CROSSREFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001]
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/192,515, filed Mar. 28, 2000.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002]
This invention relates to the field of radio frequency (“RF”) transceivers and more particularly to monolithic low noise amplifier architectures used in wireless receivers that can operate at multiple frequency bands simultaneously.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003]
Wireless communications systems have exhibited remarkable growth over the past decade. Wireless voice and data applications are being enabled by rapidly emerging wireless technologies, such as cellular telephony, personal communications systems and wireless local area networks (WLAN's), to name a few. Digital modulation techniques, miniaturization of transceivers due to advances in monolithic integrated circuit designs and the development of high frequency, microwave and millimeter wave RF systems in both the licensed and unlicensed bands, have all contributed to improving the quality and bandwidth capacity of these system and to reducing the size and costs of the components.

[0004]
These systems are having a profound effect on societies. For example, they are enabling many work forces in our global, service and information based economy to become “untethered” from their information sources and conventional wired communications mechanisms. Moreover, wireless communication systems are enabling developing countries to provide instant telephone service to new subscribers who otherwise would have to wait years for wireline access.

[0005]
While many wireless applications work fairly well and have found widespread acceptance (e.g. mobile/cellular telephones), they continue to suffer from numerous drawbacks. One recognized problem in the cellular phone industry is the lack of universal standards for both signal transmission modes (analog or digital) and within digital mode the frequency bands and signal processing protocols (e.g., TDMA, CDMA, WDM, GSM, etc.). This unfortunately requires users who wish to use cell phones in different geographic areas that employ different telecommunications standards to either carry multiple telephones or to use phones designed to operate in multiple frequency modes and bands.

[0006]
It would thus be highly desirable to have a receiver that can operate at multiple and discrete frequency bands. This would offer several benefits. A multiband receiver could enable the design of a single device that can operate under multiple standards, such as GSM (with a center frequency of 900 MHz) and DECT (center frequency of 1800 MHz), thereby eliminating the need for one device per standard. While dual band receivers have been introduced that indeed increase the functionality of such communication systems, such receivers switch between two different bands and can receive only one band at a time. FIG. 1 is a schematic of such a conventional dual band architecture. As seen, an incoming signal, V_{in}, is received at a switch 10 (for simplicity the antenna and filter are not shown). If the signal is in a first predetermined frequency band, ω_{1}, the switch moves to the top signal processing path tuned to match and amplify signals only in this band. The signal is then impedance matched and amplified at low noise amplifier (“LNA”) 20, mixed with local oscillator, LO1, at mixer 22, filtered at band pass filter 24 and mixed again with local oscillator, LO2, 26, until is exits as V_{out }for further processing (e.g. digital signal processing). Similarly, if the incoming signal is in the second predetermined frequency band, ω_{2}, the switch moves to the bottom signal processing path tuned to match and amplify signals only in this band, through LNA 30, mixer 32, BPF 34 and mixer 36 and again exists as Vout. The frequency of LO1 is (ω_{1}+ω_{2 })/2 and the frequency of LO2 is (ω_{1}−ω_{2})/2. While this functionality adds to a device's versatility, such as in the case of a dualband digital cellular phone, these receivers are more costly than single band receivers and they are not sufficient for the nextgeneration of multifunctional devices, such as a cell phone with a GPS receiver and a bluetooth interface.

[0007]
Another problem with conventional wireless technology relates to bandwidth limitations. The diverse range of modern wireless applications demand wireless communications systems and transceivers with greater bandwidth capacity and flexibility than can be currently supplied. Increased bandwidth capacity is necessary for many wireless applications to become a reality. Wireless broadband Internet applications (e.g. browsing, ecommerce, streaming audio and video), wireless video messaging, wireless video games, and remote video monitoring are just a few examples of applications that will be delivered over the next generations of wireless networks. Conventional solidstate RF, or wireless, receiver architectures, such as superheterodyne and direct conversion receivers, accomplish high selectivity and sensitivity by designing them for narrowband operation at a single RF frequency. Unfortunately, these modes of operation are of limited functionality because they limit the system's available bandwidth and robustness to channel variations. On the other hand, wideband modes of operation are more sensitive to outofband signals due to transistor nonlinearity, which can introduce severe bottlenecks in system performance.

[0008]
It would thus be highly desirable to have such a low cost, concurrent multiband receiver. As used herein a concurrent multiband receiver is one that can process signals at multiple and discrete frequency bands simultaneously. This would enable a single path receiver to significantly increase its bandwidth capacity (bit rate). A concurrent multiband receiver design could also be used for supplying redundancy in mission critical data transmission application. The reliability of the received signal would be greatly increased with simultaneous transmission of the same signal in multiple bands for diversity of signal.

