc. in the side chains. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method of producing such a PHA by utilizing microorganisms, especially a method of producing PHA with little contamination of monomer units and in a high yield. The other object of the present invention is to provide novel PHA consisting only of the desired monomer units without contamination of unintended monomer units, as well as a method of producing such a PHA by utilizing microorganisms.

[0044] In order to solve the above problems, especially to develop PHA having substituted or unsubstituted phenoxy group, phenyl group and cyclohexyl group in the side chains, being useful as device materials, medical materials, etc., the present inventor have extensively searched for novel microorganisms capable of producing and accumulating PHA in the cell, and a method of producing the desired PHA by utilizing novel microorganisms.

[0045] Further, to develop a method of obtaining efficiently the desired PHA without mixing of unintended monomer units, the present inventors made extensive study and found that by culturing the microorganism in a medium supplemented with yeast extract in addition to an alkanoate having a desired atomic group, it is possible to produce selectively only the desired PHA without being mixed with unintended monomer units or with reduced incorporation of unintended monomer units, then completed the present invention.

[0046] Thus, the method of producing novel PHA of the present invention is characterized by culturing a microorganism in a culture medium containing an alkanoate and yeast extract, which microorganism is capable of producing the object PHA by utilizing the alkanoate in the medium as a low material. In particular, the method of producing PHA of the present invention can be carried out in accordance with the embodiments described below.

[0047] According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising one or more of monomer units represented by Formula (1),

[0048] where R is at least one selected from the group represented by any one of Formulas (2), (3) and (4);

[0049] in Formula (2), R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and q is an integer of 1 to 8;

[0050] in Formula (3), R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3. C2F5 and C3F7. and r is an integer of 1 to 8;

[0051] in Formula (4), R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5 and C3F7, and s is an integer of 1 to 8;

[0052] provided that following R is not selected:

[0053] when one kind of R is selected:

[0054] R being R1=H and q=2, R being R1=H and q=3 in Formula (2),

[0055] R being R2=halogen and r=2, or R being R2=CN and r=3 and

[0056] R being R2=NO2 and r=3 in Formula (3);

[0057] when two kinds of R are selected:

[0058] a combination of R being R1=H and q=3 and 5 respectively in Formula (2),

[0059] a combination of R being R2=H and r=2 and 4 respectively,

[0060] a combination of R being R2=H and r=2 and 6 respectively, and

[0061] a combination of R being R2=halogen and r=2 and 4 respectively in Formula (3);

[0062] when three kinds of R are selected:

[0063] a combination of R being R1=H and q=3, 5 and 7 respectively in Formula (2),

[0064] a combination of R being R2=H and r=1, 3 and 5 respectively, and a combination of R being R2=H and r=2, 4 and 6 respectively in Formula (3).

[0065] According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process of producing a polyhydroxyalkanoate comprising the step of:

[0066] culturing a microorganism in a culture medium containing a raw material alkanoate and an yeast extract, wherein the microorganism produces a polyhydroxyalkanoate utilizing the alkanoate.

[0067] The present invention provides a method for producing polyhydroxyalkanoate, which uses ω-substituted-straight-chain alkanoic acid, of which terminal of a chain is substituted by any one of 6-carbon ring atomic group of a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted phenoxy group, and a substituted or unsubstituted cyclohexyl group, as the material and also which contains corresponding ω-substituted-3-hydroxy-alkanoic acid as the monomer units, and also provides microorganisms suitable for selective production of polyhydroxyalkanoate having 6-carbon ring atomic group in the terminal of these side chains. Various polyhydroxyalkanoate, of which production by microorganisms becomes first possible according to the present invention, in an inorganic culture medium containing the yeast extract and the ω-substituted-straight-chain alkanoic acid as the material, a microorganism belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, for example, is cultured to work on the ω-substituted-straight-chain alkanoic acid as the material allowing an efficient production. Therefore, polyhydroxyalkanoate useful as a functional polymer having biodegradability can be expected application thereof to various fields such as a device material and a material for a medical treatment.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0068]FIG. 1 is an 1H-NMR spectrum of PHA collected from the cultured cells of strain P91 in Example A-2.

[0069]FIG. 2 is an NMR spectrum of 5-phenoxy valeric acid obtained in Example B-1.

[0070]FIG. 3A is a total ion chromatogram (TIC) of GC-MS measurement of a methyl esterified compound of the monomer unit composing PHA obtained in Example B-2, and

[0071]FIG. 3B is a mass spectrum of a main peak in the TIC.

[0072]FIG. 4 is an NMR spectrum of PHA obtained in Example B-2.

[0073]FIG. 5A is a total ion chromatogram (TIC) of GC-MS measurement of a methyl esterified compound of the monomer unit composing PHA obtained in Example B-3, and

[0074]FIG. 5B is a mass spectrum of a main peak in the TIC.

[0075]FIG. 6 is an NMR spectrum of 5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid obtained in Example C-1.

[0076]FIG. 7A is a total ion chromatogram (TIC) of GC-MS measurement of a methyl esterified compound of the monomer unit composing PHA obtained in Example C-2, and

[0077]FIG. 7B is a mass spectrum of a main peak in the TIC.

[0078]FIG. 8 is an NMR spectrum of PHA obtained in Example C-2.

[0079]FIG. 9A is a total ion chromatogram (TIC) of GC-MS measurement of a methyl esterified compound of the monomer unit composing PHA obtained in Example C-3, and

[0080]FIG. 9B is a mass spectrum of a main peak in the TIC.

[0081]FIG. 10 is an 1H-NMR spectrum of poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid produced by strain H45 in Example D-5.

[0082]FIG. 11 is a 13C-NMR spectrum of poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid produced by strain H45 in Example D-5.

[0083]FIG. 12 is a DNA sequence of a 16s rRNA coding region of Pseudomonas jessenii P161; FERM BP-7376.

[0084]FIG. 13 is an NMR spectrum of FPVA biosynthesized as alkanoate as the material in Example E-1.

[0085]FIG. 14 is a 1H-NMR spectrum of PHA obtained by the production method of the present invention using FPVA as the material in Example E-5.

[0086]FIG. 15 is a 13C-NMR spectrum of PHA obtained by in Example E-5 using FPVA as the material.

[0087]FIG. 16 is a 1H-NMR spectrum of PHA consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexyl butyric acid unit purified in Example F-3.

[0088]FIG. 17 is a 13C-NMR spectrum of PHA consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexyl butyric acid unit purified in Example F-3.

[0089]FIG. 18 is a mass spectrum of a 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example G-1.

[0090]FIG. 19 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example G-1.

[0091]FIG. 20 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example G-2.

[0092]FIG. 21 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example G-2.

[0093]FIG. 22 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid (3HPxB) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example H-1.

[0094]FIG. 23 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy hexanoic acid (3HPxHx) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example H-1.

[0095]FIG. 24 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxy octanoic acid (3HPxO) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example H-1.

[0096]FIG. 25 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid (3HPxB) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example H-2.

[0097]FIG. 26 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy hexanoic acid (3HPxHx) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example H-2.

[0098]FIG. 27 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxy octanoic acid (3HPxO) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example H-2.

[0099]FIG. 28 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example I-1.

[0100]FIG. 29 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example I-1.

[0101]FIG. 30 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxy nonanoic acid (3HPxN) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example I-1.

[0102]FIG. 31 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example I-2.

[0103]FIG. 32 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example I-2.

[0104]FIG. 33 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxy nonanoic acid (3HPxN) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example I-2.

[0105]FIG. 34 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-6-phenyl hexanoic acid (3HPHx) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example J-1.

[0106]FIG. 35 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyric acid (3HPB) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example J-2.

[0107]FIG. 36 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-6-phenyl hexanoic acid (3HPHx) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example J-2.

[0108]FIG. 37 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid (3HPV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example K-1.

[0109]FIG. 38 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example K-1.

[0110]FIG. 39 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid (3HPV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example K-2.

[0111]FIG. 40 is a mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS of the polymer produced in Example K-2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0112] The present invention relates to a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and a method of producing PHA.

[0113] The first embodiment in the method of producing PHA of the present invention is a production method characterized by

[0114] incubating a microorganism in a medium containing yeast extract and an alkanoate of Formula (12)

[0115] wherein R is at least one or more groups selected from group represented by any of the following general Formula (2), (3), or (4)),

[0116] extracting a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from cells of the microorganism, and

[0117] obtaining the PHA having a monomer unit of Formula (13),

[0118] wherein R′ is at least one or more groups selected from a group selected as R in Formula (12);

[0119] a group having the corresponding R1, wherein q=q0−2, q=q0−4, or q=q0−6, provided that the group selected as R is of Formula (2), wherein q=q0;

[0120] a group having the corresponding R2, wherein r=r0−2, r=r0−4, or r=r0−6, provided that the group selected as R is of Formula (3), wherein r=r0; and

[0121] a group having the corresponding R3, wherein s=s0−2, s=s0−4, or s=s0−6, provided that the group selected as R is of Formula (4), wherein s=s0,

[0122] provided that q0−2, r0−2, or s0−2, q0−4, r0−4, or s0−4, q0−6, r0−6, or s0−6 can be only the integer of one or more),

[0123] wherein R1 is a group selected from hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, C3F7, and q is selected from the integer of 1 to 8;

[0124] in Formula (3), R2 is a group selected from hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, C3F7, and r is selected from the integer of 1 to 8; and

[0125] in Formula (4), R3 is a group selected from hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, C3F7, and s is selected from the integer of 1 to 8). In particular, it is the production method characterized by obtaining polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of a monomer unit represented by the above general Formula (13).

[0126] In this method, PHA containing the corresponding monomer unit, as well as, in some cases, an accompanying secondary monomer unit having shorter carbon chain can be produced by using a single kind of alkanoate of Formula (12) as a raw material. As mentioned above, a plurality of alkanoates of Formula (12) can also be used as a raw material, and at that time, it is preferred to use an appropriate number of alkanoates, in consideration of function and property requisite for polymer to be produced. In general, the above aim can be expected to fully achieve by using up to about five different alkanoates of Formula (12) as a raw material. Furthermore, to finely control functions and properties, five or more of different raw materials can be utilized. For example, the total of more than five different raw materials can be used which consist of up to about three different alkanoates selected each from alkanoate group represented by the above general Formula (2), (3), and (4).

[0127] The substituent R1 on benzene ring in the general Formula (2) and the substituent R2 on benzene ring in the general Formula (3) can be selected from any of ortho-position (2- or 6-position), meta-position (3- or 5-position), or para-position (4-position). The resultant polyhydroxyalkanoate will contain a monomer unit having the corresponding substituted benzene ring. Which isomer is selected as a raw material is properly determined depending on intended functions and properties. When differences in the above functions and properties is not a critical problem, an alkanoate having substituent at para-position (4-position) on benzene ring can be more advantageously used similar to an unsubstituted alkanoate with respect to yield and readiness to be incorporated into polymer. Similarly, the location of substituent R3 on cyclohexyl ring of the general Formula (4) can be selected from any of 1-, 2-(or 6-), 3-(or 5-), and 4-position, and both cis- and trans-configuration can be selected. The resultant polyhydroxyalkanoate will contain monomer unit having the corresponding substituted cyclohexyl ring. Which isomer is selected as a raw material is properly determined depending on intended functions and properties. When differences in the above functions and properties is not a critical problem, an alkanoate having substituents at 4-position on cyclohexyl ring can be more advantageously used similar to an unsubstituted alkanoate with respect to yield and readiness to be incorporated into polymer. Polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by microorganisms, which has chiral center at 3-position carbon atom of monomer unit, is generally a polymer consisting only of R-body, that is, an isotactic polymer. As a result, PHA produced by the present method becomes a polymer having biodegradability.

[0128] According to the method of the present invention, microorganisms can be cultured by two steps comprising the initial culture in the medium containing alkanoate of Formula (12) and yeast extract, and subsequent culture in the medium containing the alkanoate and restricted nitrogen source. Microorganism can also be cultured in one step in the medium containing alkanoate of Formula (12) and yeast extract. Furthermore, the microorganism utilized is preferably selected from those belonging to Pseudomonas sp. As examples of advantageously available strains belonging to Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas cichorii YN2 (FERM BP-7375), Pseudomonas cichorii H45 (FERM BP-7374), Pseudomonas putida P91 (FERM BP-7373), and Pseudomonas jessenii P161 (FERM BP-7376) can be shown, and it is more preferred to select any of the above four strains.

[0129] Preferred mode of the invention in the first embodiment of the method of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention will be individually and more definitely described below.

[0130] The present inventors have succeeded in obtaining microorganism capable of producing poly-3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (PHPxB) homopolymer consisting of a monomer unit of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB) of Formula (5):

[0131] when cultured in a medium containing yeast extract and 4-phenoxybutyric acid (PxBA) of Formula (14).

[0132] Thus, one mode included in the above first embodiment according to the method of producing polyhydroxyalkanoates of the present invention is a method characterized by having a process of incubating a microorganism capable of producing PHPxB homopolymer consisting of repeats units of 3HPxB monomer unit of Formula (5) by utilizing PxBA in the medium containing PxBA of Formula (14) and yeast extract.

[0133] There have been no reports of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate containing a monomer unit of 3HPxB by microorganisms by using PxBA as a substrate, as well as the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate of PHPxB homopolymer by microorganisms. PHPxB obtained by the above method, therefore, is new, and is encompassed in the invention of novel polyhydroxyalkanoates, which the present invention provides.

[0134] The present inventors have also succeeded in obtaining microorganism capable of producing a homopolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) monomer unit of Formula (6):

[0135] when cultured in a medium containing yeast extract and 5-phenoxyvaleric acid (PxVA) of Formula (15).

[0136] Thus, another one mode included in the above first embodiment is a method characterized by having a process of incubating a microorganism capable of producing poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (PHPxV) homopolymer consisting of repeats units of 3HPxV monomer unit of Formula (6) by utilizing PxVA in a medium containing PxVA of Formula (15) and yeast extract.

