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Publication numberUS20030224501 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/366,345
Publication dateDec 4, 2003
Filing dateFeb 14, 2003
Priority dateMar 17, 2000
Publication number10366345, 366345, US 2003/0224501 A1, US 2003/224501 A1, US 20030224501 A1, US 20030224501A1, US 2003224501 A1, US 2003224501A1, US-A1-20030224501, US-A1-2003224501, US2003/0224501A1, US2003/224501A1, US20030224501 A1, US20030224501A1, US2003224501 A1, US2003224501A1
InventorsPaul Young, Steven Ruben
Original AssigneeYoung Paul E., Ruben Steven M.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Bone morphogenic protein polynucleotides, polypeptides, and antibodies
US 20030224501 A1
Abstract
The present invention relates to novel human BMP polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids containing the coding regions of the genes encoding such polypeptides. Also provided are vectors, host cells, antibodies, and recombinant methods for producing human BMP polypeptides. The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing and treating disorders related to these novel human BMP polypeptides.
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Claims(42)
What is claimed is:
1. An isolated polypeptide comprising a first amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to a second amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of:
(a) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y;
(b) the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide encoded by cDNA clone ID: V;
(c) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y minus the signal sequence;
(d) the amino acid sequence of the propeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y shown in Table 2;
(e) the amino acid sequence of the mature (secreted) polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y shown in Table 2 or FIG. 2; and
(f) one or more cysteine rich regions of the polypeptide SEQ ID NO: Y shown in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2.
2. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, wherein the first amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to a sequence selected from (a) to (f).
3. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, comprising second amino acid sequence (a).
4. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, comprising second amino acid sequence (b).
5. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, comprising second amino acid sequence (c).
6. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, comprising second amino acid sequence (d).
7. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, comprising second amino acid sequence (e).
8. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, comprising second amino acid sequence (e).
9. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1 which is a dimer.
10. A method of diagnosing a pathological condition or a susceptibility to a pathological condition in a subject comprising:
(a) determining the presence or amount of expression of the polypeptide of claim 1 in a biological sample; and
(b) diagnosing a pathological condition or a susceptibility to a pathological condition based on the presence or amount of expression of the polypeptide.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein the condition or susceptibility is selected from the group: diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy, a metabolic disorder, a glucose metabolic disorder, an insulin disorder, an endocrine disorder, obesity, weight loss, and a liver disorder.
12. A method for identifying a binding partner to the polypeptide of claim 1 comprising:
(a) contacting the polypeptide of claim 1 with a binding partner; and
(b) determining whether the binding partner effects an activity of the polypeptide.
13. A method of screening for molecules which modify activities of the polypeptide of claim 1 comprising:
(a) contacting said polypeptide with a compound suspected of having agonist or antagonist activity; and
(b) assaying for activity of said polypeptide.
14. A method for preventing, treating, or ameliorating a medical condition, comprising administering to a mammalian subject a therapeutically effective amount the polypeptide of claim 1.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is diabetes.
16. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is obesity.
17. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is insulin resistance.
18. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is hyperinsulinemia.
19. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is hyperglycemia.
20. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is dyslipidemia.
21. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is hypertension.
22. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is coronary artery disease.
23. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is renal failure.
24. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is a neuropathy.
25. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is a metabolic disorder.
26. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is a glucose metabolic disorder.
27. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is an insulin associated disorder.
28. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is an endocrine disorder.
29. The method of claim 14 wherein the condition is a liver disorder.
30. A method for regulating nutritional partitioning comprising administering to a mammalian subject a therapeutically effective amount the polypeptide of claim 1.
31. A method for limiting weight gain comprising administering to a mammalian subject a therapeutically effective amount the polypeptide of claim 1.
32. A method for suppressing appetite comprising administering to a mammalian subject a therapeutically effective amount the polypeptide of claim 1.
33. A method for reducing fat mass comprising administering to a mammalian subject a therapeutically effective amount the polypeptide of claim 1.
34. A method for preventing, treating, or ameliorating a medical condition, characterized by a state of insulin resistance comprising administering to a mammalian subject a therapeutically effective amount the polypeptide of claim 1.
35. A method for increasing the sensitivity of a cell to insulin comprising contacting the cell with the polypeptide of claim 1.
36. The method of claim 35, wherein the cell is a skeletal muscle cell.
37. The method of claim 35, wherein the cell is a liver cell.
38. The method of claim 35, wherein the cell is an adipocyte.
39. A method for increasing glucose uptake by a cell comprising contacting the cell with the polypeptide of claim 1.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein the cell is a skeletal muscle cell.
41. The method of claim 39, wherein the cell is a liver cell.
42. The method of claim 39, wherein the cell is an adipocyte.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a nonprovional application of and claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/356,749, filed Feb. 15, 2002; this application also claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/345,236, filed Jan. 16, 2003, which is a nonprovisional of and claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 60/348,621, filed Jan. 17, 2002; 60/349,356, filed Jan. 22, 2002; 60/351,520, filed Jan. 28, 2002; and 60/354,265, filed Feb. 6, 2002, and which is is also a continuation-in-part of and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 to U.S. application Ser. No. 09/809,269, filed Mar. 16, 2001, which is a nonprovisional of and claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/190,067, filed Mar. 17, 2000, and which is also a continuation-in-part of and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 to International Application No. PCT/US01/09229, filed Mar. 23, 2001.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates to Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs). More specifically, isolated nucleic acid molecules are provided encoding BMP polypeptides. BMP polypeptides and antibodies that bind to these polypeptides are provided, as are agonists and antagonists of the BMP molecules of the invention. Also provided are vectors, host cells, and recombinant and synthetic methods for producing human BMP polynucleotides and/or polypeptides. The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing, treating, preventing and/or prognosing disorders related to these BMP polypeptides such as, diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), metabolic disorders (e.g., glucose metabolic disorders), endocrine disorders, obesity, weight loss, liver disorders (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and disorders associated with liver transplant), and conditions associated with these disorders. The invention also relates to methods of regulating (e.g., suppressing or decreasing) appetite, methods of altering nutritional partitioning in a patient (e.g., methods of increasing muscle mass and/or methods of decreasing fat mass) using the polynucleotides, polypeptides and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention. The invention further relates to methods of regulating insulin responsiveness in a patient, methods of increasing glucose uptake by a cell, and methods of regulating insulin sensitivity of a cell using the polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention.

[0003] The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing, treating, preventing and/or prognosing disorders related to these BMP polypeptides such as cartilage and bone growth disorders, inflammation, and aberrant cell growth.

[0004] The invention further relates to screening methods for identifying agonists and antagonists of polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention. In additional embodiments, the invention relates to methods and/or compositions for stimulating the production and/or function of polypeptides of the invention. In alternative embodiments, the present invention relates to methods and/or compositions for inhibiting the production and/or function of the polypeptides of the present invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0005] Some members of the BMP family have been shown to be useful for induction of cartilage and bone formation. For example, BMP-2 is able to induce the formation of new cartilage and/or bone tissue in vivo in a rat ectopic implant model (See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,013,649); in mandibular defects in dogs (See, e.g., Toriumi et al., Arch. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 117:1101-1112 (1991)); in femoral segmental defects in sheep (see Gerhart et al., Trans Orthop Res Soc, 16:172 (1991)). Other members of the BMP family also have osteogenic activity, including BMP-4, -6 and -7 (See, e.g., Wozney, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Their Gene Expression, in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Bone, pp. 131-167 (Academic Press, Inc. 1993)). Some members of the BMP family further demonstrate inductive and/or differentiation potentiating activity on a variety of other tissues, including cartilage, tendon, ligament, and neural tissue.

[0006] BMPs are members of the large Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which includes embryonic morphogens, endocrine function regulators, wide-range regulators, and regulators that are specific for cell proliferation and differentiation. TGF-β is a prototype of this superfamily. It is a dimer of two identical chains of 112 amino acids held together by disulfide bridges. Each chain is synthesized starting from a longer precursor of about 390 amino acids which has the characteristics of a secretory polypeptide, presenting a hydrophobic sequence in the N-terminal region which should function as a secretory peptide for the secretion of the molecule. The precursor is then processed to its mature form by cleavage by a specific peptidase, which cleaves four basic amino acids immediately prior to the biologically active domain. The precursor region plays an essential role in the correct folding of the mature portion in vivo, to the extent that to date, no mature, biologically active peptides are known to have been produced in Escherichia coli by recombinant DNA techniques.

[0007] Members of the BMP family are known in various animal species from Drosophila to humans, their sequences having been maintained to a great extent throughout evolution. The sequence homology among the various polypeptides is usually high, especially in the C-terminal region. The degree of identity of sequence varies between 25 and 90% among the various family members. In the region of homology, between 7 and 9 cysteines are usually conserved among the members. These cysteines are involved in the formation of disulfide bridges between the amino-acid chains. Many members of the BMP family have been shown to induce chemotactic, proliferative and differential responses, which culminate in the transient formation of cartilage, followed by the accumulation of bone with hematopoietic marrow.

[0008] The activity of many members of the BMP family is linked with the demineralized bone matrix, and is extractable with denaturing agents. Many members of the BMP family have been extracted from various species including humans, monkeys, cattle, rats and mice (Sampath et al., PNAS 80:6591-6595 (1983); Urist et al. PNAS 76:1828-1832 (1979)). Most studies were carried out on BMPs derived from bovine bone, an abundant and easily obtainable source. In 1988 Wozney et al. (Wozney et al., Science 242:1528-1534 (1988)) recovered a biologically active protein fraction of about 30 kD from bovine bone that could be detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions. Following reduction of the disulfide bridges by chemical methods, polypeptides of 30, 18 and 16 kD were obtained (Wang et al., PNAS 85:9484-9488 (1988)). This protein fraction was digested with trypsin, and the peptides obtained were separated by HPLC and sequenced. This information was used in the synthesis of DNA probes which were used to identify the bovine genome sequences encoding the various factors. Using portions of these sequences as probes, the human sequences coding for the homologous factors were obtained. Much is now known about these factors (Wozney et al., J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 13:149-156 (1990); Wozney, J. M., Progress in Growth Factor Research, 1:267-280 (1989)). Some were obtained via recombinant DNA techniques. For additional discussion of growth factors belonging to the above BMP classes, obtained by recombinant DNA techniques, see, for example, EP 409472, WO 9011366, WO 8800205, EP 212474, WO 9105863, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,743,679.

[0009] As discussed above, to date, members of the BMP family have been shown to have inductive and/or differentiation potentiating activity on a variety of tissues such as, bone, cartilage, ligament, and neural tissue. However, no BMP has been reported to have an activity associated with glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, diabetes, and/or obesity.

[0010] Over the past few decades, an increasing percentage of the population has become diabetic. Diabetes mellitus is categorized into two types: Type I, known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), or Type II, known as Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NTDDM). IDDM is an autoimmune disorder in which the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells of the islets of Langerhans are destroyed. In these individuals, recombinant insulin therapy is employed to maintain glucose homeostasis and normal energy metabolism. NIDDM, on the other hand, is a polygenic disorder with no one gene responsible for the progression of the disease.

[0011] In NIDDM, insulin resistance eventually leads to the abolishment of insulin secretion resulting in insulin deficiency. Insulin resistance, at least in part, ensues from a block at the level of glucose uptake and phosphorylation in humans. Diabetics demonstrate a decrease in expression in adipose tissue of insulin-receptor substrate 1 (“IRS1”) (Carvalho et al., FASEB J 13(15):2173-8 (1999)), glucose transporter 4 (“GLUT4”) (Garvey et al., Diabetes 41(4):465-75 (1992)), and the novel abundant protein M gene transcript 1 (“apM1”) (Statnick et al., Int J Exp Diabetes 1(2):81-8 (2000)), as well as other as of yet unidentified factors. Insulin deficiency in NIDDM leads to failure of normal pancreatic beta-cell function and eventually to pancreatic-beta cell death.

[0012] Insulin affects fat, muscle, and liver. Insulin is the major regulator of energy metabolism. Malfunctioning of any step(s) in insulin secretion and/or action can lead to many disorders, including for example the dysregulation of oxygen utilization, adipogenesis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, glucose uptake, protein synthesis, thermogenesis, and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. This malfunctioning results in diseases and/or disorders that include, but are not limited to, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperketonemia, and diabetes.

[0013] Numerous debilitating diabetes-related secondary effects include, but are not limited to, obesity, forms of blindness (cataracts and diabetic retinopathy), limb amputations, kidney failure, fatty liver, coronary artery disease, and neuropathy.

[0014] The discovery of a new composition that regulates glucose metabolism satisfies a need in the art by providing new compositions which are useful in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and/or prognosis of diabetes, as well as, musculoskeletal disorders, endocrine disorders, hyperglycemia, cartilage and bone growth disorders, liver disorders, inflammation, and aberrant cell growth. Furthermore, the identification of new compositions that regulates glucose metabolism permits the development of a range of derivatives, agonists and antagonists which in turn have applications in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and/or prognosis of a range of conditions such as, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, cartilage and bone growth disorders, liver disorders, inflammation, and aberrant cell growth.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0015] The present invention includes isolated nucleic acid molecules comprising, or alternatively, consisting of a polynucleotide sequence disclosed in the sequence listing and/or Tables 1 and 2 and/or contained in a human cDNA plasmid described in Table 1 and deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Fragments, variants, and derivatives of these nucleic acid molecules are also encompassed by the invention. The present invention also includes isolated nucleic acid molecules comprising, or alternatively, consisting of, a polynucleotide encoding BMP polypeptides of the invention. The present invention further includes BMP polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides. Further provided for are amino acid sequences comprising, or alternatively, consisting of, BMP polypeptides as disclosed in the sequence listing and/or Tables 1 and 2 and/or FIGS. 1A-Q and 2 and/or encoded by the human cDNA plasmids described in Table 1 and deposited with the ATCC. Antibodies that bind these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention. Polypeptide fragments, variants, and derivatives of these amino acid sequences are also encompassed by the invention, as are polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides and antibodies that bind these polypeptides.

[0016] In certain embodiments, the BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Tables 1 and 2, and FIGS. 1A-Q and 2). Polypeptides comprising an amino acid sequence at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identical to these BMP polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding the above polypeptides and antibodies that specifically bind the above polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0017] In preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIG. 2). Polypeptides comprising an amino acid sequence at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identical to these BMP polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding the above polypeptides and antibodies that specifically bind the above polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0018] In additional embodiments, the BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the conserved cysteine rich regions of the amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2). Polypeptides comprising an amino acid sequence at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identical to these BMP polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding the above polypeptides and antibodies that specifically bind the above polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0019] In additional embodiments, the BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the propeptides of the amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIGS. 1A-Q, FIG. 2, and Table 2). Polypeptides comprising an amino acid sequence at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identical to these BMP polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding the above polypeptides and antibodies that specifically bind the above polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0020] The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing, treating, preventing and/or prognosing a disorder related to these novel BMP polypeptides such as diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), metabolic disorders (e.g., glucose metabolic disorders), endocrine disorders, obesity, weight loss, liver disorders (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and disorders associated with liver transplant), and conditions associated with these disorders.

[0021] The invention also relates to methods of regulating (e.g., suppressing or decreasing) appetite, and methods of altering nutritional partitioning in a patient (e.g., methods of increasing muscle mass and/or methods of decreasing fat mass) using the polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, and antibodies) and/or agonists thereof.

[0022] The invention also relates to methods of treating or preventing insulin-related disorders comprising administering to a patient (preferably a human) polypeptides and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention.

[0023] The invention further relates to methods of regulating insulin responsiveness in a patient, methods of increasing glucose uptake by a cell, and methods of regulating insulin sensitivity of a cell, using the polypeptides (including fragments, variants, and antibodies) of the invention.

[0024] The polypeptides and/or agonists of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with other Therapeutic proteins or molecules (e.g., insulin and/or other proteins (including antibodies), peptides, or small molecules that regulate weight, heart disease, hypertension, neuropathy, cell metabolism, and/or glucose, insulin, or other hormone levels, in a patient). In specific embodiments, the polypeptides and/or agonists of the invention are administered in combination with insulin (or an insulin derivative, analog, or secretagogue).

[0025] The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing, treating, preventing and/or prognosing disorders related to these BMP polypeptides such as cartilage and bone growth disorders, inflammation, and aberrant cell growth.

[0026] The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing, treating, preventing and/or prognosing a disorder related to these BMP polypeptides such as cartilage and bone growth disorders, inflammation, and aberrant cell growth.

[0027] The invention further relates to screening methods for identifying agonists and antagonists of polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention and also to the agonists and/or antagonists identified using these methods. In one embodiment, the invention relates to methods and/or compositions for stimulating the production and/or function of polypeptides of the invention. In an alternative embodiment, the present invention relates to methods and/or compositions for inhibiting the production and/or function of the polypeptides of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0028] Tables

[0029] Table 1 summarizes ATCC Deposits, Deposit dates, and ATCC designation numbers of certain of the deposits made with the ATCC in connection with the present application. Table 1 further summarizes the information pertaining to certain “Gene Nos.” described below, including cDNA clone identifier, the type of vector contained in the cDNA clone identifier, the nucleotide sequence identifier number, nucleotides contained in the disclosed sequence, the (location of the 5′ nucleotide of the start codon of the disclosed sequence, the amino acid sequence identifier number, and the last amino acid of the ORF encoded by the disclosed sequence. The nucleotide sequence identified as “NT SEQ ID NO: X” in column 5 was assembled from partially homologous (“overlapping”) sequences obtained from the “cDNA clone ID NO: V” identified in Table 1 and, in some cases, from additional related DNA clones. The overlapping sequences were assembled into a single contiguous sequence of high redundancy (usually three to five overlapping sequences at each nucleotide position), resulting in a final sequence identified as SEQ ID NO: X.

[0030] Table 2 describes additional BMP polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention. Column 1 refers to the gene number (Gene No:). Column 2 provides a SEQ ID NO identifier corresponding to certain BMP polynucleotides of the invention (SEQ ID NO: X). Column 3 provides the polynucleotide sequence of a corresponding BMP polynucleotide of the invention by providing its Genbank or Genseq Accession Number. The Genbank accession numbers can be accessed, for example, at the following internet web page: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed. Column 4 provides the SEQ ID NO identifier corresponding to certain BMP polypeptides of the invention (SEQ ID NO: Y). Column 5 provides the polypeptide sequence of a corresponding BMP polypeptide of the invention by providing its SWISS-PROT Accession or Genbank accession number. The SWISS-PROT Accession number can be accessed, for example, at the following internet web page: http://us.expasy.org/sprot. Column 6 decribes the corresponding BMP polypeptide of the invention by providing a descriptive acronym. Column 7 decribes the corresponding BMP polypeptide of the invention by providing the full name of the gene. Column 8 provides the predicted signal peptide sequence of the corresponding BMP polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: Y). Column 9 provides the propeptide sequence of the corresponding BMP polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: Y). Column 10 provides the mature (secreted) portion of the corresponding BMP polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: Y). The numbers in columns 8-10, more specifically, indicate the amino acid residue number of the corresponding BMP polypeptide.

[0031] FIGS. 1A-Q shows the full-length polypeptide sequences of certain BMP polypeptides of the invention. The cysteine rich regions are indicated.

[0032]FIG. 2. Sequence description and alignment of the amino acid sequences of the mature (secreted) portion and cysteine rich regions of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS. Each amino acid sequences of the mature (secreted) portion sequence is generally referred to herein as SEQ ID NO: Y and may alternatively by referred to by SEQ ID NOs: 54 to 76. The conserved cysteine rich regions are indicated by symbol “*”.

[0033]FIG. 3. Inhibition of PEPCK expression. FIG. 3 shows that the HLDOU18, one of the preferred polypeptides of the invention, inhibited PEPCK expression in an SEAP in vitro reporter assay. In contrast, insulin did not affect PEPCK expression.

[0034]FIGS. 4A and 4B. Dose-dependent effect of HLDOU18 on basal glycemia. Insulin, HLDOU18, or negative control were injected into C57 BL/6 wild type (A) and C57 BL/6 db/db obese mice (B) and levels of blood glucose were monitored over time. FIG. 4A. Insulin injection into wild type mice led to rapid decrease in blood glucose levels, followed by a return to normoglycemia after a few hours. In contrast, injection of HLDOU18 polypeptide did not lead to rapid changes in blood glucose. However, injection of HLDOU18 progressively introduced a hypoglycemic state that was detected at 24 hours after injection and lasted approximately 48 hours. FIG. 4B. db/db mice have blood glucose levels 4 to 5 times that of wild type mice. Insulin injection into db/db obese diabetic mice did not result in significant reduction of blood glucose levels. In contrast, HLDOU18 injection significantly reduced blood glucose levels at 24 hours post-injection. In these animals, the effect of HLDOU18 was dose-dependent.

[0035]FIG. 5. HLDOU18 mediates muscle cell proliferation. FIG. 5 shows that HLDOU18 has an inductive effect on the proliferation of L6 skeletal muscle cells in vitro. The effect was dose dependent.

[0036]FIG. 6. HLDOU18 inhibits glucose production in the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE to a similar extent as insulin.

DEFINITIONS

[0037] The following definitions are provided to facilitate understanding of certain terms used throughout this specification.

[0038] In the present invention, “isolated” refers to material removed from its original environment (e.g., the natural environment if it is naturally occurring), and thus is altered “by the hand of man” from its natural state. For example, an isolated polynucleotide could be part of a vector or a composition of matter, or could be contained within a cell, and still be “isolated” because that vector, composition of matter, or particular cell is not the original environment of the polynucleotide. The term “isolated” does not refer to genomic or cDNA libraries, whole cell total or mRNA preparations, genomic DNA preparations (including those separated by electrophoresis and transferred onto blots), sheared whole cell genomic DNA preparations or other compositions where the art demonstrates no distinguishing features of the polynucleotide/sequences of the present invention.

[0039] As used herein, a “polynucleotide” refers to a molecule having a nucleic acid sequence contained in SEQ ID NO: X (e.g., as described in column 5 of Table 1 or in column 2 of Table 2), or cDNA Clone ID NO: V (as described in column 2 of Table 1 and contained within a pool of plasmids deposited with the ATCC in ATCC Deposit No:Z). For example, the polynucleotide can contain the nucleotide sequence of the full length cDNA sequence, including the 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences, the coding region, with or without a natural or artificial signal sequence, the protein coding region, as well as fragments, epitopes, domains, and variants of the nucleic acid sequence. The polynucleotide of SEQ ID NO: X may also encode the polypeptides of SEQ ID NO: Y, as well as, fragments, and variant thereof. Moreover, as used herein, a “polypeptide” refers to a molecule having an amino acid sequence encoded by a polynucleotide of the invention as broadly defined (obviously excluding poly-Phenylalanine or poly-Lysine peptide sequences which result from translation of a polyA tail of a sequence corresponding to a cDNA).

[0040] As used herein, “BMP”, “BMP polypeptide”, or “BMP of the invention” and “BMPs of the invention” are used interchangeably.

[0041] As used herein, “polypeptides of the invention,” “polynucleotides of the invention,” “agonists of the invention,” and “antagonists of the invention” includes all BMP polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists described below (e.g., in Table 1, Table 2, and FIG. 2).

[0042] As used herein, “conserved cysteine rich regions” or “cysteine rich regions” of the BMP polypeptides of the invention include those regions shown in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2. More specifically, these regions include any stretch of contiguous amino acids between and including the conserved cysteine(s) of each particular BMP polypeptide of the invention.

[0043] In the present invention, a representative plasmid containing the sequence of HLDOU18 was deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (“ATCC”) and/or described in Table 1. As shown in Table 1, each plasmid is identified by a cDNA Clone ID (Identifier) and the ATCC Deposit Number (ATCC Deposit No:Z). Plasmids that were pooled and deposited as a single deposit have the same ATCC Deposit Number. The ATCC is located at 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, Va. 20110-2209, USA. The ATCC deposit was made pursuant to the terms of the Budapest Treaty on the international recognition of the deposit of microorganisms for purposes of patent procedure.

[0044] A “polynucleotide” of the present invention also includes those polynucleotides capable of hybridizing, under stringent hybridization conditions, to sequences contained in SEQ ID NO: X, or the complement thereof (e.g., the complement of any one, two, three, four, or more of the polynucleotide fragments described herein) and/or sequences contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V (e.g., the complement of any one, two, three, four, or more of the polynucleotide fragments described herein). “Stringent hybridization conditions” refers to an overnight incubation at 42 degree C. in a solution comprising 50% formamide, 5×SSC (750 mM NaCl, 75 mM trisodium citrate), 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.6), 5× Denhardt's solution, 10% dextran sulfate, and 20 μg/ml denatured, sheared salmon sperm DNA, followed by washing the filters in 0.1×SSC at about 65 degree C.

[0045] Also included within “polynucleotides” of the present invention are nucleic acid molecules that hybridize to the polynucleotides of the present invention at lower stringency hybridization conditions. Changes in the stringency of hybridization and signal detection are primarily accomplished through the manipulation of formamide concentration (lower percentages of formamide result in lowered stringency); salt conditions, or temperature. For example, lower stringency conditions include an overnight incubation at 37 degree C. in a solution comprising 6×SSPE (20×SSPE=3M NaCl; 0.2M NaH2PO4; 0.02M EDTA, pH 7.4), 0.5% SDS, 30% formamide, 100 ug/ml salmon sperm blocking DNA; followed by washes at 50 degree C. with 1×SSPE, 0.1% SDS. In addition, to achieve even lower stringency, washes performed following stringent hybridization can be done at higher salt concentrations (e.g., 5×SSC).

[0046] Note that variations in the above conditions may be accomplished through the inclusion and/or substitution of alternate blocking reagents used to suppress background in hybridization experiments. Typical blocking reagents include Denhardt's reagent, BLOTTO, heparin, denatured salmon sperm DNA, and commercially available proprietary formulations. The inclusion of specific blocking reagents may require modification of the hybridization conditions described above, due to problems with compatibility.

[0047] Of course, a polynucleotide which hybridizes only to polyA+ sequences (such as any 3′ terminal polyA+ tract of a cDNA shown in the sequence listing), or to a complementary stretch of T (or U) residues, would not be included in the definition of “polynucleotide,” since such a polynucleotide would hybridize to any nucleic acid molecule containing a poly (A) stretch or the complement thereof (e.g., practically any double-stranded cDNA clone generated using oligo dT as a primer).

[0048] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be composed of any polyribonucleotide or polydeoxribonucleotide, which may be unmodified RNA or DNA or modified RNA or DNA. For example, polynucleotides can be composed of single- and double-stranded DNA, DNA that is a mixture of single- and double-stranded regions, single- and double-stranded RNA, and RNA that is mixture of single- and double-stranded regions, hybrid molecules comprising DNA and RNA that may be single-stranded or, more typically, double-stranded or a mixture of single- and double-stranded regions. In addition, the polynucleotide can be composed of triple-stranded regions comprising RNA or DNA or both RNA and DNA. A polynucleotide may also contain one or more modified bases or DNA or RNA backbones modified for stability or for other reasons. “Modified” bases include, for example, tritylated bases and unusual bases such as inosine. A variety of modifications can be made to DNA and RNA; thus, “polynucleotide” embraces chemically, enzymatically, or metabolically modified forms.

[0049] In specific embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention are at least 15, at least 30, at least 50, at least 100, at least 125, at least 500, or at least 1000 continuous nucleotides but are less than or equal to 300 kb, 200 kb, 100 kb, 50 kb, 15 kb, 10 kb, 7.5 kb, 5 kb, 2.5 kb, 2.0 kb, or 1 kb, in length. In a further embodiment, polynucleotides of the invention comprise a portion of the coding sequences, as disclosed herein, but do not comprise all or a portion of any intron. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides comprising coding sequences do not contain coding sequences of a genomic flanking gene (i.e., 5′ or 3′ to the gene of interest in the genome). In other embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention do not contain the coding sequence of more than 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 genomic flanking gene(s).

[0050] “SEQ ID NO: X” refers to a polynucleotide sequence described in column 5 of Table 1 and/or column 2 of Table 2, while “SEQ ID NO: Y” refers to a polypeptide sequence described in column 10 of Table 1 and/or column 4 of Table 2. SEQ ID NO: Y is identified by an integer specified in column 10 of Table 1 and/or column 4 of Table 2. The polypeptide sequence SEQ ID NO: Y is a translated open reading frame (ORF) or a portion of an ORF encoded by polynucleotide SEQ ID NO: X. The polypeptide and polynucleotide sequences are shown in Table 1, and/or Table 2, and/or FIG. 2.

[0051] The polypeptides of the present invention can be composed of amino acids joined to each other by peptide bonds or modified peptide bonds, i.e., peptide isosteres, and may contain amino acids other than the 20 gene-encoded amino acids. The polypeptides may be modified by either natural processes, such as posttranslational processing, or by chemical modification techniques which are well known in the art. Such modifications are well described in basic texts and in more detailed monographs, as well as in a voluminous research literature. Modifications can occur anywhere in a polypeptide, including the peptide backbone, the amino acid side-chains and the amino or carboxyl termini. It will be appreciated that the same type of modification may be present in the same or varying degrees at several sites in a given polypeptide. Also, a given polypeptide may contain many types of modifications. Polypeptides may be branched, for example, as a result of ubiquitination, and they may be cyclic, with or without branching. Cyclic, branched, and branched cyclic polypeptides may result from posttranslation natural processes or may be made by synthetic methods. Modifications include acetylation, acylation, ADP-ribosylation, amidation, covalent attachment of flavin, covalent attachment of a heme moiety, covalent attachment of a nucleotide or nucleotide derivative, covalent attachment of a lipid or lipid derivative, covalent attachment of phosphotidylinositol, cross-linking, cyclization, disulfide bond formation, demethylation, formation of covalent cross-links, formation of cysteine, formation of pyroglutamate, formylation, gamma-carboxylation, glycosylation, GPI anchor formation, hydroxylation, iodination, methylation, myristoylation, oxidation, pegylation, proteolytic processing, phosphorylation, prenylation, racemization, selenoylation, sulfation, transfer-RNA mediated addition of amino acids to proteins such as arginylation, and ubiquitination. (See, for instance, PROTEINS-STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES, 2nd Ed., T. E. Creighton, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York (1993); POSTTRANSLATIONAL COVALENT MODIFICATION OF PROTEINS, B. C. Johnson, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pgs. 1-12 (1983); Seifter et al., Meth Enzymol 182:626-646 (1990); Rattan et al., Ann N.Y. Acad Sci 663:48-62 (1992)).

[0052] The polypeptides of the invention can be prepared in any suitable manner. Such polypeptides include isolated naturally occurring polypeptides, recombinantly produced polypeptides, synthetically produced polypeptides, or polypeptides produced by a combination of these methods. Means for preparing such polypeptides are well understood in the art.

[0053] The polypeptides may be in the form of the secreted protein, including the mature form, or may be a part of a larger protein, such as a fusion protein (see below). It is often advantageous to include an additional amino acid sequence which contains secretory or leader sequences, pro-sequences, sequences which aid in purification, such as multiple histidine residues, or an additional sequence for stability during recombinant production.

[0054] The polypeptides of the present invention are preferably provided in an isolated form, and preferably are substantially purified. A recombinantly produced version of a polypeptide, including the secreted polypeptide, can be substantially purified using techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art, such as, for example, by the one-step method described in Smith and Johnson, Gene 67:31-40 (1988). Polypeptides of the invention also can be purified from natural, synthetic or recombinant sources using techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art, such as, for example, antibodies of the invention raised against the polypeptides of the present invention in methods which are well known in the art.

[0055] By a polypeptide demonstrating a “functional activity” is meant, a polypeptide capable of displaying one or more known functional activities associated with a full-length (complete) form, or the mature (e.g., secreted) form, or the propeptide form of the polypeptide of the invention (See, e.g, sequences shown in Tables 1, 2, and FIGS. 1A-Q and 2). Such functional activities include, but are not limited to, biological activity (e.g., regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vitro or in vivo), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo)), antigenicity [ability to bind (or compete with a polypeptide for binding) to an anti-polypeptide antibody], immunogenicity (ability to generate antibody which binds to a specific polypeptide of the invention), ability to form multimers (e.g., homodimers or heterodimers) with polypeptides of the invention, and ability to bind to a receptor or ligand for a polypeptide.

[0056] “A polypeptide having functional activity” refers to polypeptides exhibiting activity similar, but not necessarily identical to, an activity of a polypeptide of the present invention, including mature forms, as measured in a particular assay, such as, for example, a biological assay (e.g., assays for the regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), assays for the regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vitro or in vivo), assays for the regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo (e.g., see Example 24 and below)), and assays for the stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo)), with or without dose dependency. In the case where dose dependency does exist, it need not be identical to that of the polypeptide, but rather substantially similar to the dose-dependence in a given activity as compared to the polypeptide of the present invention (i.e., the candidate polypeptide will exhibit greater activity or not more than about 25-fold less and, preferably, not more than about tenfold less activity, and most preferably, not more than about three-fold less activity relative to the polypeptide of the present invention).

[0057] Assays for the regulation of transcription through the PEPCK promoter are well-known in the art and may be used or routinely modified to assess the ability of polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies and agonists or antagonists of the invention) to activate the PEPCK Biol Chem 275(23):17814-17820 (2000), the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0058] The functional activity of the polypeptides, and fragments, variants derivatives, and analogs thereof, can be assayed by using or routinely modifying various methods described herein or otherwise known in the art.

[0059] For example, in one embodiment where one is assaying for the ability to bind or compete with full-length polypeptide of the present invention for binding to an antibody to the fill length polypeptide, various immunoassays known in the art can be used, including but not limited to, competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as radioimmunoassays, ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), “sandwich” immunoassays, immunoradiometric assays, gel diffusion precipitation reactions, immunodiffusion assays, in situ immunoassays (using colloidal gold, enzyme or radioisotope labels, for example), western blots, precipitation reactions, agglutination assays (e.g., gel agglutination assays, hemagglutination assays), complement fixation assays, immunofluorescence assays, protein A assays, and immunoelectrophoresis assays, etc. In one embodiment, antibody binding is detected by detecting a label on the primary antibody. In another embodiment, the primary antibody is detected by detecting binding of a secondary antibody or reagent to the primary antibody. In a further embodiment, the secondary antibody is labeled. Many means are known in the art for detecting binding in an immunoassay and are within the scope of the present invention.

[0060] In another embodiment, where a ligand is identified, or the ability of a polypeptide fragment, variant or derivative of the invention to multimerize is being evaluated, binding can be assayed, e.g., by means well-known in the art, such as, for example, reducing and non-reducing gel chromatography, protein affinity chromatography, and affinity blotting. See generally, Phizicky, E., et al., Microbiol. Rev. 59:94-123 (1995). In another embodiment, physiological correlates polypeptide of the present invention binding to its substrates (signal transduction) can be assayed.

[0061] In addition, assays described herein (see Examples) and otherwise known in the art may routinely be applied to measure the ability of polypeptides of the present invention and fragments, variants derivatives and analogs thereof to elicit polypeptide related biological activity (either in vitro or in vivo). Other methods will be known to the skilled artisan and are within the scope of the invention.

[0062] Preferred BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIG. 2; SEQ ID NOS: 54 to 76). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fe portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0063] Additional preferred BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the conserved cysteine rich regions of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2). These cysteine rich regions are indicated in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2. For example, additional embodiments of the invention include the cysteine rich regions of each mature polypeptide described above where the flanking amino acid sequences are removed are altered. Furthermore, additional embodiments include the mature polypeptides described above where one or more of the cysteine rich regions is deleted to increase a desirable biological activity or property (e.g., solubility) or decrease a desirable biological activity or property (e.g., solubility). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fe portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0064] Additional embodiments include BMP polypeptides of the invention which comprise, or alternatively, consist of fragments of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIG. 2; SEQ ID NOS: 54 to 76). Polypeptide fragments include the mature form shown in FIG. 2 having a continuous series of deleted residues from the amino or the carboxy terminus, or both. For example, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-50, can be deleted from the amino terminus of the mature form. Similarly, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-50, can be deleted from the carboxy terminus of the mature form. Furthermore, any combination of the above amino and carboxy terminus deletions are preferred. Similarly, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also preferred. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fe portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0065] Even if deletion of one or more amino acids from the N-terminus and/or the C-terminus of a protein results in modification of loss of one or more biological functions of the protein, other functional activities (e.g., biological activities decribed below, ability to multimerize, ability to bind a ligand) may still be retained. For example, the ability of shortened muteins to induce and/or bind to antibodies which recognize the complete or mature forms of the polypeptides generally will be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the complete or mature polypeptide are removed from the N-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking N-terminal and/or C-terminal residues of a complete polypeptide retains such immunologic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art. It is not unlikely that a mutein with a large number of deleted N-terminal amino acid residues may retain some biological or immunogenic activities. In fact, peptides composed of as few as six amino acid residues may often evoke an immune response.

[0066] In certain embodiments, the BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Tables 1, 2, FIGS. 1A-Q, SEQ ID NOS: 4, 5, and 30 to 76). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fc portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0067] The present invention is further directed to fragments of the polynucleotide sequences described herein. By a fragment of, for example, the polynucleotide sequence of a deposited cDNA or the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: X, is intended polynucleotide fragments at least about 15 nt, and more preferably at least about 20 nt, at least about 25 nt, still more preferably at least about 30 nt, at least about 35 nt, and even more preferably, at least about 40 nt in length, at least about 45 nt in length, at least about 50 nt in length, at least about 60 nt in length, at least about 70 nt in length, at least about 80 nt in length, at least about 90 nt in length, at least about 100 nt in length, at least about 125 nt in length, at least about 150 nt in length, at least about 175 nt in length, which are useful as diagnostic probes and primers as discussed herein. Of course, larger fragments 200-1500 nt in length are also useful according to the present invention, as are fragments corresponding to most, if not all, of the nucleotide sequence of a deposited cDNA or as shown in SEQ ID NO: X. By a fragment at least 20 nt in length, for example, is intended fragments which include 20 or more contiguous bases from the nucleotide sequence of a deposited cDNA or the nucleotide sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: X. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited size, an sizes larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. Representative examples of polynucleotide fragments of the invention include, for example, fragments that comprise, or alternatively, consist of, a sequence from about nucleotide 1 to about 50, from about 51 to about 100, from about 101 to about 150, from about 151 to about 200, from about 201 to about 250, from about 251 to about 300, from about 301 to about 350, from about 351 to about 400, from about 401 to about 450, from about 451 to about 500, and from about 501 to about 550, and from about 551 to about 600, from about 601 to about 650, from about 651 to about 700, from about 701 to about 750, from about 751 to about 800, and from about 801 to about 860, of SEQ ID NO: X, or the complementary strand thereto, or the cDNA contained in a deposited clone. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited ranges, and ranges larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. In additional embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention encode functional attributes of the corresponding protein.

[0068] Preferred polypeptide fragments of the invention comprise, or alternatively consist of, the mature, full length, or propeptide BMP protein of the invention (see, Table 1, 2, and FIGS. 1A-Q and 2) having a continuous series of deleted residues from the amino or the carboxy terminus, or both. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides arc also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, variants of these polypeptides (e.g., polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these variants are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fe portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these variants are also encompassed by the invention. In preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0069] As described herein, the BMP proteins of the invention may be used to regulate glucose metabolism and/or insulin resistance. Aberrations in concentration or function of these proteins are further believed to favor the storage of nutrients as fat in the adipose tissue over that of storage as glycogen in skeletal muscle.

[0070] Accordingly, in preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells. In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells.

[0071] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to regulate glucose metabolism. In highly preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins, and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to increase glucose metabolism.

[0072] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose hyperglycemia.

[0073] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor dyslipidemia or a condition associated with dyslipidemia.

[0074] Additionally, in preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prognose or monitor obesity.

[0075] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat obesity or a condition associated with obesity.

[0076] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to limit weight gain.

[0077] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to suppress appetite.

[0078] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP antagonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to increase appetite.

[0079] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to alter or regulate nutritional partitioning in the patient. In one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered according to this method to reduce fat mass. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered according to this method to increase muscle mass.

[0080] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to promote weight gain.

[0081] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat or prevent an insulin related disease, disorder, or condition. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are administered to treat or prevent a disorder characterized by a state of insulin resistance. Disorders characterized by insulin resistance that may be treated (e.g., ameliorated), prevented, diagnosed, and/or prognosed using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, renal failure, androgen excess, and liver cirrhosis or liver disease, injury and/or complications associated with transplantation. In further, specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are administered to treat or prevent hyperinsulinemia or a disorder or condition associated therewith.

[0082] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor diabetes or a condition associated with diabetes.

[0083] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat or prevent diabetes or a condition associated with diabetes.

[0084] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor hypertension or a condition associated with hypertension.

[0085] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor coronary artery disease or a condition associated with coronary artery disease.

[0086] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor a neuropathy, neural injury, or a condition associated with a neuropathy or neural injury. Neuropathies that can be diagnosed, treated, prevented, or prognosed using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy. In preferred embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose paraympathetic neuropathy or parasympathetic neural injury or conditions associated with paraympathetic neuropathy or parasympathetic neural injury. In highly preferred embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose hepatic paraympathetic neuropathy or hepatic parasympathetic neural injury, and/or conditions associated with hepatic paraympathetic neuropathy or hepatic parasympathetic neural injury.

[0087] As decribed below, HLDOU18 protein has been observed to inhibit PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) expression in an in vitro reporter assay (See, FIG. 3). PEPCK is a key enzyme involved in the metabolic production of glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver. Blood glucose levels in the blood are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. The gene encoding PEPCK is controlled at the transcriptional level by key hormones, particularly insulin, glucagon and glucorticoids. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, excessive hepatic glucose production is a major contributor to both the fasting hyperglycaemia and the exaggerated postprandial hyperglycaemia. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. Since the rate of gluconeogenesis is controlled, in part by activity of the PEPCK enzyme, modulating the activity of the PEPCK enzyme would be of benefit for treating diseases and disorders resulting directly or indirectly from hyperglycemia, and/or aberrant PEPCK expression/activity. Thus, it is contemplated that BMP polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention would be useful in treating, for example, type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

[0088] Assays for the regulation of transcription through the PEPCK promoter are well-known in the art and may be used or routinely modified to assess the ability of polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies and agonists or antagonists of the invention) to activate the PEPCK Biol Chem 275(23):17814-17820 (2000), the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. A highly preferred indication is diabetes mellitus.

[0089] It has also been observed that the mature form of BMP 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 shown in FIG. 2 protein can inhibit PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) expression in an in vitro reporter assay.

[0090] In addition, it was observed (as described below) that the HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention has a dose-dependent effect on basal glycemia, particularly in db/db diabetic obese mice. (See, FIGS. 4A and 4B). These data further support the use of BMP polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention in treating and/or detecting diseases directly or indirectly resulting from hyperglycemia. Diseases directly or indirectly resulting from hyperglycemia that may be treated, prevented, diagnosed and/or prognosed using the polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention include, but are not limited to, type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

[0091] Moreover, it was observed (as decribed below) that HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention mediates muscle cell proliferation. (See, FIG. 5). Therefore, BMP polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention are also useful in treating and/or detecting musculoskeletal diseases and disorders, including, but not limited to, cartilage and bone growth disorders, osteoporosis, and connective tissue disorders (e.g., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, and chondromalacia).

[0092] It has also been observed that the mature form of BMP 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 shown in FIG. 2 protein can mediate muscle cell proliferation.

[0093] Additionally, a glucose production assay (exemplified in Example 25) was performed (as decribed below) and it was observed that HLDOU18 inhibits glucose production in the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE to a similar extent as insulin (See, FIG. 6). This suggests that polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention may be able to replace insulin in vivo if inhibition of gluconeogenesis is desired.

[0094] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to lower glucose production in liver and/or other cells.

[0095] Additionally, in one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to reduce gluconeogenesis in liver and/or other cells.

[0096] In an additional embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to modulate (e.g., increase) the effect of insulin on blood glucose levels.

[0097] A highly preferred embodiment of the invention is a method of increasing glucose uptake of a cell comprising contacting a cell with one or more BMP polypeptides of the invention. A specific embodiment is this method performed in vitro. A specific embodiment is this method performed in vitro. A specific embodiment is where the cell is a liver cell, or where the cell is an adipocyte, or where the cell is a kidney cell, or where the cell is a muscle cell.

[0098] In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of decreasing glucose production of a cell comprising contacting a cell with a BMP polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, or a muscle cell.

[0099] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing glucose uptake by a cell comprising contacting a cell with a BMP polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, a skin cell, a bone cell, or a skeletal muscle cell.

[0100] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing the sensitivity of a cell to insulin comprising contacting a cell with a BMP polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, a skin cell, a bone cell, or a skeletal muscle cell.

[0101] A highly preferred indication of the invention is cardiovascular disease.