[0009]
Using conventional receiver technology, the only way to theoretically provide concurrent multiband functionality is to design into a receiver multiple independent signal paths with multiple sets of components (antennas, LNA's, downconverter etc.). Such a dualband receiver is shown schematically in FIG. 2. As shown, this design is similar to the dual band receiver in FIG. 1 without the switch 12 and separate outputs, V_{out1 }and V_{out2}. This scheme essentially equivalent to designing multiple single band receivers, each tuned to a different band and stuffed into one package. Unfortunately, this architecture significantly increases the cost, footprint and power dissipation of a receiver, and tends to make such solutions impractical, at least for commercial applications. Thus, a challenge for modern receiver design is to create concurrent multiband functionality using as little real estate (and ideally monolithically) and as little power dissipation as possible (and perhaps no more than single band receivers), while keeping the incremental production costs above the conventional single band receiver to a minimum.

[0010]
The LNA is a critical front end component of a wireless receiver. Its function is to take the relatively weak signal received at the antenna and, after filtering, amplify it with maximum power transfer and with a minimum added noise for further processing (downconversion, etc.). The maximum power transfer is achieved by designing the LNA to have an input impedance that matches a characteristic input impedance of the antenna, which is commonly 50 ohms. Thus, a true concurrent multiband LNA, as a critical front end component of a concurrent multiband receiver, must be capable of (1) matching the characteristic input impedance of the received signal at the antenna at the multiple frequency bands, simultaneously; (2) simultaneously amplifing the received signal(s) at each of the bands; and (3) accomplishing the above with minimum electrical noise added.

[0011]
As in the case of conventional dual band receivers described above, in conventional dualband LNA's, for example, either one of two singleband LNA's is selected according to the instantaneous band of operation, or two singleband LNA's are designed to work in parallel using two separate input matching circuitry and two separate resonant loads. The former approach is nonconcurrent, while the latter consumes twice as much power. The other existing approach is to use a wideband amplifier in the front end. Unfortunately, in a wideband LNA, strong unwanted blockers are amplified together with the desired frequency bands and significantly degrade the receiver sensitivity. Thus, a definite need exists for a concurrent multiband LNA that eliminates these problems.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0012]
The present invention, which addresses these needs, resides in a concurrent, multiband amplifier architecture that is capable of simultaneous operation at two or more different frequencies without dissipating twice (or more) as much power or a significant increase in cost and footprint. This concurrent operation can be used to extend the available bandwidth, provide new functionality and/or add diversity to battle channel fading. These new concurrent multiband amplifiers, which in one aspect of the invention are LNA'S, LNA's provide simultaneous narrowband gain and matching at multiple frequency bands.

[0013]
The present invention relates to a concurrent multiband amplifier having an input and output. The inventive amplifier includes a threeterminal active device, such as a transistor with a characteristic transconductance, g_{m}, disposed on a semiconductor substrate. The active device has a control input terminal, an output terminal, and a current source terminal. The amplifier also includes an input impedance matching network system, Z_{in}, and an output load network. Z_{in }simultaneously and independently matches the frequencydependent input impedance of the threeterminal active device to a predetermined characteristic impedance at two or more discrete frequency bands. The output load network simultaneously provides a voltage gain, A_{v}, to an input signal at the amplifier input at each of the two or more discrete frequency bands.

[0014]
The present invention also resides in a monolithic, concurrent multiband LNA having essentially the same three components as described above. In the LNA embodiment, however, in addition to simultaneously and independently matching the frequencydependent input impedance of the threeterminal active device to a predetermined characteristic impedance at two or more discrete frequency bands, Z_{in }is also designed to minimize the noise associated with the active device.

[0015]
The input impedance matching network system of the multiband LNA is defined by the equation, Z_{in}=Z_{1}+Z_{2}+Z_{3}+Z_{4}+Z_{5}. These five variables represent twoterminal frequencydependent, impedance networks. In particular, Z_{1 }is disposed between the input of the active device and acground and is defined by the equation Z_{1}=Z_{g}+Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}+g_{m }Z′_{s}Z_{gs.}, wherein Z_{g }is a series impedance disposed between the LNA input and the control input terminal of the active device, Z_{gs }is the impedance between the control input and current source terminals and Z′_{s }is the sum of the impedance between the current source terminal of the active device and acground, Z_{s}, and the intrinsic current sourcetobulk impedance, Z_{bs}.

[0016]
Z_{2 }is a second twoterminal, frequencydependent, impedance network disposed between the input of the active device and acground and defined by the equation Z_{2}=Z′_{L}+Z_{f}, wherein Z′_{L }is the sum of the load impedance between the output and acground, Z_{L}, and the intrinsic output terminaltobulk impedance, Z_{bd}, and Z_{f }is the feedback between the output terminal and control input terminal. Z_{3 }is a third twoterminal, frequencydependent, impedance network disposed between the input of the active device and acground and defined by the equation Z_{3}=[1+Z_{f}/Z′_{L}]/g_{mb}, wherein g_{mb }is the bulk effect transconductance.