[0137] There have been no reports of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates containing a monomer unit of 3HPxV by microorganisms by using PxVA as a substrate, as well as the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates of PHPxV homopolymer by microorganisms. PHPxV obtained by the above method, therefore, is new, and is encompassed in the invention of novel polyhydroxyalkanoates provided by the present invention.

[0138] The present inventors have also succeeded in obtaining microorganism capable of producing a homopolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-(fluorophenoxy)valeric acid (3HFPxV) monomer unit of Formula (16):

[0139] when cultured in the medium containing yeast extract and 5-(4-fluorophenoxy)valeric acid (FPxVA) of Formula (17).

[0140] Thus, another mode included in the above first embodiment is a method characterized by having a process of incubating a microorganism capable of producing poly-3-hydroxy-5-(fluorophenoxy)valeric acid (PHFPxV) homopolymer consisting of repeats units of 3HFPxV monomer unit of Formula (16) by utilizing FPxVA in a medium containing FPxVA of Formula (17) and yeast extract.

[0141] The present inventors have also succeeded in obtaining microorganism capable of producing a copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) of Formula (6) and (22), respectively:

[0142] when cultured in a medium containing yeast extract 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (PxHpA) of Formula (23).

[0143] Thus, another mode included in the above first embodiment is a method characterized by having a process to culture a microorganism capable of producing a polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3HPxV and 3HPxHp monomer units of Formula (6) and (22), respectively, by utilizing PxHpA in the medium containing PxHpA of Formula (23) and yeast extract.

[0144] The present inventors have also succeeded in obtaining a microorganism capable of producing a copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB), 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx), and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO) of Formula (5), (24), and (25), respectively:

[0145] when cultured in a medium containing yeast extract and 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (PxOA) of Formula (26).

[0146] Thus, another mode included in the above first embodiment is the method characterized by having a process of incubating a microorganism capable of producing a polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3HPxB, 3HPxHx, and 3HPxO monomer units of Formula (5), (24), and (25), respectively, by utilizing PxOA in the medium containing PxOA of Formula (26) and yeast extract.

[0147] A microorganism capable of producing a copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid (3HPxV), 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxy heptanoic acid (3HPxHp), and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxy nonanoic acid (3HPxN) units, which are expressed by Formula, was successfully obtained.

[0148] One more mode included in the above described first embodiment is a method having a step of culturing of microorganisms to produce a polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3HPxV, 3HPxHp, and 3HPxN monomer units expressed by the above described Formulae (6), (22), and (27) using PxUDA in a culture medium containing PxUDA expressed by the above described Formula (28) and yeast extract.

[0149] Furthermore, in addition to the methods described in the above described series of specific forms in detail, by using an alkanoate, of Formula (12), in which a side chain having a phenoxy group is replaced with a desired group as a material of the monomer component, PHA having various corresponding side chains can be selectively produced using microorganisms. A production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate using alkanoate of Formula (12) as the material and having the monomer unit composition shown by Formula (13) is also included in the above described first embodiment by the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention.

[0150] (R is at least one or more groups selected from groups expressed by Formula (3));

[0151] (R′ is the group selected in the above described Formula (12) as R)

[0152] and in the case where expressed by the following Formula (3) and is the group of r=r0, the group selected as the R has a corresponding R2 and at least one or more group selected from groups of r=r0−2, q=r0−4, or r=r0−6.)

[0153] r0−2, r0−4, or r0−6 can be an integer value of 1 or more;

[0154] (R2 is the group selected from a hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3′-C2F5, and C3F7 and r is selected from integers of 1 to 8.)

[0155] In many cases, when PHA is produced by containing one kind of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material and a corresponding monomer unit, in some cases, a by-produced monomer unit of which carbon chain accompanied is reduced. On the other hand, as described above, for alkanoate as the material expressed by Formula (12), a plurality of kinds can be used for culture. In consideration of a function and a physical property necessary for a polymer produced, it is preferable to use a proper number of kinds. In general, by using 3 kinds, in maximum, of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material, it is expected that the above described purpose can be sufficiently achieved. In addition, in the purpose to control finely functionality and the physical property, many kinds of materials more than three can be used.

[0156] For the material, any one of a substitution position of R2 on a benzene ring Formula (3) can be selected from an ortho position (position 2 or position 6), meta position (position 3 or position 5), or para position (position 4). Polyhydroxyalkanoate yielded is that containing the monomer unit having a corresponding substituted phenoxy group. An isomer to be selected as the material is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where a difference in the above described functionality and physical property are not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the para position (position 4) on the benzene ring can be more preferably used, in a point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. In polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by such microorganisms, a carbon atom of the position 3 of the monomer unit has the chiral in a center and in general, is the polymer consisting of only R-body and hence, isotactic polymer. Consequently, PHA produced by such method is the polymer having biodegradability.

[0157] In addition, the inventors successfully obtained the microorganism capable of producing a homopolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV) monomer unit expressed by Formula (9), when cultured in a culture medium containing 5-phenylvaleric acid (PVA), expressed by Formula (18), and yeast extract.

[0158] In other words, an alternative mode included in the above described first embodiment is a method characterized by having a step of culturing a microorganism which can produce a poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (PHPV) homopolymer consisting of repeated units of 3HPV monomer units expressed by the above described Formula (9), using PVA in a culture medium containing PVA of Formula (18) and yeast extract.

[0159] The inventors also successfully obtained the microorganism capable of producing the homopolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid (3HFPV) monomer unit expressed by Formula (7) when cultured in a culture medium containing 5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid (FPVA) of Formula (19), and yeast extract.

[0160] In other words, an alternative mode included in the above described first embodiment is a method characterized by having a step of cultivation of a microorganism which can produce a poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid (PHFPV) homopolymer consisting of repeated units of 3HFPV monomer units of Formula (7), using FPVA in a culture medium containing FPVA of Formula (19) and yeast extract.

[0161] So far, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate, in which 3HFPV as the monomer unit, using FPVA as a substrate by microorganisms. Also, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate being the homopolymer of PHFPV by microorganisms. Consequently, PHFPV yielded by the above described method is a new product and included in the invention a new polyhydroxyalkanoate provided by the present invention.

[0162] The inventors also successfully obtained the microorganism capable of producing the copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (3HPB) and 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx) units expressed by Formulas (10) and (11) when cultured in a culture medium containing 6-phenylhexanoic acid (PHxA), expressed by Formula (21), and yeast extract,

[0163] In other words, an alternative mode included in the above described first embodiment is a method characterized by having a step of cultivation of a microorganism to produce a polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3HPB and 3HPHx monomer units expressed by the above described Formula (10) and (11), using PHxA in a culture medium containing PHxA, expressed by the above described Formula (21), and the yeast extract.

[0164] So far, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3HPB and 3HPHx monomer units, using PHxA as a substrate by microorganisms. Also, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of 3HPB and 3HPHx monomer units by microorganisms. Consequently, polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of 3HPB and 3HPHx monomer units and yielded by the above described method is a new product and included in the invention a new polyhydroxyalkanoate provided by the present invention.

[0165] Furthermore, in addition to method described in the above described series of specific forms in detail, by using an alkanoate, of Formula (12), in which a side chain having a phenyl group is substituted to a desired group as a material of the monomer component, PHA having various corresponding side chains can be selectively produced using microorganisms. A production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate using alkanoate of Formula (12) as the material and having the monomer unit composition shown by Formula (13) is also included in the above described first embodiment by the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention.

[0166] (In Formula (12), R is at least one or more groups selected from groups expressed by the following general Formula (2).)

[0167] (In Formula (13), R′ is the group selected as R in the above described Formula (12),

[0168] and if the group selected as R is

[0169] expressed by Formula (2) and is the group of q=q0, has the corresponding R1 and at least one or more group selected from q=q0−2, q=q0−4, or q=q0−6. q0−2, q0−4, or q0−6 can be the integer value of 1 or more.)

[0170] (Of Formula (2), the R1 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and q is selected from integers of 1 to 8.)

[0171] In many cases, when PHA is produced by containing one kind of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material and the corresponding monomer unit, in some cases, the by-product monomer unit of which carbon chain accompanied is reduced. On the other hand, as described above, for alkanoate as the material expressed by Formula (12), the plurality of kinds can be used for culture. In consideration of the function and the physical property necessary for the polymer produced, it is preferable to use the proper number of kinds. In general, by using 3 kinds, in maximum, of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material, it is expected that the above described purpose can be sufficiently achieved. In addition, in the purpose to control finely the functionality and the physical property, many kinds of materials more than three can be used.

[0172] For the material, any one of the substitution position of R1 on the benzene ring of Formula (2) can be selected from the ortho position (position 2 or position 6), meta position (position 3 or position 5), or para position (position 4). Polyhydroxyalkanoate yielded is that containing the monomer unit having the corresponding substituted phenyl group. The isomer to be selected as the material is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where the difference in the above described functionality and physical property does not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the para position (position 4) on the benzene ring can be more preferably used, in the point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. In polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by such microorganisms, the carbon atom of the position 3 of the monomer unit has the chiral in the center and in general, is the polymer consisting of only R-body, and hence, the isotactic polymer. Consequently, PHA produced by such method is the polymer having biodegradability.

[0173] In addition, the inventors found that

[0174] when by using 4-cyclohexyl butyric acid (CHBA) as the substrate, microorganisms are cultured in the culture medium containing CHBA and yeast extract to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate to accumulate in cells; the monomer unit of polyhydroxyalkanoate contains 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexyl butyric acid (3HCHB) in the high ratio and showed the sufficiently high yield and for polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3HCHB yielded, found that the PHCHB homopolymer consisting of the repeated unit of 3HCHB monomer units can be separated by carrying out purification treatment.

[0175] In other words, an alternative mode included in the above described first embodiment is

[0176] the method of producing poly-3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexyl butyric acid (PHCHB) consisting of 3HCHB monomer units and

[0177] the method of producing PHCHB homopolymer consisting of 3HCHB monomer units expressed by Formula (8) and characterized by having the step of cultivation of microorganisms in the culture medium containing CHBA expressed by Formula (20) and the yeast extract.

[0178] So far, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate being the homopolymer of PHCHB by microorganisms. Consequently, PHCHB yielded by the above described method is a new product and included in the invention of a new polyhydroxyalkanoate provided by the present invention.

[0179] Furthermore, in addition to method described in the above described series of specific forms in detail,

[0180] by using an alkanoate, of Formula (12), in which a side chain having a cyclohexyl group is substituted to the desired group as a material of the monomer component, PHA having various corresponding side chains can be selectively produced using microorganisms. A production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate using alkanoate of Formula (12) as the material and having the monomer unit composition shown by Formula (13) is also included in the above described first embodiment by the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention.

[0181] (In Formula (12), R is at least one or more groups selected from groups expressed by the following general Formula (4).)

[0182] (In Formula (13), R′ is the group selected as R in the above described Formula (12),

[0183] and if the group selected as R is

[0184] expressed by Formula (4) and is the group of s=s0, it has the corresponding R3 and at least one or more group selected from s=s0−2, s=s0−4, or s=s0−6. s0−2, s0−4, or s0−6 can be the integer value of 1 or more.)

[0185] (Of Formula (4), the R3 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and s is selected from integers of 1 to 8.)

[0186] In many cases, when PHA is produced by containing one kind of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material and the corresponding monomer unit, in some cases, the by-produced monomer unit of which carbon chain accompanied is reduced. On the other hand, as described above, for alkanoate as the material expressed by Formula (12), the plurality of kinds can be used for culture. In consideration of the function and the physical property necessary for the polymer produced, it is preferable to use the proper number of kinds. In general, by using 3 kinds, in maximum, of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material, it is expected that the above described purpose can be sufficiently achieved. In addition, in the purpose to control finely the functionality and the physical property, many kinds of materials more than three can be used.

[0187] For the material, any one of the substitution positions of R3 on the cyclohexyl ring of Formula (4) can be selected from position 1, position 2 (or position 6), position 3 (or position 5), and position 4. In addition, either cis configuration or trans configuration can be selected. Polyhydroxyalkanoate yielded is that containing the monomer unit having the corresponding substituted cyclohexyl ring. The isomer to be selected as the material is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where the difference in the above described functionality and physical property does not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the 4 on the cyclohexyl ring can be more preferably used, in the point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. In polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by such microorganisms, the carbon atom of the position 3 of the monomer unit has the chiral in the center and in general, is the polymer consisting of only R-body and hence, the isotactic polymer. Consequently, PHA produced by such method is the polymer having biodegradability.

[0188] In addition, the inventors successfully obtained a microorganism capable of producing copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid (3HPxV) monomer unit expressed by Formula (6) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid (HPV) monomer unit expressed by Formula (9) when cultured in the culture medium containing yeast extract and 5-phenoxy valeric acid (PxVA) expressed by Formula (15),

[0189] and

[0190] 5-phenyl valeric acid (PVA) expressed by Formula

[0191] In other words, an alternative mode included in the above described first embodiment is the method of producing a poly-(3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid/3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid) copolymer consisting of repeated units of the 3HPxV monomer unit and the 3HPV monomer units expressed by the above described Formula (6) and (9), using PxVA and PVA and characterized by having the step of cultivation of microorganisms in the culture medium containing PxVA and PVA expressed by the above described Formula (15), (18), and the yeast extract.

[0192] So far, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3HPxV and 3HPV monomer units, using PxVA and PVA as a substrate by microorganisms. Also, there is no report about production of polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of 3HPxV and 3HPV monomer units by microorganisms. Consequently, polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of 3HPxV and 3HPV monomer units and yielded by the above described method is a new product and included in the invention the new polyhydroxyalkanoate provided by the present invention.

[0193] Furthermore, in addition to method described in the above described specific forms in detail,

[0194] by using a plurality of kinds of alkanoate, as the material, selected from the following alkanoate of Formula (12), polyhydroxyalkanoate containing a plurality of kinds of monomer units having various corresponding side chains can be selectively produced using microorganisms. In other words, the first embodiment of the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention includes the specific form of production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate containing a plurality of kinds of monomer units having various corresponding side chains by using a plurality of kinds of alkanoate of as the material.