[0102] An additional highly preferred indication is a complication associated with diabetes (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, kidney disease (e.g., renal failure, nephropathy and/or other diseases and disorders as described in the “Renal Disorders” section below), diabetic neuropathy, nerve disease and nerve damage (e.g., due to diabetic neuropathy), blood vessel blockage, heart disease, stroke, impotence (e.g., due to diabetic neuropathy or blood vessel blockage), seizures, mental confusion, drowsiness, nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma, cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart disease, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and other diseases and disorders as described in the “Cardiovascular Disorders” section below), dyslipidemia, endocrine disorders (as described in the “Endocrine Disorders” section below), neuropathy, vision impairment (e.g., diabetic retinopathy and blindness), ulcers and impaired wound healing, infection (e.g., an infectious diseases or disorders as described in the “Infectious Diseases” section below, especially of the urinary tract and skin), carpal tunnel syndrome and Dupuytren's contracture).

[0103] An additional highly preferred indication is obesity and/or complications associated with obesity. Additional highly preferred indications include weight loss or alternatively, weight gain.

[0104] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with insulin resistance.

[0105] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with hyperglycemia.

[0106] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with obesity.

[0107] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with diabetes.

[0108] Additional highly preferred indications are disorders of the musculoskeletal systems including myopathies, muscular dystrophy, and/or as described herein.

[0109] Additional highly preferred indications include glycogen storage disease (e.g., glycogenoses), hepatitis, gallstones, cirrhosis of the liver, degenerative or necrotic liver disease, alcoholic liver diseases, fibrosis, liver regeneration, metabolic disease, dyslipidemia and cholesterol metabolism, and hepatocarcinomas.

[0110] Highly preferred indications include endocrine disorders (e.g., diabetes, metabolic disorders, obesity, and/or as described below under “Endocrine Disorders”), blood disorders (e.g., as described below under “Immune Activity”, “Cardiovascular Disorders”, and/or “Blood-Related Disorders”), immune disorders (e.g., as described below under “Immune Activity”), infection (e.g., an infectious disease and/or disorder as described below under “Infectious Disease”), endocrine disorders (e.g., as described below under “Endocrine Disorders”), and neural disorders (e.g., as described below under “Neural Activity and Neurological Diseases”).

[0111] Additional preferred indications include neoplastic diseases (e.g., as described below under “Hyperproliferative Disorders”). Preferred indications include neoplasms and cancers, such as, leukemia, lymphoma, prostate, breast, lung, colon, pancreatic, liver, esophageal, stomach, brain, and urinary cancer. A highly preferred indication is liver cancer. Other preferred indications include benign dysproliferative disorders and pre-neoplastic conditions, such as, for example, hyperplasia, metaplasia, and/or dysplasia.

[0112] The polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonists or antagonists of those polypeptides (including antibodies) as well as fragments and variants of those polynucleotides, polypeptides agonists and antagonists, may be used to diagnose, prognose, and/or monitor individuals with type II diabetes mellitus or individuals with a predisposition to develop type II diabetes mellitus.

[0113] By “agonist,” is meant any substance that enhances the function of the polynucleotides or polypeptides of the invention. Classes of molecules that can function as agonists include, but are not limited to, small molecules, antibodies (including fragments or variants thereof, such as Fab fragments, Fab′2 fragments and scFvs), and peptidomimetics. By “antagonist,” is meant any substance that diminishes or abolishes the function of the polynucleotides or polypeptides of the invention. Classes of molecules that can function as antagonists include, but are not limited to, small molecules, antibodies (including fragments or variants thereof, such as Fab fragments, Fab′2 fragments and scFvs) antisense polynucleotides, ribozymes, and peptidomimetics.

[0114] Polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, may be used according to the methods of the invention in the diagnosis and/or prognosis of individuals with type II diabetes mellitus, a subset of individuals with type II diabetes mellitus, and/or individuals or a subset of individuals with a predisposition to develop type II diabetes mellitus. For example, a biological sample obtained from a person suspected of being afflicted with type II diabetes mellitus, “the subject,” may be analyzed for the relative expression level(s) of polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention. The expression level(s) of one or more of these molecules of the invention is (are) then compared to the expression level(s) of the same molecules of the invention as expressed in a person known not to be afflicted with type II diabetes mellitus. An increase/decrease in the expression level(s) of these polypeptides in samples obtained from the subject compared to the control suggests that the subject is afflicted with type II diabetes mellitus or a subset thereof.

[0115] The polynucleotides, polypeptides and/or antibodies of the invention and agonists and antagonists thereof may routinely be assayed for involvement in the regulation of the expression of key genes (e.g., PEPCK) of metabolism (e.g., fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism) by a number of methods known in the art.

[0116] For example, reporter assays in H4IIe rat liver cell lines containing a rat FAS promoter element or a SREBP element could be utilized, as well as, a GSK-3 reporter assay in a L6 Rat myoblast cell line. FAS (Fatty acid synthase) is an enzyme which plays a central role in de novo lipogenesis. Insulin increases FAS gene transcription in livers of diabetic mice. This stimulation of transcription is somewhat glucose dependent. SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein, aka ADD or adipocyte determination differentiation dependent factor) is a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several key genes of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in fibroblasts, adipocytes and liver. (FAS is one of the genes regulated by SREBP). Expression of the SREBP1c form of this gene is high in white fat, brown fat and liver, and insulin has been shown to upregulate the expression of SREBP1c in adipocytes (Kim et al., J Clin Invest 101:1-9 (1998)). GSK-3 is phosphorylated by AKT. AKT regulates glucose metabolism and cell survival.

[0117] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonist or antagonists thereof (especially neutralizing or antagonistic antibodies) may be used to treat, prevent, and/or ameliorate type II diabetes. Additionally, in other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonists thereof (especially agonistic antibodies) may be used to treat, prevent, or ameliorate conditions associated with type II diabetes mellitus, including, but not limited to, seizures, mental confusion, drowsiness, nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma, cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart disease, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and other diseases and disorders as described in the “Cardiovascular Disorders” section below), dyslipidemia, kidney disease (e.g., renal failure, nephropathy other diseases and disorders as described in the “Renal Disorders” section below), endocrine disorders (as described in the “Endocrine Disorders” section below), obesity, nerve damage, neuropathy, vision impairment (e.g., diabetic retinopathy and blindness), ulcers and impaired wound healing, infections (e.g., infectious diseases and disorders as described in the “Infectious Diseases” section below, especially of the urinary tract and skin), carpal tunnel syndrome and Dupuytren's contracture.

[0118] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonist or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to regulate the animal's weight. In specific embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonist or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to control the animal's weight by modulating a biochemical pathway involving insulin. In still other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonist or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to control the animal's weight by modulating a biochemical pathway involving insulin-like growth factor.

[0119] In a preferred embodiment, polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to treat weight disorders, including but not limited to, obesity, cachexia, wasting disease, anorexia, and bulimia.

[0120] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are useful for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of neurodegenerative disorders including, but not limited to, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis and the like, as well as spinocerebellar degenerations, and other neurological diseases and disorders as described in the “Neural Activity and Neurological Activity diseases” section below

[0121] In another embodiment, compositions of the invention (comprising polynucleotides, polypeptides of the invention, agonists and/or antagonists thereof (including antibodies) as well as fragments and variants of the polynucleotides, polypeptides of the invention, agonists and/or antagonists of the invention) are used in combination with anti-diabetic drugs. In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with thiazolidinediones (TZDs) including, but not limited to, rosiglitazone, piogliatazone, and troglitazone. In another specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are used in combination with oral hypoglycemic sulfonylurea drugs including, but not limited to, acarbose, acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, metformin, tolazamide, and/or tolbutamide. In still other embodiments, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with one or more of the following: a biguanide antidiabetic agent, a glitazone antidiabetic agent, and a sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent.

[0122] In addition, compositions of the invention can be used to diagnose, prognose, prevent, and/or treat metabolic and congenital disorders of the kidney (e.g., uremia, renal amyloidosis, renal osteodystrophy, renal tubular acidosis, renal glycosuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, cystinuria, Fanconi's syndrome, renal fibrocystic osteosis (renal rickets), Hartnup disease, Bartter's syndrome, Liddle's syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, medullary cystic disease, medullary sponge kidney, Alport's syndrome, nail-patella syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome, CRUSH syndrome, horseshoe kidney, diabetic nephropathy, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, analgesic nephropathy, kidney stones, and membranous nephropathy), and autoimmune disorders of the kidney (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Goodpasture syndrome, IgA nephropathy, and IgM mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis).

[0123] Compositions of the invention can also be used to diagnose, prognose, prevent, and/or treat sclerotic or necrotic disorders of the kidney (e.g., glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), necrotizing glomerulonephritis, and renal papillary necrosis), cancers of the kidney (e.g., nephroma, hypernephroma, nephroblastoma, renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, renal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell cancer, and Wilm's tumor), and electrolyte imbalances (e.g., nephrocalcinosis, pyuria, edema, hydronephritis, proteinuria, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperphosphatemia).

[0124] Translation products of this gene, as well as antibodies directed against translation products of this gene, may show utility as tumor markers and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0125] Highlights of the Protein Encoded by Gene No:1 (HLDOU18)

[0126] Based or northern tissue distribution data, it appears that HLDOU18 is expressed uniquely in adult and fetal liver tissues.

[0127] The northern tissue distribution data in adult and fetal liver tissues, and the homology to members of the BMP family of TGF-beta proteins, indicates that the polynucleotides, translation products and antibodies corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders of the liver (e.g., metabolic disorders of the liver, disorders associated with impaired liver function (e.g., insulin insensitivity (resistance), hypertension and diabetes (e.g., NIDDM)), liver cancer, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, liver damage, and hepatic parasympathetic neuropathy or denervation (e.g, in patients with transplanted livers).

[0128] Polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of liver tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, diseases and/or disorders of the liver, musculoskeletal system, endocrine system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, circulatory system, renal system, and metabolic related diseases or disorders (including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and diabetes)

[0129] Based upon the homology of the translation products of this gene to other members of the TGF-beta family of proteins, it is thought that translation products of the present invention may be involved in the regulation of the proliferation and/or differentiation of particular cells and/or tissues, such as, for example, liver tissues and/or tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as cartilage and/or bone tissue.

[0130] Antibodies directed against translation products of this gene may be useful in preventing and/or eliminating, antagonizing or agonizing the activity of the translation products of the present invention. By activity is meant, for example, ability to multimerize, ability to bind ligand, ability to generate antibodies, ability to bind antibodies.

[0131] More generally, as indicated by the specific tissue expression of this gene, translation products of this gene are useful for the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of liver disorders and cancers (e.g., hepatoblastoma, jaundice, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells).

[0132] In addition the expression in fetal tissue suggests a useful role for translation products of this gene in developmental abnormalities, fetal deficiencies, fetal alcohol effects, pre-natal disorders and various would-healing models and/or tissue trauma.

[0133] The homology to proteins which exert their function on musculo-skeletal tissues also indicates that polynucleotides, translation products and antibodies corresponding to this gene may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of disorders and conditions affecting the skeletal system, in particular osteoporosis, as well as disorders afflicting connective tissues (e.g., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, chondromalacia and inflammation).

[0134] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of hepatocytes and, thus, may be used to alleviate or treat liver diseases and pathologies such as fulminant liver failure caused by cirrhosis, liver damage caused by viral hepatitis and toxic substances (i.e., acetaminophen, carbon tetraholoride and other hepatotoxins known in the art).

[0135] Furthermore, polynucleotides, translation products and antibodies corresponding to this gene may be useful in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of various autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, diabetes, and dermatomyositis) as well as dwarfism, spinal deformation, specific joint abnormalities, and chondrodysplasias (i.e., spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, familial arthritis, Atelosteogenesis type II, and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid).

[0136] As described herein, the BMP proteins of the invention corresponding to Gene No: 1 is expressed in the liver and are believed to regulate glucose metabolism and/or insulin resistance. Aberrations in concentration or function of these proteins are further believed to favor the storage of nutrients as fat in the adipose tissue over that of storage as glycogen in skeletal muscle.

[0137] Moreover, HLDOU18 protein has been observed to inhibit PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) expression in an in vitro reporter assay (See, FIG. 3). PEPCK is a key enzyme involved in the metabolic production of glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver. Blood glucose levels in the blood are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. The gene encoding PEPCK is controlled at the transcriptional level by key hormones, particularly insulin, glucagon and glucorticoids. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, excessive hepatic glucose production is a major contributor to both the fasting hyperglycaemia and the exaggerated postprandial hyperglycaemia. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. Since the rate of gluconeogenesis is controlled, in part by activity of the PEPCK enzyme, modulating the activity of the PEPCK enzyme would be of benefit for treating diseases and disorders resulting directly or indirectly from hyperglycemia, and/or aberrant PEPCK expression/activity. Thus, it is contemplated that polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention would be useful in treating, for example, type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

[0138] Assays for the regulation of transcription through the PEPCK promoter are well-known in the art and may be used or routinely modified to assess the ability of polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies and agonists or antagonists of the invention) to activate the PEPCK Biol Chem 275(23):17814-17820 (2000), the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Hepatocyte cells that may be used according to these assays are publicly available (e.g., through the ATCC) and/or may be routinely generated. Exemplary liver hepatoma cells that may be used according to these assays include H411e cells, which contain a tyrosine amino transferase that is inducible with glucocorticoids, insulin, or cAMP derivatives.promoter in a reporter construct and regulate liver gluconeogenesis. Exemplary assays for regulation of transcription through the PEPCK promoter that may be used or routinely modified to test for PEPCK promoter activity (in hepatocytes) of polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies and agonists or antagonists of the invention) include assays disclosed in Berger et al., Gene 66:1-10 (1998); Cullen and Maim, Methods in Enzymol 216:362-368 (1992); Henthorn et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:6342-6346 (1988); Lochhead et al., Diabetes 49(6):896-903 (2000); and Yeagley et al., J Biol Chem 275(23):17814-17820 (2000), the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Hepatocyte cells that may be used according to these assays are publicly available (e.g., through the ATCC) and/or may be routinely generated. Exemplary liver hepatoma cells that may be used according to these assays include H411e cells, which contain a tyrosine amino transferase that is inducible with glucocorticoids, insulin, or cAMP derivatives. A highly preferred indication is diabetes mellitus.

[0139] In addition, it was observed that the HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention has a dose-dependent effect on basal glycemia, particularly in db/db diabetic obese mice. (See, FIGS. 4A and 4B). These data further support the use of polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention in treating and/or detecting diseases directly or indirectly resulting from hyperglycemia. Diseases directly or indirectly resulting from hyperglycemia that may be treated, prevented, diagnosed and/or prognosed using the polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention include, but are not limited to, type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

[0140] Moreover, it was observed that HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention mediates muscle cell proliferation. (See, FIG. 5). Therefore, polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention are also useful in treating and/or detecting musculoskeletal diseases and disorders, including, but not limited to, cartilage and bone growth disorders, osteoporosis, and connective tissue disorders (e.g., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, and chondromalacia).

[0141] Additionally, a glucose production assay (exemplified in Example 25) was performed and it was observed that HLDOU18 inhibits glucose production in the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE to a similar extent as insulin (See, FIG. 6). This suggests that polypeptides, polynucleotides, agonists, and antagonists of the invention may be able to replace insulin in vivo if inhibition of gluconeogenesis is desired.

[0142] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to lower glucose production in liver and/or other cells.

[0143] Additionally, in one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to reduce gluconeogenesis in liver and/or other cells.

[0144] In an additional embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to modulate (e.g., increase) the effect of insulin on blood glucose levels.

[0145] A highly preferred embodiment of the invention is a method of increasing glucose uptake of a cell comprising contacting a cell with one or more HLDOU18 polypeptides of the invention. A specific embodiment is this method performed in vitro. A specific embodiment is this method performed in vitro. A specific embodiment is where the cell is a liver cell, or where the cell is an adipocyte, or where the cell is a kidney cell, or where the cell is a muscle cell.

[0146] In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of decreasing glucose production of a cell comprising contacting a cell with a HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, or a muscle cell.

[0147] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing glucose uptake by a cell comprising contacting a cell with a HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, a skin cell, a bone cell, or a skeletal muscle cell.

[0148] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing the sensitivity of a cell to insulin comprising contacting a cell with a HLDOU18 polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, a skin cell, a bone cell, or a skeletal muscle cell.

[0149] Accordingly, in preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells. In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells.

[0150] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to regulate glucose metabolism. In highly preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins, and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to increase glucose metabolism.

[0151] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose hyperglycemia.

[0152] In other embodiments, the. polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor dyslipidemia or a condition associated with dyslipidemia.

[0153] Additionally, in preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prognose or monitor obesity.

[0154] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat obesity or a condition associated with obesity.

[0155] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to limit weight gain.

[0156] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to suppress appetite.

[0157] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP antagonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to increase appetite.

[0158] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to alter or regulate nutritional partitioning in the patient. In one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered according to this method to reduce fat mass. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered according to this method to increase muscle mass.

[0159] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to promote weight gain.

[0160] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat or prevent an insulin related disease, disorder, or condition. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are administered to treat or prevent a disorder characterized by a state of insulin resistance. Disorders characterized by insulin resistance that may be treated (e.g., ameliorated), prevented, diagnosed, and/or prognosed using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, renal failure, androgen excess, and liver cirrhosis or liver disease, injury and/or complications associated with transplantation. In further, specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are administered to treat or prevent hyperinsulinemia or a disorder or condition associated therewith.

[0161] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor diabetes or a condition associated with diabetes.

[0162] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat or prevent diabetes or a condition associated with diabetes.

[0163] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor hypertension or a condition associated with hypertension.

[0164] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor coronary artery disease or a condition associated with coronary artery disease.

[0165] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor a neuropathy, neural injury, or a condition associated with a neuropathy or neural injury. Neuropathies that can be diagnosed, treated, prevented, or prognosed using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy. In preferred embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose paraympathetic neuropathy or parasympathetic neural injury or conditions associated with paraympathetic neuropathy or parasympathetic neural injury. In highly preferred embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose hepatic paraympathetic neuropathy or hepatic parasympathetic neural injury, and/or conditions associated with hepatic paraympathetic neuropathy or hepatic parasympathetic neural injury.

[0166] This gene is expressed in liver, H4IIe cells (liver) and muscle, including L6 cells (muscle). Moreover, expression of this gene is upregulated by insulin in H4IIe cells. Thus, the expression product of this gene is a liver and muscle specific protein that may activate all or a portion of the insulin receptor pathway and it also may be itself regulated by insulin.

[0167] The polynucleotides, polypeptides and/or antibodies of the invention and agonists and antagonists thereof may routinely be assayed for involvement in the regulation of the expression of key genes (e.g., PEPCK) of metabolism (e.g., fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism) by a number of methods known in the art.

[0168] For example, reporter assays in H4IIe rat liver cell lines containing a rat FAS promoter element or a SREBP element could be utilized, as well as, a GSK-3 reporter assay in a L6 Rat myoblast cell line. FAS (Fatty acid synthase) is an enzyme which plays a central role in de novo lipogenesis. Insulin increases FAS gene transcription in livers of diabetic mice. This stimulation of transcription is somewhat glucose dependent. SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein, aka ADD or adipocyte determination differentiation dependent factor) is a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several key genes of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in fibroblasts, adipocytes and liver. (FAS is one of the genes regulated by SREBP). Expression of the SREBP1c form of this gene is high in white fat, brown fat and liver, and insulin has been shown to upregulate the expression of SREBP1c in adipocytes (Kim et al., J Clin Invest 101:1-9 (1998)). GSK-3 is phosphorylated by AKT. AKT regulates glucose metabolism and cell survival.

[0169] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists thereof (especially agonistic antibodies) may be used to treat, prevent, and/or ameliorate type II diabetes. Additionally, in other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or antagonists thereof (especially neutralizing or antagonistic antibodies) may be used to treat, prevent, or ameliorate conditions associated with type II diabetes mellitus, including, but not limited to, hyperglycemia, seizures, mental confusion, drowsiness, nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma, cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart disease, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and other diseases and disorders as described in the “Cardiovascular Disorders” section below), dyslipidemia, kidney disease (e.g., renal failure, nephropathy other diseases and disorders as described in the “Renal Disorders” section below), endocrine disorders (as described in the “Endocrine Disorders” section below), obesity, nerve damage, neuropathy, vision impairment (e.g., diabetic retinopathy and blindness), ulcers and impaired wound healing, infections (e.g., infectious diseases and disorders as described in the “Infectious Diseases” section below, especially of the urinary tract and skin), carpal tunnel syndrome and Dupuytren's contracture.

[0170] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to regulate the animal's weight. In specific embodiments the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to control the animal's weight by modulating a biochemical pathway involving insulin. In still other embodiments the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to control the animal's weight by modulating a biochemical pathway involving insulin-like growth factor.

[0171] In a preferred embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to treat weight disorders, including but not limited to, obesity, cachexia, wasting disease, anorexia, and bulimia.

[0172] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are useful for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of neurodegenerative disorders including, but not limited to, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis and the like, as well as spinocerebellar degenerations, and other neurological diseases and disorders as described in the “Neural Activity and Neurological Activity diseases” section below

TABLE 1
NT AA
ATCC SEQ 5' NT 3' NT 5' NT SEQ Last
cDNA Deposit ID Total of of of ID AA
Gene Clone ID No: Z NO: NT Clone Clone Start NO: of
No. No: V and Date Vector X Seq. Seq. Seq. Codon Y ORF
1 HLDOU18 PTA848 pCMVSport 2 3257 1 3257 150 4 429
Oct. 13, 1999 3.0
1 HLDOU18 PTA848 pCMVSport 3 3295 1 3295 190 5 429
Oct. 13, 1999 3.0
4 HHFBT80 75672 8 32 478
Feb. 09, 1994

[0173] Polynucleotides and Polypeptides of the Invention

[0174] The present invention provides a polynucleotide comprising, or alternatively consisting of, the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: X and/or cDNA Clone ID NO: V. The present invention also provides a polypeptide comprising, or alternatively, consisting of, the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y, a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X, and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V. Polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising, or alternatively consisting of the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y, a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V, are also encompassed by the invention. The present invention further encompasses a polynucleotide comprising, or alternatively consisting of the complement of the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: X, and/or the complement of the coding strand of the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0175] The present invention is also directed to polynucleotide fragments of the polynucleotides (nucleic acids) of the invention. In the present invention, a “polynucleotide fragment” refers to a polynucleotide having a nucleic acid sequence which: is a portion of the cDNA contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V or encoding the polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V; is a portion of the polynucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto; is a polynucleotide sequence encoding a portion of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y; or is a polynucleotide sequence encoding a portion of a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X. The nucleotide fragments of the invention are preferably at least about 15 nt, and more preferably at least about 20 nt, still more preferably at least about 30 nt, and even more preferably, at least about 40 nt, at least about 50 nt, at least about 75 nt, at least about 100 nt, at least about 125 nt, or at least about 150 nt in length. A fragment “at least 20 nt in length,” for example, is intended to include 20 or more contiguous bases from, for example, the sequence contained in the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V, or the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary stand thereto. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited value, or a value larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides. These nucleotide fragments have uses that include, but are not limited to, as diagnostic probes and primers as discussed herein. Of course, larger fragments (e.g., at least 150, 175, 200, 250, 500, 600, 1000, or 2000 nucleotides in length ) are also encompassed by the invention.

[0176] Moreover, representative examples of polynucleotide fragments of the invention, include, for example, fragments comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a sequence from about nucleotide number 1-50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200, 201-250, 251-300, 301-350, 351-400, 401-450, 451-500, 501-550, 551-600, 651-700,701-750, 751-800, 800-850, 851-900, 901-950, 951-1000, 1001-1050, 1051-1100, 1101-1150, 1151-1200, 1201-1250, 1251-1300, 1301-1350, 1351-1400, 1401-1450, 1451-1500, 1501-1550, 1551-1600, 1601-1650, 1651-1700, 1701-1750, 1751-1800, 1801-1850, 1851-1900, 1901-1950, 1951-2000, 2001-2050, 2051-2100, 2101-2150, 2151-2200, 2201-2250, 2251-2300, 2301-2350, 2351-2400, 2401-2450, 2451-2500, 2501-2550, 2551-2600, 2601-2650, 2651-2700, 2701-2750, 2751-2800, 2801-2850, 2851-2900, 2901-2950, 2951-3000, 3001-3050, 3051-3100, 3101-3150, 3151-3200, 3201-3250, and/or 3251-3295 of SEQ ID NO: X, or the complementary strand thereto. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited range or a range larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. Preferably, these fragments encode a polypeptide which has a functional activity (e.g., biological activity) of the polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide of which the sequence is a portion. More preferably, these fragments can be used as probes or primers as discussed herein. Polynucleotides which hybridize to one or more of these fragments under stringent hybridization conditions or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions, are also encompassed by the invention, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides or fragments.

[0177] Moreover, representative examples of polynucleotide fragments of the invention, include, for example, fragments comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a sequence from about nucleotide number 1-50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200, 201-250, 251-300, 301-350, 351-400, 401-450, 451-500, 501-550, 551-600, 651-700,701-750, 751-800, 800-850, 851-900, 901-950, 951-1000, 1001-1050, 1051-1100, 1101-1150, 1151-1200, 1201-1250, 1251-1300, 1301-1350, 1351-1400, 1401-1450, 1451-1500, 1501-1550, 1551-1600, 1601-1650, 1651-1700, 1701-1750, 1751-1800, 1801-1850, 1851-1900, 1901-1950, 1951-2000, 2001-2050, 2051-2100, 2101-2150, 2151-2200, 2201-2250, 2251-2300, 2301-2350, 2351-2400, 2401-2450, 2451-2500, 2501-2550, 2551-2600, 2601-2650, 2651-2700, 2701-2750, 2751-2800, 2801-2850, 2851-2900, 2901-2950, 2951-3000, 3001-3050, 3051-3100, 3101-3150, 3151-3200, 3201-3250, and/or 3251-3295 of the cDNA nucleotide sequence contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V, or the complementary strand thereto. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited range or a range larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. Preferably, these fragments encode a polypeptide which has a functional activity (e.g., biological activity) of the polypeptide encoded by the cDNA nucleotide sequence contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V. More preferably, these fragments can be used as probes or primers as discussed herein. Polynucleotides which hybridize to one or more of these fragments under stringent hybridization conditions, or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions are also encompassed by the invention, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides or fragments.

[0178] In the present invention, a “polypeptide fragment” refers to an amino acid sequence which is a portion of that contained in SEQ ID NO: Y, a portion of an amino acid sequence encoded by the polynucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X, and/or encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V. Protein (polypeptide) fragments may be “free-standing,” or comprised within a larger polypeptide of which the fragment forms a part or region, most preferably as a single continuous region. Representative examples of polypeptide fragments of the invention, include, for example, fragments comprising, or alternatively consisting of, an amino acid sequence from about amino acid number 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100, 101-120, 121-140, 141-160, 161-180, 181-200, 201-220, 221-240, 241-260, 261-280, 281-300, 301-320, 321-340, 341-360, 361-380, 381-400, 401-420, and/or 421-429 of the coding region of SEQ ID NO: Y. Moreover, polypeptide fragments of the invention may be at least about 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, or 150 amino acids in length. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited ranges or values, or ranges or values larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) amino acids, at either terminus or at both termini. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also encompassed by the invention.

[0179] Even if deletion of one or more amino acids from the N-terminus of a protein results in modification of loss of one or more biological functions of the protein, other functional activities (e.g., biological activities, ability to multimerize, ability to bind a ligand) may still be retained. For example, the ability of shortened muteins to induce and/or bind to antibodies which recognize the complete or mature forms of the polypeptides generally will be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the complete or mature polypeptide are removed from the N-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking N-terminal residues of a complete polypeptide retains such immunologic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art. It is not unlikely that a mutein with a large number of deleted N-terminal amino acid residues may retain some biological or immunogenic activities. In fact, peptides composed of as few as six amino acid residues may often evoke an immune response.

[0180] Accordingly, polypeptide fragments of the invention include the secreted protein as well as the mature form. Further preferred polypeptide fragments include the secreted protein or the mature form having a continuous series of deleted residues from the amino or the carboxy terminus, or both. For example, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-50, can be deleted from the amino terminus of either the secreted polypeptide or the mature form. Similarly, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-50, can be deleted from the carboxy terminus of the secreted protein or mature form. Furthermore, any combination of the above amino and carboxy terminus deletions are preferred. Similarly, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also preferred.

[0181] Preferred BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIG. 2; SEQ ID NOS: 54 to 76). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fe portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0182] Additional preferred BMP polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively, consist of the cysteine rich regions of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2). These cysteine rich regions are indicated in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2. For example, additional embodiments of the invention include the cysteine rich regions of each mature polypeptide described above where the flanking amino acid sequences are removed are altered. Furthermore, additional embodiments include the mature polypeptides described above where one or more of the cysteine rich regions is deleted to increase a desirable biological activity or property (e.g., solubility) or decrease a desirable biological activity or property (e.g., solubility). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fc portion of the IgG fuision) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0183] Additional embodiments include BMP polypeptides of the invention which comprise, or alternatively, consist of fragments of the mature (i.e., secreted) amino acid sequence of a protein selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS (e.g., as provided in FIG. 2; SEQ ID NOS: 54 to 76). Polypeptide fragments include the mature form shown in FIG. 2 having a continuous series of deleted residues from the amino or the carboxy terminus, or both. For example, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-50, can be deleted from the amino terminus of the mature form. Similarly, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-50, can be deleted from the carboxy terminus of the mature form. Furthermore, any combination of the above amino and carboxy terminus deletions are preferred. Similarly, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also preferred. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention, as are antibodies that bind one or more of these polypeptides. Moreover, fragments and variants of these polypeptides (e.g., fragments as described herein, polypeptides at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%o, or 99% identical to these polypeptides and polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotide which hybridizes, under stringent conditions, to the polynucleotide encoding these polypeptides, or the complement thereof) are encompassed by the invention. Antibodies that bind these fragments and variants of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Protein fusions (e.g., albumin fusion and human Fc portion of the IgG fusion) of these polypeptides, fragments and variants thereof of the invention are also encompassed by the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these fragments and variants are also encompassed by the invention. In additional preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0184] The present invention further provides polypeptides having one or more residues deleted from the amino terminus of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide disclosed herein (e.g., the mature (secreted form) of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 2, FIGS. 1A-Q and 2), the complete sequence of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q) (with or without the signal), the propeptide sequence of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 1, 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q), a polypeptide encoded by the polynucleotide sequence (of a fragment) contained in SEQ ID NO: X, and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V). In particular, N-terminal deletions may be described by the general formula m-q, where q is a whole integer representing the total number of amino acid residues in a polypeptide of the invention (e.g., the polypeptide disclosed in SEQ ID NO: Y), and m is defined as any integer ranging from 2 to q-6. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, including fragments and/or variants, are also encompassed by the invention.

[0185] Also as mentioned above, even if deletion of one or more amino acids from the C-terminus of a protein results in modification of loss of one or more biological functions of the protein, other functional activities (e.g., biological activities, ability to multimerize, ability to bind a ligand) may still be retained. For example the ability of the shortened mutein to induce and/or bind to antibodies which recognize the complete or mature forms of the polypeptide generally will be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the complete or mature polypeptide are removed from the C-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking C-terminal residues of a complete polypeptide retains such immunologic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art. It is not unlikely that a mutein with a large number of deleted C-terminal amino acid residues may retain some biological or immunogenic activities. In fact, peptides composed of as few as six amino acid residues may often evoke an immune response.

[0186] Accordingly, the present invention further provides polypeptides having one or more residues from the carboxy terminus of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide disclosed herein (e.g., the mature (secreted form) of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 2, FIGS. 1A-Q and 2), the complete sequence of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q) (with or without the signal), the propeptide sequence of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 1, 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q), a polypeptide encoded by the polynucleotide sequence (of a fragment) contained in SEQ ID NO: X, and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V). In particular, C-terminal deletions may be described by the general formula 1-n, where n is any whole integer ranging from 6 to q-1, and where n corresponds to the position of an amino acid residue in a polypeptide of the invention. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, including fragments and/or variants, are also encompassed by the invention.

[0187] In addition, any of the above described N- or C-terminal deletions can be combined to produce a N- and C-terminal deleted polypeptide. The invention also provides polypeptides having one or more amino acids deleted from both the amino and the carboxyl termini, which may be described generally as having residues m-n of a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X (e.g., including, but not limited to, a polypeptide of the invention of the mature (secreted form) of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., FIG. 2), a polypeptide of the invention of the complete sequence of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 1, 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q) (with or without the signal), a polypeptide of the invention of the propeptide sequence of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 1, 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q), a polypeptide encoded by the polynucleotide sequence (of a fragment) contained in SEQ ID NO: X, and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V), where n and m are integers as described above. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, including fragments and/or variants, are also encompassed by the invention.

[0188] Any polypeptide sequence contained in the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y, encoded by the polynucleotide sequences set forth as SEQ ID NO: X, or encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V may be analyzed to determine certain preferred regions of the polypeptide. For example, the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V may be analyzed using the default parameters of the DNASTAR computer algorithm (DNASTAR, Inc., 1228 S. Park St., Madison, Wis. 53715 USA; http://www.dnastar.com/).

[0189] Polypeptide regions that may be routinely obtained using the DNASTAR computer algorithm include, but are not limited to, Garnier-Robson alpha-regions, beta-regions, turn-regions, and coil-regions, Chou-Fasman alpha-regions, beta-regions, and turn-regions, Kyte-Doolittle hydrophilic regions and hydrophobic regions, Eisenberg alpha- and beta-amphipathic regions, Karplus-Schulz flexible regions, Emini surface-forming regions and Jameson-Wolf regions of high antigenic index. Among highly preferred polynucleotides of the invention in this regard are those that encode polypeptides comprising regions that combine several structural features, such as several (e.g., 1, 2, 3 or 4) of the features set out above.

[0190] Additionally, Kyte-Doolittle hydrophilic regions and hydrophobic regions, Emini surface-forming regions, and Jameson-Wolf regions of high antigenic index (i.e., containing four or more contiguous amino acids having an antigenic index of greater than or equal to 1.5, as identified using the default parameters of the Jameson-Wolf program) can routinely be used to determine polypeptide regions that exhibit a high degree of potential for antigenicity. Regions of high antigenicity are determined from data by DNASTAR analysis by choosing values which represent regions of the polypeptide which are likely to be exposed on the surface of the polypeptide in an environment in which antigen recognition may occur in the process of initiation of an immune response.

[0191] Preferred polypeptide fragments of the invention are fragments comprising, or alternatively, consisting of, an amino acid sequence that displays a functional activity (e.g., biological activity) of the polypeptide sequence of which the amino acid sequence is a fragment. By a polypeptide displaying a “functional activity” is meant a polypeptide capable of one or more known functional activities associated with a full-length protein, such as, for example, biological activity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, and/or multimerization, as described supra.

[0192] Other preferred polypeptide fragments are biologically active fragments. Biologically active fragments are those exhibiting activity similar, but not necessarily identical, to an activity of the polypeptide of the present invention. The biological activity of the fragments may include an improved desired activity, or a decreased undesirable activity.

[0193] In preferred embodiments, polypeptides of the invention comprise, or alternatively consist of, one, two, three, four, five or more of the antigenic fragments of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y, or portions thereof. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, including fragments and/or variants, are also encompassed by the invention.

[0194] The present invention encompasses polypeptides comprising, or alternatively consisting of, an epitope of the polypeptide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: Y, or an epitope of the polypeptide sequence encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V, or encoded by a polynucleotide that hybridizes to the complement of an epitope encoding sequence of SEQ ID NO: X, or an epitope encoding sequence contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V under stringent hybridization conditions, or alternatively, under lower stringency hybridization, as defined supra. The present invention further encompasses polynucleotide sequences encoding an epitope of a polypeptide sequence of the invention (such as, for example, the sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO: X), polynucleotide sequences of the complementary strand of a polynucleotide sequence encoding an epitope of the invention, and polynucleotide sequences which hybridize to this complementary strand under stringent hybridization conditions, or alternatively, under lower stringency hybridization conditions, as defined supra.

[0195] The term “epitopes,” as used herein, refers to portions of a polypeptide having antigenic or immunogenic activity in an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably in a human. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention encompasses a polypeptide comprising an epitope, as well as the polynucleotide encoding this polypeptide. An “immunogenic epitope,” as used herein, is defined as a portion of a protein that elicits an antibody response in an animal, as determined by any method known in the art, for example, by the methods for generating antibodies described infra. (See, for example, Geysen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:3998-4002 (1983)). The term “antigenic epitope,” as used herein, is defined as a portion of a protein to which an antibody can immunospecifically bind its antigen as determined by any method well known in the art, for example, by the immunoassays described herein. Immunospecific binding excludes non-specific binding but does not necessarily exclude cross-reactivity with other antigens. Antigenic epitopes need not necessarily be immunogenic.

[0196] Fragments which function as epitopes may be produced by any conventional means. (See, e.g., Houghten, R. A., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:5131-5135 (1985) further described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,631,211.)

[0197] In the present invention, antigenic epitopes preferably contain a sequence of at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, more preferably at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 20, at least 25, at least 30, at least 40, at least 50, and, most preferably, between about 15 to about 30 amino acids. Preferred polypeptides comprising immunogenic or antigenic epitopes are at least 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 amino acid residues in length. Additional non-exclusive preferred antigenic epitopes include the antigenic epitopes disclosed herein, as well as portions thereof. Antigenic epitopes are useful, for example, to raise antibodies, including monoclonal antibodies, that specifically bind the epitope. Preferred antigenic epitopes include the antigenic epitopes disclosed herein, as well as any combination of two, three, four, five or more of these antigenic epitopes. Antigenic epitopes can be used as the target molecules in immunoassays. (See, for instance, Wilson et al., Cell 37:767-778 (1984); Sutcliffe et al., Science 219:660-666 (1983)).

[0198] Similarly, immunogenic epitopes can be used, for example, to induce antibodies according to methods well known in the art. (See, for instance, Sutcliffe et al., supra; Wilson et al., supra; Chow et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:910-914; and Bittle et al., J. Gen. Virol. 66:2347-2354 (1985). Preferred immunogenic epitopes include the immunogenic epitopes disclosed herein, as well as any combination of two, three, four, five or more of these immunogenic epitopes. The polypeptides comprising one or more immunogenic epitopes may be presented for eliciting an antibody response together with a carrier protein, such as an albumin, to an animal system (such as rabbit or mouse), or, if the polypeptide is of sufficient length (at least about 25 amino acids), the polypeptide may be presented without a carrier. However, immunogenic epitopes comprising as few as 8 to 10 amino acids have been shown to be sufficient to raise antibodies capable of binding to, at the very least, linear epitopes in a denatured polypeptide (e.g., in Western blotting).

[0199] Epitope-bearing polypeptides of the present invention may be used to induce antibodies according to methods well known in the art including, but not limited to, in vivo immunization, in vitro immunization, and phage display methods. See, e.g., Sutcliffe et al., supra; Wilson et al., supra, and Bittle et al., J. Gen. Virol., 66:2347-2354 (1985). If in vivo immunization is used, animals may be immunized with free peptide; however, anti-peptide antibody titer may be boosted by coupling the peptide to a macromolecular carrier, such as keyhole limpet hemacyanin (KLH) or tetanus toxoid. For instance, peptides containing cysteine residues may be coupled to a carrier using a linker such as maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS), while other peptides may be coupled to carriers using a more general linking agent such as glutaraldehyde. Animals such as rabbits, rats and mice are immunized with either free or carrier-coupled peptides, for instance, by intraperitoneal and/or intradermal injection of emulsions containing about 100 μg of peptide or carrier protein and Freund's adjuvant or any other adjuvant known for stimulating an immune response. Several booster injections may be needed, for instance, at intervals of about two weeks, to provide a useful titer of anti-peptide antibody which can be detected, for example, by ELISA assay using free peptide adsorbed to a solid surface. The titer of anti-peptide antibodies in serum from an immunized animal may be increased by selection of anti-peptide antibodies, for instance, by adsorption to the peptide on a solid support and elution of the selected antibodies according to methods well known in the art.

[0200] As one of skill in the art will appreciate, and as discussed above, the polypeptides of the present invention and immunogenic and/or antigenic epitope fragments thereof can be fused to other polypeptide sequences. For example, the polypeptides of the present invention may be fused with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM), or portions thereof (CH1, CH2, CH3, or any combination thereof and portions thereof) resulting in chimeric polypeptides. Such fusion proteins may facilitate purification and may increase half-life in vivo. This has been shown for chimeric proteins consisting of the first two domains of the human CD4-polypeptide and various domains of the constant regions of the heavy or light chains of mammalian immunoglobulins. See, e.g., EP 394,827; Traunecker et al., Nature, 331:84-86 (1988). Enhanced delivery of an antigen across the epithelial barrier to the immune system has been demonstrated for antigens (e.g., insulin) conjugated to an FcRn binding partner such as IgG or Fc fragments (see, e.g., PCT Publications WO 96/22024 and WO 99/04813). IgG Fusion proteins that have a disulfide-linked dimeric structure due to the IgG portion desulfide bonds have also been found to be more efficient in binding and neutralizing other molecules than monomeric polypeptides or fragments thereof alone. See, e.g., Fountoulakis et al., J. Biochem., 270:3958-3964 (1995).

[0201] Similarly, EP-A-O 464 533 (Canadian counterpart 2045869) discloses fusion proteins comprising various portions of constant region of immunoglobulin molecules together with another human protein or part thereof. In many cases, the Fc part in a fusion protein is beneficial in therapy and diagnosis, and thus can result in, for example, improved pharmacokinetic properties. (EP-A 0232 262.) Alternatively, deleting the Fe part after the fusion protein has been expressed, detected, and purified, may be desired. For example, the Fc portion may hinder therapy and diagnosis if the fusion protein is used as an antigen for immunizations. In drug discovery, for example, human proteins, such as hIL-5, have been fused with Fc portions for the purpose of high-throughput screening assays to identify antagonists of hIL-5. (See, D. Bennett et al., J. Molecular Recognition 8:52-58 (1995); K. Johanson et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270:9459-9471 (1995)).

[0202] Moreover, the polypeptides of the present invention can be fused to marker sequences, such as a peptide which facilitates purification of the fused polypeptide. In preferred embodiments, the marker amino acid sequence is a hexa-histidine peptide, such as the tag provided in a pQE vector (QIAGEN, Inc., 9259 Eton Avenue, Chatsworth, Calif., 91311), among others, many of which are commercially available. As described in Gentz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:821-824 (1989), for instance, hexa-histidine provides for convenient purification of the fusion protein. Another peptide tag useful for purification, the “HA” tag, corresponds to an epitope derived from the influenza hemagglutinin protein. (Wilson et al., Cell 37:767 (1984)).

[0203] Thus, any of these above fusions can be engineered using the polynucleotides or the polypeptides of the present invention.

[0204] Nucleic acids encoding the above epitopes can also be recombined with a gene of interest as an epitope tag (e.g., the hemagglutinin (“HA”) tag or flag tag) to aid in detection and purification of the expressed polypeptide. For example, a system described by Janknecht et al. allows for the ready purification of non-denatured fusion proteins expressed in human cell lines (Janknecht et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8972-897 (1991)). In this system, the gene of interest is subcloned into a vaccinia recombination plasmid such that the open reading frame of the gene is translationally fused to an amino-terminal tag consisting of six histidine residues. The tag serves as a matrix binding domain for the fusion protein. Extracts from cells infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus are loaded onto Ni2+ nitriloacetic acid-agarose column and histidine-tagged proteins can be selectively eluted with imidazole-containing buffers.

[0205] Additional fusion proteins of the invention may be generated through the techniques of gene-shuffling, motif-shuffling, exon-shuffling, and/or codon-shuffling (collectively referred to as “DNA shuffling”). DNA shuffling may be employed to modulate the activities of polypeptides of the invention, such methods can be used to generate polypeptides with altered activity, as well as agonists and antagonists of the polypeptides. See, generally, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,605,793; 5,811,238; 5,830,721; 5,834,252; and 5,837,458, and Patten et al., Curr. Opinion Biotechnol. 8:724-33 (1997); Harayama, Trends Biotechnol. 16(2):76-82 (1998); Hansson, et al., J. Mol. Biol. 287:265-76 (1999); and Lorenzo and Blasco, Biotechniques 24(2):308-13 (1998) (each of these patents and publications are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). In one embodiment, alteration of polynucleotides corresponding to SEQ ID NO: X and the polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides may be achieved by DNA shuffling. DNA shuffling involves the assembly of two or more DNA segments by homologous or site-specific recombination to generate variation in the polynucleotide sequence. In another embodiment, polynucleotides of the invention, or the encoded polypeptides, may be altered by being subjected to random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, random nucleotide insertion or other methods prior to recombination. In another embodiment, one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc., of a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of the invention may be recombined with one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc. of one or more heterologous molecules.