[0017]
Z
_{4 }is a fourth twoterminal, frequencydependent, impedance network disposed between the input of the active device and acground and defined by the equation This equation for Z
_{in }is a very broad implementation of the impedance matching network of the present invention.
${Z}_{4}=\frac{1}{{g}_{m}{g}_{m\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89eb}}\xb7\left(\frac{{Z}_{f}}{{Z}_{L}^{\prime}}\right)\xb7\frac{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue8a0\left(1+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\right)}{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}};$

[0018]
and Z_{5 }is a fifth twoterminal, frequencydependent impedance network disposed between the input of the active device and acground, which is the intrinsic control terminaltobulk impedance, Z_{gb}.

[0019]
In a more specific embodiment of the multiband LNA, Z
_{f }and Z
_{gb }are neglected, thereby simplifying the input impedance matching network system to Z
_{in}=Z
_{1}. Moreover, the LNA has a characteristic noise factor, F, approximated by the equation
$F\approx 1+\frac{\gamma \ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e{g}_{\mathrm{d0}}}{{Y}_{s}}\xb7\frac{1}{{g}_{m}^{2}\ue89e{\uf603{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\uf604}^{2}}\xb7{\uf6031+{Y}_{s}\ue8a0\left({Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}+{Z}_{g}\right)\uf604}^{2}.$

[0020]
Using these formulas, Z_{in }is matched to the predetermined characteristic impedance and F is minimized by setting Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}+Z_{g}=0 for the center frequency of each of the two or more discrete frequency bands. In a specific embodiment, and as is typical in the RF industry, the predetermined characteristic impedance is equal to 50 ohms. Thus, g_{m}Z′_{s}Z_{gs }equals 50 ohms.

[0021]
Turning to the output load network of the LNA of present invention, the voltage gain, Av, is defined by the equation Av=−Z_{1}/Z′_{s}. More particularly, the output load network is a multiresonant load circuit disposed between the output of the threeterminal device and acground that provides the voltage gain of the device at each of the discrete frequency band.

[0022]
As a specific embodiment of the present invention, a monolithic, concurrent dualband LNA having an input and output is disclosed. The input impedance matching network system, Z_{in}, associated with the three terminal active device simultaneously and independently matches the frequencydependent input impedance of the active device to a predetermined characteristic impedance at two discrete frequency bands, and is defined by the equation: Z_{in}=Z_{g}+Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}+g_{m}Z′_{s}Z_{gs}. As above, this dual band LNA sets Z_{g}+Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}=0 for each of the two frequency bands, thereby making g_{m }Z′_{s}Z_{gs }equal to the predetermined characteristic impedance, which preferably is 50 ohms.

[0023]
As one implementation of this dual band topology, Z_{g }is a parallel LC network wire bonded to the input of the three terminal device and Z′_{s }is an inductor. Moreover, the LNA includes an output load network, Z_{L}, that simultaneously provides a voltage gain, A_{v}, to an input signal at the LNA input at each of the two discrete frequency bands. This load network, Z_{L}, is a series LC branch in parallel with a parallel LC tank.

[0024]
The inventors have designed a concurrent dual band CMOS LNA, having an input and an output that operates simultaneously at 2.45 GHz and 5.25 GHz center frequency bands. The input impedance network, Z_{in}, simultaneously and independently matches the frequencydependent input impedance of the transistor to a 50 ohm characteristic impedance at center frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.25 GHz, and is defined by the equations: Z_{in}=Z_{g}+Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}+g_{m }Z′_{s}Z_{gs}, =50 Ω and Z_{g}+Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}=0. In particular, Z_{g }is an input parallel resonator having a capacitor in parallel with an inductor, disposed between the LNA input and gate and with a wire bonded to the gate, Z_{gs }is the impedance between the gate and source, and Z′_{s }is an inductor disposed between the source and AC ground. The input parallel resonator is an approximately 0.9 pF capacitor in parallel with an approximately 2.7 nH inductor with the wire boding having an approximate inductance value of 3 nH, Z′_{s}is an approximately 0.7 nH inductor, the series LC branch circuit is an approximately 240 fF capacitor in series with an approximately 9.8 nH inductor, and the parallel LC tank circuit is an approximately 2.3 nH inductor in parallel with the inherent parasitic inductance of the active device. Moreover, the output load network, Z_{L}, that simultaneously provides a voltage gain, A_{v}, to an input signal at the LNA input at the 2.45 GHz and 5.25 GHz center frequencies, wherein the output load network, Z_{L}, is a series LC branch circuit, in parallel with a parallel LC tank circuit.

[0025]
A method of concurrently amplifying a multiband input signal on a semiconductor substrate having a monolithic, threeterminal active device is also described. The method includes simultaneously and independently matching the frequency dependent, input impedance of the three terminal active device to a predetermined characteristic input impedance at two or more discrete frequency bands, and simultaneously providing a voltage gain to the input signal at each of the two or more discrete frequency bands. The method further simultaneously minimizes the noise associated with of the impedancematched input signal at each of the two or more discrete frequency bands.