[0195] In other words, the production method is characterized in that a microorganism is cultured in a culture medium containing yeast extract and the alkanoate expressed by Formula (12):

[0196] (In Formula (12), R is at least one or more group selected from groups expressed by any one of the following general Formula (2), general Formula (3), or general Formula (4)), and the microorganism is extracted to obtain polyhydroxyalkanoate expressed by Formula (13) having at least one of the monomer units represented by Formula (13):

[0197] (In Formula (13), R1 is the group selected as R in the above described Formula (12),

[0198] and at least one or more groups selected from the groups

[0199] having the corresponding R1 and being q=q0−2, q=q0−4, or q=q0−6, if the group selected as R is expressed by Formula (2) and is the group of q=q0, having the corresponding R2 and being r=r0−2, r=r0−4, or r=r0−6, if the group selected as R is expressed by Formula (3) and is the group of r=r0, and

[0200] having the corresponding R3 and being s=s0−2, s=s0−4, or s=s0−6, if the group selected as R is expressed by Formula (4) and is the group of s=s0.

[0201] q0−2, r0−2, or s0−2, or q0−4, r0−4, or s0−4, or q0−6, r0−6, or s0−6, can be the integer value of 1 or more.)

[0202] (Of Formula (2), the R1 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and q is selected from integers of 1 to 8; of Formula (3) the R2 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and r is selected from integers of 1 to 8; of Formula (4) the R3 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and s is selected from integers of 1 to 8.) Specifically, the production method is characterized in obtaining polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of monomer units holding side chains corresponding to at least one alkanoate as the material. In other words, the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate having monomer units characterized by having at least one or more side chain structure, in which side chain structure of monomer units corresponds to each alkanoate, particularly, consisting of each monomer units derived from each alkanoate, is that in which a plurality of kinds of alkanoate is used as the material, as monomer units, which can be taken in polyhydroxyalkanoate, according to a plurality of kinds of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) selected.

[0203] In this method, by using one kind of the alkanoate as the material expressed by Formula (12), PHA containing the corresponding monomer unit and in some cases, the by-produced monomer unit of, which carbon chain accompanied is reduced, can produced. On the other hand, as described above, for the alkanoate as the material expressed by Formula (12), the plurality of kinds can be used for culture. In consideration of the function and the physical property necessary for the polymer produced, it is preferable to use the proper number of kinds. In general, by using about 5 kinds, in maximum, of alkanoate expressed by Formula (12) as the material, it is expected that the above described purpose can be sufficiently achieved. In addition, in the purpose to control finely the functionality and the physical property, many kinds of materials more than five can be used. For example, it is possible to contain all three of the above described general Formula (2), general Formula (3), or general Formula (4), select three about kinds in maximum, and sum them to use more than 5 kinds of materials.

[0204] The substitution group R1 on the benzene ring in the general Formula (2) and the substitution group R2 on the benzene ring in the general Formula (3) can be selected from any one of the ortho position (position 2 or position 6), meta position (position 3 or position 5), and para position (position 4). Polyhydroxyalkanoate yielded is that containing the monomer unit having a corresponding substituted benzene ring. An isomer to be selected as the material is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where a difference in the above described functionality and physical property are not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the para position (position 4) on the benzene ring can be more preferably used, in the point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. Similarly, the substitution group R3 on the cyclohexyl ring in the general Formula (4) can be selected from any one of the position 1, position 2 (or position 6), position 3 (or position 5), and position 4. In addition, either cis configuration or trans configuration can be selected. Polyhydroxyalkanoate yielded is that containing the monomer unit having the corresponding substituted cyclohexyl ring. The isomer to be selected as the material is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where a difference in the above described functionality and physical property are not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the position 4 on the cyclohexyl ring can be more preferably used, in the point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. In polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by such microorganisms, the carbon atom of the position 3 of the monomer unit has the chiral in a center and in general, is the polymer consisting of only R-body and hence, isotactic polymer. Consequently, PHA produced by such method is the polymer having biodegradability.

[0205] As described in detail showing representative specific forms in the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention, polyhydroxyalkanoate having various corresponding side chains as the monomer components can be selectively produced by using microorganisms by using a derivative, which was made by substituting the side chain of alkanoate by the desired group, as the material and therefore, the present invention also provides an invention of polyhydroxyalkanoate, obtained by such method, having a monomer composition expressed by the following general Formula (1). In other words, a new polyhydroxyalkanoate according to the present invention is polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of monomer units expressed by Formula (1).

[0206] (In Formula (1), R is at least one or more group selected from groups expressed by any one of the following general Formula (2), general Formula (3), or general Formula (4)).

[0207] (Of Formula (2), R1 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and q is selected from integers of 1 to 8; of Formula (3), the R2 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and r is selected from integers of 1 to 8; of Formula (4) the R3 is the group selected from the hydrogen atom (H), halogen atom, CN, NO2, CF3, C2F5, and C3F7 and s is selected from integers of 1 to 8.

[0208] Here, as R in the above described general Formula (1),

[0209] if one kind of group is selected,

[0210] in Formula (2), the group of q=2 in R1=H and the group of q=3 in R1=H

[0211] in Formula (3), the group of r=2 in R2=halogen atom, the group of r=3 in R2=CN, and the group of r=3 in R2=NO2

[0212] is eliminated from alternatives,

[0213] if two kind of group is selected,

[0214] in Formula (2), a combination of two groups of q=3 and 5 in R1=H,

[0215] in Formula (3), the combination of two groups of r=1 and 3 in R2=H, the combination of two groups of r=2 and 4 in R2=H, the combination of two groups of r=2 and 6 in R2=H, and the combination of two groups of r=2 and 4 in R2=halogen atom

[0216] is eliminated from alternatives,

[0217] if three kind of group is selected,

[0218] in Formula (2), the combination of three groups of q=3, 5, and 7 in R1=H,

[0219] in Formula (3), the combination of three groups of r=1, 3, and 5 in R2=H and the combination of three groups of r=2, 4, and 6 in R2=H

[0220] is eliminated from alternatives.)

[0221] Polyhydroxyalkanoate of the present invention, as described above, can contain one kind of monomer unit expressed by the general Formula (1) and also contain a plurality of kinds. In consideration of a function and a physical property necessary for the objective polymer, it is preferable to use a proper number of kinds of monomer units. In general, by selecting 10 kinds of monomer units, in total, expressed by Formula (1), it is expected that the above described purpose can be sufficiently achieved. In addition, in the purpose to control finely functionality and the physical property, many kinds of monomer units more than 10 can be contained in configuration.

[0222] For example, when polyhydroxyalkanoate is produced by containing a plurality of kinds of monomer units expressed by such general Formula (1), in addition to monomer units corresponding to alkanoate as the material, in some cases, a by-produced monomer unit of which carbon chain accompanied is reduced. Therefore, the present invention include that in which even if alkanoate itself is about 5 kinds as the material, each yields monomer unit of two kinds or more including the by-produced monomer unit and as the results, PHA contains monomer units of 10 kinds or more in total. In addition, for example, the present invention include that in which contains all of three kinds of the above described general Formula (2), general Formula (3), and general Formula (4), of which about 3 kinds in maximum are selected each, and becomes about 10 kinds of alkanoate as the material in total to yield PHA containing monomer units of 10 kinds or more containing a little numbers of the by-produced monomer unit.

[0223] Any one of the substitution position of R1 on a benzene ring Formula (2) and the substitution position of R2 on a benzene ring Formula (3) can be selected from the ortho position (position 2 or position 6), meta position (position 3 or position 5), and para position (position 4). Polyhydroxyalkanoate yielded is that containing the monomer unit having a corresponding substituted benzene group. An isomer to be selected as the material is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where a difference in the above described functionality and physical property are not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the para position (position 4) on the benzene ring can be more preferably used, in a point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. Similarly, for the substitution position of R3 on the cyclohexyl ring of the general Formula (4), any one of position 1; position 2, (or, position 6), position 3 (or, position 5), and position 4 can be selected and in addition, either cis configuration or trans configuration can be selected. In polyhydroxyalkanoate produced is that containing the monomer unit having the corresponding substituted cyclohexyl ring. The isomer to be selected is determined appropriately according to objective functionality and physical property. In the case where a difference in the above described functionality and physical property are not become the problem, normally, that having the substitution group in the position 4 on the cyclohexyl ring can be more preferably used, in a point of yield or easy uptake into the polymer, comparably to that not substituted. In polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by such microorganisms, the carbon atom of the position 3 of the monomer unit has the chiral in a center and in general, is the polymer consisting of only R-body and hence, isotactic polymer. Consequently, PHA producible by such method using microorganisms is the polymer having biodegradability.

[0224] The production method for PHA of the present invention is characterized in that in cultivation of microorganisms, by adding the yeast extract to alkanoate of Formula (12) as the material in the culture medium, content ratio of the objective monomer unit in PHA is increased very high or PHA consists of the objective monomer unit only in PHA produced by microorganisms to accumulate. An effect to enhance prioritization of a specified monomer unit is realized by adding only yeast extract to the culture medium as a carbon source other than alkanoate used as the material of PHA.

[0225] As an example of use of the yeast extract in the culture medium in production of PHA by microorganisms, the method described on the Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No.5-49487 and using microorganisms belonging to the genus Rhodobacter is exemplified. However, this conventional method is the method for production of common PHB and PHV by using hydroxyalkanoic acid having no substitution group as the monomer unit. It has been known that a biosynthetic path of the objective PHA of the present invention is an independent path from the biosynthetic path to produce PHB and PHV. In the Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 5-49487, there is no mention about the effect of the yeast extract in the PHA biosynthetic path of the object of the present invention. In addition, it has been evidently described about the effect of the yeast extract that for PHB and PHV commonly produced by microorganisms, addition of the yeast extract shows the effect to increase in PHA accumulation simply in cells and the yeast extract is not added for cell proliferation. The present invention carries out production and accumulation of PHA as well as proliferation by coexistence of alkanoate of Formula (12) with the yeast extract and thus, the yeast extract expresses a quite different effect. In addition, prioritization, being the effect of the present invention, of the specified monomer unit was never mentioned and therefore, in the composition of PHA produced by microorganisms, the effect, found in the present invention, of prioritization of the specified monomer unit having phenoxy group, phenyl group, and cyclohexyl group as the substitution group was not shown.

[0226] As an example using the yeast extract for PHA production by microorganisms, the method, described on the above described Japanese Patent No. 2989175, using Pseudomonas putida is exemplified. The production method for PHA disclosed in this patent uses the two-step cultivation and it is disclosed that PHA accumulation is carried out in only the cultivation of a second step under limitation of a nutrient source other than carbon source. In this point, this method quite differs in configuration and effect from the method of the present invention, in which cultivation is one step only in the culture medium containing alkanoate of Formula (12) and the yeast extract to perform biosynthesis and accumulation of the desired PHA. The effect of the yeast extract in Japanese Patent No. 2989175 simply aims proliferation of microorganisms used for cultivation of the second step in the first step cultivation in using the two-step cultivation and it has been evidently described that the first step cultivation is carried out under a nutrient rich condition. Here, the substrate of PHA does not coexist with the first step cultivation. The effect of the yeast extract in the two-step cultivation of the present invention is that doing production and accumulation of PHA as well as cell proliferation in the first step cultivation by coexisting of alkanoate of Formula (12) and the yeast extract in the first step cultivation, and the effect expressed by the yeast extract in the first step cultivation is quite different. In addition, in Japanese Patent No. 2989175, any one of citric acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid coexists as the carbon source in the first step cultivation and hence, it also differs in configuration from the present invention, in which alkanoate of Formula (12) and the yeast extract coexist.

[0227] As an example of a report of a microorganism, which can produce PHA, containing 3HPxB in the present invention as the monomer unit, to accumulated in the cell, there is the method using Pseudomonas oleovorans described on Macromolecules 29, 3432-3435, 1996. However, the method using Pseudomonas oleovorans uses only 8-phenoxyoctanoic (PxOA) as the substrate and therefore, it has an essential difference in which it cannot produce acetyl-Co A by p-oxidation, for example, of the present invention and it quite differs from the method using PxBA as the substrate together with the yeast extract. For PHA biosynthesized, the copolymer, which consists of three kinds of monomers of 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxy octanoic acid derived from PxOA as the substrate, 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy hexanoic acid being the by-product derived from a metabolite, and 3HPxB, is produced. In contrast, in the present invention, use of the yeast extract allows production of PHA containing only 3HPxB derived from PxBA as the monomer unit containing the phenoxy group. PHA itself to be produced differs clearly between the above described reported and the present invention. In addition, there is no report of the production of PHA, containing 3HPxB as the monomer unit, by microorganisms using PxBA as the substrate. In addition, there is no report of the production of PHA, containing only 3HPxB as the monomer unit containing the phenoxy group, by microorganisms using PxBA as the substrate.

[0228] The production method of the present invention will be described below in detail.

[0229] Microorganisms used for the present invention may be any microorganisms, which is microorganisms capable of production of PHA from the alkanoate to accumulate using the alkanoate of Formula (12) as the substrate. According to the inventors' study, bacteria of Pseudomonas is good and among them, we found that Pseudomonas cichorii YN2, FERM BP-7375; Pseudomonas cichorii H45, FERM BP-7374; Pseudomonas putida P91, FERM BP-7373; and Pseudomonas jessenii P161 FERM BP-7376 are preferable microorganisms. Also using cells other than these strains, by cultivation using the alkanoate as the substrate, by carrying out screening of bacteria belonging to, for example, the genus Pseudomonas, microorganisms usable for the production method for PHA, of the present invention, can be obtained. For example, as bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, using Pseudomonas oleovorans is possible. In addition to microorganisms belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, use of microorganisms, which belongs to the genera Aeromonas, Comamonas, and Burkholderia and, by using the alkanoate as the material (substrate), produce PHA containing corresponding 3-hydroxyalkanoate as the monomer unit, is possible. However, in consideration of productivity, the above described 4 strains can be recommended as the most preferable strains.