[0206] Polynucleotide and Polypeptide Variants

[0207] The invention also encompasses BMP variants. The present invention is directed to variants of the polynucleotide sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto, and/or the cDNA sequence contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0208] The present invention also encompasses variants of the polypeptide sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO: Y, a polypeptide sequence encoded by the polynucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X and/or a polypeptide sequence encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0209] “Variant” refers to a polynucleotide or polypeptide differing from the polynucleotide or polypeptide of the present invention, but retaining properties thereof. Generally, variants are overall closely similar, and, in many regions, identical to the polynucleotide or polypeptide of the present invention.

[0210] Thus, one aspect of the invention provides an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: (a) a nucleotide sequence described in SEQ ID NO: X or contained in the cDNA sequence of Clone ID NO: V; (b) a nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V which encodes the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (c) a nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V which encodes a mature BMP polypeptide; (d) a nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or the cDNA sequence of Clone ID NO: V, which encodes a biologically active fragment of a BMP polypeptide; (e) a nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or the cDNA sequence of Clone ID NO: V, which encodes an antigenic fragment of a BMP polypeptide; (f) a nucleotide sequence encoding a BMP polypeptide comprising the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (g) a nucleotide sequence encoding a mature BMP polypeptide of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (h) a nucleotide sequence encoding a biologically active fragment of a BMP polypeptide having the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (i) a nucleotide sequence encoding an antigenic fragment of a BMP polypeptide having the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; and (j) a nucleotide sequence complementary to any of the nucleotide sequences in (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) above.

[0211] The present invention is also directed to nucleic acid molecules which comprise, or alternatively consist of, a nucleotide sequence which is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100%, identical to, for example, any of the nucleotide sequences in (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), or 0) above, the nucleotide coding sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto, the nucleotide coding sequence of the cDNA contained in Clone ID NO: V or the complementary strand thereto, a nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y, a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X, a polypeptide sequence encoded by the complement of the polynucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X, a nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in Clone ID NO: V, the nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X encoding the polypeptide sequence as defined in column 10 of Table 1, or Table 2, or the complementary strand thereto, nucleotide sequences encoding the polypeptide as defined in column 10 of Table 1 or Table 2 or the complementary strand thereto, and/or polynucleotide fragments of any of these nucleic acid molecules (e.g., those fragments described herein). Polynucleotides which hybridize to the complement of these nucleic acid molecules under stringent hybridization conditions or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions, are also encompassed by the invention, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides and nucleic acids.

[0212] In a preferred embodiment, the invention encompasses nucleic acid molecules which comprise, or alternatively, consist of a polynucleotide which hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions, or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions, to a polynucleotide in (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i), above, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides. In another preferred embodiment, polynucleotides which hybridize to the complement of these nucleic acid molecules under stringent hybridization conditions, or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions, are also encompassed by the invention, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides.

[0213] In another embodiment, the invention provides a purified protein comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: (a) the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (b) the amino acid sequence of a mature form of a BMP polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (c) the amino acid sequence of a biologically active fragment of a BMP polypeptide having the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; and (d) the amino acid sequence of an antigenic fragment of a BMP polypeptide having the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V.

[0214] The present invention is also directed to proteins which comprise, or alternatively consist of, an amino acid sequence which is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100%, identical to, for example, any of the amino acid sequences in (a), (b), (c), or (d), above, the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: Y, the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA contained in Clone ID NO: V, the amino acid sequence as defined in column 10 of Table 1 or in Table 2, an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X, and an amino acid sequence encoded by the complement of the polynucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X. Fragments of these polypeptides are also provided (e.g., those fragments described herein). Further proteins encoded by polynucleotides which hybridize to the complement of the nucleic acid molecules encoding these amino acid sequences under stringent hybridization conditions or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions, are also encompassed by the invention, as are the polynucleotides encoding these proteins.

[0215] In another embodiment, the invention provides a purified protein comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: (a) the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (b) the amino acid sequence of a mature (secreted) form of a BMP polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (c) the amino acid sequence of a biologically active fragment of a BMP polypeptide having the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; (d) the amino acid sequence of an antigenic fragment of a BMP polypeptide having the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in Clone ID NO: V; and (e) the amino acid sequence of the cysteine rich portion of either BMP of the invention shown in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2.

[0216] The present invention is also directed to proteins which comprise, or alternatively consist of, an amino acid sequence which is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100%, identical to, for example, any of the amino acid sequences in (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) above, the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: Y, the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA contained in Clone ID NO: V, the amino acid sequence as defined in column 10 of Table 1 or in Table 2, an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X, an amino acid sequence shown as SEQ ID NO: Y in FIGS. 1A-Q, FIG. 2, Table 1 or in Table 2 or Table 2, or an amino acid sequence encoded by the complement of the polynucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X. Fragments of these polypeptides are also provided (e.g., those fragments described herein). Further proteins encoded by polynucleotides which hybridize to the complement of the nucleic acid molecules encoding these amino acid sequences under stringent hybridization conditions or alternatively, under lower stringency conditions, are also encompassed by the invention, as are the polynucleotides encoding these proteins.

[0217] By a nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence at least, for example, 95% “identical” to a reference nucleotide sequence of the present invention, it is intended that the nucleotide sequence of the nucleic acid is identical to the reference sequence except that the nucleotide sequence may include up to five point mutations per each 100 nucleotides of the reference nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide. In other words, to obtain a nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence at least 95% identical to a reference nucleotide sequence, up to 5% of the nucleotides in the reference sequence may be deleted or substituted with another nucleotide, or a number of nucleotides up to 5% of the total nucleotides in the reference sequence may be inserted into the reference sequence. The query sequence may be an entire sequence referred to in Table 1 or in Table 2, the ORF (open reading frame), or any fragment specified as described herein.

[0218] As a practical matter, whether any particular nucleic acid molecule or polypeptide is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to a nucleotide sequence of the present invention can be determined conventionally using known computer programs. A preferred method for determining the best overall match between a query sequence (a sequence of the present invention) and a subject sequence, also referred to as a global sequence alignment, can be determined using the FASTDB computer program based on the algorithm of Brutlag et al. (Comp. App. Biosci. 6:237-245 (1990)). In a sequence alignment the query and subject sequences are both DNA sequences. An RNA sequence can be compared by converting U's to T's. The result of said global sequence alignment is in percent identity. Preferred parameters used in a FASTDB alignment of DNA sequences to calculate percent identity are: Matrix=Unitary, k-tuple=4, Mismatch Penalty=1, Joining Penalty=30, Randomization Group Length=0, Cutoff Score=1, Gap Penalty=5, Gap Size Penalty 0.05, Window Size=500 or the length of the subject nucleotide sequence, whichever is shorter.

[0219] If the subject sequence is shorter than the query sequence because of 5′ or 3′ deletions, not because of internal deletions, a manual correction must be made to the results. This is because the FASTDB program does not account for 5′ and 3′ truncations of the subject sequence when calculating percent identity. For subject sequences truncated at the 5′ or 3′ ends, relative to the query sequence, the percent identity is corrected by calculating the number of bases of the query sequence that are 5′ and 3′ of the subject sequence, which are not matched/aligned, as a percent of the total bases of the query sequence. Whether a nucleotide is matched/aligned is determined by results of the FASTDB sequence alignment. This percentage is then subtracted from the percent identity, calculated by the above FASTDB program using the specified parameters, to arrive at a final percent identity score. This corrected score is what is used for the purposes of the present invention. Only bases outside the 5′ and 3′ bases of the subject sequence, as displayed by the FASTDB alignment, which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence, are calculated for the purposes of manually adjusting the percent identity score.

[0220] For example, a 90 base subject sequence is aligned to a 100 base query sequence to determine percent identity. The deletions occur at the 5′ end of the subject sequence and therefore, the FASTDB alignment does not show a matched/alignment of the first 10 bases at 5′ end. The 10 unpaired bases represent 10% of the sequence (number of bases at the 5′ and 3′ ends not matched/total number of bases in the query sequence) so 10% is subtracted from the percent identity score calculated by the FASTDB program. If the remaining 90 bases were perfectly matched the final percent identity would be 90%. In another example, a 90 base subject sequence is compared with a 100 base query sequence. This time the deletions are internal deletions so that there are no bases on the 5′ or 3′ of the subject sequence which are not matched/aligned with the query. In this case the percent identity calculated by FASTDB is not manually corrected. Once again, only bases 5′ and 3′ of the subject sequence which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence are manually corrected for. No other manual corrections are to made for the purposes of the present invention.

[0221] By a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence at least, for example, 95% “identical” to a query amino acid sequence of the present invention, it is intended that the amino acid sequence of the subject polypeptide is identical to the query sequence except that the subject polypeptide sequence may include up to five amino acid alterations per each 100 amino acids of the query amino acid sequence. In other words, to obtain a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a query amino acid sequence, up to 5% of the amino acid residues in the subject sequence may be inserted, deleted, (indels) or substituted with another amino acid. These alterations of the reference sequence may occur at the amino or carboxy terminal positions of the reference amino acid sequence or anywhere between those terminal positions, interspersed either individually among residues in the reference sequence or in one or more contiguous groups within the reference sequence.

[0222] As a practical matter, whether any particular polypeptide is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to, for instance, the amino acid sequence referred to in Table 1 or Table 2 or a fragment thereof, the amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: X or a fragment thereof, or to the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V, or the amino acid sequence of the mature (secreted) polypeptides of the invention (see, e.g., FIG. 2) or a fragment thereof, can be determined conventionally using known computer programs. A preferred method for determining the best overall match between a query sequence (a sequence of the present invention) and a subject sequence, also referred to as a global sequence alignment, can be determined using the FASTDB computer program based on the algorithm of Brutlag et al. (Comp. App. Biosci.6:237-245(1990)). In a sequence alignment the query and subject sequences are either both nucleotide sequences or both amino acid sequences. The result of said global sequence alignment is in percent identity. Preferred parameters used in a FASTDB amino acid alignment are: Matrix=PAM 0, k-tuple=2, Mismatch Penalty=1, Joining Penalty=20, Randomization Group Length=0, Cutoff Score=1, Window Size=sequence length, Gap Penalty=5, Gap Size Penalty=0.05, Window Size=500 or the length of the subject amino acid sequence, whichever is shorter.

[0223] If the subject sequence is shorter than the query sequence due to N- or C-terminal deletions, not because of internal deletions, a manual correction must be made to the results. This is because the FASTDB program does not account for N- and C-terminal truncations of the subject sequence when calculating global percent identity. For subject sequences truncated at the N- and C-termini, relative to the query sequence, the percent identity is corrected by calculating the number of residues of the query sequence that are N- and C-terminal of the subject sequence, which are not matched/aligned with a corresponding subject residue, as a percent of the total bases of the query sequence. Whether a residue is matched/aligned is determined by results of the FASTDB sequence alignment. This percentage is then subtracted from the percent identity, calculated by the above FASTDB program using the specified parameters, to arrive at a final percent identity score. This final percent identity score is what is used for the purposes of the present invention. Only residues to the N- and C-termini of the subject sequence, which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence, are considered for the purposes of manually adjusting the percent identity score. That is, only query residue positions outside the farthest N- and C-terminal residues of the subject sequence.

[0224] For example, a 90 amino acid residue subject sequence is aligned with a 100 residue query sequence to determine percent identity. The deletion occurs at the N-terminus of the subject sequence and therefore, the FASTDB alignment does not show a matching/alignment of the first 10 residues at the N-terminus. The 10 unpaired residues represent 10% of the sequence (number of residues at the N- and C-termini not matched/total number of residues in the query sequence) so 10% is subtracted from the percent identity score calculated by the FASTDB program. If the remaining 90 residues were perfectly matched the final percent identity would be 90%. In another example, a 90 residue subject sequence is compared with a 100 residue query sequence. This time the deletions are internal deletions so there are no residues at the N- or C-termini of the subject sequence which are not matched/aligned with the query. In this case the percent identity calculated by FASTDB is not manually corrected. Once again, only residue positions outside the N- and C-terminal ends of the subject sequence, as displayed in the FASTDB alignment, which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence are manually corrected for. No other manual corrections are to made for the purposes of the present invention.

[0225] The variants may contain alterations in the coding regions, non-coding regions, or both. Especially preferred are polynucleotide variants containing alterations which produce silent substitutions, additions, or deletions, but do not alter the properties or activities of the encoded polypeptide. Nucleotide variants produced by silent substitutions due to the degeneracy of the genetic code are preferred. Moreover, variants in which less than 50, less than 40, less than 30, less than 20, less than 10, or 5-50, 5-25, 5-10, 1-5, or 1-2 amino acids are substituted, deleted, or added in any combination are also preferred. Polynucleotide variants can be produced for a variety of reasons, e.g., to optimize codon expression for a particular host (change codons in the human mRNA to those preferred by a bacterial host such as E. coli).

[0226] Naturally occurring variants are called “allelic variants,” and refer to one of several alternate forms of a gene occupying a given locus on a chromosome of an organism. (Genes II, Lewin, B., ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1985)). These allelic variants can vary at either the polynucleotide and/or polypeptide level and are included in the present invention. Alternatively, non-naturally occurring variants may be produced by mutagenesis techniques or by direct synthesis.

[0227] Using known methods of protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology, variants may be generated to improve or alter the characteristics of the polypeptides of the present invention. For instance, as discussed herein, one or more amino acids can be deleted from the N-terminus or C-terminus of the polypeptide of the present invention without substantial loss of biological function. The authors of Ron et al., J. Biol. Chem. 268: 2984-2988 (1993), reported variant KGF proteins having heparin binding activity even after deleting 3, 8, or 27 amino-terminal amino acid residues. Similarly, Interferon gamma exhibited up to ten times higher activity after deleting 8-10 amino acid residues from the carboxy terminus of this protein. (Dobeli et al., J. Biotechnology 7:199-216 (1988)).

[0228] Moreover, ample evidence demonstrates that variants often retain a biological activity similar to that of the naturally occurring protein. For example, Gayle and coworkers (J. Biol. Chem 268:22105-22111 (1993)) conducted extensive mutational analysis of human cytokine IL-1a. They used random mutagenesis to generate over 3,500 individual IL-1a mutants that averaged 2.5 amino acid changes per variant over the entire length of the molecule. Multiple mutations were examined at every possible amino acid position. The investigators found that “[m]ost of the molecule could be altered with little effect on either [binding or biological activity].” (See, Abstract.) In fact, only 23 unique amino acid sequences, out of more than 3,500 nucleotide sequences examined, produced a protein that significantly differed in activity from wild-type.

[0229] Furthermore, as discussed herein, even if deleting one or more amino acids from the N-terminus or C-terminus of a polypeptide results in modification or loss of one or more biological functions, other biological activities may still be retained. For example, the ability of a deletion variant to induce and/or to bind antibodies which recognize the secreted form will likely be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the secreted form are removed from the N-terminus or C-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking N- or C-terminal residues of a protein retains such immunogenic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art.

[0230] Thus, the invention further includes polypeptide variants which show a functional activity (e.g., biological activity) of the polypeptide of the invention, of which they are a variant. Such variants include deletions, insertions, inversions, repeats, and substitutions selected according to general rules known in the art so as have little effect on activity.

[0231] The present application is directed to nucleic acid molecules at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the nucleic acid sequences disclosed herein, (e.g., encoding a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of an N and/or C terminal deletion), irrespective of whether they encode a polypeptide having functional activity. This is because even where a particular nucleic acid molecule does not encode a polypeptide having functional activity, one of skill in the art would still know how to use the nucleic acid molecule, for instance, as a hybridization probe or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer. Uses of the nucleic acid molecules of the present invention that do not encode a polypeptide having functional activity include, inter alia, (1) isolating a gene or allelic or splice variants thereof in a cDNA library; (2) in situ hybridization (e.g., “FISH”) to metaphase chromosomal spreads to provide precise chromosomal location of the gene, as described in Verma et al., Human Chromosomes: A Manual of Basic Techniques, Pergamon Press, New York (1988); and (3) Northern Blot analysis for detecting mRNA expression in specific tissues.

[0232] Preferred, however, are nucleic acid molecules having sequences at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the nucleic acid sequences disclosed herein, which do, in fact, encode a polypeptide having functional activity of a polypeptide of the invention.

[0233] Of course, due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, one of ordinary skill in the art will immediately recognize that a large number of the nucleic acid molecules having a sequence at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to, for example, the nucleic acid sequence of the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V, the nucleic acid sequence referred to in Table 1 or in Table 2 (SEQ ID NO: X), or fragments thereof, will encode polypeptides “having functional activity.” In fact, since degenerate variants of any of these nucleotide sequences all encode the same polypeptide, in many instances, this will be clear to the skilled artisan even without performing the above described comparison assay. It will be further recognized in the art that, for such nucleic acid molecules that are not degenerate variants, a reasonable number will also encode a polypeptide having functional activity. This is because the skilled artisan is fully aware of amino acid substitutions that are either less likely or not likely to significantly effect protein function (e.g., replacing one aliphatic amino acid with a second aliphatic amino acid), as further described below.

[0234] For example, guidance concerning how to make phenotypically silent amino acid substitutions is provided in Bowie et al., “Deciphering the Message in Protein Sequences: Tolerance to Amino Acid Substitutions,” Science 247:1306-1310 (1990), wherein the authors indicate that there are two main strategies for studying the tolerance of an amino acid sequence to change.

[0235] The first strategy exploits the tolerance of amino acid substitutions by natural selection during the process of evolution. By comparing amino acid sequences in different species, conserved amino acids can be identified. These conserved amino acids are likely important for protein function. In contrast, the amino acid positions where substitutions have been tolerated by natural selection indicates that these positions are not critical for protein function. Thus, positions tolerating amino acid substitution could be modified while still maintaining biological activity of the protein.

[0236] The second strategy uses genetic engineering to introduce amino acid changes at specific positions of a cloned gene to identify regions critical for protein function. For example, site directed mutagenesis or alanine-scanning mutagenesis (introduction of single alanine mutations at every residue in the molecule) can be used. (Cunningham and Wells, Science 244:1081-1085 (1989)). The resulting mutant molecules can then be tested for biological activity.

[0237] As the authors state, these two strategies have revealed that proteins are surprisingly tolerant of amino acid substitutions. The authors further indicate which amino acid changes are likely to be permissive at certain amino acid positions in the protein. For example, most buried (within the tertiary structure of the protein) amino acid residues require nonpolar side chains, whereas few features of surface side chains are generally conserved. Moreover, tolerated conservative amino acid substitutions involve replacement of the aliphatic or hydrophobic amino acids Ala, Val, Leu and Ile; replacement of the hydroxyl residues Ser and Thr; replacement of the acidic residues Asp and Glu; replacement of the amide residues Asn and Gln, replacement of the basic residues Lys, Arg, and His; replacement of the aromatic residues Phe, Tyr, and Trp, and replacement of the small-sized amino acids Ala, Ser, Thr, Met, and Gly. Besides conservative amino acid substitution, variants of the present invention include (i) substitutions with one or more of the non-conserved amino acid residues, where the substituted amino acid residues may or may not be one encoded by the genetic code, or (ii) substitution with one or more of amino acid residues having a substituent group, or (iii) fusion of the mature polypeptide with another compound, such as a compound to increase the stability and/or solubility of the polypeptide (for example, polyethylene glycol), or (iv) fusion of the polypeptide with additional amino acids, such as, for example, an IgG Fc fusion region peptide, or leader or secretory sequence, or a sequence facilitating purification or (v) fusion of the polypeptide with another compound, such as albumin (including but not limited to recombinant albumin (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,876,969, issued Mar. 2, 1999, EP Patent 0 413 622, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,766,883, issued Jun. 16, 1998, herein incorporated by reference in their entirety)). Such variant polypeptides are deemed to be within the scope of those skilled in the art from the teachings herein.

[0238] In one embodiment of the invention, polypeptide comprises, or alternatively consists of, the amino acid sequence of a BMP polypeptide having an amino acid sequence which contains at least one conservative amino acid substitution, but not more than 50 conservative amino acid substitutions, even more preferably, not more than 40 conservative amino acid substitutions, still more preferably, not more than 30 conservative amino acid substitutions, and still even more preferably, not more than 20 conservative amino acid substitutions. Of course, in order of ever-increasing preference, it is highly preferable for a peptide or polypeptide to have an amino acid sequence which comprises the amino acid sequence of a BMP polypeptide, which contains at least one, but not more than 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1 conservative amino acid substitutions.

[0239] In preferred embodiments, the BMP polypeptides (i.e., proteins), fragments and/or variants of the invention possess one or more of the following activities: regulation (e.g., increase) of glucose uptake by a cell (in vitro or in vivo), regulation (e.g., increase) of a cell's sensitivity to insulin (in vivo or in vitro), regulation of (e.g., inhibition of) PEPCK (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of hyperglycemia in an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, dog, primate, human), regulation of gluconeogenesis (in vitro or in vivo), reduction of blood glucose levels in an animal, regulation (e.g., increase or decrease) of the effects of insulin (in vitro or in vivo), and stimulation of muscle cell proliferation (in vitro or in vivo).

[0240] Polypeptide variants containing amino acid substitutions of charged amino acids with other charged or neutral amino acids may produce proteins with improved characteristics, such as less aggregation. Aggregation of pharmaceutical formulations both reduces activity and increases clearance due to the aggregate's immunogenic activity. (Pinckard et al., Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2:331-340 (1967); Robbins et al., Diabetes 36: 838-845 (1987); Cleland et al., Crit. Rev. Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 10:307-377 (1993)).

[0241] A further embodiment of the invention relates to a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence which contains at least one amino acid substitution, but not more than 50 amino acid substitutions, even more preferably, not more than 40 amino acid substitutions, still more preferably, not more than 30 amino acid substitutions, and still even more preferably, not more,than 20 amino acid substitutions. Of course it is highly preferable for a polypeptide to have an amino acid sequence which comprises the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y, an amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO: X, and/or the amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA in cDNA Clone ID NO: V which contains, in order of ever-increasing preference, at least one, but not more than 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitutions. In specific embodiments, the number of additions, substitutions, and/or deletions in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or fragments thereof (e.g., the mature form and/or other fragments described herein), an amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or fragments thereof, and/or the amino acid sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V or fragments thereof, is 1-5, 5-10, 5-25, 5-50, 10-50 or 50-150, conservative amino acid substitutions are preferable. As discussed herein, any polypeptide of the present invention can be used to generate fusion proteins. For example, the polypeptide of the present invention, when fused to a second protein, can be used as an antigenic tag. Antibodies raised against the polypeptide of the present invention can be used to indirectly detect the second protein by binding to the polypeptide. Moreover, because secreted proteins target cellular locations based on trafficking signals, polypeptides of the present invention which are shown to be secreted can be used as targeting molecules once fused to other proteins.

[0242] Examples of domains that can be fused to polypeptides of the present invention include not only heterologous signal sequences, but also other heterologous functional regions. The fusion does not necessarily need to be direct, but may occur through linker sequences.

[0243] In addition, domains of different BMP polypeptides on the invention may be fused. In one embodiment, the N-terminal proprotein portion of a BMP molecule described herein (see, e.g., Table 2), the propeptide of or any BMP molecule described herein (see, e.g., Table 2), the cysteine rich portion of any BMP molecule described herein (see, e.g., FIGS. 1A-Q and 2), or any portion(s) thereof, is fused or associated with via ionic bonds, chemical bonds, or chemical crosslinking to a mature form of a different BMP molecule decribed herein (See, e.g., Table 1, Table 2, FIGS. 1A-Q, and FIG. 2). For example, a N-terminal portion (e.g., the proprotein) of BMP-9, (e.g., M-1 to R-319) could be fused to any mature (secreted) portion of a BMP of the invention (see, e.g., FIG. 2) or a BMP otherwise known in the art. Polynuclcotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0244] A host cell may be transformed with a coding sequence encoding a propeptide suitable for the secretion of proteins by the host cell is linked in proper reading frame to the coding sequence for the mature BMP protein. For example, see U.S. Pat. No. 5,168,050, in which a DNA encoding a precursor portion of a mammalian protein other than BMP-2 is fused to the DNA encoding a mature BMP-2 protein. See also the specification of WO95/16035, in which the propeptide of BMP-2 is fused to the DNA encoding a mature BMP-12 protein. The disclosure of both of these references is hereby incorporated by reference. Thus, the present invention includes chimeric DNA molecules comprising a DNA sequence encoding a propeptide from a member of the TGF-.beta. superfamily of proteins linked in correct reading frame to a DNA sequence encoding another human BMP protein, or a related protein. The term “chimeric” is used to signify that the propeptide originates from a different polypeptide than the protein on which it is fused.

[0245] In certain preferred embodiments, proteins of the invention comprise fusion proteins wherein the polypeptides are N and/or C-terminal deletion mutants. In preferred embodiments, the application is directed to nucleic acid molecules at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to the nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides having the amino acid sequence of the specific N- and C-terminal deletions mutants. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, including fragments and/or variants, are also encompassed by the invention.

[0246] Moreover, fusion proteins may also be engineered to improve characteristics of the polypeptide of the present invention. For instance, a region of additional amino acids, particularly charged amino acids, may be added to the N-terminus of the polypeptide to improve stability and persistence during purification from the host cell or subsequent handling and storage. Also, peptide moieties may be added to the polypeptide to facilitate purification. Such regions may be removed prior to final preparation of the polypeptide. The addition of peptide moieties to facilitate handling of polypeptides is familiar and routine technique in the art.

[0247] As one of skill in the art will appreciate, polypeptides of the present invention of the present invention and the epitope-bearing fragments thereof described above can be combined with heterologous polypeptide sequences. For example, the polypeptides of the present invention may be fused with heterologous polypeptide sequences, for example, the polypeptides of the present invention may be fused with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM) or portions thereof (CH1, CH2, CH3, and any combination thereof, including both entire domains and portions thereof), resulting in chimeric polypeptides. These fusion proteins facilitate purification and show an increased half-life in vivo. One reported example describes chimeric proteins consisting of the first two domains of the human CD4-polypeptide and various domains of the constant regions of the heavy or light chains of mammalian immunoglobulins. (EP A 394,827; Traunecker et al., Nature 331:84-86 (1988)). Fusion proteins having disulfide-linked dimeric structures (due to the IgG) can also be more efficient in binding and neutralizing other molecules, than the monomeric protein or protein fragment alone. (Fountoulakis et al., J. Biochem. 270:3958-3964 (1995)).

[0248] Vectors, Host Cells, and Protein Production

[0249] The present invention also relates to vectors containing the polynucleotide of the present invention, host cells, and the production of polypeptides by recombinant techniques. The vector may be, for example, a phage, plasmid, viral, or retroviral vector. Retroviral vectors may be replication competent or replication defective. In the latter case, viral propagation generally will occur only in complementing host cells.

[0250] The polynucleotides of the invention may be joined to a vector containing a selectable marker for propagation in a host. Generally, a plasmid vector is introduced in a precipitate, such as a calcium phosphate precipitate, or in a complex with a charged lipid. If the vector is a virus, it may be packaged in vitro using an appropriate packaging cell line and then transduced into host cells.

[0251] The polynucleotide insert should be operatively linked to an appropriate promoter, such as the phage lambda PL promoter, the E. coli lac, trp, phoA and tac promoters, the SV40 early and late promoters and promoters of retroviral LTRs, to name a few. Other suitable promoters will be known to the skilled artisan. The expression constructs will further contain sites for transcription initiation, termination, and, in the transcribed region, a ribosome binding site for translation. The coding portion of the transcripts expressed by the constructs will preferably include a translation initiating codon at the beginning and a termination codon (UAA, UGA or UAG) appropriately positioned at the end of the polypeptide to be translated.

[0252] As indicated, the expression vectors will preferably include at least one selectable marker. Such markers include dihydrofolate reductase, G418 or neomycin resistance for eukaryotic cell culture and tetracycline, kanamycin or ampicillin resistance genes for culturing in E. coli and other bacteria. Representative examples of appropriate hosts include, but are not limited to, bacterial cells, such as E. coli, Streptomyces and Salmonella typhimurium cells; fungal cells, such as yeast cells (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Pichia pastoris (ATCC Accession No. 201178)); insect cells such as Drosophila S2 and Spodoptera Sf9 cells; animal cells such as CHO, COS, 293, and Bowes melanoma cells; and plant cells. Appropriate culture mediums and conditions for the above-described host cells are known in the art.

[0253] Among vectors preferred for use in bacteria include pQE70, pQE60 and pQE-9, available from QIAGEN, Inc.; pBluescript vectors, Phagescript vectors, pNH8A, pNH16a, pNH18A, pNH46A, available from Stratagene Cloning Systems, Inc.; and ptrc99a, pKK223-3, pKK233-3, pDR540, pRIT5 available from Pharmacia Biotech, Inc. Among preferred eukaryotic vectors are pWLNEO, pSV2CAT, pOG44, pXT1 and pSG available from Stratagene; and pSVK3, pBPV, pMSG and pSVL available from Pharmacia. Preferred expression vectors for use in yeast systems include, but are not limited to pYES2, pYD1, pTEF1/Zeo, pYES2/GS, pPICZ, pGAPZ, pGAPZalph, pPIC9, pPIC3.5, pHIL-D2, pHIL-S1, pPIC3.5K, pPIC9K, and PA0815 (all available from Invitrogen, Carlbad, Calif.). Other suitable vectors will be readily apparent to the skilled artisan.

[0254] Introduction of the construct into the host cell can be effected by calcium phosphate transfection, DEAE-dextran mediated transfection, cationic lipid-mediated transfection, electroporation, transduction, infection, or other methods. Such methods are described in many standard laboratory manuals, such as Davis et al., Basic Methods In Molecular Biology (1986). It is specifically contemplated that the polypeptides of the present invention may in fact be expressed by a host cell lacking a recombinant vector.

[0255] A polypeptide of this invention can be recovered and purified from recombinant cell cultures by well-known methods including ammonium sulfate or ethanol precipitation, acid extraction, anion or cation exchange chromatography, phosphocellulose chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, affinity chromatography, hydroxylapatite chromatography and lectin chromatography. Most preferably, high performance liquid chromatography (“HPLC”) is employed for purification.

[0256] Polypeptides of the present invention can also be recovered from: products purified from natural sources, including bodily fluids, tissues and cells, whether directly isolated or cultured; products of chemical synthetic procedures; and products produced by recombinant techniques from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic host, including, for example, bacterial, yeast, higher plant, insect, and mammalian cells. Depending upon the host employed in a recombinant production procedure, the polypeptides of the present invention may be glycosylated or may be non-glycosylated. In addition, polypeptides of the invention may also include an initial modified methionine residue, in some cases as a result of host-mediated processes. Thus, it is well known in the art that the N-terminal methionine encoded by the translation initiation codon generally is removed with high efficiency from any protein after translation in all eukaryotic cells. While the N-terminal methionine on most proteins also is efficiently removed in most prokaryotes, for some proteins, this prokaryotic removal process is inefficient, depending on the nature of the amino acid to which the N-terminal methionine is covalently linked.

[0257] In one embodiment, the yeast Pichia pastoris is used to express polypeptides of the invention in a eukaryotic system. Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast which can metabolize methanol as its sole carbon source. A main step in the methanol metabolization pathway is the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde using O2. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme alcohol oxidase. In order to metabolize methanol as its sole carbon source, Pichia pastoris must generate high levels of alcohol oxidase due, in part, to the relatively low affinity of alcohol oxidase for O2. Consequently, in a growth medium depending on methanol as a main carbon source, the promoter region of one of the two alcohol oxidase genes (AOX1) is highly active. In the presence of methanol, alcohol oxidase produced from the AOX1 gene comprises up to approximately 30% of the total soluble protein in Pichia pastoris. See, Ellis, S. B., et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:1111-21 (1985); Koutz, P. J, et al., Yeast 5:167-77 (1989); Tschopp, J. F., et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 15:3859-76 (1987). Thus, a heterologous coding sequence, such as, for example, a polynucleotide of the present invention, under the transcriptional regulation of all or part of the AOX1 regulatory sequence is expressed at exceptionally high levels in Pichia yeast grown in the presence of methanol.

[0258] In one example, the plasmid vector pPIC9K is used to express DNA encoding a polypeptide of the invention, as set forth herein, in a Pichea yeast system essentially as described in “Pichia Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology,” D. R. Higgins and J. Cregg, eds. The Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1998. This expression vector allows expression and secretion of a polypeptide of the invention by virtue of the strong AOX1 promoter linked to the Pichia pastoris alkaline phosphatase (PHO) secretory signal peptide (i.e., leader) located upstream of a multiple cloning site.

[0259] Many other yeast vectors could be used in place of pPIC9K, such as, pYES2, pYD1, pTEF1/Zeo, pYES2/GS, pPICZ, pGAPZ, pGAPZalpha, pPIC9, pPIC3.5, pHIL-D2, pHIL-S1, pPIC3.5K, and PAO815, as one skilled in the art would readily appreciate, as long as the proposed expression construct provides appropriately located signals for transcription, translation, secretion (if desired), and the like, including an in-frame AUG as required.

[0260] In another embodiment, high-level expression of a heterologous coding sequence, such as, for example, a polynucleotide of the present invention, may be achieved by cloning the heterologous polynucleotide of the invention into an expression vector such as, for example, pGAPZ or pGAPZalpha, and growing the yeast culture in the absence of methanol.

[0261] In addition to encompassing host cells containing the vector constructs discussed herein, the invention also encompasses primary, secondary, and immortalized host cells of vertebrate origin, particularly mammalian origin, that have been engineered to delete or replace endogenous genetic material (e.g., coding sequence), and/or to include genetic material (e.g., heterologous polynucleotide sequences) that is operably associated with polynucleotides of the invention, and which activates, alters, and/or amplifies endogenous polynucleotides. For example, techniques known in the art may be used to operably associate heterologous control regions (e.g., promoter and/or enhancer) and endogenous polynucleotide sequences via homologous recombination (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,641,670, issued Jun. 24, 1997; International Publication No. WO 96/29411, published Sep. 26, 1996; International Publication No. WO 94/12650, published Aug. 4, 1994; Koller et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); and Zijlstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989), the disclosures of each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0262] In addition, polypeptides of the invention can be chemically synthesized using techniques known in the art (e.g., see Creighton, 1983, Proteins: Structures and Molecular Principles, W. H. Freeman & Co., N.Y., and Hunkapiller et al., Nature, 310:105-111 (1984)). For example, a polypeptide corresponding to a fragment of a polypeptide can be synthesized by use of a peptide synthesizer. Furthermore, if desired, nonclassical amino acids or chemical amino acid analogs can be introduced as a substitution or addition into the polypeptide sequence. Non-classical amino acids include, but are not limited to, to the D-isomers of the common amino acids, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, a-amino isobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, Abu, 2-amino butyric acid, g-Abu, e-Ahx, 6-amino hexanoic acid, Aib, 2-amino isobutyric acid, 3-amino propionic acid, ornithine, norleucine, norvaline, hydroxyproline, sarcosine, citrulline, homocitrulline, cysteic acid, t-butylglycine, t-butylalanine, phenylglycine, cyclohexylalanine, b-alanine, fluoro-amino acids, designer amino acids such as b-methyl amino acids, Ca-methyl amino acids, Na-methyl amino acids, and amino acid analogs in general. Furthermore, the amino acid can be D (dextrorotary) or L (levorotary).

[0263] The invention encompasses polypeptides of the present invention which are differentially modified during or after translation, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to an antibody molecule or other cellular ligand, etc. Any of numerous chemical modifications may be carried out by known techniques, including but not limited, to specific chemical cleavage by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, V8 protease, NaBH4; acetylation, formylation, oxidation, reduction; metabolic synthesis in the presence of tunicamycin; etc.

[0264] Additional post-translational modifications encompassed by the invention include, for example, e.g., N-linked or O-linked carbohydrate chains, processing of N-terminal or C-terminal ends), attachment of chemical moieties to the amino acid backbone, chemical modifications of N-linked or O-linked carbohydrate chains, and addition or deletion of an N-terminal methionine residue as a result of procaryotic host cell expression. The polypeptides may also be modified with a detectable label, such as an enzymatic, fluorescent, isotopic or affinity label to allow for detection and isolation of the protein.

[0265] Also provided by the invention are chemically modified derivatives of the polypeptides of the invention which may provide additional advantages such as increased solubility, stability and circulating time of the polypeptide, or decreased immunogenicity (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,179,337). The chemical moieties for derivitization may be selected from water soluble polymers such as polyethylene glycol, ethylene glycol/propylene glycol copolymers, carboxymethylcellulose, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol and the like. The polypeptides may be modified at random positions within the molecule, or at predetermined positions within the molecule and may include one, two, three or more attached chemical moieties.

[0266] The polymer may be of any molecular weight, and may be branched or unbranched. For polyethylene glycol, the preferred molecular weight is between about 1 kDa and about 100 kDa (the term “about” indicating that in preparations of polyethylene glycol, some molecules will weigh more, some less, than the stated molecular weight) for ease in handling and manufacturing. Other sizes may be used, depending on the desired therapeutic profile (e.g., the duration of sustained release desired, the effects, if any on biological activity, the ease in handling, the degree or lack of antigenicity and other known effects of the polyethylene glycol to a therapeutic protein or analog).

[0267] The polyethylene glycol molecules (or other chemical moieties) should be attached to the protein with consideration of effects on functional or antigenic domains of the protein. There are a number of attachment methods available to those skilled in the art, e.g., EP 0 401 384, herein incorporated by reference (coupling PEG to G-CSF), see also Malik et al., Exp. Hematol. 20:1028-1035 (1992) (reporting pegylation of GM-CSF using tresyl chloride). For example, polyethylene glycol may be covalently bound through amino acid residues via a reactive group, such as, a free amino or carboxyl group. Reactive groups are those to which an activated polyethylene glycol molecule may be bound. The amino acid residues having a free amino group may include lysine residues and the N-terminal amino acid residues; those having a free carboxyl group may include aspartic acid residues glutamic acid residues and the C-terminal amino acid residue. Sulfhydryl groups may also be used as a reactive group for attaching the polyethylene glycol molecules. Preferred for therapeutic purposes is attachment at an amino group, such as attachment at the N-terminus or lysine group.

[0268] One may specifically desire proteins chemically modified at the N-terminus. Using polyethylene glycol as an illustration of the present composition, one may select from a variety of polyethylene glycol molecules (by molecular weight, branching, etc.), the proportion of polyethylene glycol molecules to protein (polypeptide) molecules in the reaction mix, the type of pegylation reaction to be performed, and the method of obtaining the selected N-terminally pegylated protein. The method of obtaining the N-terminally pegylated preparation (i.e., separating this moiety from other monopegylated moieties if necessary) may be by purification of the N-terminally pegylated material from a population of pegylated protein molecules. Selective proteins chemically modified at the N-terminus modification may be accomplished by reductive alkylation which exploits differential reactivity of different types of primary amino groups (lysine versus the N-terminal) available for derivatization in a particular protein. Under the appropriate reaction conditions, substantially selective derivatization of the protein at the N-terminus with a carbonyl group containing polymer is achieved.

[0269] The polypeptides of the invention may be in monomers or multimers (i.e., dimers, trimers, tetramers and higher multimers). Accordingly, the present invention relates to monomers and multimers of the polypeptides of the invention, their preparation, and compositions (preferably, Therapeutics) containing them. In specific embodiments, the polypeptides of the invention are monomers, dimers, trimers or tetramers. In additional embodiments, the multimers of the invention are at least dimers, at least trimers, or at least tetramers.

[0270] Multimers encompassed by the invention may be homomers or heteromers. As used herein, the term homomer, refers to a multimer containing only polypeptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y or an amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complement of SEQ ID NO: X, and/or an amino acid sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V (including fragments, variants, splice variants, and fusion proteins, corresponding to these as described herein). These homomers may contain polypeptides having identical or different amino acid sequences. In a specific embodiment, a homomer of the invention is a multimer containing only polypeptides having an identical amino acid sequence. In another specific embodiment, a homomer of the invention is a multimer containing polypeptides having different amino acid sequences. In specific embodiments, the multimer of the invention is a homodimer (e.g., containing polypeptides having identical or different amino acid sequences). In other specific embodiments, the multimer of the invention is homotrimer (e.g., containing polypeptides having identical and/or different amino acid sequences). In additional embodiments, the homomeric multimer of the invention is at least a homodimer, at least a homotrimer, or at least a homotetramer.

[0271] As used herein, the term heteromer refers to a multimer containing one or more heterologous polypeptides (i.e., polypeptides of different proteins) in addition to the polypeptides of the invention. In a specific embodiment, the multimer of the invention is a heterodimer. In other specific embodiments, the multimer of the invention is a heterotrimer. In other specific embodiments, the multimer of the invention is a heterotetramer. In additional embodiments, the heteromeric multimer of the invention is at least a heterodimer, at least a heterotrimer, or at least a heterotetramer. In preferred embodiments the heteromulitmer of the invention contains polypeptides of two different BMP family members. In highly preferred embodiments, the heteromultimers of the invention contain one, two, or more of the proteins selected from the group: the mature (secreted form) of the BMP polypeptide of the invention SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., FIG. 2), the complete sequence of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q) (with or without the signal), the propeptide sequence of the BMP polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: Y (See, e.g., Table 1, 2 and FIGS. 1A-Q), a cysteine rich region of SEQ ID NO: Y shown in FIGS. 1A-Q and 2, a polypeptide encoded by the polynucleotide sequence (of a fragment) contained in SEQ ID NO: X, and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in cDNA Clone ID NO: V).

[0272] Multimers of the invention may be the result of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, ionic and/or covalent associations and/or may be indirectly linked, by for example, liposome formation. Thus, in one embodiment, multimers of the invention, such as, for example, homodimers or homotrimers, are formed when polypeptides of the invention contact one another in solution. In another embodiment, heteromultimers of the invention, such as, for example, heterotrimers or heterotetramers, are formed when polypeptides of the invention contact antibodies to the polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies to the heterologous polypeptide sequence in a fusion protein of the invention) in solution. In other embodiments, multimers of the invention are formed by covalent associations with and/or between the polypeptides of the invention. Such covalent associations may involve one or more amino acid residues contained in the polypeptide sequence (e.g., that recited in SEQ ID NO: Y, or contained in a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X, and/or the cDNA Clone ID NO: V). In one instance, the covalent associations are cross-linking between cysteine residues located within the polypeptide sequences which interact in the native (i.e., naturally occurring) polypeptide. In another instance, the covalent associations are the consequence of chemical or recombinant manipulation. Alternatively, such covalent associations may involve one or more amino acid residues contained in the heterologous polypeptide sequence in a fusion protein. In one example, covalent associations are between the heterologous sequence contained in a fusion protein of the invention (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925). In a specific example, the covalent associations are between the heterologous sequence contained in a Fe fusion protein of the invention (as described herein). In another specific example, covalent associations of fusion proteins of the invention are between heterologous polypeptide sequence from another protein that is capable of forming covalently associated multimers, such as for example, osteoprotegerin (see, e.g., International Publication NO: WO 98/49305, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, two or more polypeptides of the invention are joined through peptide linkers. Examples include those peptide linkers described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,073,627 (hereby incorporated by reference). Proteins comprising multiple polypeptides of the invention separated by peptide linkers may be produced using conventional recombinant DNA technology.

[0273] Another method for preparing multimer polypeptides of the invention involves use of polypeptides of the invention fused to a leucine zipper or isoleucine zipper polypeptide sequence. Leucine zipper and isoleucine zipper domains are polypeptides that promote multimerization of the proteins in which they are found. Leucine zippers were originally identified in several DNA-binding proteins (Landschulz et al., Science 240:1759, (1988)), and have since been found in a variety of different proteins. Among the known leucine zippers are naturally occurring peptides and derivatives thereof that dimerize or trimerize. Examples of leucine zipper domains suitable for producing soluble multimeric proteins of the invention are those described in PCT application WO 94/10308, hereby incorporated by reference. Recombinant fusion proteins comprising a polypeptide of the invention fused to a polypeptide sequence that dimerizes or trimerizes in solution are expressed in suitable host cells, and the resulting soluble, multimeric fusion protein is recovered from the culture supernatant using techniques known in the art.

[0274] Trimeric polypeptides of the invention may offer the advantage of enhanced biological activity. Preferred leucine zipper moieties and isoleucine moieties are those that preferentially form trimers. One example is a leucine zipper derived from lung surfactant protein D (SPD), as described in Hoppe et al. (FEBS Letters 344:191, (1994)) and in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/446,922, hereby incorporated by reference. Other peptides derived from naturally occurring trimeric proteins may be employed in preparing trimeric polypeptides of the invention.

[0275] In another example, proteins of the invention are associated by interactions between Flag® polypeptide sequence contained in fusion proteins of the invention containing Flag® polypeptide sequence. In a further embodiment, associations proteins of the invention are associated by interactions between heterologous polypeptide sequence contained in Flag® fusion proteins of the invention and anti-Flag® antibody.