[0026]
Other features and advantages of the present invention should become more apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiments, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIlPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0027]
[0027]FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a conventional dualband receiver architecture that switches from band to band;

[0028]
[0028]FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a dualband receiver architecture with multiple independent signal paths;

[0029]
[0029]FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a concurrent, single path dualband receiver using the concurrent dual band LNA architecture of the present invention;

[0030]
[0030]FIG. 4 is a general impedance model for a single transistor amplifier

[0031]
[0031]FIG. 5 is the general impedance model of the transistor amplifier shown in FIG. 4, with the transistor shown as a combination of impedance and voltage dependent current sources;

[0032]
[0032]FIG. 6 is the active device general model of FIG. 5 with the active device (transistor) disposed on a bulk substrate, and further showing the terminal to bulk impedances;

[0033]
[0033]FIG. 7 is an input impedance network system schematic of the present invention showing the input impedances of the amplifier looking into the gate of the transistor;

[0034]
[0034]FIG. 8 is a schematic of a concurrent dual band CMOS LNA designed according to the present invention;

[0035]
[0035]FIG. 9 is a graph showing the measured voltage gain and S_{11 }of the dualband LNA shown in FIG. 8;

[0036]
[0036]FIG. 10 is an illustration of the crossband intermodulation of a dual band LNA of the present invention;

[0037]
[0037]FIG. 11 is a micrograph of a concurrent dual band LNA designed according to the present invention; and

[0038]
[0038]FIG. 12 is a schematic of a concurrent triple band LNA topology designed according to the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0039]
The invention summarized above and defined by the enumerated claims may be better understood by referring to the following detailed description, which should be read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. This detailed description of particular preferred embodiments, set out below to enable one to build and use particular implementations of the invention, is not intended to limit the enumerated claims, but to serve as particular examples thereof The particular examples set out below are the preferred specific implementations of a monolithic, concurrent multiband LNA and method for designing the same. It should be understood however, that this system and technique is not limited to LNA's. The concurrent multiband matching and gain techniques described herein may also be used to design other types of amplifiers and active filters. All are intended to fall within the scope of this invention.

[0040]
As in all receivers, the first gain stage in a concurrent multiband receiver is its LNA. Traditional singleband LNA's use a single or cascode transistor stage to provide wideband transconductance and combine it with proper passive resonant circuitry at the input and output to shape the frequency response and achieve gain and matching at the single band of interest. See e.g., Shaffer et al., “A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier,” IEEE JSSC, vol. 32. No. 5, pp. 74559, May 1977. The inventors have observed that the wideband transconductance of the active device can be used to provide gain and matching at other frequencies of interest without any penalty in power dissipation. This observation has led the inventors to a compact and efficient frontend for a concurrent dualband receiver which consists of a dualband antenna, followed by a monolithic dualband filter, and the concurrent dualband LNA of the present invention that provides simultaneous gain and matching at two bands.

[0041]
The present invention provides a generic approach to the design of a general class of integrated, single path concurrent multiband LNA's as one of the essential building blocks of concurrent multiband receivers. FIG. 3 is a conceptual schematic of such a true concurrent dualband receiver. An incoming signal V_{in }containing information at two discrete frequency bands ω1 and ω2 is amplified simultaneously at those frequencies (see gain v. frequency chart) and impedance matched simultaneously at those frequencies (see S_{11 }v. frequency chart) by a dual band LNA 50 of the present invention. The amplified signal is then further processed by the remaining dual band components and circuitry of the receiver 52.

[0042]
In a singleband LNA, passive circuits are used to shape the wideband transconductance of the active device in the frequency domain to achieve gain and matching at the frequency of interest. This concept can be generalized to multiple frequency bands noting that the intrinsic transconductance of the active device is inherently wideband and can be used at multiple frequencies simultaneously.

[0043]
[0043]FIG. 4 shows the general case impedance model of a three terminal active device having an input terminal, an output terminal and a current source terminal. The active device shown here is an NFET transistor having a gate 102, g, as its input terminal, a drain 104, d, as its output terminal, and a source 106, s, as its current source terminal. The transistor and impedance terminology and symbology used hereinafter follow the FET transistor convention. However, it should be understood that this general case and the specific examples set forth hereinafter apply equally to other types of three terminal active devices, such as bipolar, MESFET, PHEMT transistors, etc.