[0230] The details of strains YN2, H45, P91, and P161 will be listed below.

[0231] <Bacteriological Properties of Strain YN2>

[0232] Cultivation temp.: 30 C.

[0233] Morphology:

[0234] Cell form: rod, 0.8 μm(1.5 to 2.0) μm

[0235] Gram staining: negative

[0236] Spore formation: negative

[0237] Mobility: motile

[0238] Form of colony: circular, entire smooth margin, low convex, smooth surface, glossy, translucent

[0239] Physiological properties:

[0240] Catalase: positive

[0241] Oxidase: positive

[0242] O/F test: non-fermentable

[0243] Nitrate reduction: negative

[0244] Indole production: positive

[0245] Glucose acidification: negative

[0246] Arginine dihydrolase: negative

[0247] Urease: negative

[0248] Esculin hydrolysis: negative

[0249] Gelatin hydrolysis: negative

[0250] β-galactosidase: negative

[0251] Substrate assimilation:

[0252] Glucose: positive

[0253] L-arabinose: positive

[0254] D-mannose: negative

[0255] D-mannitol: negative

[0256] N-acetyl-D-glucosamine: negative

[0257] Maltose: negative

[0258] Potassium gluconate: positive

[0259] n-capric acid: positive

[0260] Adipic acid: negative

[0261] dl-malic acid: positive

[0262] Sodium citrate: positive

[0263] Phenyl acetate: positive

[0264] Production of fluorescence on King's B agar: positive

[0265] Growth in 4% NaCl: positive (weak)

[0266] Accumulation of poly-p-hydroxy butyric acid: negative (determined by staining with Sudan Black a colony grown on a nutrient agar)

[0267] Hydrolysis of Tween 80: positive

[0268] <Bacteriological Properties of Strain H45>

[0269] Morphological characteristics:

[0270] Cell shape and size: rod, 0.8 μm(1.0 to 1.2) μm

[0271] Cell polymorphism: absent

[0272] Mobility: positive

[0273] Spore formation: negative

[0274] Gram staining: negative

[0275] Form of colony: circular, entire margin smooth, low convex, smooth surface, glossy, and cream color

[0276] Physiological properties:

[0277] Catalase: positive

[0278] Oxidase: positive

[0279] O/F test: oxidative

[0280] Nitrate reduction: negative

[0281] Indole production: negative

[0282] Glucose acidification: negative

[0283] Arginine dihydrolase: negative

[0284] Urease: negative

[0285] Esculin hydrolysis: negative

[0286] Gelatin hydrolysis: negative

[0287] β-galactosidase: negative

[0288] Production of fluorescence on King's B agar: positive:

[0289] Growth in 4% NaCl: negative

[0290] Accumulation of poly-p-hydroxy butyric acid: negative

[0291] Substrate assimilation:

[0292] Glucose: positive

[0293] L-arabinose: negative

[0294] D-mannose: positive

[0295] D-mannitol: positive

[0296] N-acetyl-D-glucosamine: positive

[0297] Maltose: negative

[0298] Potassium gluconate: positive

[0299] n-capric acid: positive

[0300] Adipic acid: negative

[0301] dl-malic acid: positive

[0302] Sodium citrate: positive

[0303] Phenyl acetate: positive

[0304] <Bacteriological Properties of Strain P91>

[0305] Morphological characteristics:

[0306] Cell shape and size: rod, 0.6 μm1.5 μm

[0307] Cell polymorphism: absent

[0308] Mobility: positive

[0309] Spore formation: negative

[0310] Gram staining: negative

[0311] Form of colony: circular, entire margin smooth, low convex, smooth surface, glossy, creamy color

[0312] Physiological properties:

[0313] Catalase: positive

[0314] Oxidase: positive

[0315] O/F test: oxidative

[0316] Nitrate reduction: negative

[0317] Indole production: negative

[0318] Glucose acidification: negative

[0319] Arginine dihydrolase: positive

[0320] Urease: negative

[0321] Esculin hydrolysis: negative

[0322] Gelatin hydrolysis: negative

[0323] β-galactosidase: negative

[0324] Production of fluorescence on King's B agar: positive:

[0325] Substrate assimilation:

[0326] Glucose: positive

[0327] L-arabinose: negative

[0328] D-mannose: negative

[0329] D-mannitol: negative

[0330] N-acetyl-D-glucosamine: negative

[0331] Maltose: negative

[0332] Potassium gluconate: positive

[0333] n-capric acid: positive

[0334] Adipic acid: negative

[0335] dl-malic acid: positive

[0336] Sodium citrate: positive

[0337] Phenyl acetate: positive

[0338] <Bacteriological Properties of Strain P161>

[0339] Morphological characteristics:

[0340] Cell shape and size: coccus, diameter 0.6 μm or bacillus 0.6 μm1.5 to 2.0 μm

[0341] Cell polymorphism: elongation

[0342] Mobility: positive

[0343] Spore formation: negative

[0344] Gram staining: negative

[0345] Form of colony: circular, entire margin smooth, low convex, smooth surface, and light yellow

[0346] Physiological properties:

[0347] Catalase: positive

[0348] Oxidase: positive

[0349] O/F test: oxidative

[0350] Nitrate reduction: positive

[0351] Indole production: negative

[0352] Glucose acidification: negative

[0353] Arginine dihydrolase: positive

[0354] Urease: negative

[0355] Esculin hydrolysis: negative

[0356] Gelatin hydrolysis: negative

[0357] β-galactosidase: negative

[0358] Production of fluorescence on King's B agar: positive

[0359] Substrate assimilation:

[0360] Glucose: positive

[0361] L-arabinose: positive

[0362] D-mannose: positive

[0363] D-mannitol: positive

[0364] N-acetyl-D-glucosamine: positive

[0365] Maltose: negative

[0366] Potassium gluconate: positive

[0367] n-capric acid: positive

[0368] Adipic acid: negative

[0369] dl-malic acid: positive

[0370] Sodium citrate: positive

[0371] Phenyl acetate: positive

[0372] From the above described bacteriological properties, according to identification based on the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 1 (1984) and Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th Ed. (1994), strains YN2 and H45 are identified to belong to Pseudomonas cichorii and strain P91 to Pseudomonas putida, respectively. Therefore, we gave names these strains as Pseudomonas cichorii YN2, Pseudomonas cichorii H45, and Pseudomonas putida P91.

[0373] On the other hand, though strain P161 was identified as to belong to the genus Pseudomonas, taxonomic identification was impossible on the basis of bacteriological properties. Then, in order to attempt identification based on genetic criteria, the DNA sequence, as shown in the FIG. 12, of 16s rRNA of P 161 was determined (SEQ ID NO:1) to test the homology with the DNA sequences of 16s rRNA of known microorganisms of genus Pseudomonas. As the result, a very high homology was found between sequences of the strain P161 and Pseudomonas jessenii. In addition, a high similarity was found between bacteriological properties of Pseudomonas jessenii, described on System. Appl. Microbiol. 20:137-149 (1997) and System. Appl. Microbiol. 22:45-58 (1999), and bacteriological properties of the strain P161. From the above described results, the strain P161 can be justifiably identified as Pseudomonas jessenii and hence, we named the strain P161 as Pseudomonas jessenii P161.

[0374] The strains YN2, H45, P91 and P161 are deposited in National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry by receiving identification code of FERM BP-7375, FERM BP-7374, FERM BP-7373, and FERM BP-7376, respectively.

[0375] By culturing these microorganisms using a material for introducing the desired monomer unit and a culture medium containing an alkanoate of the general Formula (12) and yeast extract, the objective PHA can be produced.

[0376] For normal cultivation microorganisms used for the production method for PHA of the present invention, for example, cultivation for preparation of a preservation of cell strain and keeping of cell number and active condition, excluding that influencing badly to growth and survival of microorganisms, any kinds of culture medium, for example, a general culture medium and an synthetic culture medium to which the nutrient source has been added, can be used. A cultivation condition such as temperature, aeration, and stirring is properly adjusted in accordance with the microorganism used.

[0377] On the other hand, in the case where production and accumulation of PHA is carried out by microorganisms, as the culture medium for PHA production, an inorganic culture medium containing at least alkanoate of the corresponding general Formula (12) can be used. It is the feature that in this case, as carbon or energy source other than alkanoate as the material of PHA, only the yeast extract is added.

[0378] As the inorganic culture medium used for the above described culture method, any one containing necessary components, such as a phosphor source (for example, phosphate salt) and nitrogen source (for example, ammonium salt and nitrate salt), for proliferation of microorganisms can be used. For example, as a representative inorganic culture medium, can be exemplified by MSB medium, E medium (J. Biol. Chem. 218: 97-106 (1956)), and M9 medium.

[0379] The composition of the M9 culture medium used in Examples of the present invention is as follows.

Na2HPO4: 6.2 g
KH2PO4: 3.0 g
NaCl: 0.5 g
NH4Cl: 1.0 g

[0380] As the cultivation condition, shaking culture and stirring culture under 15 to 40 C., preferably 20 to 35 C., and aerobic condition are exemplified.

[0381] For cultivation steps, any method, used for normal microorganisms, such as batch system, fluidized batch system, semi-continuous culture, continuous culture, and reactor type can be used. A multi-step system by connecting a plurality of these steps may be utilized.

[0382] For example, as the method including the two steps of culture steps, in the first step, as the carbon source for cell proliferation, employing the inorganic culture medium containing about 0.1 wt % to 1.0 wt % of the yeast extract and about 0.01 wt % to 0.5 wt % of alkanoate of Formula (12), cultivation is conducted from the late stage of the logarithmic growth period to the point of a standing state period and in the second step, cells after completion of cultivation in the first step are collected by a centrifugation followed by a further cultivation in the inorganic culture medium containing about 0.01 wt % to 0.5 wt % of alkanoate of Formula (12) as the material and lacking any nitrogen source and after completion of cultivation, cells are collected to extract desired PHA.

[0383] There is the method in which cultivation is conducted in the inorganic culture medium to which about 0.1 wt % to 1.0 wt % of the yeast extract and about 0.01 wt % to 0.5 wt % of alkanoate of Formula (12) and at the point from the late stage of the logarithmic growth period to a standing state period, cells are collected to extract desired PHA.

[0384] In this case, a concentration of the yeast extract to be added to the culture medium is properly chosen in accordance with the kind of alkanoate of Formula (12), species and genus of the microorganism, a density of cells, or culture method. Normally, it is preferable to choose from a range from about 0.1 wt % to 1.0 wt % of content ratio in the culture medium in order to add it. On the other hand, for the yeast extract, any one of commercialized yeast extract generally used for cultivation of microorganisms can be preferably used. In addition, in replacement to the yeast extract, that prepared by pulverizing a lyophilized yeast product, which naturally contains the components of the yeast extract, can be also used. On the other hand, the concentration of alkanoate of Formula (12) as the material is properly chosen in accordance with species and genus of the microorganism, a density of cells, or culture method. Normally, it is preferable to choose from a range from about 0.01 wt % to 0.5 wt % of content ratio in the culture medium in order to add it.

[0385] In the case where any one of the strains YN2, H45, P91 and P161 previously described are used, in replacing to the yeast extract, a middle chain fatty acid of C6 to C12 (for example, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and the like), for example, is used as the carbon source for cell proliferation, PHA yielded is that in which the monomer unit derived from the middle chain fatty acid, which has been added, is mixed. Specifically, the case employing the method is exemplified, in which employing the inorganic culture medium, in which as the carbon source for cell proliferation, the middle chain fatty acid such as octanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and the like are added and also alkanoate of Formula (12) is added as the material, cultivation is conducted from the late stage of the logarithmic growth period to the point of a standing state period, cells are collected by centrifugation and then, the middle chain fatty acid and alkanoate of Formula (12) are added to carry out further cultivation in the inorganic culture medium lacking the nitrogen source. Or, the case employing the method is exemplified, in which the concentration of the nitrogen source is limited to {fraction (1/10)} in the inorganic culture medium, cultivation is carried out in the culture medium to which the middle chain fatty acid and alkanoate of Formula (12) are added, cells are collected in the period from the late stage of the logarithmic growth period to the point of a standing state period to extract the desired PHA. In the case where these methods, in which the middle chain fatty acid is added to the culture medium as the carbon source for cell proliferation, is applied, PHA yielded is becomes PHA, to which the monomer unit, derived from the middle chain fatty acid is added as the carbon source for cell proliferation, has been mixed.

[0386] In contrast, in the present invention, as described above, by cultivation of the above described microorganisms in the culture medium containing the yeast extract, alkanoate of Formula (12), and no other carbon source, the desired PHA, which contains a little amount of or no amount of any unnecessary monomer unit other than the monomer unit derived from the objective alkanoate of Formula (12), is produced and accumulated.

[0387] Collection of PHA from cells in the method according to the present invention is most conveniently carried out by extraction using such organic solvent as chloroform normally used. However, in an environment, in which the organic solvent is difficultly used, the method to collect PHA by removing cell components other than PHA by treatment with such surfactant as SDS, treatment with such enzyme as lysozyme, and treatment with such reagent as EDTA, sodium hypochlorite, and ammonium can be used.

[0388] The cultivation of microorganisms, production of PHA by microorganisms and accumulation in cells, and collection of PHA from cells are not restricted to the above described methods.

[0389] For example, and microorganisms used for production method of PHA, according to the present invention, microorganisms, other than the above described 4 bacterial strains, having productivity of PHA production, according to the present invention and similar to that of these 4 bacterial strains, can be used.

[0390] By using the above described methods, PHA having repeated units expressed by Formula (1) can be yielded. It is preferable that a number average molecular weight of this PHA is at least 10000 or more and a range of 10000 to 200000 is more preferable. In other words, to get stably a desired characteristic as a polymer, specifically, it is preferable that the PHA has repetition number to make the number average molecular weight to at least about 10000 to make characteristics, such as a glass transition temperature, softening point, melting point, crystallinity, and orientation which are designated by a structure of the monomer unit composing the monomer, to a specified range. On the other hand, for processing and the like, in consideration of convenience of processing such as dissolving operation, the number average molecular weight is preferably under about 200000. Usually, the range from 10000 to 100000 is more preferable. The number average molecular weight of PHA yielded by the production method according to the present invention is 10000 or more and about 20000 or more and is within the range expectable sufficiently of a stable expression of a physical property of the above described polymer.