[0276] The multimers of the invention may be generated using chemical techniques known in the art. For example, polypeptides desired to be contained in the multimers of the invention may be chemically cross-linked using linker molecules and linker molecule length optimization techniques known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Additionally, multimers of the invention may be generated using techniques known in the art to form one or more inter-molecule cross-links between the cysteine residues located within the sequence of the polypeptides desired to be contained in the multimer (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Further, polypeptides of the invention may be routinely modified by the addition of cysteine or biotin to the C-terminus or N-terminus of the polypeptide and techniques known in the art may be applied to generate multimers containing one or more of these modified polypeptides (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Additionally, techniques known in the art may be applied to generate liposomes containing the polypeptide components desired to be contained in the multimer of the invention (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0277] Alternatively, multimers of the invention may be generated using genetic engineering techniques known in the art. In one embodiment, polypeptides contained in multimers of the invention are produced recombinantly using fusion protein technology described herein or otherwise known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In a specific embodiment, polynucleotides coding for a homodimer of the invention are generated by ligating a polynucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of the invention to a sequence encoding a linker polypeptide and then further to a synthetic polynucleotide encoding the translated product of the polypeptide in the reverse orientation from the original C-terminus to the N-terminus (lacking the leader sequence) (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, recombinant techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art are applied to generate recombinant polypeptides of the invention which contain a transmembrane domain (or hydrophobic or signal peptide) and which can be incorporated by membrane reconstitution techniques into liposomes (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0278] Antibodies

[0279] Further polypeptides of the invention relate to antibodies and T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) which immunospecifically bind a polypeptide, polypeptide fragment, or variant of SEQ ID NO: Y, and/or an epitope, of the present invention (as determined by immunoassays well known in the art for assaying specific antibody-antigen binding). Antibodies of the invention include, but are not limited to, polyclonal, monoclonal, multispecific, human, humanized or chimeric antibodies, single chain antibodies, Fab fragments, F(ab′) fragments, fragments produced by a Fab expression library, anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (including, e.g., anti-Id antibodies to antibodies of the invention), and epitope-binding fragments of any of the above. The term “antibody,” as used herein, refers to immunoglobulin molecules and immunologically active portions of immunoglobulin molecules, i.e., molecules that contain an antigen binding site that immunospecifically binds an antigen. The immunoglobulin molecules of the invention can be of any type (e.g., IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD, IgA and IgY), class (e.g., IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1 and IgA2) or subclass of immunoglobulin molecule.

[0280] Most preferably the antibodies are human antigen-binding antibody fragments of the present invention and include, but are not limited to, Fab, Fab′ and F(ab′)2, Fd, single-chain Fvs (scFv), single-chain antibodies, disulfide-linked Fvs (sdFv) and fragments comprising either a VL or VH domain. Antigen-binding antibody fragments, including single-chain antibodies, may comprise the variable region(s) alone or in combination with the entirety or a portion of the following: hinge region, CH1, CH2, and CH3 domains. Also included in the invention are antigen-binding fragments also comprising any combination of variable region(s) with a hinge region, CH1, CH2, and CH3 domains. The antibodies of the invention may be from any animal origin including birds and mammals. Preferably, the antibodies are human, murine (e.g., mouse and rat), donkey, ship rabbit, goat, guinea pig, camel, horse, or chicken. As used herein, “human” antibodies include antibodies having the amino acid sequence of a human immunoglobulin and include antibodies isolated from human immunoglobulin libraries or from animals transgenic for one or more human immunoglobulin and that do not express endogenous immunoglobulins, as described infra and, for example in, U.S. Pat. No. 5,939,598 by Kucherlapati et al.

[0281] The antibodies of the present invention may be monospecific, bispecific, trispecific or of greater multispecificity. Multispecific antibodies may be specific for different epitopes of a polypeptide of the present invention or may be specific for both a polypeptide of the present invention as well as for a heterologous epitope, such as a heterologous polypeptide or solid support material. See, e.g., PCT publications WO 93/17715; WO 92/08802; WO 91/00360; WO 92/05793; Tutt, et al., J. Immunol. 147:60-69 (1991); U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,474,893; 4,714,681; 4,925,648; 5,573,920; 5,601,819; Kostelny et al., J. Immunol. 148:1547-1553 (1992).

[0282] Antibodies of the present invention may be described or specified in terms of the epitope(s) or portion(s) of a polypeptide of the present invention which they recognize or specifically bind. The epitope(s) or polypeptide portion(s) may be specified as described herein, e.g., by N-terminal and C-terminal positions, or by size in contiguous amino acid residues. Antibodies which specifically bind any epitope or polypeptide of the present invention may also be excluded. Therefore, the present invention includes antibodies that specifically bind polypeptides of the present invention, and allows for the exclusion of the same.

[0283] Antibodies of the present invention may also be described or specified in terms of their cross-reactivity. Antibodies that do not bind any other analog, ortholog, or homolog of a polypeptide of the present invention are included. Antibodies that bind polypeptides with at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 65%, at least 60%, at least 55%, and at least 50% identity (as calculated using methods known in the art and described herein) to a polypeptide of the present invention are also included in the present invention. In specific embodiments, antibodies of the present invention cross-react with murine, rat and/or rabbit homologs of human proteins and the corresponding epitopes thereof. Antibodies that do not bind polypeptides with less than 95%, less than 90%, less than 85%, less than 80%, less than 75%, less than 70%, less than 65%, less than 60%, less than 55%, and less than 50% identity (as calculated using methods known in the art and described herein) to a polypeptide of the present invention are also included in the present invention. In a specific embodiment, the above-described cross-reactivity is with respect to any single specific antigenic or immunogenic polypeptide, or combination(s) of 2, 3, 4, 5, or more of the specific antigenic and/or immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein. Further included in the present invention are antibodies which bind polypeptides encoded by polynucleotides which hybridize to a polynucleotide of the present invention under stringent hybridization conditions (as described herein). Antibodies of the present invention may also be described or specified in terms of their binding affinity to a polypeptide of the invention. Preferred binding affinities include those with a dissociation constant or Kd less than 5×10−2 M, 10−2 M, 5×10−3 M, 10−3 M, 5×10−4 M, 10−4 M, 5×10−5 M, 10−5 M, 5×10−6 M, 10−6M, 5×10−7 M, 10−7 M, 5×10−8 M, 10−8 M, 5×10−9 M, 10−9 M, 5×10−10 M, 10−10 M, 5×10−11 M, 10−11 M, 5×10−12 M, 5×10 M−13 M, 10 −13 M, 5×10−14 M, 10−14 M, 5×10−15 M, or 10−15 M.

[0284] The invention also provides antibodies that competitively inhibit binding of an antibody to an epitope of the invention as determined by any method known in the art for determining competitive binding, for example, the immunoassays described herein. In preferred embodiments, the antibody competitively inhibits binding to the epitope by at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, or at least 50%.

[0285] Antibodies of the present invention may act as agonists or antagonists of the polypeptides of the present invention. For example, the present invention includes antibodies which disrupt the receptor/ligand interactions with the polypeptides of the invention either partially or fully. Preferably, antibodies of the present invention bind an antigenic epitope disclosed herein, or a portion thereof. The invention features both receptor-specific antibodies and ligand-specific antibodies. The invention also features receptor-specific antibodies which do not prevent ligand binding but prevent receptor activation. Receptor activation (i.e., signaling) may be determined by techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art. For example, receptor activation can be determined by detecting the phosphorylation (e.g., tyrosine or serine/threonine) of the receptor or its substrate by immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis (for example, as described supra). In specific embodiments, antibodies are provided that inhibit ligand activity or receptor activity by at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, or at least 50% of the activity in absence of the antibody.

[0286] The invention also features receptor-specific antibodies which both prevent ligand binding and receptor activation as well as antibodies that recognize the receptor-ligand complex, and, preferably, do not specifically recognize the unbound receptor or the unbound ligand. Likewise, included in the invention are neutralizing antibodies which bind the ligand and prevent binding of the ligand to the receptor, as well as antibodies which bind the ligand, thereby preventing receptor activation, but do not prevent the ligand from binding the receptor. Further included in the invention are antibodies which activate the receptor. These antibodies may act as receptor agonists, i.e., potentiate or activate either all or a subset of the biological activities of the ligand-mediated receptor activation, for example, by inducing dimerization of the receptor. The antibodies may be specified as agonists, antagonists or inverse agonists for biological activities comprising the specific biological activities of the peptides of the invention disclosed herein. The above antibody agonists can be made using methods known in the art. See, e.g., PCT publication WO 96/40281; U.S. Pat. No. 5,811,097; Deng et al., Blood 92(6):1981-1988 (1998); Chen et al., Cancer Res. 58(16):3668-3678 (1998); Harrop et al., J. Immunol. 161(4):1786-1794 (1998); Zhu et al., Cancer Res. 58(15):3209-3214 (1998); Yoon et al., J. Immunol. 160(7):3170-3179 (1998); Prat et al., J. Cell. Sci. 111(Pt2):237-247 (1998); Pitard et al., J. Immunol. Methods 205(2):177-190 (1997); Liautard et al., Cytokine 9(4):233-241 (1997); Carlson et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272(17):11295-11301 (1997); Taryman et al., Neuron 14(4):755-762 (1995); Muller et al., Structure 6(9):1153-1167 (1998); Bartunek et al., Cytokine 8(1):14-20 (1996) (which are all incorporated by reference herein in their entireties).

[0287] Antibodies of the present invention may be used, for example, but not limited to, to purify, detect, and target the polypeptides of the present invention, including both in vitro and in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic methods. For example, the antibodies have use in immunoassays for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring levels of the polypeptides of the present invention in biological samples. See, e.g., Harlow et al., Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2nd ed. 1988) (incorporated by reference herein in its entirety).

[0288] As discussed in more detail below, the antibodies of the present invention may be used either alone or in combination with other compositions. The antibodies may further be recombinantly fused to a heterologous polypeptide at the N- or C-terminus or chemically conjugated (including covalently and non-covalently conjugations) to polypeptides or other compositions. For example, antibodies of the present invention may be recombinantly fused or conjugated to molecules useful as labels in detection assays and effector molecules such as heterologous polypeptides, drugs, radionuclides, or toxins. See, e.g., PCT publications WO 92/08495; WO 91/14438; WO 89/12624; U.S. Pat. No. 5,314,995; and EP 396,387.

[0289] The antibodies of the invention include derivatives that are modified, i.e., by the covalent attachment of any type of molecule to the antibody such that covalent attachment does not prevent the antibody from generating an anti-idiotypic response. For example, but not by way of limitation, the antibody derivatives include antibodies that have been modified, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, pegylation, phosphylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to a cellular ligand or other protein, etc. Any of numerous chemical modifications may be carried out by known techniques, including, but not limited to specific chemical cleavage, acetylation, formylation, metabolic synthesis of tunicamycin, etc. Additionally, the derivative may contain one or more non-classical amino acids.

[0290] The antibodies of the present invention may be generated by any suitable method known in the art. Polyclonal antibodies to an antigen-of-interest can be produced by various procedures well known in the art. For example, a polypeptide of the invention can be administered to various host animals including, but not limited to, rabbits, mice, rats, etc. to induce the production of sera containing polyclonal antibodies specific for the antigen. Various adjuvants may be used to increase the immunological response, depending on the host species, and include but are not limited to, Freund's (complete and incomplete), mineral gels such as aluminum hydroxide, surface active substances such as lysolecithin, pluronic polyols, polyanions, peptides, oil emulsions, keyhole limpet hemocyanins, dinitrophenol, and potentially useful human adjuvants such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) and corynebacterium parvum. Such adjuvants are also well known in the art.

[0291] Monoclonal antibodies can be prepared using a wide variety of techniques known in the art including the use of hybridoma, recombinant, and phage display technologies, or a combination thereof. For example, monoclonal antibodies can be produced using hybridoma techniques including those known in the art and taught, for example, in Harlow et al., Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2nd ed. 1988); Hammerling, et al., in: Monoclonal Antibodies and T-Cell Hybridomas 563-681 (Elsevier, N.Y., 1981) (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties). The term “monoclonal antibody” as used herein is not limited to antibodies produced through hybridoma technology. The term “monoclonal antibody” refers to an antibody that is derived from a single clone, including any eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or phage clone, and not the method by which it is produced.

[0292] Methods for producing and screening for specific antibodies using hybridoma technology are routine and well known in the art and are discussed in detail in the Examples. In a non-limiting example, mice can be immunized with a polypeptide of the invention or a cell expressing such peptide. Once an immune response is detected, e.g., antibodies specific for the antigen are detected in the mouse serum, the mouse spleen is harvested and splenocytes isolated. The splenocytes are then fused by well known techniques to any suitable myeloma cells, for example cells from cell line SP20 available from the ATCC. Hybridomas are selected and cloned by limited dilution. The hybridoma clones are then assayed by methods known in the art for cells that secrete antibodies capable of binding a polypeptide of the invention. Ascites fluid, which generally contains high levels of antibodies, can be generated by immunizing mice with positive hybridoma clones.

[0293] Accordingly, the present -invention provides methods of generating monoclonal antibodies as well as antibodies produced by the method comprising culturing a hybridoma cell secreting an antibody of the invention wherein, preferably, the hybridoma is generated by fusing splenocytes isolated from a mouse immunized with an antigen of the invention with mycloma cells and then screening the hybridomas resulting from the fusion for hybridoma clones that secrete an antibody able to bind a polypeptide of the invention.

[0294] Antibody fragments which recognize specific epitopes may be generated by known techniques. For example, Fab and F(ab′)2 fragments of the invention may be produced by proteolytic cleavage of immunoglobulin molecules, using enzymes such as papain (to produce Fab fragments) or pepsin (to produce F(ab′)2 fragments). F(ab′)2 fragments contain the variable region, the light chain constant region and the CH1 domain of the heavy chain. For example, the antibodies of the present invention can also be generated using various phage display methods known in the art. In phage display methods, functional antibody domains are displayed on the surface of phage particles which carry the polynucleotide sequences encoding them. In a particular embodiment, such phage can be utilized to display antigen binding domains expressed from a repertoire or combinatorial antibody library (e.g., human or murine). Phage expressing an antigen binding domain that binds the antigen of interest can be selected or identified with antigen, e.g., using labeled antigen or antigen bound or captured to a solid surface or bead. Phage used in these methods are typically filamentous phage including fd and M13 binding domains expressed from phage with Fab, Fv or disulfide stabilized Fv antibody domains recombinantly fused to either the phage gene III or gene VIII protein. Examples of phage display methods that can be used to make the antibodies of the present invention include those disclosed in Brinkman et al., J. Immunol. Methods 182:41-50 (1995); Ames et al., J. Immunol. Methods 184:177-186 (1995); Kettleborough et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 24:952-958 (1994); Persic et al., Gene 187 9-18 (1997); Burton et al., Advances in Immunology 57:191-280 (1994); PCT application No. PCT/GB91/01134; PCT publications WO 90/02809; WO 91/10737; WO 92/01047; WO 92/18619; WO 93/11236; WO 95/15982; WO 95/20401; and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,698,426; 5,223,409; 5,403,484; 5,580,717; 5,427,908; 5,750,753; 5,821,047; 5,571,698; 5,427,908; 5,516,637; 5,780,225; 5,658,727; 5,733,743 and 5,969,108; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0295] As described in the above references, after phage selection, the antibody coding regions from the phage can be isolated and used to generate whole antibodies, including human antibodies, or any other desired antigen binding fragment, and expressed in any desired host, including mammalian cells, insect cells, plant cells, yeast, and bacteria, e.g., as described in detail below. For example, techniques to recombinantly produce Fab, Fab′ and F(ab′)2 fragments can also be employed using methods known in the art such as those disclosed in PCT publication WO 92/22324; Mullinax et al., BioTechniques 12(6):864-869 (1992); and Sawai et al., AJRI 34:26-34 (1995); and Better et al., Science 240:1041-1043 (1988) (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0296] Examples of techniques which can be used to produce single-chain Fvs and antibodies include those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,946,778 and 5,258,498; Huston et al., Methods in Enzymology 203:46-88 (1991); Shu et al., PNAS 90:7995-7999 (1993); and Skerra et al., Science 240:1038-1040 (1988). For some uses, including in vivo use of antibodies in humans and in vitro detection assays, it may be preferable to use chimeric, humanized, or human antibodies. A chimeric antibody is a molecule in which different portions of the antibody are derived from different animal species, such as antibodies having a variable region derived from a murine monoclonal antibody and a human immunoglobulin constant region. Methods for producing chimeric antibodies are known in the art. See e.g., Morrison, Science 229:1202 (1985); Oi et al., BioTechniques 4:214 (1986); Gillies et al., (1989) J. Immunol. Methods 125:191-202; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,807,715; 4,816,567; and 4,816397, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Humanized antibodies are antibody molecules from non-human species antibody that binds the desired antigen having one or more complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from the non-human species and framework regions from a human immunoglobulin molecule. Often, framework residues in the human framework regions will be substituted with the corresponding residue from the CDR donor antibody to alter, preferably improve, antigen binding. These framework substitutions are identified by methods well known in the art, e.g., by modeling of the interactions of the CDR and framework residues to identify framework residues important for antigen binding and sequence comparison to identify unusual framework residues at particular positions. (See, e.g., Queen et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,585,089; Riechmann et al., Nature 332:323 (1988), which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.) Antibodies can be humanized using a variety of techniques known in the art including, for example, CDR-grafting (EP 239,400; PCT publication WO 91/09967; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,225,539; 5,530,101; and 5,585,089), veneering or resurfacing (EP 592,106; EP 519,596; Padlan, Molecular Immunology 28(4/5):489-498 (1991); Studnicka et al., Protein Engineering 7(6):805-814 (1994); Roguska. et al., PNAS 91:969-973 (1994)), and chain shuffling (U.S. Pat. No. 5,565,332).

[0297] Completely human antibodies are particularly desirable for therapeutic treatment of human patients. Human antibodies can be made by a variety of methods known in the art including phage display methods described above using antibody libraries derived from human immunoglobulin sequences. See also, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,444,887 and 4,716,111; and PCT publications WO 98/46645, WO 98/50433, WO 98/24893, WO 98/16654, WO 96/34096, WO 96/33735, and WO 91/10741; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0298] Human antibodies can also be produced using transgenic mice which are incapable of expressing functional endogenous immunoglobulins, but which can express human immunoglobulin genes. For example, the human heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene complexes may be introduced randomly or by homologous recombination into mouse embryonic stem cells. Alternatively, the human variable region, constant region, and diversity region may be introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells in addition to the human heavy and light chain genes. The mouse heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes may be rendered non-functional separately or simultaneously with the introduction of human immunoglobulin loci by homologous recombination. In particular, homozygous deletion of the JH region prevents endogenous antibody production. The modified embryonic stem cells are expanded and microinjected into blastocysts to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to produce homozygous offspring which express human antibodies. The transgenic mice are immunized in the normal fashion with a selected antigen, e.g., all or a portion of a polypeptide of the invention. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the antigen can be obtained from the immunized, transgenic mice using conventional hybridoma technology. The human immunoglobulin transgenes harbored by the transgenic mice rearrange during B cell differentiation, and subsequently undergo class switching and somatic mutation. Thus, using such a technique, it is possible to produce therapeutically useful IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE antibodies. For an overview of this technology for producing human antibodies, see Lonberg and Huszar, Int Rev. Immunol. 13:65-93 (1995). For a detailed discussion of this technology for producing human antibodies and human monoclonal antibodies and protocols for producing such antibodies, see, e.g., PCT publications WO 98/24893; WO 92/01047; WO 96/34096; WO 96/33735; European Patent No. 0 598 877; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,413,923; 5,625,126; 5,633,425; 5,569,825; 5,661,016; 5,545,806; 5,814,318; 5,885,793; 5,916,771; and 5,939,598, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. In addition, companies such as Abgenix, Inc. (Freemont, Calif.) and Genpharm (San Jose, Calif.) can be engaged to provide human antibodies directed against a selected antigen using technology similar to that described above.

[0299] Completely human antibodies which recognize a selected epitope can be generated using a technique referred to as “guided selection.” In this approach a selected non-human monoclonal antibody, e.g., a mouse antibody, is used to guide the selection of a completely human antibody recognizing the same epitope. (Jespers et al., Bio/technology 12:899-903 (1988)).

[0300] Further, antibodies to the polypeptides of the invention can, in turn, be utilized to generate anti-idiotype antibodies that “mimic” polypeptides of the invention using techniques well known to those skilled in the art. (See, e.g., Greenspan & Bona, FASEB J. 7(5):437-444; (1989) and Nissinoff, J. Immunol. 147(8):2429-2438 (1991)). For example, antibodies which bind to and competitively inhibit polypeptide multimerization and/or binding of a polypeptide of the invention to a ligand can be used to generate anti-idiotypes that “mimic” the polypeptide multimerization and/or binding domain and, as a consequence, bind to and neutralize polypeptide and/or its ligand. Such neutralizing anti-idiotypes or Fab fragments of such anti-idiotypes can be used in therapeutic regimens to neutralize polypeptide ligand. For example, such anti-idiotypic antibodies can be used to bind a polypeptide of the invention and/or to bind its ligands/receptors, and thereby block its biological activity.

[0301] Polynucleotides Encoding Antibodies

[0302] The invention further provides polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an antibody of the invention and fragments thereof. The invention also encompasses polynucleotides that hybridize under stringent or alternatively, under lower stringency hybridization conditions, e.g., as defined supra, to polynucleotides that encode an antibody, preferably, that specifically binds to a polypeptide of the invention, preferably, an antibody that binds to a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y.

[0303] The polynucleotides may be obtained, and the nucleotide sequence of the polynucleotides determined, by any method known in the art. For example, if the nucleotide sequence of the antibody is known, a polynucleotide encoding the antibody may be assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides (e.g., as described in Kutmeier et al., BioTechniques 17:242 (1994)), which, briefly, involves the synthesis of overlapping oligonucleotides containing portions of the sequence encoding the antibody, annealing and ligating of those oligonucleotides, and then amplification of the ligated oligonucleotides by PCR.

[0304] Alternatively, a polynucleotide encoding an antibody may be generated from nucleic acid from a suitable source. If a clone containing a nucleic acid encoding a particular antibody is not available, but the sequence of the antibody molecule is known, a nucleic acid encoding the immunoglobulin may be chemically synthesized or obtained from a suitable source (e.g., an antibody cDNA library, or a cDNA library generated from, or nucleic acid, preferably poly A+ RNA, isolated from, any tissue or cells expressing the antibody, such as hybridoma cells selected to express an antibody of the invention) by PCR amplification using synthetic primers hybridizable to the 3′ and 5′ ends of the sequence or by cloning using an oligonucleotide probe specific for the particular gene sequence to identify, e.g., a cDNA clone from a cDNA library that encodes the antibody. Amplified nucleic acids generated by PCR may then be cloned into replicable cloning vectors using any method well known in the art.

[0305] Once the nucleotide sequence and corresponding amino acid sequence of the antibody is determined, the nucleotide sequence of the antibody may be manipulated using methods well known in the art for the manipulation of nucleotide sequences, e.g., recombinant DNA techniques, site directed mutagenesis, PCR, etc. (see, for example, the techniques described in Sambrook et al., 1990, Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, 2d Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. and Ausubel et al., eds., 1998, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., which are both incorporated by reference herein in their entireties), to generate antibodies having a different amino acid sequence, for example to create amino acid substitutions, deletions, and/or insertions.

[0306] In a specific embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the heavy and/or light chain variable domains may be inspected to identify the sequences of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) by methods that are well know in the art, e.g., by comparison to known amino acid sequences of other heavy and light chain variable regions to determine the regions of sequence hypervariability. Using routine recombinant DNA techniques, one or more of the CDRs may be inserted within framework regions, e.g., into human framework regions to humanize a non-human antibody, as described supra. The framework regions may be naturally occurring or consensus framework regions, and preferably human framework regions (see, e.g., Chothia et al., J. Mol. Biol. 278: 457-479 (1998) for a listing of human framework regions). Preferably, the polynucleotide generated by the combination of the framework regions and CDRs encodes an antibody that specifically binds a polypeptide of the invention. Preferably, as discussed supra, one or more amino acid substitutions may be made within the framework regions, and, preferably, the amino acid substitutions improve binding of the antibody to its antigen. Additionally, such methods may be used to make amino acid substitutions or deletions of one or more variable region cysteine residues participating in an intrachain disulfide bond to generate antibody molecules lacking one or more intrachain disulfide bonds. Other alterations to the polynucleotide are encompassed by the present invention and within the skill of the art.

[0307] In addition, techniques developed for the production of “chimeric antibodies” (Morrison et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:851-855 (1984); Neuberger et al., Nature 312:604-608 (1984); Takeda et al., Nature 314:452-454 (1985)) by splicing genes from a mouse antibody molecule of appropriate antigen specificity together with genes from a human antibody molecule of appropriate biological activity can be used. As described supra, a chimeric antibody is a molecule in which different portions are derived from different animal species, such as those having a variable region derived from a murine mAb and a human immunoglobulin constant region, e.g., humanized antibodies.

[0308] Alternatively, techniques described for the production of single chain antibodies (U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778; Bird, Science 242:423-42 (1988); Huston et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:5879-5883 (1988); and Ward et al., Nature 334:544-54 (1989)) can be adapted to produce single chain antibodies. Single chain antibodies are formed by linking the heavy and light chain fragments of the Fv region via an amino acid bridge, resulting in a single chain polypeptide. Techniques for the assembly of functional Fv fragments in E. coli may also be used (Skerra et al., Science 242:1038-1041 (1988)).

[0309] Methods of Producing Antibodies

[0310] The antibodies of the invention can be produced by any method known in the art for the synthesis of antibodies, in particular, by chemical synthesis or preferably, by recombinant expression techniques.

[0311] Recombinant expression of an antibody of the invention, or fragment, derivative or analog thereof, (e.g., a heavy or light chain of an antibody of the invention or a single chain antibody of the invention), requires construction of an expression vector containing a polynucleotide that encodes the antibody. Once a polynucleotide encoding an antibody molecule or a heavy or light chain of an antibody, or portion thereof (preferably containing the heavy or light chain variable domain), of the invention has been obtained, the vector for the production of the antibody molecule may be produced by recombinant DNA technology using techniques well known in the art. Thus, methods for preparing a protein by expressing a polynucleotide containing an antibody encoding nucleotide sequence are described herein. Methods which are well known to those skilled in the art can be used to construct expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences and appropriate transcriptional and translational control signals. These methods include, for example, in vitro recombinant DNA techniques, synthetic techniques, and in vivo genetic recombination. The invention, thus, provides replicable vectors comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an antibody molecule of the invention, or a heavy or light chain thereof, or a heavy or light chain variable domain, operably linked to a promoter. Such vectors may include the nucleotide sequence encoding the constant region of the antibody molecule (see, e.g., PCT Publication WO 86/05807; PCT Publication WO 89/01036; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,122,464) and the variable domain of the antibody may be cloned into such a vector for expression of the entire heavy or light chain.

[0312] The expression vector is transferred to a host cell by conventional techniques and the transfected cells are then cultured by conventional techniques to produce an antibody of the invention. Thus, the invention includes host cells containing a polynucleotide encoding an antibody of the invention, or a heavy or light chain thereof, or a single chain antibody of the invention, operably linked to a heterologous promoter. In preferred embodiments for the expression of double-chained antibodies, vectors encoding both the heavy and light chains may be co-expressed in the host cell for expression of the entire immunoglobulin molecule, as detailed below.

[0313] A variety of host-expression vector systems may be utilized to express the antibody molecules of the invention. Such host-expression systems represent vehicles by which the coding sequences of interest may be produced and subsequently purified, but also represent cells which may, when transformed or transfected with the appropriate nucleotide coding sequences, express an antibody molecule of the invention in situ. These include but are not limited to microorganisms such as bacteria (e.g., E. coli, B. subtilis) transformed with recombinant bacteriophage DNA, plasmid DNA or cosmid DNA expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences; yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces, Pichia) transformed with recombinant yeast expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences; insect cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., baculovirus) containing antibody coding sequences; plant cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., cauliflower mosaic virus, CaMV; tobacco mosaic virus, TMV) or transformed with recombinant plasmid expression vectors (e.g., Ti plasmid) containing antibody coding sequences; or mammalian cell systems (e.g., COS, CHO, BHK, 293, 3T3 cells) harboring recombinant expression constructs containing promoters derived from the genome of mammalian cells (e.g., metallothionein promoter) or from mammalian viruses (e.g., the adenovirus late promoter; the vaccinia virus 7.5K promoter). Preferably, bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli, and more preferably, eukaryotic cells, especially for the expression of whole recombinant antibody molecule, are used for the expression of a recombinant antibody molecule. For example, mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), in conjunction with a vector such as the major intermediate early gene promotor element from human cytomegalovirus is an effective expression system for antibodies (Foecking et al., Gene 45:101 (1986); Cockett et al., Bio/Technology 8:2 (1990)).

[0314] In bacterial systems, a number of expression vectors may be advantageously selected depending upon the use intended for the antibody molecule being expressed. For example, when a large quantity of such a protein is to be produced, for the generation of pharmaceutical compositions of an antibody molecule, vectors which direct the expression of high levels of fusion protein products that are readily purified may be desirable. Such vectors include, but are not limited, to the E. coli expression vector pUR278 (Ruther et al., EMBO J. 2:1791 (1983)), in which the antibody coding sequence may be ligated individually into the vector in frame with the lac Z coding region so that a fusion protein is produced; pIN vectors (Inouye & Inouye, Nucleic Acids Res. 13:3101-3109 (1985); Van Heeke & Schuster, J. Biol. Chem. 24:5503-5509 (1989)); and the like. pGEX vectors may also be used to express foreign polypeptides as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST). In general, such fusion proteins are soluble and can easily be purified from lysed cells by adsorption and binding to matrix glutathione-agarose beads followed by elution in the presence of free glutathione. The pGEX vectors are designed to include thrombin or factor Xa protease cleavage sites so that the cloned target gene product can be released from the GST moiety.

[0315] In an insect system, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) is used as a vector to express foreign genes. The virus grows in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The antibody coding sequence may be cloned individually into non-essential regions (for example the polyhedrin gene) of the virus and placed under control of an AcNPV promoter (for example the polyhedrin promoter).

[0316] In mammalian host cells, a number of viral-based expression systems may be utilized. In cases where an adenovirus is used as an expression vector, the antibody coding sequence of interest may be ligated to an adenovirus transcription/translation control complex, e.g., the late promoter and tripartite leader sequence. This chimeric gene may then be inserted in the adenovirus genome by in vitro or in vivo recombination. Insertion in a non-essential region of the viral genome (e.g., region E1 or E3) will result in a recombinant virus that is viable and capable of expressing the antibody molecule in infected hosts. (e.g., see Logan & Shenk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:355-359 (1984)). Specific initiation signals may also be required for efficient translation of inserted antibody coding sequences. These signals include the ATG initiation codon and adjacent sequences. Furthermore, the initiation codon must be in phase with the reading frame of the desired coding sequence to ensure translation of the entire insert. These exogenous translational control signals and initiation codons can be of a variety of origins, both natural and synthetic. The efficiency of expression may be enhanced by the inclusion of appropriate transcription enhancer elements, transcription terminators, etc. (see Bittner et al., Methods in Enzymol. 153:51-544 (1987)).

[0317] In addition, a host cell strain may be chosen which modulates the expression of the inserted sequences, or modifies and processes the gene product in the specific fashion desired. Such modifications (e.g., glycosylation) and processing (e.g., cleavage) of protein products may be important for the function of the protein. Different host cells have characteristic and specific mechanisms for the post-translational processing and modification of proteins and gene products. Appropriate cell lines or host systems can be chosen to ensure the correct modification and processing of the foreign protein expressed. To this end, eukaryotic host cells which possess the cellular machinery for proper processing of the primary transcript, glycosylation, and phosphorylation of the gene product may be used. Such mammalian host cells include but are not limited to CHO, VERY, BHK, Hela, COS, MDCK, 293, 3T3, WI38, and in particular, breast cancer cell lines such as, for example, BT483, Hs578T, HTB2, BT20 and T47D, and normal mammary gland cell line such as, for example, CRL7030 and Hs578Bst.

[0318] For long-term, high-yield production of recombinant proteins, stable expression is preferred. For example, cell lines which stably express the antibody molecule may be engineered. Rather than using expression vectors which contain viral origins of replication, host cells can be transformed with DNA controlled by appropriate expression control elements (e.g., promoter, enhancer, sequences, transcription terminators, polyadenylation sites, etc.), and a selectable marker. Following the introduction of the foreign DNA, engineered cells may be allowed to grow for 1-2 days in an enriched media, and then are switched to a selective media. The selectable marker in the recombinant plasmid confers resistance to the selection and allows cells to stably integrate the plasmid into their chromosomes and grow to form foci which in turn can be cloned and expanded into cell lines. This method may advantageously be used to engineer cell lines which express the antibody molecule. Such engineered cell lines may be particularly useful in screening and evaluation of compounds that interact directly or indirectly with the antibody molecule.

[0319] A number of selection systems may be used, including but not limited to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Wigler et al., Cell 11:223 (1977)), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Szybalska & Szybalski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48:202 (1992)), and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (Lowy et al., Cell 22:817 (1980)) genes can be employed in tk-, hgprt- or aprt-cells, respectively. Also, antimetabolite resistance can be used as the basis of selection for the following genes: dhfr, which confers resistance to methotrexate (Wigler et al., Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:357 (1980); O'Hare et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:1527 (1981)); gpt, which confers resistance to mycophenolic acid (Mulligan & Berg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:2072 (1981)); neo, which confers resistance to the aminoglycoside G-418 Clinical Pharmacy 12:488-505; Wu and Wu, Biotherapy 3:87-95 (1991); Tolstoshev, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32:573-596 (1993); Mulligan, Science 260:926-932 (1993); and Morgan and Anderson, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 62:191-217 (1993); May, 1993, TIB TECH 11(5):155-215); and hygro, which confers resistance to hygromycin (Santerre et al., Gene 30:147 (1984)). Methods commonly known in the art of recombinant DNA technology may be routinely applied to select the desired recombinant clone, and such methods are described, for example, in Ausubel et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. (1993); Kriegler, Gene Transfer and Expression, A Laboratory Manual, Stockton Press, N.Y. (1990); and in Chapters 12 and 13, Dracopoli et al. (eds), Current Protocols in Human Genetics, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. (1994); Colberre-Garapin et al., J. Mol. Biol. 150:1 (1981), which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

[0320] The expression levels of an antibody molecule can be increased by vector amplification (for a review, see Bebbington and Hentschel, The use of vectors based on gene amplification for the expression of cloned genes in mammalian cells in DNA cloning, Vol.3. (Academic Press, New York, 1987)). When a marker in the vector system expressing antibody is amplifiable, increase in the level of inhibitor present in culture of host cell will increase the number of copies of the marker gene. Since the amplified region is associated with the antibody gene, production of the antibody will also increase (Crouse et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 3:257 (1983)).

[0321] The host cell may be co-transfected with two expression vectors of the invention, the first vector encoding a heavy chain derived polypeptide and the second vector encoding a light chain derived polypeptide. The two vectors may contain identical selectable markers which enable equal expression of heavy and light chain polypeptides. Alternatively, a single vector may be used which encodes, and is capable of expressing, both heavy and light chain polypeptides. In such situations, the light chain should be placed before the heavy chain to avoid an excess of toxic free heavy chain (Proudfoot, Nature 322:52 (1986); Kohler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:2197 (1980)). The coding sequences for the heavy and light chains may comprise cDNA or genomic DNA.

[0322] Once an antibody molecule of the invention has been produced by an animal, chemically synthesized, or recombinantly expressed, it may be purified by any method known in the art for purification of an immunoglobulin molecule, for example, by chromatography (e.g., ion exchange, affinity, particularly by affinity for the specific antigen after Protein A, and sizing column chromatography), centrifugation, differential solubility, or by any other standard technique for the purification of proteins. In addition, the antibodies of the present invention or fragments thereof can be fused to heterologous polypeptide sequences described herein or otherwise known in the art, to facilitate purification.

[0323] The present invention encompasses antibodies recombinantly fused or chemically conjugated (including both covalently and non-covalently conjugations) to a polypeptide (or portion thereof, preferably at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 amino acids of the polypeptide) of the present invention to generate fusion proteins. The fusion does not necessarily need to be direct, but may occur through linker sequences. The antibodies may be specific for antigens other than polypeptides (or portion thereof, preferably at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 amino acids of the polypeptide) of the present invention. For example, antibodies may be used to target the polypeptides of the present invention to particular cell types, either in vitro or in vivo, by fusing or conjugating the polypeptides of the present invention to antibodies specific for particular cell surface receptors. Antibodies fused or conjugated to the polypeptides of the present invention may also be used in in vitro immunoassays and purification methods using methods known in the art. See e.g., Harbor et al., supra, and PCT publication WO 93/21232; EP 439,095; Naramura et al., Immunol. Lett. 39:91-99 (1994); U.S. Pat. No. 5,474,981; Gillies et al., PNAS 89:1428-1432 (1992); Fell et al., J. Immunol. 146:2446-2452(1991), which are incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0324] The present invention further includes compositions comprising the polypeptides of the present invention fused or conjugated to antibody domains other than the variable regions. For example, the polypeptides of the present invention may be fused or conjugated to an antibody Fc region, or portion thereof. The antibody portion fused to a polypeptide of the present invention may comprise the constant region, hinge region, CH1 domain, CH2 domain, and CH3 domain or any combination of whole domains or portions thereof. The polypeptides may also be fused or conjugated to the above antibody portions to form multimers. For example, Fc portions fused to the polypeptides of the present invention can form dimers through disulfide bonding between the Fc portions. Higher multimeric forms can be made by fusing the polypeptides to portions of IgA and IgM. Methods for fusing or conjugating the polypeptides of the present invention to antibody portions are known in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,336,603; 5,622,929; 5,359,046; 5,349,053; 5,447,851; 5,112,946; EP 307,434; EP 367,166; PCT publications WO 96/04388; WO 91/06570; Ashkenazi et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:10535-10539 (1991); Zheng et al., J. Immunol. 154:5590-5600 (1995); and Vil et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:11337-11341(1992) (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0325] As discussed, supra, the polypeptides corresponding to a polypeptide, polypeptide fragment, or a variant of SEQ ID NO: Y may be fused or conjugated to the above antibody portions to increase the in vivo half life of the polypeptides or for use in immunoassays using methods known in the art. Further, the polypeptides corresponding to SEQ ID NO: Y may be fused or conjugated to the above antibody portions to facilitate purification. One reported example describes chimeric proteins consisting of the first two domains of the human CD4-polypeptide and various domains of the constant regions of the heavy or light chains of mammalian immunoglobulins. (EP 394,827; Traunecker et al., Nature 331:84-86 (1988). The polypeptides of the present invention fused or conjugated to an antibody having disulfide-linked dimeric structures (due to the IgG) may also be more efficient in binding and neutralizing other molecules, than the monomeric secreted protein or protein fragment alone. (Fountoulakis et al., J. Biochem. 270:3958-3964 (1995)). In many cases, the Fc part in a fusion protein is beneficial in therapy and diagnosis, and thus can result in, for example, improved pharmacokinetic properties. (EP A 232,262). Alternatively, deleting the Fe part after the fusion protein has been expressed, detected, and purified, would be desired. For example, the Fe portion may hinder therapy and diagnosis if the fusion protein is used as an antigen for immunizations. In drug discovery, for example, human proteins, such as hIL-5, have been fused with Fe portions for the purpose of high-throughput screening assays to identify antagonists of hIL-5. (See, Bennett et al., J. Molecular Recognition 8:52-58 (1995); Johanson et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270:9459-9471 (1995).

[0326] Moreover, the antibodies or fragments thereof of the present invention can be fused to marker sequences, such as a peptide to facilitate purification. In preferred embodiments, the marker amino acid sequence is a hexa-histidine peptide, such as the tag provided in a pQE vector (QIAGEN, Inc., 9259 Eton Avenue, Chatsworth, Calif., 91311), among others, many of which are commercially available. As described in Gentz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:821-824 (1989), for instance, hexa-histidine provides for convenient purification of the fusion protein. Other peptide tags useful for purification include, but are not limited to, the “HA” tag, which corresponds to an epitope derived from the influenza hemagglutinin protein (Wilson et al., Cell 37:767 (1984)) and the “flag” tag.

[0327] The present invention further encompasses antibodies or fragments thereof conjugated to a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. The antibodies can be used diagnostically to, for example, monitor the development or progression of a tumor as part of a clinical testing procedure to, e.g., determine the efficacy of a given treatment regimen. Detection can be facilitated by coupling the antibody to a detectable substance. Examples of detectable substances include various enzymes, prosthetic groups, fluorescent materials, luminescent materials, bioluminescent materials, radioactive materials, positron emitting metals using various positron emission tomographies, and nonradioactive paramagnetic metal ions. The detectable substance may be coupled or conjugated either directly to the antibody (or fragment thereof) or indirectly, through an intermediate (such as, for example, a linker known in the art) using techniques known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,741,900 for metal ions which can be conjugated to antibodies for use as diagnostics according to the present invention. Examples of suitable enzymes include horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-galactosidase, or acetylcholinesterase; examples of suitable prosthetic group complexes include streptavidin/biotin and avidin/biotin; examples of suitable fluorescent materials include umbelliferone, fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine, dichlorotriazinylamine fluorescein, dansyl chloride or phycoerythrin; an example of a luminescent material includes luminol; examples of bioluminescent materials include luciferase, luciferin, and aequorin; and examples of suitable radioactive material include 125I, 131I, 111In or 99Tc.

[0328] Further, an antibody or fragment thereof may be conjugated to a therapeutic moiety such as a cytotoxin, e.g., a cytostatic or cytocidal agent, a therapeutic agent or a radioactive metal ion, e.g., alpha-emitters such as, for example, 213Bi. A cytotoxin or cytotoxic agent includes any agent that is detrimental to cells. Examples include paclitaxol, cytochalasin B, gramicidin D, ethidium bromide, emetine, mitomycin, etoposide, tenoposide, vincristine, vinblastine, colchicin, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dihydroxy anthracin dione, mitoxantrone, mithramycin, actinomycin D, 1-dehydrotestosterone, glucocorticoids, procaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, propranolol, and puromycin and analogs or homologs thereof. Therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites (e.g., methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, 5-fluorouracil decarbazine), alkylating agents (e.g., mechlorethamine, thioepa chlorambucil, melphalan, carmustine (BSNU) and lomustine (CCNU), cyclothosphamide, busulfan, dibromomannitol, streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (II) (DDP) cisplatin), anthracyclines (e.g., daunorubicin (formerly daunomycin) and doxorubicin), antibiotics (e.g., dactinomycin (formerly actinomycin), bleomycin, mithramycin, and anthramycin (AMC)), and anti-mitotic agents (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine).

[0329] The conjugates of the invention can be used for modifying a given biological response, the therapeutic agent or drug moiety is not to be construed as limited to classical chemical therapeutic agents. For example, the drug moiety may be a protein or polypeptide possessing a desired biological activity. Such proteins may include, for example, a toxin such as abrin, ricin A, pseudomonas exotoxin, or diphtheria toxin; a protein such as tumor necrosis factor, a-interferon, β-interferon, nerve growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, tissue plasminogen activator, an apoptotic agent, e.g., TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, AIM I (See, International Publication No. WO 97/33899), AIM II (See, International Publication No. WO 97/34911), Fas Ligand (Takahashi et al., Int. Immunol., 6:1567-1574 (1994)), VEGI (See, International Publication No. WO 99/23105), a thrombotic agent or an anti-angiogenic agent, e.g., angiostatin or endostatin; or, biological response modifiers such as, for example, lymphokines, interleukin-1 (“IL-1”), interleukin-2 (“IL-2”), interleukin-6 (“IL-6”), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (“GM-CSF”), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (“G-CSF”), or other growth factors.

[0330] Antibodies may also be attached to solid supports, which are particularly useful for immunoassays or purification of the target antigen. Such solid supports include, but are not limited to, glass, cellulose, polyacrylamide, nylon, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene.

[0331] Techniques for conjugating such therapeutic moiety to antibodies are well known, see, e.g., Arnon et al., “Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunotargeting Of Drugs In Cancer Therapy”, in Monoclonal Antibodies And Cancer Therapy, Reisfeld et al. (eds.), pp. 243-56 (Alan R. Liss, Inc. 1985); Hellstrom et al., “Antibodies For Drug Delivery”, in Controlled Drug Delivery (2nd Ed.), Robinson et al. (eds.), pp. 623-53 (Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1987); Thorpe, “Antibody Carriers Of Cytotoxic Agents In Cancer Therapy: A Review”, in Monoclonal Antibodies '84: Biological And Clinical Applications, Pinchera et al. (eds.), pp. 475-506 (1985); “Analysis, Results, And Future Prospective Of The Therapeutic Use Of Radiolabeled Antibody In Cancer Therapy”, in Monoclonal Antibodies For Cancer Detection And Therapy, Baldwin et al. (eds.), pp. 303-16 (Academic Press 1985), and Thorpe et al., “The Preparation And Cytotoxic Properties Of Antibody-Toxin Conjugates”, Immunol. Rev. 62:119-58 (1982).