[0044]
This general model shows an LNA input signal, V_{in}, with an arbitrary series impedance between the incoming input signal and the gate, Z_{g}, a gatesource impedance, Z_{gs}, a source impedance Z_{s}, a gatedrain impedance Z_{gd}, (also known as the feedback impedance Z_{ƒ}) and a load impedance Z_{L}. The impedances shown in FIG. 4 also include transistor's inherent reactance components (e.g., C_{gs}). This model is redrawn in FIG. 5 with the transistor shown as a combination of current sources and a draintosource resistance, r_{0}, and disposed on silicon substrate bulk, b, with the added impedances introduced from each transistor terminal to the bulk, namely, Z_{gb}, Z_{bs}, and Z_{bd}. FIG. 6 is the same as FIG. 5 but with the bulk set to AC ground. As noticed in FIG. 6, the bulktosource impedance, Z_{bs}, can be combined with the source impedance Z_{s }to result in Z′_{s}. Further, the bulktodrain impedance, Z_{bd}, can be combined with the externally added load impedance Z_{L }resulting in Z′_{L}.

[0045]
The three primary design considerations for the concurrent multiband LNA of the present invention are (1) input impedance matching; (2) noise factor minimization; and (3) output gain. Each of these are now considered in detail.

[0046]
1. Multiband Input Impedance Matching

[0047]
An important feature of an LNA is its input impedance matching for maximum power transfer. Neglecting ro shown in FIG. 6, the input admittance (inverse of impedance) looking into the gate of the transistor, has been derived by the inventors and is given by the equation:
$\begin{array}{cc}\begin{array}{c}\begin{array}{c}{Y}_{i\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89en}=\frac{1}{{Z}_{g}+{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue8a0\left(1+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\right)}+\frac{1}{{Z}_{L}^{\prime}+{Z}_{f}}+\\ \frac{{g}_{\mathrm{mb}}}{1+\frac{{Z}_{f}}{{Z}_{L}^{\prime}}}+\frac{1}{1+\frac{{Z}_{f}}{{Z}_{L}^{\prime}}}\times \left({g}_{m}{g}_{m\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89eb}\right)\times \end{array}\\ \frac{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}}{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue8a0\left(1+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\right)}.\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\end{array}& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\left(1\right)\end{array}$

[0048]
For purposes of impedance matching, the inventors have designed the broad schematic shown in FIG. 7 showing the input impedance of the LNA looking into the gate of the transistor. Converting FIG. 7 to an equation, the input impedance can be defined as the sum of five, twoterminal, frequencydependent, impedance networks:

Z _{in} =Z _{1} +Z _{2} +Z _{3} +Z _{4} +Z _{5 } Eq. (2)

[0049]
wherein
$\begin{array}{c}\begin{array}{c}\begin{array}{c}{Z}_{1}={Z}_{g}+{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}};\\ {Z}_{2}={Z}_{L}^{\prime}+{Z}_{f},\end{array}\\ {Z}_{3}=\left[1+{Z}_{f}/{Z}_{L}^{\prime}\right]/{g}_{\mathrm{mb}},\mathrm{wherein}\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e{g}_{\mathrm{mb}}\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\mathrm{is}\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\mathrm{the}\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\mathrm{bulk}\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\mathrm{effect}\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\mathrm{transconductance};\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\end{array}\\ {Z}_{4}=\frac{1}{{g}_{m}{g}_{\mathrm{mb}}}\xb7\left(\frac{{Z}_{f}}{{Z}_{L}^{\prime}}\right)\xb7\frac{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue8a0\left(1+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\right)}{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}};\mathrm{and}\end{array}$

[0050]
Z_{5 }is the intrinsic gatetobulk impedance, Z_{gb}.

[0051]
Further, neglecting the effect of the gatetodrain impedance Z_{gd }(Z_{ƒ}), that is to say, assuming the transistor's internal reactance C_{gd }approximates 0 (compared to the other impedances in the network), as well as Z_{gb}, the input impedance of the amplifier shown in FIGS. 37 is simplified to

Z _{in} =Z _{1} =Z _{g} +Z _{gs} +Z′ _{s}(1+g _{m} Z _{gs}). Eq. (3).

[0052]
To achieve a maximum input power match at more than one frequency band simultaneously, the inventors have determined that Equation 3 should satisfy the following equation set:

Z _{g} +Z _{gs} +Z′ _{s}=0 Eq. (4)

[0053]
and thus,

g _{m} Z′ _{s} Z _{gs} =Z _{in} =R _{in}=50Ω, Eq. (5).

[0054]
wherein R_{in}=50Ω is the predetermined characteristic impedance of the antenna. It should be understood that any other antenna design having a different impedance value could be used. However, as is well understood, 50Ω has become a de facto standard in antenna receiver design.

[0055]
To demonstrate the validity of these expressions, consider the special case of a single band LNA inductive source degeneration similar to that of Shaffer et al., discussed above, where (4) reduces to:
$\{\begin{array}{c}\left({L}_{g}+{L}_{s}\right)\ue89e{C}_{\mathrm{gs}}\ue89e{\varpi}^{2}=1\\ \frac{{g}_{m}\ue89e{L}_{s}}{{C}_{\mathrm{gs}}}={R}_{i\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89en}=50\ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\Omega \end{array}\hspace{1em}$

[0056]
in accordance with Shaffer et al.