EXAMPLES

[0391] Specific example will be presented below and the present invention will be explained in more detail. These specific examples are examples of the best mode according to the present invention. However, the present invention is not restricted to the following specific examples.

[0392] A:

[0393] An example, in which the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate according to the present invention is applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate: poly-3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid (PHPxB) consisting of the monomer unit, which is derived from 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid (3HPxB) expressed by Formula (5) using 4-phenoxy butyric acid (PxBA) of Formula (14) as the material, will be shown.

Example A-1

[0394] The strain P 91 was inoculated in a 200 ml of the M9 culture medium containing the yeast extract of 0.5% and PxBA of 0.1% and subjected to shaking-cultivation at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in a 200 ml of the M9 culture medium containing a 0.1% PxBA and lacking the nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and subjected to the shaking-cultivation at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and subjected to freeze-dry.

[0395] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in chloroform of 100 ml and PHA was extracted by stirring at 60 C. for 20 hours. An extracted fluid was filtered using a membrane filter with a pore size of 0.45 μm followed by concentration by a rotary evaporator and then, concentrated fluid was precipitated again in cold methanol and precipitation only was collected and dried in vacuo to yield PHA. PHA yielded was subjected to methanolysis by a routine method followed by analysis by a gas chromatography mass spectrometry apparatus (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) and a methyl esterified product of the PHA monomer unit was identified. On the other hand, the molecular weight of this PHA was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Toso, HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel-MIXED-C (5 μm), solvent: chloroform, polystyrene converted molecular weight.)

[0396] Table 3 shows the result of identification and an average molecular weight. It is known that PHA yielded contains only monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid expressed by Formula (5) as the monomer unit and is a poly-3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid.

Example A-2

[0397] The strain P 91 was inoculated in a 200 ml of the M9 culture medium containing the yeast extract of 0.5% and PxBA of 0.2% and subjected to shaking-cultivation at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 48 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and subjected to freeze-drying.

[0398] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in chloroform of 100 ml and PHA was extracted by stirring at 60 C. for 20 hours. An extracted fluid was filtered using a membrane filter with a pore size of 0.45 μm followed by concentration by a rotary evaporator and then, concentrated fluid was precipitated again in cold methanol and precipitation only was collected and dried in vacuo to yield PHA. PHA yielded was subjected to methanolysis by a routine method followed by analysis by a gas chromatography mass spectrometry apparatus (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) and a methyl esterified product of the PHA monomer unit was identified. Table 4 shows the result of identification. It is known that PHA yielded contains only monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid expressed by Formula (5) as the monomer unit and is a poly-3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid.

Example A-3

[0399] PHA collected from cultured cells of the strain P 91 was analyzed by using a nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus (FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400) under the following conditions.

[0400] Nuclear Species for Measurement: 1H, Solvent Used: Heavy Chloroform (Containing TMS)

[0401]FIG. 1 shows the result of measurement and a Table 5 shows the result of analysis (attribute) of each signal. Table 5 shows the result of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid described below. From the result, PHA contains only monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid expressed by Formula (5) and is confirmed that it is poly-3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid.

[0402] B:

[0403] The example, in which the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate according to the present invention is applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate: poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid (PHPxV) consisting of the monomer unit, which is derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid (HPxVA) expressed by Formula (6) using 5-phenoxy valeric acid (PxVA) of Formula (15) as the material, will be shown.

Example B-1 Synthesis of PxVA

[0404] Dehydrated acetone of 240 ml was put in a 3-necked round-bottom flask, potassium iodide (0.06 mol), potassium carbonate (0.11 mol), and phenol (0.07 mol) were added to stir sufficiently. In this solution, 5-bromo valeric acid ethyl ester (0.06 mol) was dropped in a nitrogen atmosphere and refluxed at 605 C. to react for 24 hours. After completion of the reaction, a reaction solution was exsiccated to condensation using an evaporator, and dissolved again in methylene chloride, and water was added to the solution to separate and an organic layer was dehydrated by using magnesium sulfate anhydride followed by exsiccation for condensation using the evaporator. Hot methanol was added to a dried matter (reactant) yielded to dissolve and cooled slowly to precipitate again, resulting in a yield of 5-phenoxy valeric acid ethyl ester (PxVA). At this point, the yield ratio of this ester to 5-bromo valeric acid ethyl ester was 72 mol %.

[0405] Reactant (ester) yielded was dissolved in ethanol water (9:1 (v/v)) to make 5 wt %, potassium hydroxide of 10 times mol was added to react at 0 to 4 C. for 4 hours to carry out hydrolysis of the ester. This reaction solution was added to 0.1 mol hydrochloric acid aqueous solution of 10 times volume and then, precipitation was collected by filtration. The precipitation (reactant) collected was dried under a reduced pressure under a room temperature for 36 hours. The dried matter yielded was dissolved in a small volume of hot methanol, the solution was gradually cooled to precipitate again, and the precipitation was dried under a reduced pressure under the room temperature for 24 hours resulting in yield of 5-phenoxy valeric acid, the objective compound. The yield ratio of this objective compound to 5-bromo valeric acid ethyl ester was 53 mol %.

[0406] The analysis of the compound yielded was conducted by the nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus (NMR) under the following conditions.

[0407] <Instruments Used>

[0408] FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400

[0409]1H resonance frequency: 400 MHZ

[0410] <Condition of Measurement>

[0411] Nuclear species for measurement: 1H

[0412] Solvent used: CDCl3

[0413] Reference: sealed in a capillary tube TMS/CDCl3

[0414] Temp. for measurement: room temp.

[0415]FIG. 2 shows a chart of the spectrum and Table 6 shows the result of identification.

[0416] From the result, synthesis of the desired PxVA was confirmed.

Example B-2 Production of PHPxV Homopolymer by Strain P91

[0417] The strain P 91 was inoculated in a 200 ml of the M9 culture medium containing the yeast extract (DIFCO made) of 0.5 wt % and PxVA of 0.1 wt % and subjected to shaking-cultivation at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in 200 ml of the M9 culture medium containing 0.1% PxVA and lacking any nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and further subjected to the shaking cultivation at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and subjected to freeze-drying and weighing.

[0418] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in chloroform of 100 ml and PHA was extracted by stirring at 60 C. for 20 hours. The extracted fluid was filtered using a membrane filter with the pore size of 0.45 μm followed by concentration by the rotary evaporator and then, concentrated fluid was precipitated again in cold methanol and precipitation only was collected and dried in vacuo to yield PHA and weigh. Table 7 shows the yields of cells and the polymer.

[0419] A composition of PHA yielded was analyzed according to the following steps. PHA sample of 5 mg was put in an egg-shaped flask of 25 ml volume, methanol of 2 ml containing chloroform of 2 ml and sulfuric acid of 3% (v/v) was added to reflux at 100 C. for 3.5 hours, and water was added to separate, and then, the organic layer was analyzed by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry apparatus (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, DB-WAXETR (J & W Co. made), EI method) and a methyl esterified product of the PHA monomer unit was identified. As the result, there was a single main peak. From the mass spectrum thereof, it was known as methyl esterified compound of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid. In addition, other small components had no relation with the monomer unit of PHA. FIGS. 3A and 3B show the total ion chromatogram (TIC) of GC-MS and the mass spectrum of the main peak.

[0420] The polymer yielded was subjected to NMR analysis under the following condition.

[0421] <Instruments Used>

[0422] FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400

[0423]1H resonance frequency: 400 MHz

[0424] <Condition of Measurement>

[0425] Nuclear species for measurement: 1H

[0426] Solvent used: CDCl3

[0427] Reference: sealed in a capillary tube TMS/CDCl3

[0428] Temp. for measurement: room temp.

[0429]FIG. 4 shows the chart of the spectrum and Table 8 shows the result of identification.

[0430] In addition, the molecular weight of the PHA yielded was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Toso, HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel-MIXED-C (5 μm), solvent: chloroform, polystyrene conversion). The result was Mn=70000 and Mw=121000.

[0431] As the above described result, according to the present invention, the homopolymer of poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid using PxVA as the material and production method thereof were shown.

Example B-3 Production of PHPxV Homopolymer by the Strain H45

[0432] The strain H45 was inoculated in a 200 ml of the M9 culture medium containing the yeast extract (DIFCO made) of 0.5 wt % and PxVA of 0.1 wt % and subjected to shaking-cultivation at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and subjected to freeze-drying and weighing.

[0433] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in chloroform of 100 ml and PHA was extracted by stirring at 60 C. for 20 hours. The extracted fluid was filtered using a membrane filter with the pore size of 0.45 μm followed by concentration by the rotary evaporator and then, concentrated fluid was precipitated again in cold methanol and precipitation only was collected and dried in vacuo to yield PHA and weigh. Table 9 shows the yields of cells and the polymer.

[0434] The composition of PHA yielded was analyzed according to the following steps. PHA sample of 5 mg was put in the egg-shaped flask of 25 ml volume, methanol of 2 ml containing chloroform of 2 ml and sulfuric acid of 3% (v/v) was added to reflux at 100 C. for 3.5 hours, and water was added to separate, and then, the organic layer was analyzed by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry apparatus (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, DB-WAXETR (J & W Co. made), EI method) and the methyl esterified product of the PHA monomer unit was identified. As the result, there was a single main peak. From the mass spectrum thereof, it was known as methyl esterified compound of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid. In addition, other small components had no relation with the monomer unit of PHA. FIGS. 5A and 5B show the total ion chromatogram (TIC) of GC-MS and the mass spectrum of the main peak.

[0435] In addition, the molecular weight of the PHA yielded was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Toso, HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel-MIXED-C (5 μm), solvent: chloroform, polystyrene conversion.) The result was Mn=64000 and Mw=116000.

[0436] As the above described result, according to the present invention, the homopolymer of poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy valeric acid using PxVA as the material and production method thereof were shown.

[0437] C:

[0438] The example, in which the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate according to the present invention is applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate: poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid (PHFPxV) consisting of the monomer unit, which is derived from 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid (HFPxVA) expressed by Formula (16) using 5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid (FPxVA) of Formula (17) as the material, will be shown.

Example C-1 Synthesis of FPxVA

[0439] Sodium iodide (0.06 mol), potassium carbonate (0.11 mol), and 4-fluorophenol (0.07 mol) were added to 240 ml of dehydrated acetone in a three-neck round-bottom flask and the mixture was stirred fully. To the solution was dripped 5-bromovaleric acid ethyl ester (0.06 mol) in a nitrogen atmosphere and the mixture was refluxed at 605 C. and allowed to react for 24 hours. After the completion of reaction, the reactant solution was concentrated to dryness using an evaporator. The residue was dissolved in methyl chloride again and water added, followed by separation. The separated organic solvent layer was dehydrated with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and concentrated to dryness using an evaporator to obtain the reactant.

[0440] Hot water was added to dissolve the obtained reactant and the solution gradually cooled to precipitate 5-(4-fluorophennoxy) valeric acid ethyl ester again. Here, the yield rate of the compound to 5-bromo valeric acid ethyl ester was 68 mol %.

[0441] The obtained reactant (ester) was dissolved in ethanol-water (9:1 (v/v)) to make a 5 wt % solution, 10 times the mol of potassium hydroxide added, and the mixture allowed to react at 0 to 4 C. for 4 hours to hydrolyze the ester.

[0442] The reactant solution was added in 10 times the volume of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and the precipitate collected by filtration. The collected precipitate (the reactant) was dried under decreased pressure at room temperature for 36 hours. The dried reactant was dissolved in a small amount of hot ethanol and the solution gradually cooled for reprecipitation. The precipitate was dried under decreased pressure at room temperature for 24 hours to obtain the goal compound 5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid expressed as Equation (17). The yield rate of this compound to 5-bromo valeric acid ethyl ester was 49 mol %.

[0443] The obtained compound was analyzed using NMR under the following conditions.

[0444] <Instrument>

[0445] FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400

[0446]1H resonance frequency: 400 MHZ

[0447] <Measurement Conditions>

[0448] Nuclide: 1H

[0449] Solvent: CDCl3

[0450] Reference: TMS/CDCl3 sealed into a capillary

[0451] Temperature: Room temperature

[0452]FIG. 6 shows the 1H-NMR spectrum chart and Table 10 indicates the results of identification.

[0453] From the above-mentioned results, it was confirmed that the goal FPxVA was synthesized.

Example C-2 Production of PHFPxV Homopolymer Using Strain P91

[0454] The strain P91 was inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.5 wt % yeast extract (DIFCO) and 0.1 wt % FPxVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation and suspended again in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.1 wt % FPxVA without a nitrogen source (NH4Cl), followed by shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, lyophilized, and weighed.

[0455] The lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHA was weighed. Table 11 shows the yields of the bacterial cell and polymer.

[0456] The obtained PHA was analyzed for composition as follows: 5 mg of the PHA sample was put in a 25-ml eggplant-type flask, 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid added, the mixture refluxed at 100 C. for 3.5 hours, and water added for separation. After separation, the organic solvent layer was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, column: DB-WAXETR (J&W Co.), EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. Consequently, only one main peak was shown and identified as the methyl ester of 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid by mass spectrometry. The other trace components were unrelated to the PHA monomer unit. FIGS. 7A and 7B show the TCI and mass spectrum of the methyl ester of 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid.

[0457] The molecular weight of the obtained PHA was determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Toso HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory PLgel MIXED-C (5 μm), solvent: chloroform, polystyrene conversion): Mn=68000 and Mw=120000.

[0458] The obtained PHA was further analyzed for structure using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) under the following conditions.