[0332] Alternatively, an antibody can be conjugated to a second antibody to form an antibody heteroconjugate as described by Segal in U.S. Pat. No. 4,676,980, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0333] An antibody, with or without a therapeutic moiety conjugated to it, administered alone or in combination with cytotoxic factor(s) and/or cytokine(s) can be used as a therapeutic.

[0334] Immunophenotyping

[0335] The antibodies of the invention may be utilized for immunophenotyping of cell lines and biological samples. The translation product of the gene of the present invention may be useful as a cell specific marker, or more specifically as a cellular marker that is differentially expressed at various stages of differentiation and/or maturation of particular cell types. Monoclonal antibodies directed against a specific epitope, or combination of epitopes, will allow for the screening of cellular populations expressing the marker. Various techniques can be utilized using monoclonal antibodies to screen for cellular populations expressing the marker(s), and include magnetic separation using antibody-coated magnetic beads, “panning” with antibody attached to a solid matrix (i.e., plate), and flow cytometry (See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,985,660; and Morrison et al., Cell, 96:737-49 (1999)).

[0336] These techniques allow for the screening of particular populations of cells, such as might be found with hematological malignancies (i.e. minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute leukemic patients) and “non-self” cells in transplantations to prevent Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Alternatively, these techniques allow for the screening of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells capable of undergoing proliferation and/or differentiation, as might be found in human umbilical cord blood.

[0337] Assays for Antibody Binding

[0338] The antibodies of the invention may be assayed for immunospecific binding by any method known in the art. The immunoassays which can be used include but are not limited to competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as western blots, radioimmunoassays, ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), “sandwich” immunoassays, immunoprecipitation assays, precipitin reactions, gel diffusion precipitin reactions, immunodiffusion assays, agglutination assays, complement-fixation assays, immunoradiometric assays, fluorescent immunoassays, protein A immunoassays, to name but a few. Such assays are routine and well known in the art (see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Exemplary immunoassays are described briefly below (but are not intended by way of limitation).

[0339] Immunoprecipitation protocols generally comprise lysing a population of cells in a lysis buffer such as RIPA buffer (1% NP-40 or Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.01 M sodium phosphate at pH 7.2, 1% Trasylol) supplemented with protein phosphatase and/or protease inhibitors (e.g., EDTA, PMSF, aprotinin, sodium vanadate), adding the antibody of interest to the cell lysate, incubating for a period of time (e.g., 1-4 hours) at 4° C., adding protein A and/or protein G sepharose beads to the cell lysate, incubating for about an hour or more at 4° C., washing the beads in lysis buffer and resuspending the beads in SDS/sample buffer. The ability of the antibody of interest to immunoprecipitate a particular antigen can be assessed by, e.g., western blot analysis. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the binding of the antibody to an antigen and decrease the background (e.g., pre-clearing the cell lysate with sepharose beads). For further discussion regarding immunoprecipitation protocols see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 10.16.1.

[0340] Western blot analysis generally comprises preparing protein samples, electrophoresis of the protein samples in a polyacrylamide gel (e.g., 8%-20% SDS-PAGE depending on the molecular weight of the antigen), transferring the protein sample from the polyacrylamide gel to a membrane such as nitrocellulose, PVDF or nylon, blocking the membrane in blocking solution (e.g., PBS with 3% BSA or non-fat milk), washing the membrane in washing buffer (e.g., PBS-Tween 20), blocking the membrane with primary antibody (the antibody of interest) diluted in blocking buffer, washing the membrane in washing buffer, blocking the membrane with a secondary antibody (which recognizes the primary antibody, e.g., an anti-human antibody) conjugated to an enzymatic substrate (e.g., horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase) or radioactive molecule (e.g., 32P or 125I) diluted in blocking buffer, washing the membrane in wash buffer, and detecting the presence of the antigen. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the signal detected and to reduce the background noise. For further discussion regarding western blot protocols see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 10.8.1.

[0341] ELISAs comprise preparing antigen, coating the well of a 96 well microtiter plate with the antigen, adding the antibody of interest conjugated to a detectable compound such as an enzymatic substrate (e.g., horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase) to the well and incubating for a period of time, and detecting the presence of the antigen. In ELISAs the antibody of interest does not have to be conjugated to a detectable compound; instead, a second antibody (which recognizes the antibody of interest) conjugated to a detectable compound may be added to the well. Further, instead of coating the well with the antigen, the antibody may be coated to the well. In this case, a second antibody conjugated to a detectable compound may be added following the addition of the antigen of interest to the coated well. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the signal detected as well as other variations of ELISAs known in the art. For further discussion regarding ELISAs see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 11.2.1.

[0342] The binding affinity of an antibody to an antigen and the off-rate of an antibody-antigen interaction can be determined by competitive binding assays. One example of a competitive binding assay is a radioimmunoassay comprising the incubation of labeled antigen (e.g., 3H or 1251) with the antibody of interest in the presence of increasing amounts of unlabeled antigen, and the detection of the antibody bound to the labeled antigen. The affinity of the antibody of interest for a particular antigen and the binding off-rates can be determined from the data by scatchard plot analysis. Competition with a second antibody can also be determined using radioimmunoassays. In this case, the antigen is incubated with antibody of interest conjugated to a labeled compound (e.g., 3H or 125I) in the presence of increasing amounts of an unlabeled second antibody.

[0343] Therapeutic Uses

[0344] The present invention is further directed to antibody-based therapies which involve administering antibodies of the invention to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, patient for treating one or more of the disclosed diseases, disorders, or conditions. Therapeutic compounds of the invention include, but are not limited to, antibodies of the invention (including fragments, analogs and derivatives thereof as described herein) and nucleic acids encoding antibodies of the invention (including fragments, analogs and derivatives thereof and anti-idiotypic antibodies as described herein). The antibodies of the invention can be used to treat, inhibit or prevent diseases, disorders or conditions associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention, including, but not limited to, any one or more of the diseases, disorders, or conditions described herein. The treatment and/or prevention of diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention includes, but is not limited to, alleviating symptoms associated with those diseases, disorders or conditions. Antibodies of the invention may be provided in pharmaceutically acceptable compositions as known in the art or as described herein.

[0345] A summary of the ways in which the antibodies of the present invention may be used therapeutically includes binding polynucleotides or polypeptides of the present invention locally or systemically in the body or by direct cytotoxicity of the antibody, e.g., as mediated by complement (CDC) or by effector cells (ADCC). Some of these approaches are described in more detail below. Armed with the teachings provided herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will know how to use the antibodies of the present invention for diagnostic, monitoring or therapeutic purposes without undue experimentation.

[0346] The antibodies of this invention may be advantageously utilized in combination with other monoclonal or chimeric antibodies, or with lymphokines or hematopoietic growth factors (such as, e.g., IL-2, IL-3 and IL-7), for example, which serve to increase the number or activity of effector cells which interact with the antibodies.

[0347] The antibodies of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with other types of treatments (e.g., radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and anti-tumor agents). Generally, administration of products of a species origin or species reactivity (in the case of antibodies) that is the same species as that of the patient is preferred. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, human antibodies, fragments derivatives, analogs, or nucleic acids, are administered to a human patient for therapy or prophylaxis.

[0348] It is preferred to use high affinity and/or potent in vivo inhibiting and/or neutralizing antibodies against polypeptides or polynucleotides of the present invention, fragments or regions thereof, for both immunoassays directed to and therapy of disorders related to polynucleotides or polypeptides, including fragments thereof, of the present invention. Such antibodies, fragments, or regions, will preferably have an affinity for polynucleotides or polypeptides of the invention, including fragments thereof. Preferred binding affinities include those with a dissociation constant or Kd less than 5×10−2 M, 10−2 M, 5×10−3 M, 10−3 M, 5×10−4 M, 10″4 M, 5×10−5 M, 10−5 M, 5×10−6 M, 10−6 M, 5×10−7 M, 10−7 M, 5×10−8 M, 10−8 M, 5×10−9 M, 10−9 M, 5×10−10 M, 10−10 M, 5×10−11 M, 10−11 M, 5×10−12 M, 10−12 M, 5×10−13 M, 10−13 M, 5×10−14 M, 10−14 M, 5×10−15 M, and 10−15 M.

[0349] Gene Therapy

[0350] In a specific embodiment, nucleic acids comprising sequences encoding antibodies or functional derivatives thereof, are administered to treat, inhibit or prevent a disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention, by way of gene therapy. Gene therapy refers to therapy performed by the administration to a subject of an expressed or expressible nucleic acid. In this embodiment of the invention, the nucleic acids produce their encoded protein that mediates a therapeutic effect.

[0351] Any of the methods for gene therapy available in the art can be used according to the present invention. Exemplary methods are described below.

[0352] For general reviews of the methods of gene therapy, see Goldspiel et al., Clinical Pharmacy 12:488-505 (1993); Wu and Wu, Biotherapy 3:87-95 (1991); Tolstoshev, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32:573-596 (1993); Mulligan, Science 260:926-932 (1993); and Morgan and Anderson, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 62:191-217 (1993); May, TIBTECH 11(5):155-215 (1993). Methods commonly known in the art of recombinant DNA technology which can be used are described in Ausubel et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. (1993); and Kriegler, Gene Transfer and Expression, A Laboratory Manual, Stockton Press, N.Y. (1990).

[0353] In a preferred aspect, the compound comprises nucleic acid sequences encoding an antibody, said nucleic acid sequences being part of expression vectors that express the antibody or fragments or chimeric proteins or heavy or light chains thereof in a suitable host. In particular, such nucleic acid sequences have promoters operably linked to the antibody coding region, said promoter being inducible or constitutive, and, optionally, tissue-specific. In another particular embodiment, nucleic acid molecules are used in which the antibody coding sequences and any other desired sequences are flanked by regions that promote homologous recombination at a desired site in the genome, thus providing for intrachromosomal expression of the antibody encoding nucleic acids (Koller and Smithies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); Zijlstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989). In specific embodiments, the expressed antibody molecule is a single chain antibody; alternatively, the nucleic acid sequences include sequences encoding both the heavy and light chains, or fragments thereof, of the antibody.

[0354] Delivery of the nucleic acids into a patient may be either direct, in which case the patient is directly exposed to the nucleic acid or nucleic acid-carrying vectors, or indirect, in which case, cells are first transformed with the nucleic acids in vitro, then transplanted into the patient. These two approaches are known, respectively, as in vivo or ex vivo gene therapy.

[0355] In a specific embodiment, the nucleic acid sequences are directly administered in vivo, where it is expressed to produce the encoded product. This can be accomplished by any of numerous methods known in the art, e.g., by constructing them as part of an appropriate nucleic acid expression vector and administering it so that they become intracellular, e.g., by infection using defective or attenuated retrovirals or other viral vectors (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,980,286), or by direct injection of naked DNA, or by use of microparticle bombardment (e.g., a gene gun; Biolistic, Dupont), or coating with lipids or cell-surface receptors or transfecting agents, encapsulation in liposomes, microparticles, or microcapsules, or by administering them in linkage to a peptide which is known to enter the nucleus, by administering it in linkage to a ligand subject to receptor-mediated endocytosis (see, e.g., Wu and Wu, J. Biol. Chem. 262:4429-4432 (1987)) (which can be used to target cell types specifically expressing the receptors), etc. In another embodiment, nucleic acid-ligand complexes can be formed in which the ligand comprises a fusogenic viral peptide to disrupt endosomes, allowing the nucleic acid to avoid lysosomal degradation. In yet another embodiment, the nucleic acid can be targeted in vivo for cell specific uptake and expression, by targeting a specific receptor (see, e.g., PCT Publications WO 92/06180; WO 92/22635; WO92/20316; WO93/14188, WO 93/20221). Alternatively, the nucleic acid can be introduced intracellularly and incorporated within host cell DNA for expression, by homologous recombination (Koller and Smithies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); Zijlstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989)).

[0356] In a specific embodiment, viral vectors that contain nucleic acid sequences encoding an antibody of the invention are used. For example, a retroviral vector can be used (see Miller et al., Meth. Enzymol. 217:581-599 (1993)). These retroviral vectors contain the components necessary for the correct packaging of the viral genome and integration into the host cell DNA. The nucleic acid sequences encoding the antibody to be used in gene therapy are cloned into one or more vectors, which facilitate delivery of the gene into a patient. More detail about retroviral vectors can be found in Boesen et al., Biotherapy 6:291-302 (1994), which describes the use of a retroviral vector to deliver the mdr1 gene to hematopoietic stem cells in order to make the stem cells more resistant to chemotherapy. Other references illustrating the use of retroviral vectors in gene therapy are: Clowes et al., J. Clin. Invest. 93:644-651 (1994); Kiem et al., Blood 83:1467-1473 (1994); Salmons and Gunzberg, Human Gene Therapy 4:129-141 (1993); and Grossman and Wilson, Curr. Opin. in Genetics and Devel. 3:110-114 (1993).

[0357] Adenoviruses are other viral vectors that can be used in gene therapy. Adenoviruses are especially attractive vehicles for delivering genes to respiratory epithelia. Adenoviruses naturally infect respiratory epithelia where they cause a mild disease. Other targets for adenovirus-based delivery systems are liver, the central nervous system, endothelial cells, and muscle. Adenoviruses have the advantage of being capable of infecting non-dividing cells. Kozarsky and Wilson, Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 3:499-503 (1993) present a review of adenovirus-based gene therapy. Bout et al., Human Gene Therapy 5:3-10 (1994) demonstrated the use of adenovirus vectors to transfer genes to the respiratory epithelia of rhesus monkeys. Other instances of the use of adenoviruses in gene therapy can be found in Rosenfeld et al., Science 252:431-434 (1991); Rosenfeld et al., Cell 68:143-155 (1992); Mastrangeli et al., J. Clin. Invest. 91:225-234 (1993); PCT Publication WO94/12649; and Wang, et al., Gene Therapy 2:775-783 (1995). In a preferred embodiment, adenovirus vectors are used.

[0358] Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has also been proposed for use in gene therapy (Walsh et al., Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 204:289-300 (1993); U.S. Pat. No. 5,436,146).

[0359] Another approach to gene therapy involves transferring a gene to cells in tissue culture by such methods as electroporation, lipofection, calcium phosphate mediated transfection, or viral infection. Usually, the method of transfer includes the transfer of a selectable marker to the cells. The cells are then placed under selection to isolate those cells that have taken up and are expressing the transferred gene. Those cells are then delivered to a patient.

[0360] In this embodiment, the nucleic acid is introduced into a cell prior to administration in vivo of the resulting recombinant cell. Such introduction can be carried out by any method known in the art, including but not limited to transfection, electroporation, microinjection, infection with a viral or bacteriophage vector containing the nucleic acid sequences, cell fusion, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, microcell-mediated gene transfer, spheroplast fusion, etc. Numerous techniques are known in the art for the introduction of foreign genes into cells (see, e.g., Loeffler and Behr, Meth. Enzymol. 217:599-618 (1993); Cohen et al., Meth. Enzymol. 217:618-644 (1993); Cline, Pharmac. Ther. 29:69-92m (1985) and may be used in accordance with the present invention, provided that the necessary developmental and physiological functions of the recipient cells are not disrupted. The technique should provide for the stable transfer of the nucleic acid to the cell, so that the nucleic acid is expressible by the cell and preferably heritable and expressible by its cell progeny.

[0361] The resulting recombinant cells can be delivered to a patient by various methods known in the art. Recombinant blood cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells) are preferably administered intravenously. The amount of cells envisioned for use depends on the desired effect, patient state, etc., and can be determined by one skilled in the art.

[0362] Cells into which a nucleic acid can be introduced for purposes of gene therapy encompass any desired, available cell type, and include but are not limited to epithelial cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, muscle cells, hepatocytes; blood cells such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, megakaryocytes, granulocytes; various stem or progenitor cells, in particular hematopoictic stem or progenitor cells, e.g., as obtained from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood, fetal liver, etc.

[0363] In a preferred embodiment, the cell used for gene therapy is autologous to the patient.

[0364] In an embodiment in which recombinant cells are used in gene therapy, nucleic acid sequences encoding an antibody are introduced into the cells such that they are expressible by the cells or their progeny, and the recombinant cells are then administered in vivo for therapeutic effect. In a specific embodiment, stem or progenitor cells are used. Any stem and/or progenitor cells which can be isolated and maintained in vitro can potentially be used in accordance with this embodiment of the present invention (see e.g., PCT Publication WO 94/08598; Stemple and Anderson, Cell 71:973-985 (1992); Rheinwald, Meth. Cell Bio. 21A:229 (1980); and Pittelkow and Scott, Mayo Clinic Proc. 61:771 (1986)).

[0365] In a specific embodiment, the nucleic acid to be introduced for purposes of gene therapy comprises an inducible promoter operably linked to the coding region, such that expression of the nucleic acid is controllable by controlling the presence or absence of the appropriate inducer of transcription. Demonstration of Therapeutic or Prophylactic Activity

[0366] The compounds or pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are preferably tested in vitro, and then in vivo for the desired therapeutic or prophylactic activity, prior to use in humans. For example, in vitro assays to demonstrate the therapeutic or prophylactic utility of a compound or pharmaceutical composition include, the effect of a compound on a cell line or a patient tissue sample. The effect of the compound or composition on the cell line and/or tissue sample can be determined utilizing techniques known to those of skill in the art including, but not limited to, rosette formation assays and cell lysis assays. In accordance with the invention, in vitro assays which can be used to determine whether administration of a specific compound is indicated, include in vitro cell culture assays in which a patient tissue sample is grown in culture, and exposed to or otherwise administered a compound, and the effect of such compound upon the tissue sample is observed.

[0367] Therapeutic/Prophylactic Administration and Composition

[0368] The invention provides methods of treatment, inhibition and prophylaxis by administration to a subject of an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention, preferably a polypeptide or antibody of the invention. In a preferred aspect, the compound is substantially purified (e.g., substantially free from substances that limit its effect or produce undesired side-effects). The subject is preferably an animal, including but not limited to animals such as cows, pigs, horses, chickens, cats, dogs, etc., and is preferably a mammal, and most preferably human.

[0369] Formulations and methods of administration that can be employed when the compound comprises a nucleic acid or an immunoglobulin are described above; additional appropriate formulations and routes of administration can be selected from among those described herein below.

[0370] Various delivery systems are known and can be used to administer a compound of the invention, e.g., encapsulation in liposomes, microparticles, microcapsules, recombinant cells capable of expressing the compound, receptor-mediated endocytosis (see, e.g., Wu and Wu, J. Biol. Chem. 262:4429-4432 (1987)), construction of a nucleic acid as part of a retroviral or other vector, etc. Methods of introduction include but are not limited to intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, and oral routes. The compounds or compositions may be administered by any convenient route, for example by infusion or bolus injection, by absorption through epithelial or mucocutaneous linings (e.g., oral mucosa, rectal and intestinal mucosa, etc.) and may be administered together with other biologically active agents. Administration can be systemic or local. In addition, it may be desirable to introduce the pharmaceutical compounds or compositions of the invention into the central nervous system by any suitable route, including intraventricular and intrathecal injection; intraventricular injection may be facilitated by an intraventricular catheter, for example, attached to a reservoir, such as an Ommaya reservoir. Pulmonary administration can also be employed, e.g., by use of an inhaler or nebulizer, and formulation with an aerosolizing agent.

[0371] In a specific embodiment, it may be desirable to administer the pharmaceutical compounds or compositions of the invention locally to the area in need of treatment; this may be achieved by, for example, and not by way of limitation, local infusion during surgery, topical application, e.g., in conjunction with a wound dressing after surgery, by injection, by means of a catheter, by means of a suppository, or by means of an implant, said implant being of a porous, non-porous, or gelatinous material, including membranes, such as sialastic membranes, or fibers. Preferably, when administering a protein, including an antibody, of the invention, care must be taken to use materials to which the protein does not absorb.

[0372] In another embodiment, the compound or composition can be delivered in a vesicle, in particular a liposome (see Langer, Science 249:1527-1533 (1990); Treat et al., in Liposomes in the Therapy of Infectious Disease and Cancer, Lopez-Berestein and Fidler (eds.), Liss, N.Y., pp. 353-365 (1989); Lopez-Berestein, ibid., pp. 317-327; see generally ibid.)

[0373] In yet another embodiment, the compound or composition can be delivered in a controlled release system. In one embodiment, a pump may be used (see Langer, supra; Sefton, CRC Crit. Ref. Biomed. Eng. 14:201 (1987); Buchwald et al., Surgery 88:507 (1980); Saudek et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 321:574 (1989)). In another embodiment, polymeric materials can be used (see Medical Applications of Controlled Release, Langer and Wise (eds.), CRC Pres., Boca Raton, Fla. (1974); Controlled Drug Bioavailability, Drug Product Design and Performance, Smolen and Ball (eds.), Wiley, N.Y. (1984); Ranger and Peppas, J., Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. 23:61 (1983); see also Levy et al., Science 228:190 (1985); During et al., Ann. Neurol. 25:351 (1989); Howard et al., J.Neurosurg. 71:105 (1989)). In yet another embodiment, a controlled release system can be placed in proximity of the therapeutic target, i.e., the brain, thus requiring only a fraction of the systemic dose (see, e.g., Goodson, in Medical Applications of Controlled Release, supra, vol. 2, pp. 115-138 (1984)).

[0374] Other controlled release systems are discussed in the review by Langer (Science 249:1527-1533 (1990)).

[0375] In a specific embodiment where the compound of the invention is a nucleic acid encoding a protein, the nucleic acid can be administered in vivo to promote expression of its encoded protein, by constructing it as part of an appropriate nucleic acid expression vector and administering it so that it becomes intracellular, e.g., by use of a retroviral vector (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,980,286), or by direct injection, or by use of microparticle bombardment (e.g., a gene gun; Biolistic, Dupont), or coating with lipids or cell-surface receptors or transfecting agents, or by administering it in linkage to a homeobox-like peptide which is known to enter the nucleus (see e.g., Joliot et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1864-1868 (1991)), etc. Alternatively, a nucleic acid can be introduced intracellularly and incorporated within host cell DNA for expression, by homologous recombination.

[0376] The present invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions. Such compositions comprise a therapeutically effective amount of a compound, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In a specific embodiment, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable” means approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans. The term “carrier” refers to a diluent, adjuvant, excipient, or vehicle with which the therapeutic is administered. Such pharmaceutical carriers can be sterile liquids, such as water and oils, including those of petroleum, animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, mineral oil, sesame oil and the like. Water is a preferred carrier when the pharmaceutical composition is administered intravenously. Saline solutions and aqueous dextrose and glycerol solutions can also be employed as liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Suitable pharmaceutical excipients include starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, gelatin, malt, rice, flour, chalk, silica gel, sodium stearate, glycerol monostearate, talc, sodium chloride, dried skim milk, glycerol, propylene, glycol, water, ethanol and the like. The composition, if desired, can also contain minor amounts of wetting or emulsifying agents, or pH buffering agents. These compositions can take the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsion, tablets, pills, capsules, powders, sustained-release formulations and the like. The composition can be formulated as a suppository, with traditional binders and carriers such as triglycerides. Oral formulation can include standard carriers such as pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharine, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, etc. Examples of suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in “Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences” by E. W. Martin. Such compositions will contain a therapeutically effective amount of the compound, preferably in purified form, together with a suitable amount of carrier so as to provide the form for proper administration to the patient. The formulation should suit the mode of administration.

[0377] In a preferred embodiment, the composition is formulated in accordance with routine procedures as a pharmaceutical composition adapted for intravenous administration to human beings. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where necessary, the composition may also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocaine to ease pain at the site of the injection. Generally, the ingredients are supplied either separately or mixed together in unit dosage form, for example, as a dry lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of active agent. Where the composition is to be administered by infusion, it can be dispensed with an infusion bottle containing sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the composition is administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water for injection or saline can be provided so that the ingredients may be mixed prior to administration.

[0378] The compounds of the invention can be formulated as neutral or salt forms. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include those formed with anions such as those derived from hydrochloric, phosphoric, acetic, oxalic, tartaric acids, etc., and those formed with cations such as those derived from sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, ferric hydroxides, isopropylamine, triethylamine, 2-ethylamino ethanol, histidine, procaine, etc.

[0379] The amount of the compound of the invention which will be effective in the treatment, inhibition and prevention of a disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention can be determined by standard clinical techniques. In addition, in vitro assays may optionally be employed to help identify optimal dosage ranges. The precise dose to be employed in the formulation will also depend on the route of administration, and the seriousness of the disease or disorder, and should be decided according to the judgment of the practitioner and each patient's circumstances. Effective doses may be extrapolated from dose-response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems.

[0380] For antibodies, the dosage administered to a patient is typically 0.1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. Preferably, the dosage administered to a patient is between 0.1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of the patient's body weight, more preferably 1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. Generally, human antibodies have a longer half-life within the human body than antibodies from other species due to the immune response to the foreign polypeptides. Thus, lower dosages of human antibodies and less frequent administration is often possible. Further, the dosage and frequency of administration of antibodies of the invention may be reduced by enhancing uptake and tissue penetration (e.g., into the brain) of the antibodies by modifications such as, for example, lipidation.

[0381] The invention also provides a pharmaceutical pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with one or more of the ingredients of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention. Optionally associated with such container(s) can be a notice in the form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals or biological products, which notice reflects approval by the agency of manufacture, use or sale for human administration.

[0382] Diagnosis and Imaging

[0383] Labeled antibodies, and derivatives and analogs thereof, which specifically bind to a polypeptide of interest can be used for diagnostic purposes to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with the aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention. The invention provides for the detection of aberrant expression of a polypeptide of interest, comprising (a) assaying the expression of the polypeptide of interest in cells or body fluid of an individual using one or more antibodies specific to the polypeptide interest and (b) comparing the level of gene expression with a standard gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide gene expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of aberrant expression.

[0384] The invention provides a diagnostic assay for diagnosing a disorder, comprising (a) assaying the expression of the polypeptide of interest in cells or body fluid of an individual using one or more antibodies specific to the polypeptide interest and (b) comparing the level of gene expression with a standard gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide gene expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a particular disorder. With respect to cancer, the presence of a relatively high amount of transcript in biopsied tissue from an individual may indicate a predisposition for the development of the disease, or may provide a means for detecting the disease prior to the appearance of actual clinical symptoms. A more definitive diagnosis of this type may allow health professionals to employ preventative measures or aggressive treatment earlier thereby preventing the development or further progression of the cancer.

[0385] Antibodies of the invention can be used to assay protein levels in a biological sample using classical immunohistological methods known to those of skill in the art (e.g., see Jalkanen, et al., J. Cell. Biol. 101:976-985 (1985); Jalkanen, et al., J. Cell . Biol. 105:3087-3096 (1987)). Other antibody-based methods useful for detecting protein gene expression include immunoassays, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Suitable antibody assay labels are known in the art and include enzyme labels, such as, glucose oxidase; radioisotopes, such as iodine (125I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (112In), and technetium (99Tc); luminescent labels, such as luminol; and fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

[0386] One aspect of the invention is the detection and diagnosis of a disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression of a polypeptide of interest in an animal, preferably a mammal and most preferably a human. In one embodiment, diagnosis comprises: a) administering (for example, parenterally, subcutaneously, or intraperitoneally) to a subject an effective amount of a labeled molecule which specifically binds to the polypeptide of interest; b) waiting for a time interval following the administering for permitting the labeled molecule to preferentially concentrate at sites in the subject where the polypeptide is expressed (and for unbound labeled molecule to be cleared to background level); c) determining background level; and d) detecting the labeled molecule in the subject, such that detection of labeled molecule above the background level indicates that the subject has a particular disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression of the polypeptide of interest. Background level can be determined by various methods including, comparing the amount of labeled molecule detected to a standard value previously determined for a particular system.

[0387] It will be understood in the art that the size of the subject and the imaging system used will determine the quantity of imaging moiety needed to produce diagnostic images. In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from about 5 to 20 millicuries of 99 mTc. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment will then preferentially accumulate at the location of cells which contain the specific protein. In vivo tumor imaging is described in S. W. Burchiel et al., “Immunopharmacokinetics of Radiolabeled Antibodies and Their Fragments.” (Chapter 13 in Tumor Imaging: The Radiochemical Detection of Cancer, S. W. Burchiel and B. A. Rhodes, eds., Masson Publishing Inc. (1982).

[0388] Depending on several variables, including the type of label used and the mode of administration, the time interval following the administration for permitting the labeled molecule to preferentially concentrate at sites in the subject and for unbound labeled molecule to be cleared to background level is 6 to 48 hours or 6 to 24 hours or 6 to 12 hours. In another embodiment the time interval following administration is 5 to 20 days or 5 to 10 days.

[0389] In an embodiment, monitoring of the disease or disorder is carried out by repeating the method for diagnosing the disease or disease, for example, one month after initial diagnosis, six months after initial diagnosis, one year after initial diagnosis, etc.

[0390] Presence of the labeled molecule can be detected in the patient using methods known in the art for in vivo scanning. These methods depend upon the type of label used. Skilled artisans will be able to determine the appropriate method for detecting a particular label. Methods and devices that may be used in the diagnostic methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, computed tomography (CT), whole body scan such as position emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sonography.

[0391] In a specific embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a radioisotope and is detected in the patient using a radiation responsive surgical instrument (Thurston et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,441,050). In another embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a fluorescent compound and is detected in the patient using a fluorescence responsive scanning instrument. In another embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a positron emitting metal and is detected in the patent using positron emission-tomography. In yet another embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a paramagnetic label and is detected in a patient using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

[0392] Kits

[0393] The present invention provides kits that can be used in the above methods. In one embodiment, a kit comprises an antibody of the invention, preferably a purified antibody, in one or more containers. In a specific embodiment, the kits of the present invention contain a substantially isolated polypeptide comprising an epitope which is specifically immunoreactive with an antibody included in the kit. Preferably, the kits of the present invention further comprise a control antibody which does not react with the polypeptide of interest. In another specific embodiment, the kits of the present invention contain a means for detecting the binding of an antibody to a polypeptide of interest (e.g., the antibody may be conjugated to a detectable substrate such as a fluorescent compound, an enzymatic substrate, a radioactive compound or a luminescent compound, or a second antibody which recognizes the first antibody may be conjugated to a detectable substrate).

[0394] In another specific embodiment of the present invention, the kit is a diagnostic kit for use in screening serum containing antibodies specific against proliferative and/or cancerous polynucleotides and polypeptides. Such a kit may include a control antibody that does not react with the polypeptide of interest. Such a kit may include a substantially isolated polypeptide antigen comprising an epitope which is specifically immunoreactive with at least one anti-polypeptide antigen antibody. Further, such a kit includes means for detecting the binding of said antibody to the antigen (e.g., the antibody may be conjugated to a fluorescent compound such as fluorescein or rhodamine which can be detected by flow cytometry). In specific embodiments, the kit may include a recombinantly produced or chemically synthesized polypeptide antigen. The polypeptide antigen of the kit may also be attached to a solid support.

[0395] In a more specific embodiment the detecting means of the above-described kit includes a solid support to which said polypeptide antigen is attached. Such a kit may also include a non-attached reporter-labeled anti-human antibody. In this embodiment, binding of the antibody to the polypeptide antigen can be detected by binding of the said reporter-labeled antibody.

[0396] In an additional embodiment, the invention includes a diagnostic kit for use in screening serum containing antigens of the polypeptide of the invention. The diagnostic kit includes a substantially isolated antibody specifically immunoreactive with polypeptide or polynucleotide antigens, and means for detecting the binding of the polynucleotide or polypeptide antigen to the antibody. In one embodiment, the antibody is attached to a solid support. In a specific embodiment, the antibody may be a monoclonal antibody. The detecting means of the kit may include a second, labeled monoclonal antibody. Alternatively, or in addition, the detecting means may include a labeled, competing antigen.

[0397] In one diagnostic configuration, test serum is reacted with a solid phase reagent having a surface-bound antigen obtained by the methods of the present invention. After binding with specific antigen antibody to the reagent and removing unbound serum components by washing, the reagent is reacted with reporter-labeled anti-human antibody to bind reporter to the reagent in proportion to the amount of bound anti-antigen antibody on the solid support. The reagent is again washed to remove unbound labeled antibody, and the amount of reporter associated with the reagent is determined. Typically, the reporter is an enzyme which is detected by incubating the solid phase in the presence of a suitable fluorometric, luminescent or calorimetric substrate (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.).

[0398] The solid surface reagent in the above assay is prepared by known techniques for attaching protein material to solid support material, such as polymeric beads, dip sticks, 96-well plate or filter material. These attachment methods generally include non-specific adsorption of the protein to the support or covalent attachment of the protein, typically through a free amine group, to a chemically reactive group on the solid support, such as an activated carboxyl, hydroxyl, or aldehyde group. Alternatively, streptavidin coated plates can be used in conjunction with biotinylated antigen(s).

[0399] Thus, the invention provides an assay system or kit for carrying out this diagnostic method. The kit generally includes a support with surface-bound recombinant antigens, and a reporter-labeled anti-human antibody for detecting surface-bound anti-antigen antibody.

[0400] Uses of the Polynucleotides

[0401] Each of the polynucleotides identified herein can be used in numerous ways as reagents. The following description should be considered exemplary and utilizes known techniques.

[0402] The polynucleotides of the present invention are useful for chromosome identification. There exists an ongoing need to identify new chromosome markers, since few chromosome marking reagents, based on actual sequence data (repeat polymorphisms), are presently available. Each sequence is specifically targeted to and can hybridize with a particular location on an individual human chromosome, thus each polynucleotide of the present invention can routinely be used as a chromosome marker using techniques known in the art.

[0403] Briefly, sequences can be mapped to chromosomes by preparing PCR primers (preferably at least 15 bp (e.g., 15-25 bp) from the sequences shown in SEQ ID NO: X. Primers can optionally be selected using computer analysis so that primers do not span more than one predicted exon in the genomic DNA. These primers are then used for PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids containing individual human chromosomes. Only those hybrids containing the human gene corresponding to SEQ ID NO: X will yield an amplified fragment.

[0404] Similarly, somatic hybrids provide a rapid method of PCR mapping the polynucleotides to particular chromosomes. Three or more clones can be assigned per day using a single thermal cycler. Moreover, sublocalization of the polynucleotides can be achieved with panels of specific chromosome fragments. Other gene mapping strategies that can be used include in situ hybridization, prescreening with labeled flow-sorted chromosomes, preselection by hybridization to construct chromosome specific-cDNA libraries, and computer mapping techniques (See, e.g., Shuler, Trends Biotechnol 16:456-459 (1998) which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0405] Precise chromosomal location of the polynucleotides can also be achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of a metaphase chromosomal spread. This technique uses polynucleotides as short as 500 or 600 bases; however, polynucleotides 2,000-4,000 bp are preferred. For a review of this technique, see Verma et al., “Human Chromosomes: a Manual of Basic Techniques,” Pergamon Press, New York (1988).

[0406] For chromosome mapping, the polynucleotides can be used individually (to mark a single chromosome or a single site on that chromosome) or in panels (for marking multiple sites and/or multiple chromosomes).

[0407] Thus, the present invention also provides a method for chromosomal localization which involves (a) preparing PCR primers from the polynucleotide sequences in Table 1 or Table 2 and SEQ ID NO: X and (b) screening somatic cell hybrids containing individual chromosomes.

[0408] The polynucleotides of the present invention would likewise be useful for radiation hybrid mapping, HAPPY mapping, and long range restriction mapping. For a review of these techniques and others known in the art, see, e.g., Dear, “Genome Mapping: A Practical Approach,” IRL Press at Oxford University Press, London (1997); Aydin, J. Mol. Med. 77:691-694 (1999); Hacia et al., Mol. Psychiatry 3:483-492 (1998); Herrick et al., Chromosome Res. 7:409-423 (1999); Hamilton et al., Methods Cell Biol. 62:265-280 (2000); and/or Ott, J. Hered. 90:68-70 (1999) each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0409] Once a polynucleotide has been mapped to a precise chromosomal location, the physical position of the polynucleotide can be used in linkage analysis. Linkage analysis establishes coinheritance between a chromosomal location and presentation of a particular disease. (Disease mapping data are found, for example, in V. McKusick, Mendelian Inheritance in Man (available on line through Johns Hopkins University Welch Medical Library)). Assuming 1 megabase mapping resolution and one gene per 20 kb, a cDNA precisely localized to a chromosomal region associated with the disease could be one of 50-500 potential causative genes.

[0410] Thus, once coinheritance is established, differences in a polynucleotide of the invention and the corresponding gene between affected and unaffected individuals can be examined. First, visible structural alterations in the chromosomes, such as deletions or translocations, are examined in chromosome spreads or by PCR. If no structural alterations exist, the presence of point mutations is ascertained. Mutations observed in some or all affected individuals, but not in normal individuals, indicates that the mutation may cause the disease. However, complete sequencing of the polypeptide and the corresponding gene from several normal individuals is required to distinguish the mutation from a polymorphism. If a new polymorphism is identified, this polymorphic polypeptide can be used for further linkage analysis.

[0411] Furthermore, increased or decreased expression of the gene in affected individuals as compared to unaffected individuals can be assessed using the polynucleotides of the invention. Any of these alterations (altered expression, chromosomal rearrangement, or mutation) can be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker.

[0412] Thus, the invention also provides a diagnostic method useful during diagnosis of a disorder, involving measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the present invention in cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard level of polynucleotide expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the gene expression level compared to the standard is indicative of a disorder.

[0413] In certain embodiments, the disorder diagnosed according to a method of the invention is selected from the group: diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), a metabolic disorder (e.g., a glucose metabolic disorder), an endocrine disorder, obesity, weight loss, a liver disorder (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and a disorder associated with liver transplant), and/or a condition associated with one or more of these disorders.

[0414] In particular embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis of a metabolic disorder, involving measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the present invention in cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard level of polynucleotide expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the gene expression level compared to the standard is indicative of a metabolic disorder.

[0415] In other embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis of insulin responsiveness, involving measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the present invention in cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard level of polynucleotide expression level, whereby an decrease in the gene expression level compared to the standard is indicative of an insulin responsiveness disorder.

[0416] In other embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis of diabetes, involving measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the present invention in cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard level of polynucleotide expression level, whereby an decrease in the gene expression level compared to the standard is indicative of diabetes.

[0417] In other embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis and/or prognosis of a predisposition for diabetes, involving measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the present invention in cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard level of polynucleotide expression level, whereby an decrease in the gene expression level compared to the standard is indicative of a predisposition for diabetes.

[0418] In still another embodiment, the invention includes a kit for analyzing samples for the presence of proliferative and/or cancerous polynucleotides derived from a test subject. In a general embodiment, the kit includes at least one polynucleotide probe containing a nucleotide sequence that will specifically hybridize with a polynucleotide of the invention and a suitable container. In a specific embodiment, the kit includes two polynucleotide probes defining an internal region of the polynucleotide of the invention, where each probe has one strand containing a 31′mer-end internal to the region. In a further embodiment, the probes may be useful as primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification.

[0419] Where a diagnosis of a related disorder, including, for example, diagnosis of a tumor, has already been made according to conventional methods, the present invention is useful as a prognostic indicator, whereby patients exhibiting enhanced or depressed polynucleotide of the invention expression will experience a worse clinical outcome relative to patients expressing the gene at a level nearer the standard level.

[0420] By “measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the invention” is intended qualitatively or quantitatively measuring or estimating the level of the polypeptide of the invention or the level of the mRNA encoding the polypeptide of the invention in a first biological sample either directly (e.g., by determining or estimating absolute protein level or mRNA level) or relatively (e.g., by comparing to the polypeptide level or mRNA level in a second biological sample). Preferably, the polypeptide level or mRNA level in the first biological sample is measured or estimated and compared to a standard polypeptide level or mRNA level, the standard being taken from a second biological sample obtained from an individual not having the related disorder or being determined by averaging levels from a population of individuals not having a related disorder. As will be appreciated in the art, once a standard polypeptide level or mRNA level is known, it can be used repeatedly as a standard for comparison.

[0421] By “biological sample” is intended any biological sample obtained from an individual, body fluid, cell line, tissue culture, or other source which contains polypeptide of the present invention or the corresponding mRNA. As indicated, biological samples include body fluids (such as semen, lymph, sera, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) which contain the polypeptide of the present invention, and tissue sources found to express the polypeptide of the present invention. Methods for obtaining tissue biopsies and body fluids from mammals are well known in the art. Where the biological sample is to include mRNA, a tissue biopsy is the preferred source.

[0422] The method(s) provided above may preferably be applied in a diagnostic method and/or kits in which polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention are attached to a solid support. In one exemplary method, the support may be a “gene chip” or a “biological chip” as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,837,832, 5,874,219, and 5,856,174. Further, such a gene chip with polynucleotides of the invention attached may be used to identify polymorphisms between the isolated polynucleotide sequences of the invention, with polynucleotides isolated from a test subject. The knowledge of such polymorphisms (i.e. their location, as well as, their existence) would be beneficial in identifying disease loci for many disorders, such as for example, in neural disorders, immune system disorders, muscular disorders, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular disorders, renal disorders, proliferative disorders, and/or cancerous diseases and conditions. Such a method is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,858,659 and 5,856,104. The U.S. Patents referenced supra are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety herein.

[0423] The present invention encompasses polynucleotides of the present invention that are chemically synthesized, or reproduced as peptide nucleic acids (PNA), or according to other methods known in the art. The use of PNAs would serve as the preferred form if the polynucleotides of the invention are incorporated onto a solid support, or gene chip. For the purposes of the present invention, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a polyamide type of DNA analog and the monomeric units for adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine are available commercially (Perceptive Biosystems). Certain components of DNA, such as phosphorus, phosphorus oxides, or deoxyribose derivatives, are not present in PNAs. As disclosed by P. E. Nielsen, et al., Science 254, 1497 (1991); and M. Egholm, et al., Nature 365, 666 (1993), PNAs bind specifically and tightly to complementary DNA strands and are not degraded by nucleases. In fact, PNA binds more strongly to DNA than DNA itself does. This is probably because there is no electrostatic repulsion between the two strands, and also the polyamide backbone is more flexible. Because of this, PNA/DNA duplexes bind under a wider range of stringency conditions than DNA/DNA duplexes, making it easier to perform multiplex hybridization. Smaller probes can be used than with DNA due to the strong binding. In addition, it is more likely that single base mismatches can be determined with PNA/DNA hybridization because a single mismatch in a PNA/DNA 15-mer lowers the melting point (T.sub.m) by 8°-20° C., vs. 4°-16° C. for the DNA/DNA 15-mer duplex. Also, the absence of charge groups in PNA means that hybridization can be done at low ionic strengths and reduce possible interference by salt during the analysis.

[0424] The present invention has uses which include, but are not limited to, detecting cancer in mammals. In particular the invention is useful during diagnosis of pathological cell proliferative neoplasias which include, but are not limited to: acute myclogenous leukemias including acute monocytic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute erythroleukemia, acute megakaryocytic leukemia, and acute undifferentiated leukemia, etc.; and chronic myelogenous leukemias including chronic myclomonocytic leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, etc. Preferred mammals include monkeys, apes, cats, dogs, cows, pigs, horses, rabbits and humans. Particularly preferred are humans.

[0425] Pathological cell proliferative disorders are often associated with inappropriate activation of proto-oncogenes. (Gelmann, E. P. et al., “The Etiology of Acute Leukemia: Molecular Genetics and Viral Oncology,” in Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood, Vol 1., Wiernik, P. H. et al. eds., 161-182 (1985)). Neoplasias are now believed to result from the qualitative alteration of a normal cellular gene product, or from the quantitative modification of gene expression by insertion into the chromosome of a viral sequence, by chromosomal translocation of a gene to a more actively transcribed region, or by some other mechanism. (Gelmann et al., supra) It is likely that mutated or altered expression of specific genes is involved in the pathogenesis of some leukemias, among other tissues and cell types. (Gelmann et al., supra) Indeed, the human counterparts of the oncogenes involved in some animal neoplasias have been amplified or translocated in some cases of human leukemia and carcinoma. (Gelmann et al., supra)

[0426] For example, c-myc expression is highly amplified in the non-lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. When HL-60 cells are chemically induced to stop proliferation, the level of c-myc is found to be downregulated. (International Publication Number WO 91/15580). However, it has been shown that exposure of HL-60 cells to a DNA construct that is complementary to the 5′ end of c-myc or c-myb blocks translation of the corresponding mRNAs which downregulates expression of the c-myc or c-myb proteins and causes arrest of cell proliferation and differentiation of the treated cells. (International Publication Number WO 91/15580; Wickstrom et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:1028 (1988); Anfossi et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 86:3379 (1989)). However, the skilled artisan would appreciate the present invention's usefulness is not be limited to treatment of proliferative disorders of hematopoietic cells and tissues, in light of the numerous cells and cell types of varying origins which are known to exhibit proliferative phenotypes.