[0057]
The general design criteria given by Eq. (4) can be used to generate a large number of different topologies for concurrent multiband LNAs. The section titled “Examples” below presents just two examples of such topologies, one for a dualband LNA and another for a tripleband LNA.

[0058]
2. Noise Factor

[0059]
Ignoring the noise contribution of passive elements, the total noise of an LNA can be represented by its input equivalent voltage and current noise:
$\begin{array}{cc}\begin{array}{c}{i}_{n}=\frac{{i}_{\mathrm{nd}}}{{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}}+{i}_{\mathrm{ng}}\\ {e}_{n}=\frac{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}+{Z}_{g}}{{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}}\xb7{i}_{\mathrm{nd}}+\left({Z}_{s}^{\prime}+{Z}_{g}\right)\xb7{i}_{\mathrm{ng}}.\end{array}& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\left(6\right)\end{array}$

[0060]
where i_{nd }and i_{ng }are the drain and gate noise currents (collector and base noise currents in a bipolar implementation), and g_{m }is the transconductance of the transistor.

[0061]
To obtain more insight into the design tradeoffs, the inventors of the present invention ignored the gate noise (that usually contributes less than 0.2 dB to the NF), in the expression for the noise factor, F, that is given by:
$\begin{array}{cc}\begin{array}{c}F=1+\frac{\stackrel{\_}{{\uf603{i}_{n}+{Y}_{s}\ue89e{e}_{n}\uf604}^{2}}}{\stackrel{\_}{{i}_{s}^{2}}}\\ \text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\approx 1+\frac{\gamma \ue89e\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e{g}_{\mathrm{d0}}}{{Y}_{s}}\xb7\frac{1}{{g}_{m}^{2}\ue89e{\uf603{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\uf604}^{2}}\xb7{\uf6031+{Y}_{s}\ue8a0\left({Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}+{Z}_{g}\right)\uf604}^{2}\end{array}& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\left(7\right)\end{array}$

[0062]
where g_{d0 }is the zerobias drainsource channel conductance, Y_{s }is the reference source admittance (e.g., Y_{s}=1/50Ω) for the noise figure, NF, i_{s }is the noise current associated with this source admittance, and γ is the excess noise factor for the MOS transistor ranging from 2/3 for longchannel devices to more than 2 for shortchannel devices.

[0063]
Several useful design implications can be obtained from Eq. (7). First of all, this equation agrees with the wellaccepted notion that NF can be reduced using a larger g_{m }(more power dissipation). It also shows that an increase in Z_{gs }improves the NF, that accounts for the improvement in noise figure for transistors with smaller channel length and C_{gs}. The last term in Eq. (7) plays the most important role in the design of concurrent multiband LNA's. Since passive components cannot produce any negative real part, the last term reaches its minimum when Z_{g}+Z_{gs}+Z′_{s}=0 at the frequency(ies) of interest. Thus, the minimum NF will be achieved for these frequency(ies).

[0064]
It is thus observed that in order to achieve both minimal noise and maximum power match at the input for multiple frequencies, equations (3) and (7) should simultaneously satisfy the minimum NF and input matching condition at all frequencies of interest. Interestingly, equations (4) and (5) do just that. In addition to these conditions, it is crucial to maximize Z_{gs }and g_{m }to minimize NF as much as the power budget allows.

[0065]
3. Narrow Band Output Gain

[0066]
In order to achieve narrowband gain at the bands of interest, the drain load network should exhibit high impedance only at those frequencies of interest. Using the model of FIGS.
4
7, the overall gate to drain voltage gain, Av, (neglecting the body effect and r
0) is given by the equation:
$\begin{array}{cc}{A}_{V}=\frac{{Z}_{L}\ue89e{Z}_{f}}{{Z}_{L}+{Z}_{f}}\xb7\left[\frac{1}{{Z}_{f}}\frac{{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}}{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue8a0\left(1+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}\right)}\right].& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\left(8\right)\end{array}$

[0067]
Again neglecting the feedback impedance Z
_{ƒ}, (i.e. Z
_{ƒ}≈∞) we obtain:
$\begin{array}{cc}{A}_{V}={Z}_{L}^{\prime}\xb7\left[\frac{{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}}{{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}+{Z}_{s}^{\prime}+{g}_{m}\ue89e{Z}_{s}^{\prime}\ue89e{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}}\right].& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e\left(9\right)\end{array}$

[0068]
Applying the parameters of Eq. (4), the voltage gain equation simplifies even further to

A _{v} =−Z′ _{L} /Z′ _{s } Eq. (10).

[0069]
As discussed below, several resonant circuits satisfy this equation for maximum voltage gain.
4. EXAMPLES

[0070]
The following are examples of several multiband LNA designed according to the present invention.