[0459] <Instrument>

[0460] FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400

[0461]1H Resonance frequency: 400 MHz

[0462] <Measurement Conditions>

[0463] Nuclide: 1H

[0464] Solvent: CDCl3

[0465] Reference: TMS/CDCl3 sealed in capillary

[0466] Temperature: Room temperature

[0467]FIG. 8 shows the 1H-NMR spectrum chart and Table 12 the results of the identification.

[0468] Consequently, the poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valerate homopolymer using FPxVA as the material and its production method according to this invention have been shown.

Example C-3 Production of PHFPxV Homopolymer Using Strain H45

[0469] The cells of strain H45 were inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.5 wt % yeast extract (DIFCO) and 0.1 wt % FPxVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, lyophilized, and weighed.

[0470] The lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain and weigh PHA. Table 13 shows the yields of the bacterial cells and polymer.

[0471] The obtained PHA was analyzed for composition as follows: 5 mg of the PHA sample was put in a 25-ml eggplant-type flask, 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid added, the mixture refluxed at 100 C. for 3.5 hours, and water added for separation. After separation, the organic solvent layer was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, column: DB-WAXETR (J&W Co.), EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. Consequently, only one main peak was shown and identified as the methyl ester of 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valeric acid by mass spectrometry. FIGS. 9A and 9B show the GC-MS total ion chromatogram (TIC) and mass spectrum of the main peak.

[0472] The molecular weight of the obtained PHA was determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Toso HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory PLgel MIXED-C (5 μm), solvent: chloroform, polystyrene conversion): Mn=67000 and Mw=119000.

[0473] Consequently, the poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenoxy) valerate homopolymer using FPxVA as the material and its production method according to this invention have been shown.

[0474] D:

[0475] There are given examples of the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate according to this invention applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate composed of the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid (HPVA) expressed as Equation (9), for which the material is 5-phenyl valeric acid (PVA) expressed as Equation (18): poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valerate (PHPV).

Example D-1

[0476] The strain H45 was inoculated in 200 ml of medium M9 containing 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.05% PVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0477] The lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHA was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of the PHA monomer unit. The molecular weight of the PHA was determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory-PLgel-MIXED-C-5 μm, solvent; chloroform, polystyrene-converted molecular weight). Table 14 shows the results of identification, average molecular weight, and the yield and yield rate of the lyophilized pellet and collected polymer.

[0478] As shown in Table 14, the polymer, extracted and collected from the bacterial cells has been confirmed to contain only the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid expressed as Equation (9) as the PHA monomer unit.

Example D-2

[0479] The strain H45 was inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.1% PVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in 200 ml of medium M9 containing 0.2% PVA without a nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0480] The lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHA was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. The molecular weight of the PHA was determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory-PLgel-MIXED-C-5 μm, solvent: chloroform, polystyrene-converted molecular weight). Table 15 shows the results of identification, average molecular weight, and the yield and yield rate of lyophilized pellet and collected polymer.

[0481] As shown in Table 15, the polymer, extracted and collected from the bacterial cells has been confirmed to contain only the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid expressed as Equation (9), as the PHA monomer unit.

Example D-3

[0482] The strain P91 was inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.1% PVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.1% PVA without a nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0483] The dried pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The PHA was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. Table 16 shows the results of identification and the yield and yield rate of the lyophilized pellet and collected polymer.

[0484] As shown in Table 16, the polymer, extracted and collected from the bacterial cells has been confirmed to contain only the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid expressed as Equation (9), as the PHA monomer unit.

Example D-4

[0485] The strain P161 was inoculated in 200 ml of medium M9 containing 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.1% PVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.1% PVA without a nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0486] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHA was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method and then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. The molecular weight of the obtained PHS was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Toso-HLC-8020, column: Polymer Laboratory-PLgel-Mixed-C-5 μm, solvent: chloroform, polystyrene-concerted molecular weight). Table 17 shows the results of identification, average molecular weight, and the yield and yield rate of lyophilized pellet and collected polymer.

[0487] As shown in Table 17, the polymer, extracted and collected from the bacterial cells has been confirmed to contain only the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid, expressed as Equation (9), as the PHA monomer.

Example D-5

[0488] PHPV, produced through the strain H45 was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400) under the following conditions: nuclide: 1H and 13C, solvent: heavy chloroform (containing TMS). FIG. 10 shows the 1H-NMR spectrum chart and Table 18 lists the identification of each peak. FIG. 11 shows the 13C-NMR spectrum chart and Table 19 lists the identification of each peak.

[0489] Consequently, the polymer, extracted and collected from the bacterial cells, has been shown to be poly-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid containing only the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid expressed as Equation (9), as the PHA monomer unit.

[0490] There are given examples of the production method for polyhydroxyalkanoate according to this invention applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of the monomer unit derived from 3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid (HFPVA) expressed as Equation (7) for which the material is 5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid (FPVA) expressed as Equation (19): poly-3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valerate (PHFPV).

Example E-1

[0491] The substrate FPVA was synthesized first through Grignard reaction as shown in Macromolecules, 29, 1762-1766 (1996) and 27, 45-49 (1994): 5-bromo valeric acid was dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and a 3M methylmagnesiumchloride THF solution was added by dripping at −20 C. in an argon atmosphere. After stirring for 15 minutes, a THF solution of 1-bromo-4-fluorobenzene and magnesium was further dripped and a 0.1M Li2CuCl4 THF solution added (the temperature was kept at −20 C.). The temperature of the reaction solution was returned to the room temperature. The solution was stirred overnight, then poured in 20% ice-cooled sulfuric acid and stirred. The water layer was collected and saturated with sodium chloride, followed by extraction with ether. The extract was further extracted with 100 ml of deionized water including 50 g of potassium hydroxide and oxidized with 20% sulfuric acid, followed by collection of the precipitate.

[0492] This precipitate was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400) under the following conditions: nuclide: 1H and 13C, solvent: heavy chloroform (containing TMS). FIG. 13 and Table 20 indicate the results of the analysis.

Example E-2

[0493] The strain H45 was inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.1% FPVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0494] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHA was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. Table 21 shows the results.

Example E-3

[0495] The P91 strain was inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.1% FPVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and at 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.1% FPVA without a nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0496] The lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHS was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHS monomer unit. Table 22 lists the results.

Example E-4

[0497] The P161 strain was inoculated in 200 ml of M9 medium containing of 0.5% yeast extract (Difco Co.) and 0.1% FPVA and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended again in 200 ml of M9 medium containing 0.1% FPVA without a nitrogen source (NH4Cl), and subjected to shake culture at 30 C. and 125 strokes/min. After 24 hours, the bacterial cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with cold methanol once, and lyophilized.

[0498] The lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform and stirred at 60 C. for 20 hours to extract PHA. The extract solution was filtered with a 0.45-μm membrane filter and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain PHA. The obtained PHA was subjected to methanolysis by the usual method, and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method) to identify the methyl ester of PHA monomer unit. Table 23 shows the results.

Example E-5

[0499] We analyzed PHFPV derived from strain H45, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (FT-NMR: Bruker DPX400) under the following conditions: measured nuclides, 1H, 13C: used solvent, heavy chloroform (containing TMS). The results are shown in FIG. 14, Table 24, FIG. 15 and Table 25.

[0500] F:

[0501] Following is an example of the process of the invention for producing polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid (3-HCHBA) monomer unit (Formula 8) by using 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid (CHBA, Formula 20) as a raw material.

Example F-1 Production of PHA Containing 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric Acid as a Monomer Unit by Strain YN2 (One-Step Culture)

[0502] Colonies of strain YN2 grown on an M9 agar medium supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract were inoculated in 200 ml of a liquid M9 medium supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract and 0.1% 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid, and then cultured at 30 C. After 24 hours, the cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with methanol and then lyophilized.

[0503] After weighing, the lyophiled pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform to extract PHA at 60 C. for 20 hours with mixing. Then the mixture was filtered through a 0.45 μm filter, the filtrate was concentrated by an evaporator. Cold methanol was added to the concentrate to reprecipitate the polymer material. The polymer was then vacuum-dried at room temperature and weighed. Table 26 shows the weight of the obtained lyophilized pellet and collected polymer and the yield of the polymer (CDW: cell mass (dry weight), PDW: polymer (dry weight)).

[0504] In the above mentioned prior art (Table 2), the yield of PHA comprised of 3-HCHBA unit was 89.1 mg/l culture. On the other hand, the result of the above example of the invention shows that the yield is 2.5 times higher than that. Moreover, the yield per dried cell mass was improved significantly.

[0505] The composition of the obtained PHA was analyzed as follows:

[0506] About 10 mg of PHA was put into a 25 ml eggplant type flask and dissolved in 2 ml of chloroform, then 2 ml of methanol containing 3% sulfuric acid was added to the solution and reacted for 3,5 hours under reflux at 100 C. Upon completion of the reaction, 10 ml of deionized water was added to the solution and shaken vigorously for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the separated lower chloroform layer was taken out and dried over magnesium sulfate, The methylesterified PHA components in the chloroform layer were identified by using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method). As a result, 98% of the PHA monomer units were 3-HCHBA of Formula (8), and 2% of them were 3-hydroxybutyric acid. A small amount of cyclohexyl methanol was also present.

[0507] As shown above, according to the production process of the invention, PHA containing 3-HCHBA at a significantly high level can be obtained. The effect of the yeast extract addition in the process of the invention was verified. The production process was a highly efficient method of high yield per unit volume of culture or weight of cell mass. Thus, it was verified that the present production process is highly efficient in both the high content of 3-HCHBA unit and the high yield.

[0508] Production of PHA containing 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid as a monomer unit by strain H45 (one-step culture).

[0509] Colonies of strain H45 grown on an M9 agar medium supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract were inoculated in 200 ml of a liquid M9 medium supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract and 0.1% 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid, and then cultured at 30 C. After 24 hours, the cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with methanol and then lyophilized.

[0510] After weighing, the lyophiled pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform to extract PHA at 60 C. for 20 hours with mixing. Then the mixture was filtered through a 0.45 μm filter, the filtrate was concentrated by an evaporator. Cold methanol was added to the concentrate to reprecipitate the polymer material. The polymer was then vacuum dried at room temperature and weighed. Table 27 shows the weight of the obtained lyophilized pellet (CDW) and collected polymer (PDW) and the yield of the polymer.

[0511] In the above mentioned prior art (Table 2), the yield of PHA comprised of a 3-HCHBA unit was 89.1 mg/l culture. On the other hand, the result of the above example of the invention shows that the yield is 1.3 times higher than that. Moreover, the yield per unit dried cell mass was improved significantly.

[0512] The composition of the obtained PHA was analyzed as follows:

[0513] About 10 mg of PHA was put into a 25 ml eggplant type flask and dissolved in 2 ml of chloroform, then 2 ml of methanol containing 3% sulfuric acid was added to the solution and reacted for 3,5 hours under reflux at 100 C. Upon completion of the reaction, 10 ml of deionized water was added to the solution and shaken vigorously for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the separated lower chloroform layer was taken out and dried over magnesium sulfate, The methylesterified PHA components in the chloroform layer were identified by using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method). As a result, 97% of the PHA monomer units were 3-HCHBA of Formula (8), and 3% of them were 3-hydroxybutyric acid. A small amount of cyclohexyl methanol was also present.

[0514] As shown above, according to the production process of the invention, PHA containing 3-HCHBA at a significantly high level can be obtained by strain H45 as well.

[0515] Production of PHA containing 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid as a monomer unit by strain P161 (one-step culture)

[0516] Colonies of strain H45 grown on an M9 agar medium supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract were inoculated in 200 ml of a liquid M9 medium supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract and 0.1% 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid, and then cultured at 30 C. After 24 hours, the cells were collected by centrifugation, washed with methanol and then lyophilized.

[0517] After weighing, the lyophiled pellet was suspended in 100 ml of chloroform to extract PHA at 60 C. for 20 hours with mixing. Then the mixture was filtered through a 0.45 μm filter, the filtrate was concentrated by an evaporator. Cold methanol was added to the concentrate to reprecipitate the polymer material. The polymer was then vacuum dried at room temperature and weighed. Table 28 shows the weight of the obtained lyophilized pellet and collected polymer and the yield of the polymer.

[0518] In the above mentioned prior art (Table 2), the yield of PHA comprised of 3-HCHBA unit was 89.1 mg/l culture. On the other hand, the result of the above example of the invention shows that the yield is 1.5 times higher than that. Moreover, the yield per dried cell mass was improved significantly.

[0519] The composition of the obtained PHA was analyzed as follows:

[0520] About 10 mg of PHA was put into a 25 ml eggplant type flask and dissolved in 2 ml of chloroform, then 2 ml of methanol containing 3% sulfuric acid was added to the solution and reacted for 3,5 hours under reflux at 100 C. Upon completion of the reaction, 10 ml of deionized water was added to the solution and shaken vigorously for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the separated lower chloroform layer was taken out and dried over magnesium sulfate, The methylesterified PHA components in the chloroform layer were identified by using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, EI method). As a result, 94% of the PHA monomer units were 3-HCHBA of Formula (8), and 6% of them were 3-hydroxybutyric acid. A small amount of cyclohexyl methanol was also present.

[0521] As shown above, according to the production process of the invention, PHA containing 3-HCHBA at a significantly high level can be obtained by strain P161 as well.

Example F-2

[0522] Production of PHA Containing 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric Acid Units Using Strain YN2 (Two Step Cultivation).

[0523] Strain YN2 colonies grown on an M9 agar medium containing 0.1% yeast extract were inoculated in an M9 liquid medium (200 mL) containing 0.5% yeast extract and 0.1% 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid, and then cultured at 30 C. After 24 hours, the cells were collected by centrifugation. Subsequently, the cells were transferred into a fresh M9 medium containing 0.1% 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid but free from NaCl and NH4Cl, and cultured for 21 hours at 30 C. Subsequently, the cells were washed once with methanol and lyophilized.