[0427] In addition to the foregoing, a polynucleotide of the present invention can be used to control gene expression through triple helix formation or through antisense DNA or RNA. Antisense techniques are discussed, for example, in Okano, J. Neurochem. 56: 560 (1991); “Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988). Triple helix formation is discussed in, for instance Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Research 6: 3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241: 456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251: 1360 (1991). Both methods rely on binding of the polynucleotide to a complementary DNA or RNA. For these techniques, preferred polynucleotides are usually oligonucleotides 20 to 40 bases in length and complementary to either the region of the gene involved in transcription (triple helix—see Lee et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 6:3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241:456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251:1360 (1991) ) or to the mRNA itself (antisense—Okano, J. Neurochem. 56:560 (1991); Oligodeoxy-nucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988)). Triple helix formation optimally results in a shut-off of RNA transcription from DNA, while antisense RNA hybridization blocks translation of an mRNA molecule into polypeptide. The oligonucleotide described above can also be delivered to cells such that the antisense RNA or DNA may be expressed in vivo to inhibit production of polypeptide of the present invention antigens. Both techniques are effective in model systems, and the information disclosed herein can be used to design antisense or triple helix polynucleotides in an effort to treat disease, and in particular, for the treatment of proliferative diseases and/or conditions.

[0428] Polynucleotides of the present invention are also useful in gene therapy. One goal of gene therapy is to insert a normal gene into an organism having a defective gene, in an effort to correct the genetic defect. The polynucleotides disclosed in the present invention offer a means of targeting such genetic defects in a highly accurate manner. Another goal is to insert a new gene that was not present in the host genome, thereby producing a new trait in the host cell.

[0429] The polynucleotides are also useful for identifying individuals from minute biological samples. The United States military, for example, is considering the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for identification of its personnel. In this technique, an individual's genomic DNA is digested with one or more restriction enzymes, and probed on a Southern blot to yield unique bands for identifying personnel. This method does not suffer from the current limitations of “Dog Tags” which can be lost, switched, or stolen, making positive identification difficult. The polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as additional DNA markers for RFLP.

[0430] The polynucleotides of the present invention can also be used as an alternative to RFLP, by determining the actual base-by-base DNA sequence of selected portions of an individual's genome. These sequences can be used to prepare PCR primers for amplifying and isolating such selected DNA, which can then be sequenced. Using this technique, individuals can be identified because each individual will have a unique set of DNA sequences. Once an unique ID database is established for an individual, positive identification of that individual, living or dead, can be made from extremely small tissue samples.

[0431] Forensic biology also benefits from using DNA-based identification techniques as disclosed herein. DNA sequences taken from very small biological samples such as tissues, e.g., hair or skin, or body fluids, e.g., blood, saliva, semen, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, breast milk, lymph, pulmonary sputum or surfactant, urine, fecal matter, etc., can be amplified using PCR. In one prior art technique, gene sequences amplified from polymorphic loci, such as DQa class II HLA gene, are used in forensic biology to identify individuals. (Erlich, H., PCR Technology, Freeman and Co. (1992)). Once these specific polymorphic loci are amplified, they are digested with one or more restriction enzymes, yielding an identifying set of bands on a Southern blot probed with DNA corresponding to the DQa class II HLA gene. Similarly, polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as polymorphic markers for forensic purposes.

[0432] There is also a need for reagents capable of identifying the source of a particular tissue. Such need arises, for example, in forensics when presented with tissue of unknown origin. Appropriate reagents can comprise, for example, DNA probes or primers prepared from the sequences of the present invention. Panels of such reagents can identify tissue by species and/or by organ type. In a similar fashion, these reagents can be used to screen tissue cultures for contamination.

[0433] The polynucleotides of the present invention are also useful as hybridization probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to polypeptides of the present invention are useful to provide immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) (e.g., immunohistochemistry assays) or cell type(s) (e.g., immunocytochemistry assay). In addition, for a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, significantly higher or lower levels of gene expression of the polynucleotides/polypeptides of the present invention may be detected in certain tissues (e.g., tissues expressing polypeptides and/or polynucleotides of the present invention and/or cancerous and/or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid or spinal fluid) taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to a “standard” gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue from an individual not having the disorder.

[0434] Thus, the invention provides a diagnostic method of a disorder, which involves: (a) assaying gene expression level in cells or body fluid of an individual; (b) comparing the gene expression level with a standard gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed gene expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a disorder.

[0435] In the very least, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as molecular weight markers on Southern gels, as diagnostic probes for the presence of a specific mRNA in a particular cell type, as a probe to “subtract-out” known sequences in the process of discovering novel polynucleotides, for selecting and making oligomers for attachment to a “gene chip” or other support, to raise anti-DNA antibodies using DNA immunization techniques, and as an antigen to elicit an immune response.

[0436] Uses of the Polypeptides

[0437] Each of the polypeptides identified herein can be used in numerous ways. The following description should be considered exemplary and utilizes known techniques.

[0438] Polypeptides and antibodies directed to polypeptides of the present invention are useful to provide immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) (e.g., immunohistochemistry assays such as, for example, ABC immunoperoxidase (Hsu et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem. 29:577-580 (1981)) or cell type(s) (e.g., immunocytochemistry assays).

[0439] Antibodies can be used to assay levels of polypeptides encoded by polynucleotides of the invention in a biological sample using classical immunohistological methods known to those of skill in the art (e.g., see Jalkanen, et al., J. Cell. Biol. 101:976-985 (1985); Jalkanen, et al., J. Cell. Biol. 105:3087-3096 (1987)). Other antibody-based methods useful for detecting protein gene expression include immunoassays, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Suitable antibody assay labels are known in the art and include enzyme labels, such as, glucose oxidase; radioisotopes, such as iodine (131I, 125I, 123I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (115mIn, 113mIn, 112In, 111In), and technetium (99Tc, 99mTc), thallium (201Ti), gallium (68Ga, 67Ga), palladium (103 Pd), molybdenum (99Mo), xenon (133Xe), fluorine (18F), 153Sm, 177Lu, 159Gd, 149Pm, 140La, 175Yb, 166Ho, 90Y, 47Sc, 186Re, 188Re, 142Pr, 105Rh, 97Ru; luminescent labels, such as luminol; and fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

[0440] In addition to assaying levels of polypeptide of the present invention in a biological sample, proteins can also be detected in vivo by imaging. Antibody labels or markers for in vivo imaging of protein include those detectable by X-radiography, NMR or ESR. For X-radiography, suitable labels include radioisotopes such as barium or cesium, which emit detectable radiation but are not overtly harmful to the subject. Suitable markers for NMR and ESR include those with a detectable characteristic spin, such as deuterium, which may be incorporated into the antibody by labeling of nutrients for the relevant hybridoma.

[0441] A protein-specific antibody or antibody fragment which has been labeled with an appropriate detectable imaging moiety, such as a radioisotope (for example, 131I, 112In, 99mTc, (131I, 125I, 123I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (115mIn, 113mIn, 112In, 111In), and technetium (99Tc, 99mTc), thallium (201Ti), gallium (68Ga, 67Ga), palladium (103 Pd), molybdenum (99Mo), xenon (133Xe), fluorine (18F, 153Sm, 177Lu, 159Gd, 149Pm, 140La, 175Yb, 166Ho, 90Y, 47Sc, 186Re, 188Re, 142Pr, 150Rh, 97Ru), a radio-opaque substance, or a material detectable by nuclear magnetic resonance, is introduced (for example, parenterally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally) into the mammal to be examined for immune system disorder. It will be understood in the art that the size of the subject and the imaging system used will determine the quantity of imaging moiety needed to produce diagnostic images. In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from about 5 to 20 millicuries of 99mTc. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment will then preferentially accumulate at the location of cells which express the polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide of the invention. In vivo tumor imaging is described in S. W. Burchiel et al., “Immunopharmacokinetics of Radiolabeled Antibodies and Their Fragments” (Chapter 13 in Tumor Imaging. The Radiochemical Detection of Cancer, S. W. Burchiel and B. A. Rhodes, eds., Masson Publishing Inc. (1982)).

[0442] In one embodiment, the invention provides a method for the specific delivery of compositions of the invention to cells by administering polypeptides of the invention (e.g., polypeptides encoded by polynucleotides of the invention and/or antibodies) that are associated with heterologous polypeptides or nucleic acids. In one example, the invention provides a method for delivering a therapeutic protein into the targeted cell. In another example, the invention provides a method for delivering a single stranded nucleic acid (e.g., antisense or ribozymes) or double stranded nucleic acid (e.g., DNA that can integrate into the cell's genome or replicate episomally and that can be transcribed) into the targeted cell.

[0443] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method for the specific destruction of cells (e.g., the destruction of tumor cells) by administering polypeptides of the invention in association with toxins or cytotoxic prodrugs.

[0444] By “toxin” is meant one or more compounds that bind and activate endogenous cytotoxic effector systems, radioisotopes, holotoxins, modified toxins, catalytic subunits of toxins, or any molecules or enzymes not normally present in or on the surface of a cell that under defined conditions cause the cell's death. Toxins that may be used according to the methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, radioisotopes known in the art, compounds such as, for example, antibodies (or complement fixing containing portions thereof) that bind an inherent or induced endogenous cytotoxic effector system, thymidine kinase, endonuclease, RNAse, alpha toxin, ricin, abrin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin, saporin, momordin, gelonin, pokeweed antiviral protein, alpha-sarcin and cholera toxin. “Toxin” also includes a cytostatic or cytocidal agent, a therapeutic agent or a radioactive metal ion, e.g., alpha-emitters such as, for example, 213Bi, or other radioisotopes such as, for example, 103Pd, 133Xe, 131I, 68Ge, 57Co, 65Zn, 85Sr, 32P, 35S, 90Y, 153Sm, 153Gd, 169Yb, 51Cr, 54Mn, 75Se, 113Sn, 90Yttrium, 117Tin, 186Rhenium, 166Holmium, and 188Rhenium; luminescent labels, such as luminol; and fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

[0445] Techniques known in the art may be applied to label polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies). Such techniques include, but are not limited to, the use of bifunctional conjugating agents (see e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,756,065; 5,714,631; 5,696,239; 5,652,361; 5,505,931; 5,489,425; 5,435,990; 5,428,139; 5,342,604; 5,274,119; 4,994,560; and 5,808,003; the contents of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0446] Thus, the invention provides a diagnostic method of a disorder, which involves (a) assaying the expression level of a polypeptide of the present invention in cells or body fluid of an individual; and (b) comparing the assayed polypeptide expression level with a standard polypeptide expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a disorder. In certain embodiments, the disorder diagnosed according to a method of the invention is selected from the group: diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), insulin insensitivity (i.e, insulin resistance), hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), a metabolic disorder (e.g., a glucose metabolic disorder), an endocrine disorder, obesity, weight loss, a liver disorder (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and a disorder associated with liver transplant), and/or a condition associated with one or more of these disorders.

[0447] In particular embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method of a metabolic disorder, which involves (a) assaying the expression level of a polypeptide of the present invention in cells or body fluid of an individual; and (b) comparing the assayed polypeptide expression level with a standard polypeptide expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a metabolic disorder.

[0448] In other embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis of insulin responsiveness, which involves (a) assaying the expression level of a polypeptide of the present invention in cells or body fluid of an individual; and (b) comparing the assayed polypeptide expression level with a standard polypeptide expression level, whereby a decrease in the assayed polypeptide expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of an insulin responsiveness disorder (e.g., insulin insensitivity).

[0449] In other embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis of diabetes, which involves (a) assaying the expression level of a polypeptide of the present invention in cells or body fluid of an individual; and (b) comparing the assayed polypeptide expression level with a standard polypeptide expression level, whereby a decrease in the assayed polypeptide expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of diabetes.

[0450] In other embodiments, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful for diagnosis and/or prognosis of a predisposition for diabetes, which involves (a) assaying the expression level of a polypeptide of the present invention in cells or body fluid of an individual; and (b) comparing the assayed polypeptide expression level with a standard polypeptide expression level, whereby a decrease in the assayed polypeptide expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a predisposition for diabetes.

[0451] With respect to cancer, the presence of a relatively high amount of transcript in biopsied tissue from an individual may indicate a predisposition for the development of the disease, or may provide a means for detecting the disease prior to the appearance of actual clinical symptoms. A more definitive diagnosis of this type may allow health professionals to employ preventative measures or aggressive treatment earlier thereby preventing the development or further progression of the cancer.

[0452] Moreover, polypeptides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used to treat or prevent diseases or conditions such as, for example, diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), metabolic disorders (e.g., glucose metabolic disorders), endocrine disorders, obesity, weight loss, liver disorders (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and disorders associated with liver transplant), and/or one or more conditions associated with these disorders.

[0453] In further embodiments, polypeptides and/or agonists of the present invention can be used to treat or prevent diseases or conditions such as, endocrine disorders, neural disorders, immune system disorders, muscular disorders, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular disorders, renal disorders, proliferative disorders, and/or cancerous diseases and conditions. For example, patients can be administered a polypeptide of the present invention in an effort to replace absent or decreased levels of the polypeptide (e.g., insulin), to supplement absent or decreased levels of a different polypeptide (e.g., hemoglobin S for hemoglobin B, SOD, catalase, DNA repair proteins), to inhibit the activity of a polypeptide (e.g., an oncogene or tumor supressor), to activate the activity of a polypeptide (e.g., by binding to a receptor), to reduce the activity of a membrane bound receptor by competing with it for free ligand (e.g., soluble TNF receptors used in reducing inflammation), or to bring about a desired response (e.g., blood vessel growth inhibition, enhancement of the immune response to proliferative cells or tissues).

[0454] Similarly, antibodies directed to a polypeptide of the present invention can also be used to treat disease (as described supra, and elsewhere herein). For example, administration of an antibody directed to a polypeptide of the present invention can bind, and/or neutralize the polypeptide, and/or reduce overproduction of the polypeptide. Similarly, administration of an antibody can activate the polypeptide, such as by binding to a polypeptide bound to a membrane (receptor).

[0455] At the very least, the polypeptides of the present invention can be used as molecular weight markers on SDS-PAGE gels or on molecular sieve gel filtration columns using methods well known to those of skill in the art. Polypeptides can also be used to raise antibodies, which in turn are used to measure protein expression from a recombinant cell, as a way of assessing transformation of the host cell. Moreover, the polypeptides of the present invention can be used to test the following biological activities.

[0456] Diagnostic Assays

[0457] The compounds of the present invention are useful for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and/or prognosis of various disorders in mammals, preferably humans. Such disorders include, but are not limited to, diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), insulin insensitivity (i.e, insulin resistance), hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), a metabolic disorder (e.g., a glucose metabolic disorder), an endocrine disorder, obesity, weight loss, a liver disorder (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and a disorder associated with liver transplant), and/or a condition associated with one or more of these disorders.

[0458] In furhter embodiments, the compounds of the present invention are useful for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and/or prognosis of disorders including, but not limited to, endocrine system disorders (e.g., metabolic disorders, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, Diabetes, and/or as elsewhere described herein (e.g., as described in “Enodcrine Disorders”), neural disorders (e.g., as described in “Neural Activity and Neurological Diseases” below), immune system disorders (e.g., as described in “Immune Activity” below), muscular disorders (e.g., as described in “Neural Activity and Neurological Diseases” below), reproductive disorders (e.g., as described in “Anti-Angiogenesis Activity” below), pulmonary disorders (e.g., as described in “Immune Activity” below), cardiovascular disorders (e.g., as described in “Cardiovascular Disorders” below), infectious diseases (e.g., as described in “Infectious Disease” below), proliferative disorders (e.g., as described in “Hyperproliferative Disorders”, “Anti-Angiogenesis Activity” and “Diseases at the Cellular Level” below), and/or cancerous diseases and conditions (e.g., as described in “Hyperproliferative Disorders”, “Anti-Angiogenesis Activity” and “Diseases at the Cellular Level” below).

[0459] BMP proteins are believed to be involved in biological activities associated with bone formation and repair. As members of the TGF-β superfamily, BMPs are also believed to be involved more generally in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders associated with aberrant bone formation and/or cell proliferation and differentiation.

[0460] In preferred embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) are used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of liver disorders, including, but not limited to, cirrhosis, hepatoblastoma, hepatocarcinoma, jaundice, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases, and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells.

[0461] In further, preferred embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) are used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of a metabolic disorder.

[0462] In other embodiments, preferred embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) are used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diabetes.

[0463] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) are used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of insulin insensitivity.

[0464] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) are used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of hyperglycemia.

[0465] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) are used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of hypertension.

[0466] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of musculoskeletal diseases and disorders, including, but not limited to, cartilage and bone growth disorders, osteoporosis, and connective tissue disorders (e.g., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, and chondromalacia).

[0467] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, including but not limited to, lupus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, and/or as described herein under the section heading “Immune Activity”.

[0468] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders involving aberrant cellular proliferation, including but not limited to preneoplastic disorders (e.g., hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia), neoplastic disorders (e.g., cancers of the liver, lung, and colon), and/or as described herein under the section headings “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Diseases at the Cellular Level”.

[0469] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of neurological diseases, including but not limited to, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and/or as described herein under the section heading “Neural Activity and Neurological Diseases”.

[0470] For a number of disorders, substantially altered (increased or decreased) levels of BMP gene expression can be detected in tissues, cells or bodily fluids (e.g., sera, plasma, urine, semen, synovial fluid or spinal fluid) taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to a “standard” BMP gene expression level, that is, the BMP expression level in tissues or bodily fluids from an individual not having the disorder. Thus, the invention provides a diagnostic method useful during diagnosis of a disorder, which involves measuring the expression level of the gene encoding the BMP polypeptide in tissues, cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard BMP gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the gene expression level(s) compared to the standard is indicative of a BMP disorder. These diagnostic assays may be performed in vivo or in vitro, such as, for example, on blood samples, biopsy tissue or autopsy tissue.

[0471] In specific embodiments, the disorder diagnosed according to a method of the invention is selected from the group: diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), a metabolic disorder (e.g., a glucose metabolic disorder), an endocrine disorder, obesity, weight loss, a liver disorder (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and a disorder associated with liver transplant), and/or a condition associated with one or more of these disorders.

[0472] The present invention is also useful as a prognostic indicator, whereby patients exhibiting enhanced or depressed BMP gene expression will experience a worse clinical outcome relative to patients expressing the gene at a level nearer the standard level.

[0473] By “assaying the expression level of the gene encoding the BMP polypeptide” is intended qualitatively or quantitatively measuring or estimating the level of the BMP polypeptide or the level of the mRNA encoding the BMP polypeptide in a first biological sample either directly (e.g., by determining or estimating absolute protein level or mRNA level) or relatively (e.g., by comparing to the BMP polypeptide level or mRNA level in a second biological sample). Preferably, the BMP polypeptide expression level or mRNA level in the first biological sample is measured or estimated and compared to a standard BMP polypeptide level or mRNA level, the standard being taken from a second biological sample obtained from an individual not having the disorder or being determined by averaging levels from a population of individuals not having the disorder. As will be appreciated in the art, once a standard BMP polypeptide level or mRNA level is known, it can be used repeatedly as a standard for comparison.

[0474] By “biological sample” is intended any biological sample obtained from an individual, cell line, tissue culture, or other source containing BMP polypeptides (including portions thereof) or mRNA. As indicated, biological samples include body fluids (such as sera, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) and tissue sources found to express the full length or fragments thereof of a BMP polypeptide. Methods for obtaining tissue biopsies and body fluids from mammals are well known in the art. Where the biological sample is to include mRNA, a tissue biopsy is the preferred source.

[0475] Total cellular RNA can be isolated from a biological sample using any suitable technique such as the single-step guanidinium-thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform method described in Chomczynski and Sacchi, Anal. Biochem. 162:156-159 (1987). Levels of mRNA encoding the BMP polypeptides are then assayed using any appropriate method. These include Northern blot analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription in combination with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and reverse transcription in combination with the ligase chain reaction (RT-LCR).

[0476] The present invention also relates to diagnostic assays such as quantitative and diagnostic assays for detecting levels of BMP polypeptides, in a biological sample (e.g., cells and tissues), including determination of normal and abnormal levels of polypeptides. Thus, for instance, a diagnostic assay in accordance with the invention for detecting over-expression of BMP polypeptides compared to normal control tissue samples may be used to detect the presence of tumors. Assay techniques that can be used to determine levels of a polypeptide, such as a BMP polypeptide of the present invention in a sample derived from a host are well-known to those of skill in the art. Such assay methods include radioimmunoassays, competitive-binding assays, Western Blot analysis and ELISA assays. Assaying BMP polypeptide levels in a biological sample can occur using any art-known method.

[0477] Assaying BMP polypeptide levels in a biological sample can occur using antibody-based techniques. For example, BMP polypeptide expression in tissues can be studied with classical immunohistological methods (Jalkanen et al., J. Cell. Biol. 101:976-985 (1985); Jalkanen, M., et al., J. Cell Biol., 105:3087-3096 (1987)). Other antibody-based methods useful for detecting BMP polypeptide gene expression include immunoassays, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Suitable antibody assay labels are known in the art and include enzyme labels, such as, glucose oxidase, and radioisotopes, such as iodine (125I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (112In), and technetium (99mTc), and fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

[0478] The tissue or cell type to be analyzed will generally include those which are known, or suspected, to express the BMP gene (such as, for example, cancer). The protein isolation methods employed herein may, for example, be such as those described in Harlow and Lane (Harlow, E. and Lane, D., 1988, “Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual”, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The isolated cells can be derived from cell culture or from a patient. The analysis of cells taken from culture may be a necessary step in the assessment of cells that could be used as part of a cell-based gene therapy technique or, alternatively, to test the effect of compounds on the expression of the BMP gene.

[0479] For example, antibodies, or fragments of antibodies, such as those described herein, may be used to quantitatively or qualitatively detect the presence of BMP gene products or conserved variants or peptide fragments thereof. This can be accomplished, for example, by immunofluorescence techniques employing a fluorescently labeled antibody coupled with light microscopic, flow cytometric, or fluorimetric detection.

[0480] In a preferred embodiment, antibodies, or fragments of antibodies directed to any one or all of the predicted epitope domains of the BMP polypeptides may be used to quantitatively or qualitatively detect the presence of BMP gene products or conserved variants or peptide fragments thereof. This can be accomplished, for example, by immunofluorescence techniques employing a fluorescently labeled antibody coupled with light microscopic, flow cytometric, or fluorimetric detection.

[0481] In an additional preferred embodiment, antibodies, or fragments of antibodies directed to a conformational epitope of a BMP polypeptide may be used to quantitatively or qualitatively detect the presence of BMP gene products or conserved variants or peptide fragments thereof. This can be accomplished, for example, by immunofluorescence techniques employing a fluorescently labeled antibody coupled with light microscopic, flow cytometric, or fluorimetric detection.

[0482] The antibodies (or fragments thereof), and/or BMP polypeptides of the present invention may, additionally, be employed histologically, as in immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy or non-immunological assays, for in situ detection of BMP gene products or conserved variants or peptide fragments thereof. In situ detection may be accomplished by removing a histological specimen from a patient, and applying thereto a labeled antibody or BMP polypeptide of the present invention. The antibody (or fragment thereof) or BMP polypeptide is preferably applied by overlaying the labeled antibody (or fragment) onto a biological sample. Through the use of such a procedure, it is possible to determine not only the presence of the BMP gene product, or conserved variants or peptide fragments, or BMP polypeptide binding, but also its distribution in the examined tissue. Using the present invention, those of ordinary skill will readily perceive that any of a wide variety of histological methods (such as staining procedures) can be modified in order to achieve such in situ detection.

[0483] Immunoassays and non-immunoassays for BMP gene products or conserved variants or peptide fragments thereof will typically comprise incubating a sample, such as a biological fluid, a tissue extract, freshly harvested cells, or lysates of cells which have been incubated in cell culture, in the presence of a detectably labeled antibody capable of binding BMP gene products or conserved variants or peptide fragments thereof, and detecting the bound antibody by any of a number of techniques well-known in the art.

[0484] The biological sample may be brought in contact with and immobilized onto a solid phase support or carrier such as nitrocellulose, or other solid support which is capable of immobilizing cells, cell particles or soluble proteins. The support may then be washed with suitable buffers followed by treatment with the detectably labeled anti-BMP polypeptide antibody or detectable BMP polypeptide. The solid phase support may then be washed with the buffer a second time to remove unbound antibody or polypeptide. Optionally the antibody is subsequently labeled. The amount of bound label on solid support may then be detected by conventional means.

[0485] By “solid phase support or carrier” is intended any support capable of binding an antigen or an antibody. Well-known supports or carriers include glass, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyethylene, dextran, nylon, amylases, natural and modified celluloses, polyacrylamides, gabbros, and magnetite. The nature of the carrier can be either soluble to some extent or insoluble for the purposes of the present invention. The support material may have virtually any possible structural configuration so long as the coupled molecule is capable of binding to an antigen or antibody. Thus, the support configuration may be spherical, as in a bead, or cylindrical, as in the inside surface of a test tube, or the external surface of a rod. Alternatively, the surface may be flat such as a sheet, test strip, etc. Preferred supports include polystyrene beads. Those skilled in the art will know many other suitable carriers for binding antibody or antigen, or will be able to ascertain the same by use of routine experimentation.

[0486] The binding activity of a given lot of anti-BMP polypeptide antibody or BMP antigen polypeptide may be determined according to well known methods. Those skilled in the art will be able to determine operative and optimal assay conditions for each determination by employing routine experimentation.

[0487] In addition to assaying BMP polypeptide levels or polynucleotide levels in a biological sample obtained from an individual, BMP polypeptide or polynucleotide can also be detected in vivo by imaging. For example, in one embodiment of the invention, BMP polypeptide and/or anti-BMP antigen antibodies are used to image diseased cells, such as neoplasms. In another embodiment, BMP polynucleotides of the invention (e.g., polynucleotides complementary to all or a portion of a particular BMP mRNA transcript) and/or anti-BMP antibodies (e.g., antibodies directed to any one or a combination of the epitopes of a BMP polypeptide of the invention, antibodies directed to a conformational epitope of a BMP polypeptide of the invention, or antibodies directed to the full length polypeptide expressed on the cell surface of a mammalian cell) are used to image diseased or neoplastic cells.

[0488] Antibody labels or markers for in vivo imaging of BMP polypeptides include those detectable by X-radiography, NMR, MRI, CAT-scans or ESR. For X-radiography, suitable labels include radioisotopes such as barium or cesium, which emit detectable radiation but are not overtly harmful to the subject. Suitable markers for NMR and ESR include those with a detectable characteristic spin, such as deuterium, which may be incorporated into the antibody by labeling of nutrients for the relevant hybridoma. Where in vivo imaging is used to detect enhanced levels of BMP polypeptides for diagnosis in humans, it may be preferable to use human antibodies or “humanized” chimeric monoclonal antibodies. Such antibodies can be produced using techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art. For example methods for producing chimeric antibodies are known in the art. See, for review, Morrison, Science 229:1202 (1985); Oi et al., BioTechniques 4:214 (1986); Cabilly et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,816,567; Taniguchi et al., EP 171496; Morrison et al., EP 173494; Neuberger et al., WO 8601533; Robinson et al., WO 8702671; Boulianne et al., Nature 312:643 (1984); Neuberger et al., Nature 314:268 (1985).

[0489] Additionally, any BMP polypeptides whose presence can be detected, can be administered. For example, BMP polypeptides labeled with a radio-opaque or other appropriate compound can be administered and visualized in vivo, as discussed, above for labeled antibodies. Further such BMP polypeptides can be utilized for in vitro diagnostic procedures.

[0490] A BMP polypeptide-specific antibody or antibody fragment which has been labeled with an appropriate detectable imaging moiety, such as a radioisotope (for example, 131In, 112In, 99mTc), a radio-opaque substance, or a material detectable by nuclear magnetic resonance, is introduced (for example, parenterally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally) into the mammal to be examined for a disorder. It will be understood in the art that the size of the subject and the imaging system used will determine the quantity of imaging moiety needed to produce diagnostic images. In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from about 5 to 20 millicuries of 99mTc. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment will then preferentially accumulate at the location of cells which contain BMP protein. In vivo tumor imaging is described in S. W. Burchiel et al., “Immunopharmacokinetics of Radiolabeled Antibodies and Their Fragments” (Chapter 13 in Tumor Imaging: The Radiochemical Detection of Cancer, S. W. Burchiel and B. A. Rhodes, eds., Masson Publishing Inc. (1982)).

[0491] With respect to antibodies, one of the ways in which the anti-BMP polypeptide antibody can be detectably labeled is by linking the same to a reporter enzyme and using the linked product in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Voller, A., “The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)”, 1978, Diagnostic Horizons 2:1-7, Microbiological Associates Quarterly Publication, Walkersville, Md.); Voller et al., J. Clin. Pathol. 31:507-520 (1978); Butler, J. E., Meth. Enzymol. 73:482-523 (1981); Maggio, E. (ed.), 1980, Enzyme Immunoassay, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.,; Ishikawa, E. et al., (eds.), 1981, Enzyme Immunoassay, Kgaku Shoin, Tokyo). The reporter enzyme which is bound to the antibody will react with an appropriate substrate, preferably a chromogenic substrate, in such a manner as to produce a chemical moiety which can be detected, for example, by spectrophotometric, fluorimetric or by visual means. Reporter enzymes which can be used to detectably label the antibody include, but are not limited to, malate dehydrogenase, staphylococcal nuclease, delta-5-steroid isomerase, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate, dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, asparaginase, glucose oxidase, beta-galactosidase, ribonuclease, urease, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucoamylase and acetylcholinesterase. Additionally, the detection can be accomplished by calorimetric methods which employ a chromogenic substrate for the reporter enzyme. Detection may also be accomplished by visual comparison of the extent of enzymatic reaction of a substrate in comparison with similarly prepared standards.

[0492] Detection may also be accomplished using any of a variety of other immunoassays. For example, by radioactively labeling the antibodies or antibody fragments, it is possible to detect BMP polypeptides through the use of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) (see, for example, Weintraub, B., Principles of Radioimmunoassays, Seventh Training Course on Radioligand Assay Techniques, The Endocrine Society, March, 1986, which is incorporated by reference herein). The radioactive isotope can be detected by means including, but not limited to, a gamma counter, a scintillation counter, or autoradiography.

[0493] It is also possible to label the antibody with a fluorescent compound. When the fluorescently labeled antibody is exposed to light of the proper wave length, its presence can then be detected due to fluorescence. Among the most commonly used fluorescent labeling compounds are fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, ophthaldehyde and fluorescamine.

[0494] The antibody can also be detectably labeled using fluorescence emitting metals such as 152Eu, or others of the lanthanide series. These metals can be attached to the antibody using such metal chelating groups as diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).

[0495] The antibody also can be detectably labeled by coupling it to a chemiluminescent compound. The presence of the chemiluminescent-tagged antibody is then determined by detecting the presence of luminescence that arises during the course of a chemical reaction. Examples of particularly useful chemiluminescent labeling compounds are luminol, isoluminol, theromatic acridinium ester, imidazole, acridinium salt and oxalate ester.

[0496] Likewise, a bioluminescent compound may be used to label the antibody of the present invention. Bioluminescence is a type of chemiluminescence found in biological systems in, which a catalytic protein increases the efficiency of the chemiluminescent reaction. The presence of a bioluminescent protein is determined by detecting the presence of luminescence. Important bioluminescent compounds for purposes of labeling are luciferin, luciferase and aequorin.

[0497] Methods for Detecting Diseases

[0498] In general, a disease may be detected in a patient based on the presence of one or more BMP proteins of the invention and/or polynucleotides encoding such proteins in a biological sample (for example, blood, sera, urine, and/or tumor biopsies) obtained from the patient. In other words, such proteins may be used as markers to indicate the presence or absence of a disease or disorder, including diabetes (e.g., Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)), insulin insensitivity (i.e, insulin resistance), hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy (e.g., autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy), a metabolic disorder (e.g., a glucose metabolic disorder), an endocrine disorder, obesity, weight loss, a liver disorder (e.g., liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and a disorder associated with liver transplant), a condition associated with one or more of the above disorders, cancer and/or as described elsewhere herein. In addition, such proteins may be useful for the detection of other diseases and cancers. The binding agents provided herein generally permit detection of the level of antigen that binds to the agent in the biological sample. Polynucleotide primers and probes may be used to detect the level of mRNA encoding BMP polypeptides, which is also indicative of the presence or absence of a disease or disorder, including cancer. In general, BMP polypeptides should be present at a level that is at least three fold higher in diseased tissue than in normal tissue.

[0499] There are a variety of assay formats known to those of ordinary skill in the art for using a binding agent to detect polypeptide markers in a sample. See, e.g., Harlow and Lane, supra. In general, the presence or absence of a disease in a patient may be determined by (a) contacting a biological sample obtained from a patient with a binding agent; (b) detecting in the sample a level of polypeptide that binds to the binding agent; and (c) comparing the level of polypeptide with a predetermined cut-off value.

[0500] In a preferred embodiment, the assay involves the use of a binding agent(s) immobilized on a solid support to bind to and remove the BMP polypeptide of the invention from the remainder of the sample. The bound polypeptide may then be detected using a detection reagent that contains a reporter group and specifically binds to the binding agent/polypeptide complex. Such detection reagents may comprise, for example, a binding agent that specifically binds to the polypeptide or an antibody or other agent that specifically binds to the binding agent, such as an anti-immunoglobulin, protein G. protein A or a lectin. Alternatively, a competitive assay may be utilized, in which a polypeptide is labeled with a reporter group and allowed to bind to the immobilized binding agent after incubation of the binding agent with the sample. The extent to which components of the sample inhibit the binding of the labeled polypeptide to the binding agent is indicative of the reactivity of the sample with the immobilized binding agent. Suitable polypeptides for use within such assays include BMP polypeptides and portions thereof, or antibodies, to which the binding agent binds, as described above.

[0501] The solid support may be any material known to those of skill in the art to which BMP polypeptides of the invention may be attached. For example, the solid support may be a test well in a microtiter plate or a nitrocellulose or other suitable membrane. Alternatively, the support may be a bead or disc, such as glass fiberglass, latex or a plastic material such as polystyrene or polyvinylchloride. The support may also be a magnetic particle or a fiber optic sensor, such as those disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,359,681. The binding agent may be immobilized on the solid support using a variety of techniques known to those of skill in the art, which are amply described in the patent and scientific literature. In the context of the present invention, the term “immobilization” refers to both noncovalent association, such as adsorption, and covalent attachment (which may be a direct linkage between the agent and functional groups on the support or may be a linkage by way of a cross-linking agent). Immobilization by adsorption to a well in a microtiter plate or to a membrane is preferred. In such cases, adsorption may be achieved by contacting the binding agent, in a suitable buffer, with the solid support for the suitable amount of time. The contact time varies with temperature, but is typically between about 1 hour and about 1 day. In general, contacting a well of plastic microtiter plate (such as polystyrene or polyvinylchloride) with an amount of binding agent ranging from about 10 ng to about 10 ug, and preferably about 100 ng to about 1 ug, is sufficient to immobilize an adequate amount of binding agent.

[0502] Covalent attachment of binding agent to a solid support may generally be achieved by first reacting the support with a bifunctional reagent that will react with both the support and a functional group, such as a hydroxyl or amino group, on the binding agent. For example, the binding agent may be covalently attached to supports having an appropriate polymer coating using benzoquinone or by condensation of an aldehyde group on the support with an amine and an active hydrogen on the binding partner (see, e.g., Pierce Immunotechnology Catalog and Handbook, 1991, at A12-A13).

[0503] Gene Therapy Methods

[0504] Another aspect of the present invention is to gene therapy methods for treating or preventing disorders, diseases and conditions. The gene therapy methods relate to the introduction of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA and antisense DNA or RNA) sequences into an animal to achieve expression of the polypeptide of the present invention. This method requires a polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide of the present invention operatively linked to a promoter and any other genetic elements necessary for the expression of the polypeptide by the target tissue. Such gene therapy and delivery techniques are known in the art, see, for example, WO90/11092, which is herein incorporated by reference.

[0505] Thus, for example, cells from a patient may be engineered with a polynucleotide (DNA or RNA) comprising a promoter operably linked to a polynucleotide of the present invention ex vivo, with the engineered cells then being provided to a patient to be treated with the polypeptide of the present invention. Such methods are well-known in the art. For example, see Belldegrun, A., et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85: 207-216 (1993); Ferrantini, M. et al., Cancer Research 53: 1107-1112 (1993); Ferrantini, M. et al., J. Immunology 153: 4604-4615 (1994); Kaido, T., et al., Int. J. Cancer 60: 221-229 (1995); Ogura, H., et al., Cancer Research 50: 5102-5106 (1990); Santodonato, L., et al., Human Gene Therapy 7:1-10 (1996); Santodonato, L., et al., Gene Therapy 4:1246-1255 (1997); and Zhang, J. -F. et al., Cancer Gene Therapy 3: 31-38 (1996)), which are herein incorporated by reference. In one embodiment, the cells which are engineered are arterial cells. The arterial cells may be reintroduced into the patient through direct injection to the artery, the tissues surrounding the artery, or through catheter injection.

[0506] As discussed in more detail below, the polynucleotide constructs can be delivered by any method that delivers injectable materials to the cells of an animal, such as, injection into the interstitial space of tissues (heart, muscle, skin, lung, liver, and the like). The polynucleotide constructs may be delivered in a pharmaceutically acceptable liquid or aqueous carrier.

[0507] In one embodiment, the polynucleotide of the present invention is delivered as a naked polynucleotide. The term “naked” polynucleotide, DNA or RNA refers to sequences that are free from any delivery vehicle that acts to assist, promote or facilitate entry into the cell, including viral sequences, viral particles, liposome formulations, lipofectin or precipitating agents and the like. However, the polynucleotide of the present invention can also be delivered in liposome formulations and lipofectin formulations and the like can be prepared by methods well known to those skilled in the art. Such methods are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,593,972, 5,589,466, and 5,580,859, which are herein incorporated by reference.

[0508] The polynucleotide vector constructs used in the gene therapy method are preferably constructs that will not integrate into the host genome nor will they contain sequences that allow for replication. Appropriate vectors include pWLNEO, pSV2CAT, pOG44, pXT1 and pSG available from Stratagene; pSVK3, pBPV, pMSG and pSVL available from Pharmacia; and pEF1/V5, pcDNA3.1, and pRc/CMV2 available from Invitrogen. Other suitable vectors will be readily apparent to the skilled artisan.

[0509] Any strong promoter known to those skilled in the art can be used for driving the expression of the polynucleotide sequence. Suitable promoters include adenoviral promoters, such as the adenoviral major late promoter; or heterologous promoters, such as the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter; the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) promoter; inducible promoters, such as the MMT promoter, the metallothionein promoter; heat shock promoters; the albumin promoter; the ApoAI promoter; human globin promoters; viral thymidine kinase promoters, such as the Herpes Simplex thymidine kinase promoter; retroviral LTRs; the b-actin promoter; and human growth hormone promoters. The promoter also may be the native promoter for the polynucleotide of the present invention.

[0510] Unlike other gene therapy techniques, one major advantage of introducing naked nucleic acid sequences into target cells is the transitory nature of the polynucleotide synthesis in the cells. Studies have shown that non-replicating DNA sequences can be introduced into cells to provide production of the desired polypeptide for periods of up to six months.

[0511] The polynucleotide construct can be delivered to the interstitial space of tissues within the an animal, including of muscle, skin, brain, lung, liver, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, heart, lymph, blood, bone, cartilage, pancreas, kidney, gall bladder, stomach, intestine, testis, ovary, uterus, rectum, nervous system, eye, gland, and connective tissue. Interstitial space of the tissues comprises the intercellular, fluid, mucopolysaccharide matrix among the reticular fibers of organ tissues, elastic fibers in the walls of vessels or chambers, collagen fibers of fibrous tissues, or that same matrix within connective tissue ensheathing muscle cells or in the lacunae of bone. It is similarly the space occupied by the plasma of the circulation and the lymph fluid of the lymphatic channels. Delivery to the interstitial space of muscle tissue is preferred for the reasons discussed below. They may be conveniently delivered by injection into the tissues comprising these cells. They are preferably delivered to and expressed in persistent, non-dividing cells which are differentiated, although delivery and expression may be achieved in non-differentiated or less completely differentiated cells, such as, for example, stem cells of blood or skin fibroblasts. In vivo muscle cells are particularly competent in their ability to take up and express polynucleotides.

[0512] For the naked nucleic acid sequence injection, an effective dosage amount of DNA or RNA will be in the range of from about 0.05 mg/kg body weight to about 50 mg/kg body weight. Preferably the dosage will be from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 20 mg/kg and more preferably from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg. Of course, as the artisan of ordinary skill will appreciate, this dosage will vary according to the tissue site of injection. The appropriate and effective dosage of nucleic acid sequence can readily be determined by those of ordinary skill in the art and may depend on the condition being treated and the route of administration.

[0513] The preferred route of administration is by the parenteral route of injection into the interstitial space of tissues. However, other parenteral routes may also be used, such as, inhalation of an aerosol formulation particularly for delivery to lungs or bronchial tissues, throat or mucous membranes of the nose. In addition, naked DNA constructs can be delivered to arteries during angioplasty by the catheter used in the procedure.

[0514] The naked polynucleotides are delivered by any method known in the art, including, but not limited to, direct needle injection at the delivery site, intravenous injection, topical administration, catheter infusion, and so-called “gene guns”. These delivery methods are known in the art.

[0515] The constructs may also be delivered with delivery vehicles such as viral sequences, viral particles, liposome formulations, lipofectin, precipitating agents, etc. Such methods of delivery are known in the art.

[0516] In certain embodiments, the polynucleotide constructs are complexed in a liposome preparation. Liposomal preparations for use in the instant invention include cationic (positively charged), anionic (negatively charged) and neutral preparations. However, cationic liposomes are particularly preferred because a tight charge complex can be formed between the cationic liposome and the polyanionic nucleic acid. Cationic liposomes have been shown to mediate intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA (Felgner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:7413-7416 (1987), which is herein incorporated by reference); mRNA (Malone et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1989) 86:6077-6081 (1989), which is herein incorporated by reference); and purified transcription factors (Debs et al., J. Biol. Chem. 265:10189-10192 (1990)), which is herein incorporated by reference), in functional form.

[0517] Cationic liposomes are readily available. For example, N[1-2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-triethylammonium (DOTMA) liposomes are particularly useful and are available under the trademark Lipofectin, from GIBCO BRL, Grand Island, N.Y. (See, also, Felgner et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84:7413-7416 (1987)), which is herein incorporated by reference). Other commercially available liposomes include transfectace (DDAB/DOPE) and DOTAP/DOPE (Boehringer).

[0518] Other cationic liposomes can be prepared from readily available materials using techniques well known in the art. See, e.g., PCT Publication No. WO 90/11092 (which is herein incorporated by reference) for a description of the synthesis of DOTAP (1,2-bis(oleoyloxy)-3-(trimethylammonio)propane) liposomes. Preparation of DOTMA liposomes is explained in the literature, see, e.g., P. Felgner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:7413-7417, which is herein incorporated by reference. Similar methods can be used to prepare liposomes from other cationic lipid materials.

[0519] Similarly, anionic and neutral liposomes are readily available, such as from Avanti Polar Lipids (Birmingham, Ala.), or can be easily prepared using readily available materials. Such materials include phosphatidyl, choline, cholesterol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, diolcoylphosphatidyl choline (DOPC), dioleoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DOPG), dioleoylphoshatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE), among others. These materials can also be mixed with the DOTMA and DOTAP starting materials in appropriate ratios. Methods for making liposomes using these materials are well known in the art.

[0520] For example, commercially dioleoylphosphatidyl choline (DOPC), dioleoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DOPG), and dioleoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) can be used in various combinations to make conventional liposomes, with or without the addition of cholesterol. Thus, for example, DOPG/DOPC vesicles can be prepared by drying 50 mg each of DOPG and DOPC under a stream of nitrogen gas into a sonication vial. The sample is placed under a vacuum pump overnight and is hydrated the following day with deionized water. The sample is then sonicated for 2 hours in a capped vial, using a Heat Systems model 350 sonicator equipped with an inverted cup (bath type) probe at the maximum setting while the bath is circulated at 15 EC. Alternatively, negatively charged vesicles can be prepared without sonication to produce multilamellar vesicles or by extrusion through nucleopore membranes to produce unilamellar vesicles of discrete size. Other methods are known and available to those of skill in the art.