[0071]
(a) A Concurrent DualBand CMOS LNA Topology

[0072]
A large number of passive networks satisfy the design criteria of Equations 4, 5 and 10. In order to minimize the NF, one should maximize Z_{gs}, as previously mentioned. One way to obtain a reasonably large Z_{gs}, is to use a transistor with minimum channel length and no extra passive element between the gate and the source. Equation 5 can be satisfied using a single onchip source degenerative inductor. FIG. 8 shows a concurrent dualband CMOS LNA designed according to the criteria set forth above (with biasing not shown). In other to fulfill Equation 4 at both center frequencies, as shown, a parallel LC network in series with the inevitable inductance of the bonding wire and package lead is used. The parallel LC of Z_{g }resonates with Z_{gs}+Z_{s }at both frequency bands of interest such that Equation 4 is satisfied.

[0073]
In order to achieve narrowband gain at bands of interest, the drain load network should exhibit high impedance only at those frequencies. This can be done by adding a series LC branch in parallel with the parallel LC tank of a singleband LNA, as shown off the drain of the cascode transistor in FIG. 8. Each series LC branch introduces a zero in the gain transfer function of the LNA at its series resonant frequency.

[0074]
It should be understood that this is but one topology that satisfies the abovederived equations for the design of a concurrent multiband LNA. Many other topologies can be used.

[0075]
(i) Concurrent DualBand LNA Measurement Results

[0076]
A concurrent dualband CMOS LNA operating at 2.45GHz and 5.25GHz frequency bands for indoor wireless communications was designed based on the topology of FIG. 8. This section presents the measurement results. It was implemented in a 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology using only CMOS transistors. The input parallel resonator uses Cg=0.9 pF porcelain multilayer capacitor and Lg=2.7 nH chip inductor. The inductance of the bonding wire, Lbond=3 nH and the source inductor, Ls=0.7 nH. Turning to the load network, the high impedance at each of the two frequencies is obtained by providing the series LC branch, C1=240 fF and L1=9.8 nH and the parallel LC tank, L2=2.3 nH and the inherent parasitic capacitance of the transistor, which is equivalent of to approximately 300 F.

[0077]
[0077]FIG. 9 shows the measured voltage gain, A_{v}, and input reflection coefficient, S_{11}, of the amplifier up to 10GHz. It achieves narrowband voltage gains of 14 dB and 15.5 dB, input return losses of 25 dB and 15 dB, and noise figures of 2.3 dB and 4.5 dB at 2.45GHz and 5.25GHz, respectively. It drains 4 mA of current from a 2.5V supply voltage. The notch due to the LNA is about 40 dB deeper than the peaks which directly translated to the same amount of improvement in image rejection. Due to the large difference between the notch and passband frequencies, no elaborate tracking loops such as those proposed by Samavati et al. in “A 5GHz CMOS Wireless LAN Receiver Front End” IEEE JSSC, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 76572, May, 2000, are necessary. The singleended nature of the LNA makes external Baluns unnecessary. Measurements of 6 different chips with 3 different boards and offchip components showed strong repeatability without using the commonlyused sliding capacitor input matching adjustment.

[0078]
An LNA's linearity is often measured by intermodulation and compression point tests and represented by IP3, for 3rd order nonlinearity, and CP1 for 1 dB compression point. We refer to these inband IP3 and CP1, as IP3_{inband }and CP1_{inband}. However, in a multiband system, more nonlinearity measures should be considered. Inband signals from different desired bands (e.g., 2.50GHz and 5.15GHz) can mix due to amplifier's nonlinearity, causing inband undesired signals (e.g., 3×2.50 −1×5.15=2.35 due to 4th order nonlinearity), as shown in FIG. 10. The inventors showed this crossband IPn, as lPn_{crossband}, where n is the order of nonlinearity. A similar crossband compression measure can be defined as the signal power in band A that causes a 1 dB drop in the small signal gain in band B and vice versa, which will be denoted as CP1_{A>B}.

[0079]
This concurrent dualband LNA demonstrates an inputreferred inband IP3 of 0 dBm and 5.6 dBm, and inband CP1 of −8.5 dBm and −1.5 dBm at 2.45GHz and 5.25GHz bands, respectively. The measured input referred lP4_{crossband }is 7.5 dBm. The LNA exhibits an CP1_{2.4>5.2 }of −11.5 dBm and an CP1_{5.2>2.4 }of −5.7 dBm.

[0080]
The following table summarizes the measured performance of the fabricated monolithic concurrent dualband LNA shown in FIG. 11. The chip occupies an area of 0.8×0.8 mm
^{2 }including pads and ESDs. The NF, S
_{11}, and power dissipation are better than previously published nonconcurrent and/or singleband CMOS LNAs.