[0524] This lyophilized pellet was weighed, and then the polymer was collected through the same process as that conducted in Example F-1. This polymer was vacuum dried at room temperature and weighed. The obtained amounts of the lyophilized pellet (CDW) and the collected polymer (PDW) and the yield are shown in Table 29.

[0525] While the yielded amount of PHA containing the units derived from 3-hydroxy-4-cycrohexylbutyric acid in the above mentioned ordinary report (Table 2) was 89.1 mg per liter of the culture medium, the example of the invention resulted in obtaining approximately 3.2 times of the yielded amount. And the yield per dry cell mass is also improved significantly.

[0526] The composition of the obtained PHA was evaluated with the same process as that conducted in Example of the invention F-1. Consequently, 99% of them were derived from units of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid expressed as Formula (8) and 1% of them were units of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. A little amount of cyclohexyl methanol was also existed.

[0527] The molecular weight of the obtained polymer was determined as Mn=49000 and Mw=100000, with using GPC (TOSOH HLC-8020, column: Polymer laboratory PLgel MIXED-C (5 μm), solvent: chloroform, conversion into polystyrene).

[0528] The above mentioned results show that the production process using this invention enables obtaining PHA containing significantly high level of units derived from 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid expressed as the equation (8). The effect of adding yeast extract to the medium in the process of this invention was verified. Additionally, the yield per unit medium and the yield per unit cell mass were sufficiently improved. Thus the method of the invention is verified to be a highly efficient production method in both the high content of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid unit in the polymer and the high yield.

[0529] Example F-1 and this Example were compared and then it was verified that the obtained PHA can also contain a significantly high level of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid unit by using a process where the cells are cultured in a mineral medium containing yeast extract and 4-cyclohexylbutyric acid, and then transferred and cultured in a mineral medium not containing yeast extract.

Example F-3

[0530] Purification and NMR Analysis of PHA Consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric Acid Units

[0531] The following purifying process was conducted in order to remove PHB (poly 3-hydroxybutyric acid) component that was mixed in and the component considered as cyclohexylmethanol from the polymer obtained in Example F-2.

[0532] The polymer was suspended in acetone, and extraction was conducted for 24 hours at 60 C. Supernatant liquid was collected with centrifugation and extraction from the precipitated segment with acetone was conducted again. This operation was repeated 5 times, and then the collected supernatant liquid was condensed and dried thoroughly with an evaporator. The thoroughly dried sample was dissolved in a small amount of chloroform, and then precipitated again in cold methanol. This operation was repeated 3 times, and then the obtained polymer was vacuum dried. The obtained dried polymer was weighed as 281 mg.

[0533]1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses of the polymer were conducted (FT-NMR: Bruker DPX 400, used solvent heavy chloroform (containing TMS). The chart of 1H-NMR is shown in FIG. 16, the assignments are in Table 30, and the chart of 13C-NMR is in FIG. 17, and the assignments are in Table 31.

[0534] From this evaluation, it is judged that PHB (poly 3-hydroxylbutyric acid) component that was mixed in and the component considered as cyclohexylmethanol were removed and PHA consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-cyclohexylbutyric acid was collected.

[0535] G:

[0536] One example in which the production process of polyhydroalkanoate described in this invention is applied for production of the following compounds: polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of the monomer units including 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) with using 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid as a material, which is the copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV).

Example G-1

[0537] Production of the P(HPxV/HPxHp) Polymer with Using Strain YN2 (Yeast ExtractOne Step Cultivation)

[0538] Strain YN2 was inoculated into 200 mL of M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco) and 0.1% 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (PxHpA), and shake-cultured with 125 strokes per minute and at 30 C. After 64 hours, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0539] This lyophilized pellet was suspended into 100 mL of acetone and the polymer was extracted through mixing for 72 hours at the room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtrated through a membrane-filter of 0.45 μm pore size and then concentrated by a rotary evaporator. Subsequently, the concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol and then the precipitate was collected. The obtained polymer was vacuum-dried and weighed.

[0540] The molecular weight of the obtained polymer was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso HLC-8020, column: Polymer laboratory-PLgel-MIXED-C-5 μm, solvent: chloroform, molecular weight converted in polystyrene).

[0541] The composition of the obtained polymer unit was analyzed with the following process: the 5 mg of the polymer sample was put into the 25 mL eggplant shaped flask, 2 mL of chloroform and 2 mL of methanol containing 3% sulfuric acid (v/v) were added to the solution, and reflux for 3.5 hours at 100 C. was conducted. Separating occurred by adding water to the solution. Then the organic layer was analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Shimadzu QP-5050, column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W), EI method) and identification for methylesterified compounds of PHA monomer unit was conducted. The yield rate of the cells and the polymer and results of analysis of monomer units are shown in Table 32. The mass spectra of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) methyl ester, which were obtained using GC-MS, are shown in FIG. 18 and FIG. 19, respectively.

[0542] Consequently, it was suggested that using strain YN2, PHA copolymer consisting of only 2 units of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp), with 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid as a substrate, could be produced.

Example G-2 Production of P(HPxV/HPxHp) Polymer by Using Strain H45 (Yeast Extract Single-Step Culture)

[0543] Strain H45 was inoculated in a 200 ml M9 culture medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co.) and 0.1% 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (PxHpA), and shake-cultured at 30 C., 125 stroke/min. After 64 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0544] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and a polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at a room temperature (23 C.). The fluid extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size, and condensed by a rotary evaporator. The condensed fluid was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0545] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0546] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of the cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 33. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleic acid (3HPxV) methyl ester and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) methyl ester, which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 20 and FIG. 21, respectively.

[0547] From the above result, it was shown that strain H45 can produce PHA copolymer composed of only two units of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleic acid (3HPxV) and 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) by using 7-phenoxyheptanoic acid as substrate.

[0548] H:

[0549] An example of the production method of polyhydroxyalkanoate in the present invention by using 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (PxOA) as the raw material is shown here, where this method was applied to the production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate which is composed of monomer units derived from three kinds of substances including 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB), 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx) and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO), and is a copolymer composed of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB), 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx) and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO).

Example H-1 Production of P(HPxB/HPxHx/HPxO) Polymer by Using Strain YN2 (Yeast Extract, Single-Step Culture)

[0550] Strain YN2 was inoculated in 200 ml of an M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co) and 0.1% 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (PxOA), and shaking cultured at 30 C., 125 stroke/min. After 24 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0551] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and the polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at a room temperature (23 C.). The liquid extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size, and condensed by a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0552] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0553] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of the cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 34. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB) methyl ester, 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx) and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO) methyl ester, which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 22, FIG. 23 and FIG. 24, respectively.

[0554] From the above result, it was shown that strain YN2 can produce PHA copolymer composed of only three units of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB), 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx) and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO) by using 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid as substrate.

Example H-2 Production of P(HPxB/HPxHx/HPxO) Polymer by Using Strain H45 (Yeast Extract Single-Step Culture)

[0555] strain H45 was inoculated on M9 culture medium, 200 ml in volume, including 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co) and 0.1% 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (PxOA), and its shaking culture was done at 30 C., 125 stroke/min. After 24 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0556] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and a polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at a room temperature (23 C.). The fluid extract was filtered by a membrane filter with 0.45 μm pore diameter, and was condensed by a rotary evaporator. The condensed fluid was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate alone was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0557] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0558] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of the cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 35. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB) methyl ester, 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx) and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO) methyl ester, which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 25, FIG. 26 and FIG. 27, respectively.

[0559] From the above result, it was shown that strain H45 can produce PHA copolymer composed of only three units of 3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (3HPxB), 3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (3HPxHx) and 3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (3HPxO) by using 8-phenoxyoctanoic acid as substrate.

[0560] I:

[0561] An example of the production method of polyhydroxyalkanoate in the present invention by using 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid (PxUDA) as the raw material is shown here, where this method was applied to the production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate which is composed of monomer units derived from three kinds of substances including 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (3HPxN), and is a copolymer composed of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (3HPxN).

Example I-1 Production of P(HPxN/HPxHp/HPxV) Polymer by Using Strain YN2 (Yeast Extract, Single-Step Culture)

[0562] Strain YN2 was inoculated in 200 ml of an M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co) and 0.1% 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid (PxUDA), and cultured at 30 C. with shaking at 125 stroke/min. After 64 hr, the cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0563] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and the polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at a room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size and was condensed by a rotary evaporator. The condensate was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0564] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0565] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was subjected to the analysis by gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of the cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of the monomer unit are shown in Table 36. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester, 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (3HPxN) methyl ester, which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 28, FIG. 29 and FIG. 30, respectively.

[0566] From the above result, it was shown that strain YN2 can produce PHA copolymer composed of only three units of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (3HPxN) by using 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid as substrate.

Example I-2

[0567] Production of P(HPxN/HPxHp/HPxV) Polymer by Using Strain H45 (Yeast Extract, Single-Step Culture)

[0568] Strain H45 was inoculated in 200 ml of an M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co) and 0.1% 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid (PxUDA), and cultured at 30 C., with shaking at 125 stroke/min. After 64 hr, the cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0569] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and the polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at a room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size and was condensed by a rotary evaporator. The condensed fluid was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0570] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0571] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of the cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 37. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) methyl ester, 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (3HPxN) methyl ester, which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 31, FIG. 32 and FIG. 33, respectively.

[0572] From the above result, it was shown that strain H45 can produce PHA copolymer composed of only three units of 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), 3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (3HPxHp) and 3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (3HPxN) by using 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid as substrate.

[0573] J:

[0574] An example of the production method of polyhydroxyalkanoate in the present invention by using 6-phenylhexanoic acid (PHxA) as the raw material is shown here, where this method was applied to the production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate composed of monomer units derived from 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx), that is, poly-3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (PHPHx), or to the production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate which is composed of monomer units derived from 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx) and 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (3HPB), and is a copolymer composed of 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx) and 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (3HPB).

Example J-1 Production of PHPHx Polymer by Using Strain YN2 (Yeast Extract, Single-Step Culture)

[0575] Strain YN2 was inoculated in 200 ml of an M9 medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co) and 0.1% 6-phenylhexanoic acid (PHxA), and cultured at 30 C. with shaking at 125 stroke/min. After 27 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0576] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and the polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size, and was condensed by a rotary evaporator. The condensed fluid was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate alone was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0577] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0578] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water and fractional separation of the fluid, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 38. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx) methyl ester obtained by GC-MS measurement is shown in FIG. 34.

[0579] From the above result, it was shown that strain YN2 can produce PHA polymer consisted of 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx) alone by using 6-phenylhexanoic acid as substrate.

Example J-2

[0580] Production of P(HPHx/HPB) Polymer by Using Strain H45 (Yeast Extract Single-Step Culture)

[0581] Strain H45 was inoculated in 200 ml of an M9 culture medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co) and 0.1% 6-phenylhexanoic acid (PHxA), and was cultured at 30 C., with shaking at 125 stroke/min. After 27 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0582] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and a polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at a room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size, and was condensed by a rotary evaporator. The condensed fluid was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate alone was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0583] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0584] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 39. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (3HPB) methyl ester and 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx), which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 35 and FIG. 36, respectively.

[0585] From the above result, it was shown that strain H45 can produce PHA copolymer composed only of 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (3HPB) and 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (3HPHx) by using 6-phenylhexanoic acid as substrate.

[0586] K:

[0587] An example of the production method of polyhydroxyalkanoate in the present invention by using both 5-phenylvaleric acid (PVA) and 5-phenoxyvaleric acid (PxVA) as the raw materials is shown here, where this method was applied to the production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate which is composed of monomer units of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), and is a copolymer composed of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV).

Example K-1

[0588] Production of P(HPV/HPxV) Polymer by Using Strain YN2 (Yeast Extract, Single-Step Culture)

[0589] Strain YN2 was inoculated in 200 ml of an M9 culture medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co), 0.05% 5-phenylvaleric acid (PVA) and 0.05% 5-phenoxyvaleric acid (PxVA), and cultured at 30 C., with shaking at 125 stroke/min. After 24 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0590] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and the polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtered by a membrane filter with 0.45 μm pore size, and was concentrated by a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0591] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0592] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water and fractional separation of the fluid, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 40. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV) methyl ester and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 37 and FIG. 38, respectively.

[0593] From the above result, it was shown that strain YN2 can produce PHA copolymer composed only of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPv) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) corresponding to 5-phenylvaleric acid and 5-phenoxyvaleric acid as substrates.

Example K-2

[0594] Production of P(HPV/HPxV) Polymer by Using Strain H45 (Yeast Extract, Single-Step Culture)

[0595] Strain H45 was inoculated into 200 ml of an M9 culture medium containing 0.5% yeast extract (produced by Difco Co), 0.05% 5-phenylvaleric acid (PVA) and 0.05% 5-phenoxyvaleric acid (PxVA), and cultured at 30 C. with shaking at 125 stroke/min. After 24 hr, cells were collected by centrifugation, washed once with cold methanol, lyophilized and weighed.

[0596] This lyophilized pellet was suspended in 100 ml of acetone, and a polymer was extracted by mixing for 72 hr at room temperature (23 C.). The extract was filtered by a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore size, and was concentrated by a rotary evaporator. The concentrate was reprecipitated in cold methanol, and then the precipitate was collected and vacuum-dried to obtain a polymer to be weighed.

[0597] The molecular weight of the polymer obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC: Toso, HLC-8020; Column: Polymer Laboratory, PLgel MIXED-C, 5 μm; Solvent: chloroform; Polystyrene-converted molecular weight).

[0598] The unit composition of the polymer obtained was analyzed as follows: Five milligram of polymer sample put into a 25 ml eggplant-type flask was added with 2 ml of chloroform and 2 ml of methanol containing 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid, and was refluxed for 3.5 hr at 100 C. After addition of water for phase separation, the organic layer was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS: Shimadzu QP-5050; Column: DB-WAXETR (produced by J&W Co); EI method) to identify the methyl esterified compound of PHA monomer unit. The yield of cells and polymer, and the result of analysis of monomer unit are shown in Table 41. The mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV) methyl ester and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV), which were obtained by GC-MS measurement, are shown in FIG. 39 and FIG. 40, respectively.