[0521] The liposomes can comprise multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), small unilamellar vesicles (SUWs), or large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), with SUVs being preferred. The various liposome-nucleic acid complexes are prepared using methods well known in the art. See, e.g., Straubinger et al., Methods of Immunology, 101:512-527 (1983), which is herein incorporated by reference. For example, MLVs containing nucleic acid can be prepared by depositing a thin film of phospholipid on the walls of a glass tube and subsequently hydrating with a solution of the material to be encapsulated. SUVs are prepared by extended sonication of MLVs to produce a homogeneous population of unilamellar liposomes. The material to be entrapped is added to a suspension of preformed MLVs and then sonicated. When using liposomes containing cationic lipids, the dried lipid film is resuspended in an appropriate solution such as sterile water or an isotonic buffer solution such as 10 mM Tris/NaCl, sonicated, and then the preformed liposomes are mixed directly with the DNA. The liposome and DNA form a very stable complex due to binding of the positively charged liposomes to the cationic DNA. SUVs find use with small nucleic acid fragments. LU~s are prepared by a number of methods, well known in the art. Commonly used methods include Ca2+-EDTA chelation (Papahadjopoulos et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 394:483 (1975)); Wilson et al., Cell 17:77 (1979)); ether injection (Deamer, D., et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 443:629 (1976)); Ostro et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76:836 (1977)); Fraley et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:3348 (1979)); detergent dialysis (Enochet al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:145 (1979)); and reverse-phase evaporation (REV) (Fraley et al., J. Biol. Chem. 255:10431 (1980)); Szoka, F. and Papahadjopoulos, D., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:145 (1978)); Schaefer-Ridder et al., Science 215:166 (1982)), which are herein incorporated by reference.

[0522] Generally, the ratio of DNA to liposomes will be from about 10:1 to about 1:10. Preferably, the ration will be from about 5:1 to about 1:5. More preferably, the ration will be about 3:1 to about 1:3. Still more preferably, the ratio will be about 1:1.

[0523] U.S. Pat. No. 5,676,954 (which is herein incorporated by reference) reports on the injection of genetic material, complexed with cationic liposomes carriers, into mice. U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,897,355, 4,946,787, 5,049,386, 5,459,127, 5,589,466, 5,693,622, 5,580,859, 5,703,055, and international publication no. WO 94/9469 (which are herein incorporated by reference) provide cationic lipids for use in transfecting DNA into cells and mammals. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,589,466, 5,693,622, 5,580,859, 5,703,055, and international publication no. WO 94/9469 (which are herein incorporated by reference) provide methods for delivering DNA-cationic lipid complexes to mammals.

[0524] In certain embodiments, cells are engineered, ex vivo or in vivo, using a retroviral particle containing RNA which comprises a sequence encoding a polypeptide of the present invention. Retroviruses from which the retroviral plasmid vectors may be derived include, but are not limited to, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, spleen necrosis virus, Rous sarcoma Virus, Harvey Sarcoma Virus, avian leukosis virus, gibbon ape leukemia virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Myeloproliferative Sarcoma Virus, and mammary tumor virus.

[0525] The retroviral plasmid vector is employed to transduce packaging cell lines to form producer cell lines. Examples of packaging cells which may be transfected include, but are not limited to, the PE501, PA317, R-2, R-AM, PA12, T19-14X, VT-19-17-H2, RCRE, RCRIP, GP+E-86, GP+envAm12, and DAN cell lines as described in Miller, Human Gene Therapy 1:5-14 (1990), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The vector may transduce the packaging cells through any means known in the art. Such means include, but are not limited to, electroporation, the use of liposomes, and CaPO4 precipitation. In one alternative, the retroviral plasmid vector may be encapsulated into a liposome, or coupled to a lipid, and then administered to a host.

[0526] The producer cell line generates infectious retroviral vector particles which include polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of the present invention. Such retroviral vector particles then may be employed, to transduce eukaryotic cells, either in vitro or in vivo. The transduced eukaryotic cells will express a polypeptide of the present invention.

[0527] In certain other embodiments, cells are engineered, ex vivo or in vivo, with polynucleotide contained in an adenovirus vector. Adenovirus can be manipulated such that it encodes and expresses a polypeptide of the present invention, and at the same time is inactivated in terms of its ability to replicate in a normal lytic viral life cycle. Adenovirus expression is achieved without integration of the viral DNA into the host cell chromosome, thereby alleviating concerns about insertional mutagenesis. Furthermore, adenoviruses have been used as live enteric vaccines for many years with an excellent safety profile (Schwartz, A. R. et al. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.109:233-238 (1974)). Finally, adenovirus mediated gene transfer has been demonstrated in a number of instances including transfer of alpha-1-antitrypsin and CFTR to the lungs of cotton rats (Rosenfeld, M. A. et al. Science 252:431-434 (1991); Rosenfeld et al., Cell 68:143-155 (1992)). Furthermore, extensive studies to attempt to establish adenovirus as a causative agent in human cancer were uniformly negative (Green et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:6606 (1979)).

[0528] Suitable adenoviral vectors useful in the present invention are described, for example, in Kozarsky and Wilson, Curr. Opin. Genet. Devel. 3:499-503 (1993); Rosenfeld et al., Cell 68:143-155 (1992); Engelhardt et al., Human Genet. Ther. 4:759-769 (1993); Yang et al., Nature Genet. 7:362-369 (1994); Wilson et al., Nature 365:691-692 (1993); and U.S. Pat. No. 5,652,224, which are herein incorporated by reference. For example, the adenovirus vector Ad2 is useful and can be grown in human 293 cells. These cells contain the E1 region of adenovirus and constitutively express E1a and E1b, which complement the defective adenoviruses by providing the products of the genes deleted from the vector. In addition to Ad2, other varieties of adenovirus (e.g., Ad3, Ad5, and Ad7) are also useful in the present invention.

[0529] Preferably, the adenoviruses used in the present invention are replication deficient. Replication deficient adenoviruses require the aid of a helper virus and/or packaging cell line to form infectious particles. The resulting virus is capable of infecting cells and can express a polynucleotide of interest which is operably linked to a promoter, but cannot replicate in most cells. Replication deficient adenoviruses may be deleted in one or more of all or a portion of the following genes: E1a, E1b, E3, E4, E2a, or L1 through L5.

[0530] In certain other embodiments, the cells are engineered, ex vivo or in vivo, using an adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAVs are naturally occurring defective viruses that require helper viruses to produce infectious particles (Muzyczka, N., Curr. Topics in Microbiol. Immunol. 158:97 (1992)). It is also one of the few viruses that may integrate its DNA into non-dividing cells. Vectors containing as little as 300 base pairs of AAV can be packaged and can integrate, but space for exogenous DNA is limited to about 4.5 kb. Methods for producing and using such AAVs are known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,139,941, 5,173,414, 5,354,678, 5,436,146, 5,474,935, 5,478,745, and 5,589,377.

[0531] For example, an appropriate AAV vector for use in the present invention will include all the sequences necessary for DNA replication, encapsidation, and host-cell integration. The polynucleotide construct is inserted into the AAV vector using standard cloning methods, such as those found in Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press (1989). The recombinant AAV vector is then transfected into packaging cells which are infected with a helper virus, using any standard technique, including lipofection, electroporation, calcium phosphate precipitation, etc. Appropriate helper viruses include adenoviruses, cytomegaloviruses, vaccinia viruses, or herpes viruses. Once the packaging cells are transfected and infected, they will produce infectious AAV viral particles which contain the polynucleotide construct. These viral particles are then used to transduce eukaryotic cells, either ex vivo or in vivo. The transduced cells will contain the polynucleotide construct integrated into its genome, and will express a polypeptide of the invention.

[0532] Another method of gene therapy involves operably associating heterologous control regions and endogenous polynucleotide sequences (e.g., encoding a polypeptide of the present invention) via homologous recombination (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,641,670, issued Jun. 24, 1997; International Publication No. WO 96/29411, published Sep. 26, 1996; International Publication No. WO 94/12650, published Aug. 4, 1994; Koller et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); and Zijlstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989). This method involves the activation of a gene which is present in the target cells, but which is not normally expressed in the cells, or is expressed at a lower level than desired.

[0533] Polynucleotide constructs are made, using standard techniques known in the art, which contain the promoter with targeting sequences flanking the promoter. Suitable promoters are described herein. The targeting sequence is sufficiently complementary to an endogenous sequence to permit homologous recombination of the promoter-targeting sequence with the endogenous sequence. The targeting sequence will be sufficiently near the 5′ end of the desired endogenous polynucleotide sequence so the promoter will be operably linked to the endogenous sequence upon homologous recombination.

[0534] The promoter and the targeting sequences can be amplified using PCR. Preferably, the amplified promoter contains distinct restriction enzyme sites on the 5′ and 3′ ends. Preferably, the 3′ end of the first targeting sequence contains the same restriction enzyme site as the 5′ end of the amplified promoter and the 5′ end of the second targeting sequence contains the same restriction site as the 3′ end of the amplified promoter. The amplified promoter and targeting sequences are digested and ligated together.

[0535] The promoter-targeting sequence construct is delivered to the cells, either as naked polynucleotide, or in conjunction with transfection-facilitating agents, such as liposomes, viral sequences, viral particles, whole viruses, lipofection, precipitating agents, etc., described in more detail above. The P promoter-targeting sequence can be delivered by any method, included direct needle injection, intravenous injection, topical administration, catheter infusion, particle accelerators, etc. The methods are described in more detail below.

[0536] The promoter-targeting sequence construct is taken up by cells. Homologous recombination between the construct and the endogenous sequence takes place, such that an endogenous sequence is placed under the control of the promoter. The promoter then drives the expression of the endogenous sequence.

[0537] Preferably, the polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of the present invention contains a secretory signal sequence that facilitates secretion of the protein. Typically, the signal sequence is positioned in the coding region of the polynucleotide to be expressed towards or at the 5′ end of the coding region. The signal sequence may be homologous or heterologous to the polynucleotide of interest and may be homologous or heterologous to the cells to be transfected. Additionally, the signal sequence may be chemically synthesized using methods known in the art.

[0538] Any mode of administration of any of the above-described polynucleotides constructs can be used so long as the mode results in the expression of one or more molecules in an amount sufficient to provide a therapeutic effect. This includes direct needle injection, systemic injection, catheter infusion, biolistic injectors, particle accelerators (i.e., “gene guns”), gelfoam sponge depots, other commercially available depot materials, osmotic pumps (e.g., Alza minipumps), oral or suppositorial solid (tablet or pill) pharmaceutical formulations, and decanting or topical applications during surgery. For example, direct injection of naked calcium phosphate-precipitated plasmid into rat liver and rat spleen or a protein-coated plasmid into the portal vein has resulted in gene expression of the foreign gene in the rat livers (Kaneda et al., Science 243:375 (1989)).

[0539] A preferred method of local administration is by direct injection. Preferably, a recombinant molecule of the present invention complexed with a delivery vehicle is administered by direct injection into or locally within the area of arteries. Administration of a composition locally within the area of arteries refers to injecting the composition centimeters and preferably, millimeters within arteries.

[0540] Another method of local administration is to contact a polynucleotide construct of the present invention in or around a surgical wound. For example, a patient can undergo surgery and the polynucleotide construct can be coated on the surface of tissue inside the wound or the construct can be injected into areas of tissue inside the wound.

[0541] Therapeutic compositions useful in systemic administration, include recombinant molecules of the present invention complexed to a targeted delivery vehicle of the present invention. Suitable delivery vehicles for use with systemic administration comprise liposomes comprising ligands for targeting the vehicle to a particular site.

[0542] Preferred methods of systemic administration, include intravenous injection, aerosol, oral and percutaneous (topical) delivery. Intravenous injections can be performed using methods standard in the art. Aerosol delivery can also be performed using methods standard in the art (see, for example, Stribling et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 189:11277-11281 (1992), which is incorporated herein by reference). Oral delivery can be performed by complexing a polynucleotide construct of the present invention to a carrier capable of withstanding degradation by digestive enzymes in the gut of an animal. Examples of such carriers, include plastic capsules or tablets, such as those known in the art. Topical delivery can be performed by mixing a polynucleotide construct of the present invention with a lipophilic reagent (e.g., DMSO) that is capable of passing into the skin.

[0543] Determining an effective amount of substance to be delivered can depend upon a number of factors including, for example, the chemical structure and biological activity of the substance, the age and weight of the animal, the precise condition requiring treatment and its severity, and the route of administration. The frequency of treatments depends upon a number of factors, such as the amount of polynucleotide constructs administered per dose, as well as the health and history of the subject. The precise amount, number of doses, and timing of doses will be determined by the attending physician or veterinarian.

[0544] Therapeutic compositions of the present invention can be administered to any animal, preferably to mammals and birds. Preferred mammals include humans, dogs, cats, mice, rats, rabbits sheep, cattle, horses and pigs, with humans being particularly preferred.

[0545] Biological Activities

[0546] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention, can be used in assays to test for one or more biological activities. If these polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention, do exhibit activity in a particular assay, it is likely that these molecules may be involved in the diseases associated with the biological activity. Thus, the polynucleotides and polypeptides, and agonists or antagonists could be used to treat the associated disease.

[0547] As described herein, the BMP proteins of the invention are expressed in the liver and are believed to regulate glucose metabolism and/or insulin resistance. Aberrations in concentration or function of these proteins are further believed to favor the storage of nutrients as fat in the adipose tissue over that of storage as glycogen in skeletal muscle.

[0548] Accordingly, in preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells. In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells.

[0549] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to regulate glucose metabolism. In highly preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins, and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to increase glucose metabolism.

[0550] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used treat, prevent, ameliorate, diagnose and/or prognose hyperglycemia.

[0551] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor dyslipidemia or a condition associated with dyslipidemia.

[0552] Additionally, in preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prognose or monitor obesity.

[0553] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat obesity or a condition associated with obesity.

[0554] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to limit weight gain.

[0555] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to suppress appetite.

[0556] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP antagonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to increase appetite.

[0557] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to alter or regulate nutritional partitioning in the patient. In one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered according to this method to reduce fat mass. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention, are administered according to this method to increase muscle mass.

[0558] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to promote weight gain.

[0559] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention (including antibodies), are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat or prevent an insulin related disease, disorder, or condition. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are administered to treat or prevent a disorder characterized by a state of insulin resistance. Disorders characterized by insulin resistance that may be treated (e.g., ameliorated), prevented, diagnosed, and/or prognosed using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, renal failure, androgen excess, and liver cirrhosis or liver disease, injury and/or complications associated with transplantation. In further, specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are administered to treat or prevent hyperinsulinemia or a disorder or condition associated therewith.

[0560] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor diabetes or a condition associated with diabetes.

[0561] In other preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to treat or prevent diabetes or a condition associated with diabetes.

[0562] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor hypertension or a condition associated with hypertension.

[0563] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor coronary artery disease or a condition associated with coronary artery disease.

[0564] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose or monitor a neuropathy, neural injury, or a condition associated with a neuropathy or neural injury. Neuropathies that can be diagnosed, treated, prevented, or prognosed using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, autonomic neuropathy, parasympathetic neuropathy, and polyneuropathy. In preferred embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose paraympathetic neuropathy or parasympathetic neural injury or conditions associated with paraympathetic neuropathy or parasympathetic neural injury. In highly preferred embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used to diagnose, treat, prevent, or prognose hepatic paraympathetic neuropathy or hepatic parasympathetic neural injury, and/or conditions associated with hepatic paraympathetic neuropathy or hepatic parasympathetic neural injury.

[0565] As described herein, certain polypeptides of the invention have been observed to inhibit PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) expression in an in vitro reporter assay (See, e.g., FIG. 3). PEPCK is a key enzyme involved in the metabolic production of glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver. Blood glucose levels in the blood are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. The gene encoding PEPCK is controlled at the transcriptional level by key hormones, particularly insulin, glucagon and glucorticoids. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, excessive hepatic glucose production is a major contributor to both the fasting hyperglycaemia and the exaggerated postprandial hyperglycaemia. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. Since the rate of gluconeogenesis is controlled, in part by activity of the PEPCK enzyme, modulating the activity of the PEPCK enzyme would be of benefit for treating diseases and disorders resulting directly or indirectly from hyperglycemia, and/or aberrant PEPCK expression/activity. Thus, it is contemplated that polypeptides, polynucleotides, and agonists, and/or antagonists of the invention would be useful in treating, for example, type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

[0566] Assays for the regulation of transcription through the PEPCK promoter are well-known in the art and may be used or routinely modified to assess the ability of polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies and agonists or antagonists of the invention) to activate the PEPCK Biol Chem 275(23):17814-17820 (2000), the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Hepatocyte cells that may be used according to these assays are publicly available (e.g., through the ATCC) and/or may be routinely generated. Exemplary liver hepatoma cells that may be used according to these assays include H411e cells, which contain a tyrosine amino transferase that is inducible with glucocorticoids, insulin, or cAMP derivatives.promoter in a reporter construct and regulate liver gluconeogenesis. Exemplary assays for regulation of transcription through the PEPCK promoter that may be used or routinely modified to test for PEPCK promoter activity (in hepatocytes) of polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies and agonists or antagonists of the invention) include assays disclosed in Berger et al., Gene 66:1-10 (1998); Cullen and Malm, Methods in Enzymol 216:362-368 (1992); Henthom et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:6342-6346 (1988); Lochhead et al., Diabetes 49(6):896-903 (2000); and Yeagley et al., J Biol Chem 275(23):17814-17820 (2000), the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Hepatocyte cells that may be used according to these assays are publicly available (e.g., through the ATCC) and/or may be routinely generated. Exemplary liver hepatoma cells that may be used according to these assays include H411e cells, which contain a tyrosine amino transferase that is inducible with glucocorticoids, insulin, or cAMP derivatives. A highly preferred indication is diabetes mellitus.

[0567] In addition, it is disclosed herein that certain polypeptides of the invention have a dose-dependent effect on basal glycemia, particularly in db/db diabetic obese mice. (See, e.g., FIGS. 4A and 4B). These data further support the use of polypeptides, polynucleotides, and agonists, and/or antagonists of the invention in treating and/or detecting diseases directly or indirectly resulting from hyperglycemia, for example, type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

[0568] Moreover, it is disclosed herein that certain polypeptides of the invention mediate muscle cell proliferation. (See, e.g., FIG. 5). Therefore, polypeptides, polynucleotides, and agonists, and/or antagonists of the invention are also useful in treating and/or detecting musculoskeletal diseases and disorders, including, but not limited to, cartilage and bone growth disorders, osteoporosis, and connective tissue disorders (e.g., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, and chondromalacia).

[0569] Additionally, it is disclosed herein that certain polypeptides of the invention inhibit glucose production in the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE to a similar extent as insulin (See, e.g., FIG. 6 and assay exemplified in Example 25). This suggests that polypeptides of the invention may be able to replace insulin in vivo if inhibition of gluconeogenesis is desired.

[0570] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to lower glucose production in liver and/or other cells.

[0571] Additionally, in one embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to reduce gluconeogenesis in liver and/or other cells.

[0572] In an additional embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments, variants, fusion proteins and antibodies) and/or BMP agonists of the invention are administered to a patient (preferably a human) to modulate (e.g., increase) the effect of insulin on blood glucose levels.

[0573] A highly preferred embodiment of the invention is a method of increasing glucose uptake of a cell comprising contacting a cell with one or more BMP polypeptides of the invention. A specific embodiment is this method performed in vitro. A specific embodiment is this method performed in vitro. A specific embodiment is where the cell is a liver cell, or where the cell is an adipocyte, or where the cell is a kidney cell, or where the cell is a muscle cell.

[0574] In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of decreasing glucose production of a cell comprising contacting a cell with a BMP polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, or a muscle cell.

[0575] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing glucose uptake by a cell comprising contacting a cell with a BMP polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, a skin cell, a bone cell, or a skeletal muscle cell.

[0576] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing the sensitivity of a cell to insulin comprising contacting a cell with a BMP polypeptide of the invention (including fragments, variants, and fusion proteins as described herein). In one embodiment, this method is performed in vitro. In another embodiment this method is performed in vitro. In specific embodiments, the cell contacted according to this method is a liver cell, an adipocyte, a kidney cell, a skin cell, a bone cell, or a skeletal muscle cell.

[0577] A highly preferred indication of the invention is cardiovascular disease.

[0578] An additional highly preferred indication is a complication associated with diabetes (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, kidney disease (e.g., renal failure, nephropathy and/or other diseases and disorders as described in the “Renal Disorders” section below), diabetic neuropathy, nerve disease and nerve damage (e.g., due to diabetic neuropathy), blood vessel blockage, heart disease, stroke, impotence (e.g., due to diabetic neuropathy or blood vessel blockage), seizures, mental confusion, drowsiness, nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma, cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart disease, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and other diseases and disorders as described in the “Cardiovascular Disorders” section below), dyslipidemia, endocrine disorders (as described in the “Endocrine Disorders” section below), neuropathy, vision impairment (e.g., diabetic retinopathy and blindness), ulcers and impaired wound healing, infection (e.g., an infectious diseases or disorders as described in the “Infectious Diseases” section below, especially of the urinary tract and skin), carpal tunnel syndrome and Dupuytren's contracture).

[0579] An additional highly preferred indication is obesity and/or complications associated with obesity. Additional highly preferred indications include weight loss or alternatively, weight gain.

[0580] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with insulin resistance.

[0581] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with hyperglycemia.

[0582] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with obesity.

[0583] Additional highly preferred indications are complications associated with diabetes.

[0584] Additional highly preferred indications are disorders of the musculoskeletal systems including myopathies, muscular dystrophy, and/or as described herein.

[0585] Additional highly preferred indications include glycogen storage disease (e.g., glycogenoses), hepatitis, gallstones, cirrhosis of the liver, degenerative or necrotic liver disease, alcoholic liver diseases, fibrosis, liver regeneration, metabolic disease, dyslipidemia and cholesterol metabolism, and hepatocarcinomas.

[0586] BMP proteins are believed to be involved in biological activities associated with bone formation and repair. As members of the TGF-β superfamily, BMPs are also believed to be involved more generally in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders associated with aberrant bone formation and/or cell proliferation and differentiation.

[0587] In preferred embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of liver disorders, including, but not limited to, cirrhosis, hepatoblastoma, hepatocarcinoma, jaundice, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases, and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells.

[0588] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of musculoskeletal diseases and disorders, including, but not limited to, cartilage and bone growth disorders, osteoporosis, and connective tissue disorders (e.g., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, and chondromalacia).

[0589] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, including but not limited to, lupus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, and/or as described herein under the section heading “Immune Activity”.

[0590] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders involving aberrant cellular proliferation, including but not limited to preneoplastic disorders (e.g., hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia), neoplastic disorders (e.g., cancers of the liver, lung, and colon), and/or as described herein under the section headings “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Diseases at the Cellular Level”.

[0591] In further embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be useful for the promotion of wound healing or tissue regeneration, such as described below under the section headings “Wound Healing and Epithelial Cell Proliferation” and “Regeneration”.

[0592] In other embodiments, compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides and antibodies of the invention, and fragments and variants thereof) may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of neurological diseases, including but not limited to, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and/or as described herein under the section heading “Neural Activity and Neurological Diseases”.

[0593] Thus, polynucleotides, translation products and antibodies of the invention are useful in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders associated with activities that include, but are not limited to, liver disorders, bone and cartilage growth disorders, inflammatory disorders, disorders involving aberrant cell proliferation and/or differentiation, and neurological disorders, as well as in the promotion of wound healing.

[0594] More generally, polynucleotides, translation products and antibodies corresponding to this gene may be useful for the diagnosis, detection and/or treatment of diseases and/or disorders associated with the following systems.

[0595] Endocrine Disorders

[0596] In preferred embodiments, polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention, are used to treat, prevent, diagnose, and/or prognose disorders and/or diseases related to hormone imbalance, and/or disorders or diseases of the endocrine system.

[0597] Hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system control physical growth, sexual function, metabolism, and other functions. Disorders may be classified in two ways: disturbances in the production of hormones, and the inability of tissues to respond to hormones. The etiology of these hormone imbalance or endocrine system diseases, disorders or conditions may be genetic, somatic, such as cancer and some autoimmune diseases, acquired (e.g., by chemotherapy, injury or toxins), or infectious. Moreover, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used as a marker or detector of a particular disease or disorder related to the endocrine system and/or hormone imbalance.

[0598] Endocrine system and/or hormone imbalance and/or diseases encompass disorders of uterine motility including, but not limited to: complications with pregnancy and labor (e.g., pre-term labor, post-term pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and slow or stopped labor); and disorders and/or diseases of the menstrual cycle (e.g., dysmenorrhea and endometriosis).

[0599] Endocrine system and/or hormone imbalance disorders and/or diseases include disorders and/or diseases of the pancreas, such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, congenital pancreatic agenesis, pheochromocytoma—islet cell tumor syndrome; disorders and/or diseases of the adrenal glands such as, for example, Addison's Disease, corticosteroid deficiency, virilizing disease, hirsutism, Cushing's Syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma; disorders and/or diseases of the pituitary gland, such as, for example, hyperpituitarism, hypopituitarism, pituitary dwarfism, pituitary adenoma, panhypopituitarism, acromegaly, gigantism; disorders and/or diseases of the thyroid, including but not limited to, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Plummer's disease, Graves' disease (toxic diffuse goiter), toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, and silent lymphocytic thyroiditis), Pendred's syndrome, myxedema, cretinism, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid hormone coupling defect, thymic aplasia, Hurthle cell tumours of the thyroid, thyroid cancer, thyroid carcinoma, Medullary thyroid carcinoma; disorders and/or diseases of the parathyroid, such as, for example, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism; disorders and/or diseases of the hypothalamus.

[0600] In specific embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists of those polypeptides (including antibodies) as well as fragments and variants of those polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and antagonists, may be used to diagnose, prognose, treat, prevent, or ameliorate diseases and disorders associated with aberrant glucose metabolism or glucose uptake into cells.

[0601] In a specific embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists and/or antagonists thereof may be used to diagnose, prognose, treat, prevent, and/or ameliorate type I diabetes mellitus (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM).

[0602] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists and/or antagonists thereof may be used to diagnose, prognose, treat, prevent, and/or ameliorate type TI diabetes mellitus (insulin resistant diabetes mellitus).

[0603] Additionally, in other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or antagonists thereof (especially neutralizing or antagonistic antibodies) may be used to diagnose, prognose, treat, prevent, or ameliorate conditions associated with (type I or type II) diabetes mellitus, including, but not limited to, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma, nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma, seizures, mental confusion, drowsiness, cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart disease, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and other diseases and disorders as described in the “Cardiovascular Disorders” section), dyslipidemia, kidney disease (e.g., renal failure, nephropathy other diseases and disorders as described in the “Renal Disorders” section), nerve damage, neuropathy, vision impairment (e.g., diabetic retinopathy and blindness), ulcers and impaired wound healing, infections (e.g., infectious diseases and disorders as described in the “Infectious Diseases” section, especially of the urinary tract and skin), carpal tunnel syndrome and Dupuytren's contracture.

[0604] In other embodiments, the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to regulate the animal's weight. In specific embodiments the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to control the animal's weight by modulating a biochemical pathway involving insulin. In still other embodiments the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides corresponding to this gene and/or agonists or antagonists thereof are administered to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, in order to control the animal's weight by modulating a biochemical pathway involving insulin-like growth factor.

[0605] In addition, endocrine system and/or hormone imbalance disorders and/or diseases may also include disorders and/or diseases of the testes or ovaries, including cancer. Other disorders and/or diseases of the testes or ovaries further include, for example, ovarian cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, vanishing testes syndrome (bilateral anorchia), congenital absence of Leydig's cells, cryptorchidism, Noonan's syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, capillary haemangioma of the testis (benign), neoplasias of the testis and neo-testis.

[0606] Moreover, endocrine system and/or hormone imbalance disorders and/or diseases may also include disorders and/or diseases such as, for example, polyglandular deficiency syndromes, pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, multiple Endocrine neoplasia, and disorders and/or cancers of endocrine tissues.

[0607] Immune Activity

[0608] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of the immune system, by, for example, activating or inhibiting the proliferation, differentiation, or mobilization (chemotaxis) of immune cells. Immune cells develop through a process called hematopoiesis, producing myeloid (platelets, red blood cells, neutrophils, and macrophages) and lymphoid (B and T lymphocytes) cells from pluripotent stem cells. The etiology of these immune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions may be genetic, somatic, such as cancer and some autoimmune diseases, acquired (e.g., by chemotherapy or toxins), or infectious. Moreover, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used as a marker or detector of a particular immune system disease or disorder.

[0609] In another embodiment, a polypeptide of the invention, or polynucleotides, antibodies, agonists, or antagonists corresponding to that polypeptide, may be used to treat diseases and disorders of the immune system and/or to inhibit or enhance an immune response generated by cells associated with the tissue(s) in which the polypeptide of the invention is expressed, including the tissues disclosed in the section entitled “Polynucleotides and Polypeptides of the Invention”.

[0610] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing immunodeficiencies, including both congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Examples of B cell immunodeficiencies in which immunoglobulin levels B cell function and/or B cell numbers are decreased include: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's disease), X-linked infantile agammaglobulinemia, X-linked immunodefciency with hyper IgM, non X-linked immunodefciency with hyper IgM, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), agammaglobulinemia including congenital and acquired agammaglobulinemia, adult onset agammaglobulinemia, late-onset agammaglobulinemia, dysgammaglobulinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, unspecified hypogammaglobulinemia, recessive agammaglobulinemia (Swiss type), Selective IgM deficiency, selective IgA deficiency, selective IgG subclass deficiencies, IgG subclass deficiency (with or without IgA deficiency), Ig deficiency with increased IgM, IgG and IgA deficiency with increased IgM, antibody deficiency with normal or elevated Igs, Ig heavy chain deletions, kappa chain deficiency, B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) (acquired), and transient hypogammablobulinemia of infancy.

[0611] In specific embodiments, ataxia-telangiectasia or conditions associated with ataxia-telangiectasia are ameliorated or treated by administering the polypeptides or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists thereof.

[0612] Examples of congenital immunodeficiencies in which T cell and/or B cell function and/or number is decreased include, but are not limited to: DiGeorge anomaly, severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) (including, but not limited to, X-linked SCID, autosomal recessive SCID, adenosine deaminase deficiency, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, Class II MHC deficiency (Bare lymphocyte syndrome), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia), thymic hypoplasia, third and fourth pharyngeal pouch syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, natural killer cell deficiency (NK), idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia, immunodeficiency with predominant T cell defect (unspecified), and unspecified immunodeficiency of cell mediated immunity.

[0613] In specific embodiments, DiGeorge anomaly or conditions associated with DiGeorge anomaly are ameliorated or treated by, for example, administering the polypeptides or polynucleotides of the invention, or antagonists or agonists thereof.

[0614] Other immunodeficiencies that may be ameliorated or treated by administering polypeptides or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists thereof, include, but are not limited to, Chronic granulomatous disease, Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, Myeloperoxidase deficiency, Leukocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Deficiency, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), leukocyte adhesion deficiency, complement component deficiencies (including C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and/or C9 deficiencies), reticular dysgenesis, thymic alymphoplasia-aplasia, immunodeficiency with thymoma, severe congenital leukopenia, dysplasia with immunodeficiency, neonatal neutropenia, short limbed dwarfism, and Nezelof syndrome-combined immunodeficiency with Igs.

[0615] In a preferred embodiment, the immunodeficiencies and/or conditions associated with the immunodeficiencies recited above are treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention.

[0616] In a preferred embodiment polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used as an agent to boost immunoresponsiveness among immunodeficient individuals. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used as an agent to boost immunoresponsiveness among B cell and/or T cell immunodeficient individuals.

[0617] The polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing autoimmune disorders. Many autoimmune disorders result from inappropriate recognition of self as foreign material by immune cells. This inappropriate recognition results in an immune response leading to the destruction of the host tissue. Therefore, the administration of polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention that can inhibit an immune response, particularly the proliferation, differentiation, or chemotaxis of T-cells, may be an effective therapy in preventing autoimmune disorders.

[0618] Autoimmune diseases or disorders that may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia purpura, autoimmune neonatal thrombocytopenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, purpura (e.g., Henloch-Scoenlein purpura), autoimmunocytopenia, Goodpasture's syndrome, Pemphigus vulgaris, myasthenia gravis, Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus.

[0619] Additional disorders that are likely to have an autoimmune component that may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, type II collagen-induced arthritis, antiphospholipid syndrome, dermatitis, allergic encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatic heart disease, Neuritis, Uveitis Ophthalmia, Polyendocrinopathies, Reiter's Disease, Stiff-Man Syndrome, Autoimmune Pulmonary Inflammation, Autism, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, insulin dependent diabetes mellitis, and autoimmune inflammatory eye.

[0620] Additional disorders that are likely to have an autoimmune component that may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, scleroderma with anti-collagen antibodies (often characterized, e.g., by nucleolar and other nuclear antibodies), mixed connective tissue disease (often characterized, e.g., by antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (e.g., ribonucleoprotein)), polymyositis (often characterized, e.g., by nonhistone ANA), pernicious anemia (often characterized, e.g., by antiparietal cell, microsomes, and intrinsic factor antibodies), idiopathic Addison's disease (often characterized, e.g., by humoral and cell-mediated adrenal cytotoxicity, infertility (often characterized, e.g., by antispermatozoal antibodies), glomerulonephritis (often characterized, e.g., by glomerular basement membrane antibodies or immune complexes), bullous pemphigoid (often characterized, e.g., by IgG and complement in basement membrane), Sjogren's syndrome (often characterized, e.g., by multiple tissue antibodies, and/or a specific nonhistone ANA (SS—B)), diabetes millitus (often characterized, e.g., by cell-mediated and humoral islet cell antibodies), and adrenergic drug resistance (including adrenergic drug resistance with asthma or cystic fibrosis) (often characterized, e.g., by beta-adrenergic receptor antibodies).

[0621] Additional disorders that may have an autoimmune component that may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, chronic active hepatitis (often characterized, e.g., by smooth muscle antibodies), primary biliary cirrhosis (often characterized, e.g., by mitochondrial antibodies), other endocrine gland failure (often characterized, e.g., by specific tissue antibodies in some cases), vitiligo (often characterized, e.g., by melanocyte antibodies), vasculitis (often characterized, e.g., by Ig and complement in vessel walls and/or low serum complement), post-MI (often characterized, e.g., by myocardial antibodies), cardiotomy syndrome (often characterized, e.g., by myocardial antibodies), urticaria (often characterized, e.g., by IgG and IgM antibodies to IgE), atopic dermatitis (often characterized, e.g., by IgG and IgM antibodies to IgE), asthma (often characterized, e.g., by IgG and IgM antibodies to IgE), and many other inflammatory, granulamatous, degenerative, and atrophic disorders.

[0622] In a preferred embodiment, the autoimmune diseases and disorders and/or conditions associated with the diseases and disorders recited above are treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using for example, antagonists or agonists, polypeptides or polynucleotides, or antibodies of the present invention. In a specific preferred embodiment, rheumatoid arthritis is treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention. In another specific preferred embodiment, systemic lupus erythematosus is treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention. In another specific preferred embodiment, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura is treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention. In another specific preferred embodiment IgA nephropathy is treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention.

[0623] In a preferred embodiment, the autoimmune diseases and disorders and/or conditions associated with the diseases and disorders recited above are treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention

[0624] In preferred embodiments, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a immunosuppressive agent(s).

[0625] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of hematopoictic cells. Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used to increase differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells, including the pluripotent stem cells, in an effort to treat or prevent those diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with a decrease in certain (or many) types hematopoietic cells, including but not limited to, leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia. Alternatively, Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used to increase differentiation and proliferation of hematopojetic cells, including the pluripotent stem cells, in an effort to treat or prevent those diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with a increase in certain (or many) types hematopoietic cells, including but not limited to, histiocytosis.

[0626] Allergic reactions and conditions, such as asthma (particularly allergic asthma) or other respiratory problems, may also be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using polypeptides, antibodies, or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists thereof Moreover, these molecules can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity to an antigenic molecule, or blood group incompatibility.

[0627] Additionally, polypeptides or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists thereof, may be used to treat or prevent IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Such allergic reactions include, but are not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be used to modulate IgE concentrations in vitro or in vivo.

[0628] Moreover, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention have uses in the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and/or treatment of inflammatory conditions. For example, since polypeptides, antibodies, or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention may inhibit the activation, proliferation and/or differentiation of cells involved in an inflammatory response, these molecules can be used to diagnose, prognose, prevent, and/or treat chronic and acute inflammatory conditions. Such inflammatory conditions include, but are not limited to, for example, inflammation associated with infection (e.g., septic shock, sepsis, or systemic inflammatory response syndrome), ischemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxin lethality, complement-mediated hyperacute rejection, nephritis, cytokine or chemokine induced lung injury, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, over production of cytokines (e.g., TNF or IL-1.), respiratory disorders (such as, e.g., asthma and allergy); gastrointestinal disorders (such as, e.g., inflammatory bowel disease); cancers (such as, e.g., gastric, ovarian, lung, bladder, liver, and breast); CNS disorders (such as, e.g., multiple sclerosis; ischemic brain injury and/or stroke; traumatic brain injury; neurodegenerative disorders, such as, e.g., Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease; AIDS-related dementia; and prion disease); cardiovascular disorders (such as, e.g., atherosclerosis, myocarditis, cardiovascular disease, and cardiopulmonary bypass complications); as well as many additional diseases, conditions, and disorders that are characterized by inflammation (such as, e.g., hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, trauma, pancreatitis, sarcoidosis, dernatitis, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, Grave's disease, systemic lupus erythematosis, diabetes mellitus, and allogenic transplant rejection).

[0629] Because inflammation is a fundamental defense mechanism, inflammatory disorders can effect virtually any tissue of the body. Accordingly, polynucleotides, polypeptides, and antibodies of the invention, as well as agonists or antagonists thereof, have uses in the treatment of tissue-specific inflammatory disorders, including, but not limited to, adrenalitis, alveolitis, angiocholecystitis, appendicitis, balanitis, blepharitis, bronchitis, bursitis, carditis, cellulitis, cervicitis, cholecystitis, chorditis, cochlitis, colitis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, dermatitis, diverticulitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, esophagitis, eustachitis, fibrositis, folliculitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gingivitis, glossitis, hepatosplenitis, keratitis, labyrinthitis, laryngitis, lymphangitis, mastitis, media otitis, meningitis, metritis, mucitis, myocarditis, myosititis, myringitis, nephritis, neuritis, orchitis, osteochondritis, otitis, pericarditis, peritendonitis, peritonitis, pharyngitis, phlebitis, poliomyelitis, prostatitis, pulpitis, retinitis, rhinitis, salpingitis, scleritis, sclerochoroiditis, scrotitis, sinusitis, sponylitis, steatitis, stomatitis, synovitis, syringitis, tendonitis, tonsillitis, urethritis, and vaginitis.

[0630] In specific embodiments, polypeptides, antibodies, or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, are useful to treat, diagnose, and/or prevent organ transplant rejections and graft-versus-host disease. Organ rejection occurs by host immune cell destruction of the transplanted tissue through an immune response. Similarly, an immune response is also involved in GVHD, but, in this case, the foreign transplanted immune cells destroy the host tissues. Polypeptides, antibodies, or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, that inhibit an immune response, particularly the activation, proliferation, differentiation, or chemotaxis of T-cells, may be an effective therapy in preventing organ rejection or GVHD. In specific embodiments, polypeptides, antibodies, or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, that inhibit an immune response, particularly the activation, proliferation, differentiation, or chemotaxis of T-cells, may be an effective therapy in preventing experimental allergic and hyperacute xenograft rejection.

[0631] In other embodiments, polypeptides, antibodies, or polynucleotides of the invention, and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, are useful to treat, diagnose, and/or prevent immune complex diseases, including, but not limited to, serum sickness, post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, and polyateritis nodosa, immune complex-induced vasculitis,

[0632] Polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention can be used to treat, detect, and/or prevent infectious agents. For example, by increasing the immune response, particularly increasing the proliferation activation and/or differentiation of B and/or T cells, infectious diseases may be treated, detected, and/or prevented. The immune response may be increased by either enhancing an existing immune response, or by initiating a new immune response. Alternatively, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also directly inhibit the infectious agent (refer to section of application listing infectious agents, etc), without necessarily eliciting an immune response.

[0633] In another embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a vaccine adjuvant that enhances immune responsiveness to specific antigen. In a specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance tumor-specific immune responses.

[0634] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance anti-viral immune responses. Anti-viral immune responses that may be enhanced using the compositions of the invention as an adjuvant, include virus and virus associated diseases or symptoms described herein or otherwise known in the art. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance an immune response to a virus, disease, or symptom selected from the group consisting of: AIDS, meningitis, Dengue, EBV, and hepatitis (e.g., hepatitis B). In another specific embodiment, the compositions of the invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance an immune response to a virus, disease, or symptom selected from the group consisting of: HIV/AIDS, Respiratory syncytial virus, Dengue, Rotavirus, Japanese B encephalitis, Influenza A and B, Parainfluenza, Measles, Cytomegalovirus, Rabies, Junin, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, Herpes simplex, and yellow fever.

[0635] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance anti-bacterial or anti-fungal immune responses. Anti-bacterial or anti-fungal immune responses that may be enhanced using the compositions of the invention as an adjuvant, include bacteria or fungus and bacteria or fungus associated diseases or symptoms described herein or otherwise known in the art. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance an immune response to a bacteria or fungus, disease, or symptom selected from the group consisting of: tetanus, Diphtheria, botulism, and meningitis type B.

[0636] In another specific embodiment, the compositions of the invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance an immune response to a bacteria or fungus, disease, or symptom selected from the group consisting of: Vibrio cholerae, Mycobacterium leprae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Meisseria men ingitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Group B streptococcus, Shigella spp., Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Borrelia burgdorferi.

[0637] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance anti-parasitic immune responses. Anti-parasitic immune responses that may be enhanced using the compositions of the invention as an adjuvant, include parasite and parasite associated diseases or symptoms described herein or otherwise known in the art. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance an immune response to a parasite. In another specific embodiment, the compositions of the invention are used as an adjuvant to enhance an immune response to Plasmodium (malaria) or Leishmania.

[0638] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also be employed to treat infectious diseases including silicosis, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by, for example, by preventing the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes.

[0639] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an antigen for the generation of antibodies to inhibit or enhance immune mediated responses against polypeptides of the invention.

[0640] In one embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are administered to an animal (e.g., mouse, rat, rabbit, hamster, guinea pig, pigs, micro-pig, chicken, camel, goat, horse, cow, sheep, dog, cat, non-human primate, and human, most preferably human) to boost the immune system to produce increased quantities of one or more antibodies (e.g., IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE), to induce higher affinity antibody production and immunoglobulin class switching (e.g., IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE), and/or to increase an immune response.

[0641] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a stimulator of B cell responsiveness to pathogens.

[0642] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an activator of T cells.

[0643] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent that elevates the immune status of an individual prior to their receipt of immunosuppressive therapies.

[0644] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to induce higher affinity antibodies.

[0645] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to increase serum immunoglobulin concentrations.

[0646] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to accelerate recovery of immunocompromised individuals.

[0647] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to boost immunoresponsiveness among aged populations.

[0648] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an immune system enhancer prior to, during, or after bone marrow transplant and/or other transplants (e.g., allogeneic or xenogeneic organ transplantation). With respect to transplantation, compositions of the invention may be administered prior to, concomitant with, and/or after transplantation. In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered after transplantation, prior to the beginning of recovery of T-cell populations. In another specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are first administered after transplantation after the beginning of recovery of T cell populations, but prior to full recovery of B cell populations.

[0649] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to boost immunoresponsiveness among individuals having an acquired loss of B cell function. Conditions resulting in an acquired loss of B cell function that may be ameliorated or treated by administering the polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, include, but are not limited to, HIV Infection, AIDS, bone marrow transplant, and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

[0650] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to boost immunoresponsiveness among individuals having a temporary immune deficiency. Conditions resulting in a temporary immune deficiency that may be ameliorated or treated by administering the polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists thereof, include, but are not limited to, recovery from viral infections (e.g., influenza), conditions associated with malnutrition, recovery from infectious mononucleosis, or conditions associated with stress, recovery from measles, recovery from blood transfusion, and recovery from surgery.

[0651] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a regulator of antigen presentation by monocytes, dendritic cells, and/or B-cells. In one embodiment, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention enhance antigen presentation or antagonizes antigen presentation in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, in related embodiments, said enhancement or antagonization of antigen presentation may be useful as an anti-tumor treatment or to modulate the immune system.

[0652] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as an agent to direct an individual's immune system towards development of a humoral response (i.e. TH2) as opposed to a TH1 cellular response.

[0653] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a means to induce tumor proliferation and thus make it more susceptible to anti-neoplastic agents. For example, multiple myeloma is a slowly dividing disease and is thus refractory to virtually all anti-neoplastic regimens. If these cells were forced to proliferate more rapidly their susceptibility profile would likely change.

[0654] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a stimulator of B cell production in pathologies such as AIDS, chronic lymphocyte disorder and/or Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

[0655] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a therapy for generation and/or regeneration of lymphoid tissues following surgery, trauma or genetic defect. In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as pretreatment of bone marrow samples prior to transplant.