Frequency  2.45 GHz ± 50 MHz  5.25 GHz ± 100 MHz 
Voltage Gain  14 dB  15.5 dB 
S_{11}  −25 dB  −15 dB 
NF  2.3 dB  4.5 dB 
Input IP3_{inband}  0.0 dBm  5.6 dBm 
Input CP1_{A > B}  CP1_{2.3 > 5.2 }= −11.5 dBm  CP1_{5.2>2.4 }= −5.7 dBm 
Input IP4_{cross band}  7.5 dBm 
DC Current  4 mA 
Supply Voltage  2.5 V 
Active Device  0.35 μm CMOS transistors 


[0081]
(b) A Concurrent TripleBand LNA Topology

[0082]
A concurrent tripleband LNA was designed and simulated according to the present invention. For simultaneous impedance matching, Equation 3 (and the subsequent equations) was simplified by ignoring Z
_{g}, thus not obtaining the best NF possible. The following topology was chosen:
$\begin{array}{cc}{Z}_{\mathrm{gs}}=\frac{1}{{\mathrm{sC}}_{\mathrm{gs}}}\ue89e\uf605\left({\mathrm{sL}}_{\mathrm{gs}}+\frac{1}{{\mathrm{sC}}_{g}}\right)=\frac{{L}_{\mathrm{gs}}\ue89e{C}_{g}\ue89e{s}^{2}+1}{{\mathrm{sC}}_{g}\ue8a0\left({L}_{\mathrm{gs}}\ue89e{C}_{\mathrm{gs}}\ue89e{s}^{2}+1+\frac{{C}_{\mathrm{gs}}}{{C}_{s}}\right)}& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e11\\ {Z}_{s}=\frac{1}{{\mathrm{sL}}_{\mathrm{s1}}}+({\mathrm{sL}}_{\mathrm{s2}}\ue89e\uf605\frac{1}{{\mathrm{sC}}_{\mathrm{s2}}})=\frac{{\mathrm{sL}}_{\mathrm{s2}}\ue8a0\left({L}_{\mathrm{s1}}\ue89e{C}_{\mathrm{s2}}\ue89e{s}^{2}+1+\frac{{L}_{\mathrm{s1}}}{{L}_{\mathrm{s2}}}\right)}{{L}_{\mathrm{s2}}\ue89e{C}_{\mathrm{s2}}\ue89e{s}^{2}+1}.& \mathrm{Eq}.\text{\hspace{1em}}\ue89e12\end{array}$

[0083]
If we set (1) L_{gs}C_{gs}=L_{s1}C_{s2}; (2) L_{gs}C_{g}=L_{s2}C_{s2}; and (3) C_{gs}/C_{g}=L_{s1}/L_{s2}, then, for purposes of Equation 5, Z_{gs}Z_{s}=L_{s2}/C_{g}=L_{s1}/C_{gs}. Then, setting Z_{gs}+Z_{s}=0 at all three frequency bands (satisfying modified Eq. 4), we obtain Z_{in}=g_{m}(L_{s2}/C_{g})=g_{m}(L_{s1}/C_{gs}).

[0084]
Focusing on the load network, to achieve a high gain, A_{v}, at each of the three frequencies of interest, ω_{1}, ω_{2}, ω_{3}, we have:

ω_{1} ^{2}×ω_{2} ^{2}×ω_{3} ^{2}=1/L _{P} C _{P} L _{1} C _{1} L _{2} C _{2} Eq. 13;

ω_{1} ^{2}+ω_{2} ^{2}×ω_{3} ^{2}=1/L _{P} C _{P}+1/L _{1} C _{1}+1/L _{2} C _{2}+2/L _{1} C _{P}+1/L _{2} C _{P} Eq. 14

1/ω_{1} ^{2}+1/ω_{2} ^{2}+1/ω_{3} ^{2} =L _{P} C _{P} +L _{1} C _{1} +L _{2} C _{2} +L _{P} C _{1} +L _{P} C _{2}; Eq. 15

[0085]
where C_{p }and L_{p }are in parallel and chosen for the gain at the first band, L_{1 }and C_{1 }are in series and whose values are chosen to maximize the gain at the second band and C_{2 }and L_{2 }are for the third band.

[0086]
(i) Simulated Measurement Results

[0087]
A concurrent tripleband 0.35 mm BiCMOS LNA operating at 0.9 GHz. 2.45GHz and 5.25GHz frequency bands was simulated according these parameters and is shown in FIG. 12. In this example, V_{dd}=3v, I_{d}=3mA, S_{11}=−12 dB, and A_{v}=10 dB.

[0088]
Having thus described exemplary embodiments of the invention, it will be apparent that further alterations, modifications, and improvements will also occur to those skilled in the art. Further, it will be apparent that the present technique and system is not limited to use with an LNA. The simultaneous input matching and load techniques of the present invention may also be used to design other types of amplifiers and active filters. Further, this invention provides a basis for designing a concurrent multiband LNA at theoretically any number of frequency bands.