[0599] From the above result, it was shown that strain H45 can produce PHA copolymer composed only of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (3HPV) and 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (3HPxV) corresponding to 5-phenylvaleric acid and 5-phenoxyvaleric acid as substrates.

TABLE 1
Cell Polymer
(Dry weight) (Dry weight) Yield
Carbon source (Alkanoate) (mg/l) (mg/l) (%)
6-Phenoxyhexanoic acid 950 100    10.5
8-Phenoxyoctanoic acid 820 90 11
11-Phenoxyundecanoic acid 150 15 10

[0600]

TABLE 2
NA:CHBA CDW PDW Yield Unit
5:5 756.0 89.1 11.8 NA, CHBA
1:9 132.8 19.3 14.5 NA, CHBA

[0601]

TABLE 3
P. putida P91
Cell (Dry weight) 520 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)  14 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight)  2.7%
Polymer molecular weight Mn = 42,000
Mw = 84,000
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid  0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid  0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid 100%

[0602]

TABLE 4
P. putida P91
Cell (Dry weight) 500 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)  8 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight)  1.4%
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid  0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid  0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy-4-phenoxy butyric acid 100%

[0603]

TABLE 5
1H NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
0.8 to 1.6 Impurity
2.71 d; 2H, a
3.97 d; 2H, c
5.47 m; 1H, b
6.79 d; 2H, f, h
6.90 t; 1H, g
7.19 t; 2H, e, i

[0604]

TABLE 6
1H NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
Chemical Integral
Shift/ppm value/H type Identification
1.562 broad Impurity
1.863 4 m c, d
2.474 2 t b
3.994 2 t c
6.905 2 t h, j
6.964 1 t i
7.28  2 t g, k
9.35  broad COOH

[0605]

TABLE 7
Dry cell Dry polymer Yield
(mg/l) (mg/l) (dry polymer/dry cell, %)
750 45 6.0

[0606]

TABLE 8
1H NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
Chemical Integral
Shift/ppm value/H type Identification
1.562 broad Impurity
2.009 2 m d
2.585 2 d b
3.9  2 m e
5.365 1 m c
6.81  2 m h, j
6.89  1 t i
7.21  2 t g, k

[0607]

TABLE 9
Dry cell Dry polymer Yield
(mg/l) (mg/l) (dry polymer/dry cell, %)
850 95 11.2

[0608]

TABLE 10
1H NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
Chemical
Shift/ppm Integral/H type Identification
1.85 4 m c, d
2.46 2 t b
3.95 2 t e
6.83 2 t h, j
6.97 2 t g, k
10.15  broad COOH

[0609]

TABLE 11
Dry cell Dry polymer Yield
(mg/l) (mg/l) (dry polymer/dry cell, %)
700 35 5.0

[0610]

TABLE 12
1H NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
Chemical
Shift/ppm Integral/H type Identification
to 1.55 Impurity
2.00 2 m d
2.59 2 d b
3.86 2 m c
5.36 1 m c
6.74 2 m h, j
6.90 2 t g, k

[0611]

TABLE 13
Dry cell Dry polymer Yield
(mg/l) (mg/l) (dry polymer/dry cell, %)
830 72 8.7

[0612]

TABLE 14
P. cichorii H45
Cell (Dry weight) 1050 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)  310 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight)  30%
Polymer molecular weight Mn = 1.5 105
Mw = 1.8 105
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid   0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid   0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid   0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid   0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid   0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid   0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid   0%
3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid  100%

[0613]

TABLE 15
P. cichorii H45
Cell (Dry weight) 800 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight) 320 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight)  40%
Polymer molecular weight Mn = 9.7 104
Mw = 2.1 105
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid  0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid  0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid 100%

[0614]

TABLE 16
P. putida P91
Cell (Dry weight) 880 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)  96 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight)  11%
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid  0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid  0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid 100%

[0615]

TABLE 17
P. jessenii P161
Cell (Dry weight) 650 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight) 410 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight)  63%
Polymer molecular weight Mn = 4.9 104
Mw = 9.2 104
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid  0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid  0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid  0%
3-hydroxy-5-phenyl valeric acid 100%

[0616]

TABLE 18
1H NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
0.9 to 1.7 Broad peak → Impurities
1.9 m; 2H, CH2 → d
2.4 to 2.6 m; 4H, CH2 2 → b, e
5.2 to 5.3 m; 1H, OCH → c
6.9 to 7.0 m; 3H, → Benzene proton → h, i, j
7.1 m; 2H, → Benzene proton → g, k
7.3 s; Solvent (CDCl3)

[0617]

TABLE 19
13C-NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 100 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
31.8 CH2 → d
35.8 CH2 → e
39.4 CH2 → b
70.9 CH → c
77.1 to 77.7 Solvent (CDCl3)
126.5  CH (benzene ring) → i
128.7 to 128.9 CH (benzene ring) → g, h, j, k
141.3  C (benzene ring) → f
169.7  Carbonyl C═O → a

[0618]

TABLE 20
Chemical shift/ppm type Identification
1.67 m c, d
2.39 t b
2.62 t e
6.97 t h, j
7.12 t g, k
10.7 broad COOH

[0619]

TABLE 21
P. cichorii H45
Cell (Dry weight) 1310 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)  270 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight) 21%
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid 0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid 0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid 100%

[0620]

TABLE 22
P. putida P91
Cell (Dry weight) 430 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)  17 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight) 4%
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid 0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid 0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid 100%

[0621]

TABLE 23
P. jessenji P161
Cell (Dry weight) 780 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight) 330 mg/l
Polymer (Dry weight)/Cell (Dry weight) 42%
Monomer unit composition (area ratio)
3-hydroxy butyric acid 0%
3-hydroxy valeric acid 0%
3-hydroxy hexanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy heptanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy octanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy nonanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy decanoic acid 0%
3-hydroxy-5-(4-fluorophenyl) valeric acid 100%

[0622]

TABLE 24
1H-NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 400 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
0.9 to 1.7 Broad peak → Impurities
1.8 to 1.9 m; 2H, CH2 → d
2.4 to 2.6 m; 4H, CH2 2 → b, e
5.2 to 5.3 m; 1H, OCH → c
6.9 to 7.0 t; 2H, Proton at o-benzene → h, j
7.1 t; 2H, Proton at m-benzene → g, k
7.3 s; Solvent (CDCl3)

[0623]

TABLE 25
13C-NMR Spectrum
Resonance frequency: 100 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
 31.0 CH2 → d
 35.9 CH2 → e
 39.4 CH2 → b
 70.5 CH → c
77.1 to 77.7 Solvent (CDCl3)
115.5, 115.7 CH at o-benzene → h, i
130.0 CH at m-benzene → g, k
136.3 C at p-benzene → f
160.5, 163.0 C at with F substitution → i
169.7 Carbonyl C═O → a

[0624]

TABLE 26
CDW PDW Yield
1100 225 20.5

[0625]

TABLE 27
CDW PDW Yield
800 120 15.0

[0626]

TABLE 28
CDW PDW Yield
750 130 17.3

[0627]

TABLE 29
CDW PDW Yield
1100 285 25.9

[0628]

TABLE 30
1H Spectrum
Resonans frequency: 400 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
0.9 to 1.8 m; 11H,
CH2 5 → f, g, h, i, j
CH → e
1.5 to 1.7 m; 2H,
CH2 → d
2.5 to 2.6 dd; 2H,
CH2 → b (further splitting due to remote
HH coupling with hexyl group)
5.2 to 5.3 m; 1H,
OCH → c

[0629]

TABLE 31
13C Spectrum
Resonans frequency: 100 MHz
δ (ppm) Assignment
26.4 to 34.3 hexyl CH2, CH → e to j
 40.1 CH2 → d
 41.9 CH2 → b
 69.3 CH → c
77.1 to 77.7 Solvent (CDCl3)
169.8 Carbonyl C ═O → a

[0630]

TABLE 32
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1295
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 350
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 3.9
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 8.1
3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleic acid (%) 60.0
3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (%) 40.0

[0631]

TABLE 33
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1070
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 235
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 2.9
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 5.7
3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleic acid (%) 27.9
3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (%) 72.1

[0632]

TABLE 34
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1315
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 415
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 2.5
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 5.5
3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (%) 2.2
3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (%) 68.7
3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (%) 29.1

[0633]

TABLE 35
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 990
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 225
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 1.8
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 4.3
3-hydroxy-4-phenoxybutyric acid (%) 2.4
3-hydroxy-6-phenoxyhexanoic acid (%) 73.2
3-hydroxy-8-phenoxyoctanoic acid (%) 24.4

[0634]

TABLE 36
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1510
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 385
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 1.8
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 3.8
3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (%) 32.0
3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (%) 65.6
3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (%) 2.4

[0635]

TABLE 37
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1015
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 120
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 2.2
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 4.5
3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (%) 45.8
3-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoic acid (%) 47.8
3-hydroxy-9-phenoxynonanoic acid (%) 6.4

[0636]

TABLE 38
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1095
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 90
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 6.8
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 17.9
3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (%) 100.0

[0637]

TABLE 39
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 935
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 90
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 6.9
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 15.5
3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (%) 1.7
3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoic acid (%) 98.7

[0638]

TABLE 40
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1300
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 330
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 5.0
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 10.8
3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (%) 62.3
3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (%) 37.7

[0639]

TABLE 41
Cell (Dry weight) (mg/l) 1050
Polymer (Dry weight) (mg/l) 165
Number average molecular weight (Mn) 104 3.6
Weight average molecular weight (Mw) 104 7.7
3-hydroxy-5-phenylvaleric acid (%) 76.4
3-hydroxy-5-phenoxyvaleric acid (%) 23.6

[0640]

1 1 1 1501 DNA Pseudomonas jessenii P161 ; FERM P-17445 1 tgaacgctgg cggcaggcct aacacatgca agtcgagcgg 40 atgacgggag cttgctcctg aattcagcgg cggacgggtg 80 agtaatgcct aggaatctgc ctggtagtgg gggacaacgt 120 ctcgaaaggg acgctaatac cgcatacgtc ctacgggaga 160 aagcagggga ccttcgggcc ttgcgctatc agatgagcct 200 aggtcggatt agctagttgg tgaggtaatg gctcaccaag 240 gcgacgatcc gtaactggtc tgagaggatg atcagtcaca 280 ctggaactga gacacggtcc agactcctac gggaggcagc 320 agtggggaat attggacaat gggcgaaagc ctgatccagc 360 catgccgcgt gtgtgaagaa ggtcttcgga ttgtaaagca 400 ctttaagttg ggaggaaggg cattaaccta atacgttagt 440 gttttgacgt taccgacaga ataagcaccg gctaactctg 480 tgccagcagc cgcggtaata cagagggtgc aagcgttaat 520 cggaattact gggcgtaaag cgcgcgtagg tggtttgtta 560 agttggatgt gaaagccccg ggctcaacct gggaactgca 600 ttcaaaactg acaagctaga gtatggtaga gggtggtgga 640 atttcctgtg tagcggtgaa atgcgtagat ataggaagga 680 acaccagtgg cgaaggcgac cacctggact gatactgaca 720 ctgaggtgcg aaagcgtggg gagcaaacag gattagatac 760 cctggtagtc cacgccgtaa acgatgtcaa ctagccgttg 800 ggagccttga gctcttagtg gcgcagctaa cgcattaagt 840 tgaccgcctg gggagtacgg ccgcaaggtt aaaactcaaa 880 tgaattgacg ggggcccgca caagcggtgg agcatgtggt 920 ttaattcgaa gcaacgcgaa gaaccttacc aggccttgac 960 atccaatgaa ctttccagag atggatgggt gccttcggga 1000 acattgagac aggtgctgca tggctgtcgt cagctcgtgt 1040 cgtgagatgt tgggttaagt cccgtaacga gcgcaaccct 1080 tgtccttagt taccagcacg taatggtggg cactctaagg 1120 agactgccgg tgacaaaccg gaggaaggtg gggatgacgt 1160 caagtcatca tggcccttac ggcctgggct acacacgtgc 1200 tacaatggtc ggtacagagg gttgccaagc cgcgaggtgg 1240 agctaatccc acaaaaccga tcgtagtccg gatcgcagtc 1280 tgcaactcga ctgcgtgaag tcggaatcgc tagtaatcgc 1320 gaatcagaat gtcgcggtga atacgttccc gggccttgta 1360 cacaccgccc gtcacaccat gggagtgggt tgcaccagaa 1400 gtagctagtc taaccttcgg gaggacggtt accacggtgt 1440 gattcatgac tggggtgaag tcgtaccaag gtagccgtag 1480 gggaacctgc ggctggatca c 1501

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6911520Feb 27, 2003Jun 28, 2005Canon Kabushiki KaishaPolyhydroxyalkanoate, method of producing the same, charge controlling agent containing polyhydroxyalkanoate, toner binder and toner, and image formation method and image forming apparatus using toner
US7078200Jun 26, 2003Jul 18, 2006Canon Kabushiki KaishaBiosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-substituted benzoylalkanoic acid using microorganisms; esterification to polylactone; extraction and recovery
US7425432Oct 23, 2003Sep 16, 2008Canon Kabushiki KaishaPolyhydroxy alkanoate copolymer including within molecule unit having vinyl group or carboxyl group in side chain, and producing method therefor
US7459517Oct 23, 2003Dec 2, 2008Canon Kabushiki KaishaHigh thermal stability, charge stablity, a high charge amount, improved dispersibility and biodegradability together; for resin moldings, and binders and charge controlling agents for toners used in the electrophotography
Classifications
U.S. Classification435/135, 528/274, 528/272
International ClassificationC12N1/20, C12R1/38, C08L101/16, C08G63/06, C08G63/682, C08G63/685, C12P7/62
Cooperative ClassificationC12P7/625, C08G63/06, C08G63/6822, C08G63/6852
European ClassificationC08G63/682B, C12P7/62A, C08G63/685B, C08G63/06