[0656] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a gene-based therapy for genetically inherited disorders resulting in immuno-incompetence/immunodeficiency such as observed among SCID patients.

[0657] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a means of activating monocytes/macrophages to defend against parasitic diseases that effect monocytes such as Leshmania.

[0658] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a means of regulating secreted cytokines that are elicited by polypeptides of the invention.

[0659] All of the above described applications as they may apply to veterinary medicine.

[0660] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a means of blocking various aspects of immune responses to foreign agents or self. Examples of diseases or conditions in which blocking of certain aspects of immune responses may be desired include autoimmune disorders such as lupus, and arthritis, as well as immunoresponsiveness to skin allergies, inflammation, bowel disease, injury and diseases/disorders associated with pathogens.

[0661] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a therapy for preventing the B cell proliferation and Ig secretion associated with autoimmune diseases such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis.

[0662] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a inhibitor of B and/or T cell migration in endothelial cells. This activity disrupts tissue architecture or cognate responses and is useful, for example in disrupting immune responses, and blocking sepsis.

[0663] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a therapy for chronic hypergammaglobulinemia evident in such diseases as monoclonalgammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), Waldenstrom's disease, related idiopathic monoclonalgammopathies, and plasmacytomas.

[0664] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be employed for instance to inhibit polypeptide chemotaxis and activation of macrophages and their precursors, and of neutrophils, basophils, B lymphocytes and some T-cell subsets, e.g., activated and CD8 cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, in certain autoimmune and chronic inflammatory and infective diseases. Examples of autoimmune diseases are described herein and include multiple sclerosis, and insulin-dependent diabetes.

[0665] The polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also be employed to treat idiopathic hyper-eosinophilic syndrome by, for example, preventing eosinophil production and migration.

[0666] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used to enhance or inhibit complememt mediated cell lysis.

[0667] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used to enhance or inhibit antibody dependent cellular cytoxicity.

[0668] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also be employed for treating atherosclerosis, for example, by preventing monocyte infiltration in the artery wall.

[0669] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be employed to treat adult respiratory distress syndrome. (ARDS).

[0670] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of/the present invention may be useful for stimulating wound and tissue repair, stimulating angiogenesis, stimulating the repair of vascular or lymphatic diseases or disorders. Additionally, agonists and antagonists of the invention may be used to stimulate the regeneration of mucosal surfaces.

[0671] In a specific embodiment, polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists thereof are used to treat or prevent a disorder characterized by primary or acquired immunodeficiency, deficient serum immunoglobulin production, recurrent infections, and/or immune system dysfunction. Moreover, polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists thereof may be used to treat or prevent infections of the joints, bones, skin, and/or parotid glands, blood-borne infections (e.g., sepsis, meningitis, septic arthritis, and/or osteomyelitis), autoimmune diseases (e.g., those disclosed herein), inflammatory disorders, and malignancies, and/or any disease or disorder or condition associated with these infections, diseases, disorders and/or malignancies) including, but not limited to, CVID, other primary immune deficiencies, HIV disease, CLL, recurrent bronchitis, sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, herpes zoster (e.g., severe herpes zoster), and/or pneumocystis carnii. Other diseases and disorders that may be prevented, diagnosed or treated with polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists of the present invention include, but are not limited to, HIV infection, HTLV-BLV infection, lymphopenia, phagocyte bactericidal dysfunctionanemia, thrombocytopenia, and hemoglobinuria.

[0672] In another embodiment, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used to treat, and/or diagnose an individual having common variable immunodeficiency disease (“CVID”; also known as “acquired agammaglobulinemia” and “acquired hypogammaglobulinemia”) or a subset of this disease.

[0673] In a specific embodiment, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be used to treat, diagnose, and/or prevent cancers or neoplasms including autoimmune cell or tissue-related cancers or neoplasms. Examples of cancers or neoplasms that may be prevented, diagnosed, or treated by polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are described herein and include acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogeneous leukemia, Hodgkins disease, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, acute lymphocytic anemia (ALL) Chronic lymphocyte leukemia, plasmacytomas, multiple myeloma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and EBV-transformed diseases. In a preferred embodiment, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention conjugated to a toxin or a radioactive isotope, as described herein, may be used to treat, diagnose, and/or prevent cancers and neoplasms. In a further preferred embodiment, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention conjugated to a toxin or a radioactive isotope, as described herein, may be used to treat, diagnose, and/or prevent, acute myclogenous leukemia.

[0674] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a therapy for decreasing cellular proliferation of Large B-cell Lymphomas.

[0675] In another specific embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used as a means of decreasing the involvement of B cells and Ig associated with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.

[0676] In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention are used as an agent to boost immunoresponsiveness among B cell immunodeficient individuals, such as, for example, an individual who has undergone a partial or complete splenectomy.

[0677] Antagonists of the invention include, for example, binding and/or inhibitory antibodies, antisense nucleic acids, ribozymes or soluble forms of the polypeptides of the present invention (e.g., Fc fusion protein) (see e.g., Example 9). Agonists of the invention include, for example, binding or stimulatory antibodies, and soluble forms of the polypeptides (e.g., Fc fusion proteins) (see e.g., Example 9). Polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be employed in a composition with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, e.g., as described herein.

[0678] In another embodiment, polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are administered to an animal (including, but not limited to, those listed above, and also including transgenic animals) incapable of producing functional endogenous antibody molecules or having an otherwise compromised endogenous immune system, but which is capable of producing human immunoglobulin molecules by means of a reconstituted or partially reconstituted immune system from another animal (see, e.g., published PCT Application Nos. WO98/24893, WO/9634096, WO/9633735, and WO/9110741. Administration of polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention to such animals is useful for the generation of monoclonal antibodies against the polypeptides, antibodies, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the present invention.

[0679] Additionally, polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention may affect apoptosis, and therefore, would be useful in treating a number of diseases associated with increased cell survival or the inhibition of apoptosis. For example, diseases associated with increased cell survival or the inhibition of apoptosis that could be treated or detected by polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention, include cancers (such as follicular lymphomas, carcinomas with p53 mutations, and hormone-dependent tumors, including, but not limited to colon cancer, cardiac tumors, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, testicular cancer, stomach cancer, neuroblastoma, myxoma, myoma, lymphoma, endothelioma, osteoblastoma, osteoclastoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma and ovarian cancer); autoimmune disorders such as, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, biliary cirrhosis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and immune-related glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis) and viral infections (such as herpes viruses, pox viruses and adenoviruses), inflammation, graft v. host disease, acute graft rejection, and chronic graft rejection.

[0680] In preferred embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention are used to inhibit growth, progression, and/or metastisis of cancers, in particular those listed above.

[0681] Additional diseases or conditions associated with increased cell survival that could be treated or detected by polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention, include, but are not limited to, progression, and/or metastases of malignancies and related disorders such as leukemia (including acute leukemias (e.g., acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia (including myeloblastic, promyelocytic, myelomonocytic, monocytic, and erythroleukemia)) and chronic leukemias (e.g., chronic myelocytic (granulocytic) leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia)), polycythemia vera, lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's disease), multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, heavy chain disease, and solid tumors including, but not limited to, sarcomas and carcinomas such as fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, colon carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilm's tumor, cervical cancer, testicular tumor, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, emangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, menangioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma.

[0682] Diseases associated with increased apoptosis that could be treated or detected by polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention, include AIDS; neurodegenerative disorders (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Retinitis pigmentosa, Cerebellar degeneration and brain tumor or prior associated disease); autoimmune disorders (such as, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, biliary cirrhosis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and immune-related glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis) myelodysplastic syndromes (such as aplastic anemia), graft v. host disease, ischemic injury (such as that caused by myocardial infarction, stroke and reperfusion injury), liver injury (e.g., hepatitis related liver injury, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cholestosis (bile duct injury) and liver cancer); toxin-induced liver disease (such as that caused by alcohol), septic shock, cachexia and anorexia.

[0683] Hyperproliferative diseases and/or disorders that could be detected and/or treated by polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention, include, but are not limited to neoplasms located in the: liver, abdomen, bone, breast, digestive system, pancreas, peritoneum, endocrine glands (adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, testicles, ovary, thymus, thyroid), eye, head and neck, nervous (central and peripheral), lymphatic system, pelvic, skin, soft tissue, spleen, thoracic, and urogenital.

[0684] Similarly, other hyperproliferative disorders can also be treated or detected by polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention. Examples of such hyperproliferative disorders include, but are not limited to: hypergammaglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, paraproteinemias, purpura, sarcoidosis, Sezary Syndrome, Waldenstron's Macroglobulinemia, Gaucher's Disease, histiocytosis, and any other hyperproliferative disease, besides neoplasia, located in an organ system listed above.

[0685] Hyperproliferative Disorders

[0686] In certain embodiments, polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used to treat or detect hyperproliferative disorders, including neoplasms. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may inhibit the proliferation of the disorder through direct or indirect interactions. Alternatively, Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may proliferate other cells which can inhibit the hyperproliferative disorder.

[0687] For example, by increasing an immune response, particularly increasing antigenic qualities of the hyperproliferative disorder or by proliferating, differentiating, or mobilizing T-cells, hyperproliferative disorders can be treated. This immune response may be increased by either enhancing an existing immune response, or by initiating a new immune response. Alternatively, decreasing an immune response may also be a method of treating hyperproliferative disorders, such as a chemotherapeutic agent.

[0688] Examples of hyperproliferative disorders that can be treated or detected by polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention include, but are not limited to neoplasms located in the: colon, abdomen, bone, breast, digestive system, liver, pancreas, peritoneum, endocrine glands (adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, testicles, ovary, thymus, thyroid), eye, head and neck, nervous (central and peripheral), lymphatic system, pelvic, skin, soft tissue, spleen, thoracic, and urogenital.

[0689] Similarly, other hyperproliferative disorders can also be treated or detected by polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention. Examples of such hyperproliferative disorders include, but are not limited to: Acute Childhood Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Adult (Primary) Hepatocellular Cancer, Adult (Primary) Liver Cancer, Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Adult Hodgkin's Disease, Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Adult Lymphocytic Leukemia, Adult Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Adult Primary Liver Cancer, Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma, AIDS-Related Lymphoma, AIDS-Related Malignancies, Anal Cancer, Astrocytoma, Bile Duct Cancer, Bladder Cancer, Bone Cancer, Brain Stem Glioma, Brain Tumors, Breast Cancer, Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter, Central Nervous System (Primary) Lymphoma, Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Cerebellar Astrocytoma, Cerebral Astrocytoma, Cervical Cancer, Childhood (Primary) Hepatocellular Cancer, Childhood (Primary) Liver Cancer, Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Childhood Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma, Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma, Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors, Childhood Hodgkin's Disease, Childhood Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Childhood Hypothalamic and Visual Pathway Glioma, Childhood Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Childhood Medulloblastoma, Childhood Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Childhood Pineal and Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors, Childhood Primary Liver Cancer, Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Colon Cancer, Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma, Endocrine Pancreas Islet Cell Carcinoma, Endometrial Cancer, Ependymoma, Epithelial Cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Ewing's Sarcoma and Related Tumors, Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer, Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor, Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer, Eye Cancer, Female Breast Cancer, Gaucher's Disease, Gallbladder Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor, Gastrointestinal Tumors, Germ Cell Tumors, Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor, Hairy Cell Leukemia, Head and Neck Cancer, Hepatocellular Cancer, Hodgkin's Disease, Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Hypergammaglobulinemia, Hypopharyngeal Cancer, Intestinal Cancers, Intraocular Melanoma, Islet Cell Carcinoma, Islet Cell Pancreatic Cancer, Kaposi's Sarcoma, Kidney Cancer, Laryngeal Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer, Liver Cancer, Lung Cancer, Lymphoproliferative Disorders, Macroglobulinemia, Male Breast Cancer, Malignant Mesothelioma, Malignant Thymoma, Medulloblastoma, Melanoma, Mesothelioma, Metastatic Occult Primary Squamous Neck Cancer, Metastatic Primary Squamous Neck Cancer, Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer, Multiple Myeloma, Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasm, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Myelogenous Leukemia, Myeloid Leukemia, Myeloproliferative Disorders, Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer, Nasopharyngeal Cancer, Neuroblastoma, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma During Pregnancy, Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Occult Primary Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer, Oropharyngeal Cancer, Osteo/Malignant Fibrous Sarcoma, Osteosarcoma/Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma, Osteosarcoma/Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone, Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor, Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumor, Pancreatic Cancer, Paraproteinemias, Purpura, Parathyroid Cancer, Penile Cancer, Pheochromocytoma, Pituitary Tumor, Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Primary Liver Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Rectal Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cancer, Retinoblastoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Salivary Gland Cancer, Sarcoidosis Sarcomas, Sezary Syndrome, Skin Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Intestine Cancer, Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Squamous Neck Cancer, Stomach Cancer, Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal and Pineal Tumors, T-Cell Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer, Thymoma, Thyroid Cancer, Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter, Transitional Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cancer, Trophoblastic Tumors, Ureter and Renal Pelvis Cell Cancer, Urethral Cancer, Uterine Cancer, Uterine Sarcoma, Vaginal Cancer, Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma, Vulvar Cancer, Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, Wilms' Tumor, and any other hyperproliferative disease, besides neoplasia, located in an organ system listed above.

[0690] In another preferred embodiment, polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention are used to diagnose, prognose, prevent, and/or treat premalignant conditions and to prevent progression to a neoplastic or malignant state, including but not limited to those disorders described above. Such uses are indicated in conditions known or suspected of preceding progression to neoplasia or cancer, in particular, where non-neoplastic cell growth consisting of hyperplasia, metaplasia, or most particularly, dysplasia has occurred (for review of such abnormal growth conditions, see Robbins and Angell, 1976, Basic Pathology, 2d Ed., W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp. 68-79.)

[0691] Hyperplasia is a form of controlled cell proliferation, involving an increase in cell number in a tissue or organ, without significant alteration in structure or function. Hyperplastic disorders which can be diagnosed, prognosed, prevented, and/or treated with compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists) include, but are not limited to, angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, atypical melanocytic hyperplasia, basal cell hyperplasia, benign giant lymph node hyperplasia, cementum hyperplasia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital sebaceous hyperplasia, cystic hyperplasia, cystic hyperplasia of the breast, denture hyperplasia, ductal hyperplasia, endometrial hyperplasia, fibromuscular hyperplasia, focal epithelial hyperplasia, gingival hyperplasia, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia of prostate, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, senile sebaceous hyperplasia, and verrucous hyperplasia.

[0692] Metaplasia is a form of controlled cell growth in which one type of adult or fully differentiated cell substitutes for another type of adult cell. Metaplastic disorders which can be diagnosed, prognosed, prevented, and/or treated with compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists) include, but are not limited to, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, apocrine metaplasia, atypical metaplasia, autoparenchymatous metaplasia, connective tissue metaplasia, epithelial metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, metaplastic anemia, metaplastic ossification, metaplastic polyps, myeloid metaplasia, primary myeloid metaplasia, secondary myeloid metaplasia, squamous metaplasia, squamous metaplasia of amnion, and symptomatic myeloid metaplasia.

[0693] Dysplasia is frequently a forerunner of cancer, and is found mainly in the epithelia; it is the most disorderly form of non-neoplastic cell growth, involving a loss in individual cell uniformity and in the architectural orientation of cells. Dysplastic cells often have abnormally large, deeply stained nuclei, and exhibit pleomorphism. Dysplasia characteristically occurs where there exists chronic irritation or inflammation. Dysplastic disorders which can be diagnosed, prognosed, prevented, and/or treated with compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists) include, but are not limited to, anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, anterofacial dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, atriodigital dysplasia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cerebral dysplasia, cervical dysplasia, chondroectodermal dysplasia, cleidocranial dysplasia, congenital ectodermal dysplasia, craniodiaphysial dysplasia, craniocarpotarsal dysplasia, craniometaphysial dysplasia, dentin dysplasia, diaphysial dysplasia, ectodermal dysplasia, enamel dysplasia, encephalo-ophthalmic dysplasia, dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelia, dysplasia epiphysialis multiplex, dysplasia epiphysialis punctata, epithelial dysplasia, faciodigitogenital dysplasia, familial fibrous dysplasia of jaws, familial white folded dysplasia, fibromuscular dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia of bone, florid osseous dysplasia, hereditary renal-retinal dysplasia, hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, lymphopenic thymic dysplasia, mammary dysplasia, mandibulofacial dysplasia, metaphysial dysplasia, Mondini dysplasia, monostotic fibrous dysplasia, mucoepithelial dysplasia, multiple epiphysial dysplasia, oculoaunriculovertebral dysplasia, oculodentodigital dysplasia, oculovertebral dysplasia, odontogenic dysplasia, ophthalmomandibulomelic dysplasia, periapical cemental dysplasia, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, pseudoachondroplastic spondyloepiphysial dysplasia, retinal dysplasia, septo-optic dysplasia, spondyloepiphysial dysplasia, and ventriculoradial dysplasia.

[0694] Additional pre-neoplastic disorders which can be diagnosed, prognosed, prevented, and/or treated with compositions of the invention (including polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists) include, but are not limited to, benign dysproliferative disorders (e.g., benign tumors, fibrocystic conditions, tissue hypertrophy, intestinal polyps, colon polyps, and esophageal dysplasia), leukoplakia, keratoses, Bowen's disease, Farmer's Skin, solar cheilitis, and solar keratosis.

[0695] Another preferred embodiment utilizes polynucleotides of the present invention to inhibit aberrant cellular division, by gene therapy using the present invention, and/or protein fusions or fragments thereof.

[0696] Thus, the present invention provides a method for treating cell proliferative disorders by inserting into an abnormally proliferating cell a polynucleotide of the present invention, wherein said polynucleotide represses said expression.

[0697] Another embodiment of the present invention provides a method of treating cell-proliferative disorders in individuals comprising administration of one or more active gene copies of the present invention to an abnormally proliferating cell or cells. In a preferred embodiment, polynucleotides of the present invention is a DNA construct comprising a recombinant expression vector effective in expressing a DNA sequence encoding said polynucleotides. In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the DNA construct encoding the polynucleotides of the present invention is inserted into cells to be treated utilizing a retrovirus, or more preferably an adenoviral vector (See G J. Nabel, et. al., PNAS 96: 324-326 (1999), which is hereby incorporated by reference). In a most preferred embodiment, the viral vector is defective and will not transform non-proliferating cells, only proliferating cells. Moreover, in a preferred embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention inserted into proliferating cells either alone, or in combination with or fused to other polynucleotides, can then be modulated via an external stimulus (i.e. magnetic, specific small molecule, chemical, or drug administration, etc.), which acts upon the promoter upstream of said polynucleotides to induce expression of the encoded protein product. As such the beneficial therapeutic affect of the present invention may be expressly modulated (i.e. to increase, decrease, or inhibit expression of the present invention) based upon said external stimulus.

[0698] Polynucleotides of the present invention may be useful in repressing expression of oncogenic genes or antigens. By “repressing expression of the oncogenic genes” is intended the suppression of the transcription of the gene, the degradation of the gene transcript (pre-message RNA), the inhibition of splicing, the destruction of the messenger RNA, the prevention of the post-translational modifications of the protein, the destruction of the protein, or the inhibition of the normal function of the protein.

[0699] For local administration to abnormally proliferating cells, polynucleotides of the present invention may be administered by any method known to those of skill in the art including, but not limited to transfection, electroporation, microinjection of cells, or in vehicles such as liposomes, lipofectin, or as naked polynucleotides, or any other method described throughout the specification. The polynucleotide of the present invention may be delivered by known gene delivery systems such as, but not limited to, retroviral vectors (Gilboa, J. Virology 44:845 (1982); Hocke, Nature 320:275 (1986); Wilson, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:3014), vaccinia virus system (Chakrabarty et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 5:3403 (1985) or other efficient DNA delivery systems (Yates et al., Nature 313:812 (1985)) known to those skilled in the art. These references are exemplary only and are hereby incorporated by reference. In order to specifically deliver or transfect cells which are abnormally proliferating and spare non-dividing cells, it is preferable to utilize a retrovirus, or adenoviral (as described in the art and elsewhere herein) delivery system known to those of skill in the art. Since host DNA replication is required for retroviral DNA to integrate and the retrovirus will be unable to self replicate due to the lack of the retrovirus genes needed for its life cycle. Utilizing such a retroviral delivery system for polynucleotides of the present invention will target said gene and constructs to abnormally proliferating cells and will spare the non-dividing normal cells.

[0700] The polynucleotides of the present invention may be delivered directly to cell proliferative disorder/disease sites in internal organs, body cavities and the like by use of imaging devices used to guide an injecting needle directly to the disease site. The polynucleotides of the present invention may also be administered to disease sites at the time of surgical intervention.

[0701] By “cell proliferative disease” is meant any human or animal disease or disorder, affecting any one or any combination of organs, cavities, or body parts, which is characterized by single or multiple local abnormal proliferations of cells, groups of cells, or tissues, whether benign or malignant.

[0702] Any amount of the polynucleotides of the present invention may be administered as long as it has a biologically inhibiting effect on the proliferation of the treated cells. Moreover, it is possible to administer more than one of the polynucleotide of the present invention simultaneously to the same site. By “biologically inhibiting” is meant partial or total growth inhibition as well as decreases in the rate of proliferation or growth of the cells. The biologically inhibitory dose may be determined by assessing the effects of the polynucleotides of the present invention on target malignant or abnormally proliferating cell growth in tissue culture, tumor growth in animals and cell cultures, or any other method known to one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0703] The present invention is further directed to antibody-based therapies which involve administering of anti-polypeptides and anti-polynucleotide antibodies to a mammalian, preferably human, patient for treating one or more of the described disorders. Methods for producing anti-polypeptides and anti-polynucleotide antibodies polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are described in detail elsewhere herein. Such antibodies may be provided in pharmaceutically acceptable compositions as known in the art or as described herein.

[0704] A summary of the ways in which the antibodies of the present invention may be used therapeutically includes binding polynucleotides or polypeptides of the present invention locally or systemically in the body or by direct cytotoxicity of the antibody, e.g., as mediated by complement (CDC) or by effector cells (ADCC). Some of these approaches are described in more detail below. Armed with the teachings provided herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will know how to use the antibodies of the present invention for diagnostic, monitoring or therapeutic purposes without undue experimentation.

[0705] In particular, the antibodies, fragments and derivatives of the present invention are useful for treating a subject having or developing cell proliferative and/or differentiation disorders as described herein. Such treatment comprises administering a single or multiple doses of the antibody, or a fragment, derivative, or a conjugate thereof.

[0706] The antibodies of this invention may be advantageously utilized in combination with other monoclonal or chimeric antibodies, or with lymphokines or hematopoietic growth factors, for example., which serve to increase the number or activity of effector cells which interact with the antibodies.

[0707] It is preferred to use high affinity and/or potent in vivo inhibiting and/or neutralizing antibodies against polypeptides or polynucleotides of the present invention, fragments or regions thereof, for both immunoassays directed to and therapy of disorders related to polynucleotides or polypeptides, including fragments thereof, of the present invention. Such antibodies, fragments, or regions, will preferably have an affinity for polynucleotides or polypeptides, including fragments thereof. Preferred binding affinities include those with a dissociation constant or Kd less than 5×10−6M, 10−6M, 5×10−7M, 10−7M, 5×10−8M, 10−8M, 5×10−9M, 10−9M, 5×10−10M, 10−10M, 5×10−11M, 10−11M, ×10−12M, 10−12M, 5×10−13M, 10−13M, 5×10−14M, 10−14M, 5×10−15M, and 10−15M,

[0708] Moreover, polypeptides of the present invention are useful in inhibiting the angiogenesis of proliferative cells or tissues, either alone, as a protein fusion, or in combination with other polypeptides directly or indirectly, as described elsewhere herein. In a most preferred embodiment, said anti-angiogenesis effect may be achieved indirectly, for example, through the inhibition of hematopoictic, tumor-specific cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages (See Joseph I B, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(21):1648-53 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference). Antibodies directed to polypeptides or polynucleotides of the present invention may also result in inhibition of angiogenesis directly, or indirectly (See Witte L, et al., Cancer Metastasis Rev. 17(2):155-61 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference)).

[0709] Polypeptides, including protein fusions, of the present invention, or fragments thereof may be useful in inhibiting proliferative cells or tissues through the induction of apoptosis. Said polypeptides may act either directly, or indirectly to induce apoptosis of proliferative cells and tissues, for example in the activation of a death-domain receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1, CD95 (Fas/APO-1), TNF-receptor-related apoptosis-mediated protein (TRAMP) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-1 and -2 (See Schulze-Osthoff K, et.al., Eur J Biochem 254(3):439-59 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference). Moreover, in another preferred embodiment of the present invention, said polypeptides may induce apoptosis through other mechanisms, such as in the activation of other proteins which will activate apoptosis, or through stimulating the expression of said proteins, either alone or in combination with small molecule drugs or adjuvants, such as apoptonin, galectins, thioredoxins, anti-inflammatory proteins (See for example, Mutat Res 400(1-2):447-55 (1998), Med Hypotheses. 50(5):423-33 (1998), Chem Biol Interact. April 24;111-112:23-34 (1998), J Mol Med.76(6):402-12 (1998), Int J Tissue React;20(1):3-15 (1998), which are all hereby incorporated by reference).

[0710] Polypeptides, including protein fusions to, or fragments thereof, of the present invention are useful in inhibiting the metastasis of proliferative cells or tissues. Inhibition may occur as a direct result of administering polypeptides, or antibodies directed to said polypeptides as described elsewhere herein, or indirectly, such as activating the expression of proteins known to inhibit metastasis, for example alpha 4 integrins, (See, e.g., Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 231:125-41 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference). Such therapeutic affects of the present invention may be achieved either alone, or in combination with small molecule drugs or adjuvants.

[0711] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of delivering compositions containing the polypeptides of the invention (e.g., compositions containing polypeptides or polypeptide antibodies associated with heterologous polypeptides, heterologous nucleic acids, toxins, or prodrugs) to targeted cells expressing the polypeptide of the present invention. Polypeptides or polypeptide antibodies of the invention may be associated with heterologous polypeptides, heterologous nucleic acids, toxins, or prodrugs via hydrophobic, hydrophilic, ionic and/or covalent interactions.

[0712] Polypeptides, protein fusions to, or fragments thereof, of the present invention are useful in enhancing the immunogenicity and/or antigenicity of proliferating cells or tissues, either directly, such as would occur if the polypeptides of the present invention ‘vaccinated’ the immune response to respond to proliferative antigens and immunogens, or indirectly, such as in activating the expression of proteins known to enhance the immune response (e.g., chemokines), to said antigens and immunogens.

[0713] Cardiovascular Disorders

[0714] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may be used to treat cardiovascular disorders, including peripheral artery disease, such as limb ischemia.

[0715] Cardiovascular disorders include cardiovascular abnormalities, such as arterio-arterial fistula, arteriovenous fistula, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, congenital heart defects, pulmonary atresia, and Scimitar Syndrome. Congenital heart defects include aortic coarctation, cortriatriatum, coronary vessel anomalies, crisscross heart, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, Ebstein's anomaly, Eisenmenger complex, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, levocardia, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, double outlet right ventricle, tricuspid atresia, persistent truncus arteriosus, and heart septal defects, such as aortopulmonary septal defect, endocardial cushion defects, Lutembacher's Syndrome, trilogy of Fallot, ventricular heart septal defects.

[0716] Cardiovascular disorders also include heart disease, such as arrhythmias, carcinoid heart disease, high cardiac output, low cardiac output, cardiac tamponade, endocarditis (including bacterial), heart aneurysm, cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure, congestive cardiomyopathy, paroxysmal dyspnea, cardiac edema, heart hypertrophy, congestive cardiomyopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, post-infarction heart rupture, ventricular septal rupture, heart valve diseases, myocardial diseases, myocardial ischemia, pericardial effusion, pericarditis (including constrictive and tuberculous), pneumopericardium, postpericardiotomy syndrome, pulmonary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, ventricular dysfunction, hyperemia, cardiovascular pregnancy complications, Scimitar Syndrome, cardiovascular syphilis, and cardiovascular tuberculosis.

[0717] Arrhythmias include sinus arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, extrasystole, Adams-Stokes Syndrome, bundle-branch block, sinoatrial block, long QT syndrome, parasystole, Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome, Mahaim-type pre-excitation syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, sick sinus syndrome, tachycardias, and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardias include paroxysmal tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, accelerated idioventricular rhythm, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, ectopic atrial tachycardia, ectopic junctional tachycardia, sinoatrial nodal reentry tachycardia, sinus tachycardia, Torsades de Pointes, and ventricular tachycardia.

[0718] Heart valve disease include aortic valve insufficiency, aortic valve stenosis, hear murmurs, aortic valve prolapse, mitral valve prolapse, tricuspid valve prolapse, mitral valve insufficiency, mitral valve stenosis, pulmonary atresia, pulmonary valve insufficiency, pulmonary valve stenosis, tricuspid atresia, tricuspid valve insufficiency, and tricuspid valve stenosis.

[0719] Myocardial diseases include alcoholic cardiomyopathy, congestive cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic subvalvular stenosis, pulmonary subvalvular stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocardial fibroelastosis, endomyocardial fibrosis, Kearns Syndrome, myocardial reperfusion injury, and myocarditis.

[0720] Myocardial ischemias include coronary disease, such as angina pectoris, coronary aneurysm, coronary arteriosclerosis, coronary thrombosis, coronary vasospasm, myocardial infarction and myocardial stunning.

[0721] Cardiovascular diseases also include vascular diseases such as aneurysms, angiodysplasia, angiomatosis, bacillary angiomatosis, Hippel-Lindau Disease, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome, Sturge-Weber Syndrome, angioneurotic edema, aortic diseases, Takayasu's Arteritis, aortitis, Leriche's Syndrome, arterial occlusive diseases, arteritis, enarteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, cerebrovascular disorders, diabetic angiopathies, diabetic retinopathy, embolisms, thrombosis, erythromelalgia, hemorrhoids, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, hypertension, hypotension, ischemia, peripheral vascular diseases, phlebitis, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, Raynaud's disease, CREST syndrome, retinal vein occlusion, Scimitar syndrome, superior vena cava syndrome, telangiectasia, atacia telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, varicocele, varicose veins, varicose ulcer, vasculitis, and venous insufficiency.

[0722] Aneurysms include dissecting aneurysms, false aneurysms, infected aneurysms, ruptured aneurysms, aortic aneurysms, cerebral aneurysms, coronary aneurysms, heart aneurysms, and iliac aneurysms.

[0723] Arterial occlusive diseases include arteriosclerosis, intermittent claudication, carotid stenosis, fibromuscular dysplasias, mesenteric vascular occlusion, Moyamoya disease, renal artery obstruction, retinal artery occlusion, and thromboanguitis obliterans.

[0724] Cerebrovascular disorders include carotid artery diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral anoxia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral arteriovenous malformation, cerebral artery diseases, cerebral embolism and thrombosis, carotid artery thrombosis, sinus thrombosis, Wallenberg's syndrome, cerebral hemorrhage, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subaraxhnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia (including transient), subclavian steal syndrome, periventricular leukomalacia, vascular headache, cluster headache, migraine, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

[0725] Embolisms include air embolisms, amniotic fluid embolisms, cholesterol embolisms, blue toe syndrome, fat embolisms, pulmonary embolisms, and thromoboembolisms. Thrombosis include coronary thrombosis, hepatic vein thrombosis, retinal vein occlusion, carotid artery thrombosis, sinus thrombosis, Wallenberg's syndrome, and thrombophlebitis.

[0726] Ischemia includes cerebral ischemia, ischemic colitis, compartment syndromes, anterior compartment syndrome, myocardial ischemia, reperfusion injuries, and peripheral limb ischemia. Vasculitis includes aortitis, arteritis, Behcet's Syndrome, Churg-Strauss Syndrome, mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, thromboanguitis obliterans, hypersensitivity vasculitis, Schoenlein-Henoch purpura, allergic cutaneous vasculitis, and Wegener's granulomatosis.

[0727] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention, are especially effective for the treatment of critical limb ischemia and coronary disease.

[0728] Polypeptides may be administered using any method known in the art, including, but not limited to, direct needle injection at the delivery site, intravenous injection, topical administration, catheter infusion, biolistic injectors, particle accelerators, gelfoam sponge depots, other commercially available depot materials, osmotic pumps, oral or suppositorial solid pharmaceutical formulations, decanting or topical applications during surgery, aerosol delivery. Such methods are known in the art. Polypeptides may be administered as part of a Therapeutic, described in more detail below. Methods of delivering polynucleotides are described in more detail herein.

[0729] Neural Activity and Neurological Diseases

[0730] The polynucleotides, polypeptides and agonists or antagonists of the invention may be used for the diagnosis and/or treatment of diseases, disorders, damage or injury of the brain and/or nervous system. Nervous system disorders that can be treated with the compositions of the invention (e.g., BMP polypeptides, polynucleotides, and/or agonists or antagonists), include, but are not limited to, nervous system injuries, and diseases or disorders which result in either a disconnection of axons, a diminution or degeneration of neurons, or demyclination. Nervous system lesions which may be treated in a patient (including human and non-human mammalian patients) according to the methods of the invention, include but are not limited to, the following lesions of either the central (including spinal cord, brain) or peripheral nervous systems: (1) ischemic lesions, in which a lack of oxygen in a portion of the nervous system results in neuronal injury or death, including cerebral infarction or ischemia, or spinal cord infarction or ischemia; (2) traumatic lesions, including lesions caused by physical injury or associated with surgery, for example, lesions which sever a portion of the nervous system, or compression injuries; (3) malignant lesions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured by malignant tissue which is either a nervous system associated malignancy or a malignancy derived from non-nervous system tissue; (4) infectious lesions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured as a result of infection, for example, by an abscess or associated with infection by human immunodeficiency virus, herpes zoster, or herpes simplex virus or with Lyme disease, tuberculosis, or syphilis; (5) degenerative lesions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured as a result of a degenerative process including but not limited to, degeneration associated with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); (6) lesions associated with nutritional diseases or disorders, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured by a nutritional disorder or disorder of metabolism including, but not limited to, vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, Wernicke disease, tobacco-alcohol amblyopia, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (primary degeneration of the corpus callosum), and alcoholic cerebellar degeneration; (7) neurological lesions associated with systemic diseases including, but not limited to, diabetes (diabetic neuropathy, Bell's palsy), systemic lupus erythematosus, carcinoma, or sarcoidosis; (8) lesions caused by toxic substances including alcohol, lead, or particular neurotoxins; and (9) demyclinated lesions in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured by a demyclinating disease including, but not limited to, multiple sclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus-associated myelopathy, transverse myelopathy or various etiologies, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and central pontine myelinolysis.

[0731] In one embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to protect neural cells from the damaging effects of hypoxia. In a further preferred embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to protect neural cells from the damaging effects of cerebral hypoxia. According to this embodiment, the compositions of the invention are used to treat or prevent neural cell injury associated with cerebral hypoxia. In one non-exclusive aspect of this embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, are used to treat or prevent neural cell injury associated with cerebral ischemia. In another non-exclusive aspect of this-embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat or prevent neural cell injury associated with cerebral infarction.

[0732] In another preferred embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat or prevent neural cell injury associated with a stroke. In a specific embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat or prevent cerebral neural cell injury associated with a stroke.

[0733] In another preferred embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat or prevent neural cell injury associated with a heart attack. In a specific embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat or prevent cerebral neural cell injury associated with a heart attack.

[0734] The compositions of the invention which are useful for treating or preventing a nervous system disorder may be selected by testing for biological activity in promoting the survival or differentiation of neurons. For example, and not by way of limitation, compositions of the invention which elicit any of the following effects may be useful according to the invention: (1) increased survival time of neurons in culture either in the presence or absence of hypoxia or hypoxic conditions; (2) increased sprouting of neurons in culture or in vivo; (3) increased production of a neuron-associated molecule in culture or in vivo, e.g., choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase with respect to motor neurons; or (4) decreased symptoms of neuron dysfunction in vivo. Such effects may be measured by any method known in the art. In preferred, non-limiting embodiments, increased survival of neurons may routinely be measured using a method set forth herein or otherwise known in the art, such as, for example, in Zhang et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:3637-42 (2000) or in Arakawa et al., J. Neurosci., 10:3507-15 (1990); increased sprouting of neurons may be detected by methods known in the art, such as, for example, the methods set forth in Pestronk et al., Exp. Neurol., 70:65-82 (1980), or Brown et al., Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 4:17-42 (1981); increased production of neuron-associated molecules may be measured by bioassay, enzymatic assay, antibody binding, Northern blot assay, etc., using techniques known in the art and depending on the molecule to be measured; and motor neuron dysfunction may be measured by assessing the physical manifestation of motor neuron disorder, e.g., weakness, motor neuron conduction velocity, or functional disability.

[0735] In specific embodiments, motor neuron disorders that may be treated according to the invention include, but are not limited to, disorders such as infarction, infection, exposure to toxin, trauma, surgical damage, degenerative disease or malignancy that may affect motor neurons as well as other components of the nervous system, as well as disorders that selectively affect neurons such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and including, but not limited to, progressive spinal muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar palsy, primary lateral sclerosis, infantile and juvenile muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar paralysis of childhood (Fazio-Londe syndrome), poliomyelitis and the post polio syndrome, and Hereditary Motorsensory Neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease).

[0736] Further, polypeptides or polynucleotides of the invention may play a role in neuronal survival; synapse formation; conductance; neural differentiation, etc. Thus, compositions of the invention (including BMP polynucleotides, polypeptides, and agonists or antagonists) may be used to diagnose and/or treat or prevent diseases or disorders associated with these roles, including, but not limited to, learning and/or cognition disorders. The compositions of the invention may also be useful in the treatment or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states and/or behavioural disorders. Such neurodegenerative disease states and/or behavioral disorders include, but are not limited to, Alzheimers Disease, Parkinsons Disease, Huntingtons Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, compositions of the invention may also play a role in the treatment, prevention and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, or sexually-linked disorders.

[0737] Additionally, polypeptides, polynucleotides and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, may be useful in protecting neural cells from diseases, damage, disorders, or injury, associated with cerebrovascular disorders including, but not limited to, carotid artery diseases (e.g., carotid artery thrombosis, carotid stenosis, or Moyamoya Disease), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral anoxia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral artenovenous malformations, cerebral artery diseases, cerebral embolism and thrombosis (e.g., carotid artery thrombosis, sinus thrombosis, or Wallenberg's Syndrome), cerebral hemorrhage (e.g., epidural or subdural hematoma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage), cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia (e.g., transient cerebral ischemia, Subclavian Steal Syndrome, or vertebrobasilar insufficiency), vascular dementia (e.g., multi-infarct), leukomalacia, periventricular, and vascular headache (e.g., cluster headache or migraines).

[0738] In accordance with yet a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for utilizing polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, for therapeutic purposes, for example, to stimulate neurological cell proliferation and/or differentiation. Therefore, polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or antagonists of the invention may be used to treat and/or detect neurologic diseases. Moreover, polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used as a marker or detector of a particular nervous system disease or disorder.

[0739] Examples of neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include brain diseases, such as metabolic brain diseases which includes phenylketonuria such as maternal phenylketonuria, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency, Wernicke's Encephalopathy, brain edema, brain neoplasms such as cerebellar neoplasms which include infratentorial neoplasms, cerebral ventricle neoplasms such as choroid plexus neoplasms, hypothalamic neoplasms, supratentorial neoplasms, canavan disease, cerebellar diseases such as cerebellar ataxia which include spinocerebellar degeneration such as ataxia telangiectasia, cerebellar dyssynergia, Friederich's Ataxia, Machado-Joseph Disease, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, cerebellar neoplasms such as infratentorial neoplasms, diffuse cerebral sclerosis such as encephalitis periaxialis, globoid cell leukodystrophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

[0740] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include cerebrovascular disorders (such as carotid artery diseases which include carotid artery thrombosis, carotid stenosis and Moyamoya Disease), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral anoxia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, cerebral artery diseases, cerebral embolism and thrombosis such as carotid artery thrombosis, sinus thrombosis and Wallenberg's Syndrome, cerebral hemorrhage such as epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia such as transient cerebral ischemia, Subdlavian Steal Syndrome and vertebrobasilar insufficiency, vascular dementia such as multi-infarct dementia, periventricular leukomalacia, vascular headache such as cluster headache and migraine.

[0741] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include dementia such as AIDS Dementia Complex, presenile dementia such as Alzheimer's Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome, senile dementia such as Alzheimer's Disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, vascular dementia such as multi-infarct dementia, encephalitis which include encephalitis periaxialis, viral encephalitis such as epidemic encephalitis, Japanese Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile Fever, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, meningoencephalitis such as uveomeningoencephalitic syndrome, Postencephalitic Parkinson Disease and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, encephalomalacia such as periventricular leukomalacia, epilepsy such as generalized epilepsy which includes infantile spasms, absence epilepsy, myoclonic epilepsy which includes MERRF Syndrome, tonic-clonic epilepsy, partial epilepsy such as complex partial epilepsy, frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy, post-traumatic epilepsy, status epilepticus such as Epilepsia Partialis Continua, and Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome.

[0742] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include hydrocephalus such as Dandy-Walker Syndrome and normal pressure hydrocephalus, hypothalamic diseases such as hypothalamic neoplasms, cerebral malaria, narcolepsy which includes cataplexy, bulbar poliomyelitis, cerebri pseudotumor, Rett Syndrome, Reye's Syndrome, thalamic diseases, cerebral toxoplasmosis, intracranial tuberculoma and Zellweger Syndrome, central nervous system infections such as AIDS Dementia Complex, Brain Abscess, subdural empyema, encephalomyelitis such as Equine Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis, Necrotizing Hemorrhagic Encephalomyelitis, Visna, and cerebral malaria.

[0743] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include meningitis such as arachnoiditis, aseptic meningtitis such as viral meningtitis which includes lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bacterial meningtitis which includes Haemophilus Meningtitis, Listeria Meningtitis, Meningococcal Meningtitis such as Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome, Pneumococcal Meningtitis and meningeal tuberculosis, fungal meningitis such as Cryptococcal Meningtitis, subdural effusion, meningoencephalitis such as uvemeningoencephalitic syndrome, myelitis such as transverse myelitis, neurosyphilis such as tabes dorsalis, poliomyelitis which includes bulbar poliomyelitis and postpoliomyelitis syndrome, prion diseases (such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Gerstmann-Straussler Syndrome, Kuru, Scrapie), and cerebral toxoplasmosis.

[0744] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include central nervous system neoplasms such as brain neoplasms that include cerebellar neoplasms such as infratentorial neoplasms, cerebral ventricle neoplasms such as choroid plexus neoplasms, hypothalamic neoplasms and supratentorial neoplasms, meningeal neoplasms, spinal cord neoplasms which include epidural neoplasms, demyelinating diseases such as Canavan Diseases, diffuse cerebral sceloris which includes adrenoleukodystrophy, encephalitis periaxialis, globoid cell leukodystrophy, diffuse cerebral sclerosis such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, allergic encephalomyelitis, necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, central pontine myelinolysis, transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, Scrapie, Swayback, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Visna, High Pressure Nervous Syndrome, Meningism, spinal cord diseases such as amyotonia congenita, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy such as Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease, spinal cord compression, spinal cord neoplasms such as epidural neoplasms, syringomyclia, Tabes Dorsalis, Stiff-Man Syndrome, mental retardation such as Angelman Syndrome, Cri-du-Chat Syndrome, De Lange's Syndrome, Down Syndrome, Gangliosidoses such as gangliosidoses G(M1), Sandhoff Disease, Tay-Sachs Disease, Hartnup Disease, homocystinuria, Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, Maple Syrup Urine Disease, mucolipidosis such as fucosidosis, neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis, oculocerebrorenal syndrome, phenylketonuria such as maternal phenylketonuria, Prader-Willi Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis, WAGR Syndrome, nervous system abnormalities such as holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects such as anencephaly which includes hydrangencephaly, Arnold-Chairi Deformity, encephalocele, meningocele, meningomyelocele, spinal dysraphism such as spina bifida cystica and spina bifida occulta.

[0745] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies which include Charcot-Marie Disease, Hereditary optic atrophy, Refsum's Disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia, Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease, Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies such as Congenital Analgesia and Familial Dysautonomia, Neurologic manifestations (such as agnosia that include Gerstmann's Syndrome, Amnesia such as retrograde amnesia, apraxia, neurogenic bladder, cataplexy, communicative disorders such as hearing disorders that includes deafness, partial hearing loss, loudness recruitment and tinnitus, language disorders such as aphasia which include agraphia, anomia, broca aphasia, and Wemicke Aphasia, Dyslexia such as Acquired Dyslexia, language development disorders, speech disorders such as aphasia which includes anomia, broca aphasia and Wernicke Aphasia, articulation disorders, communicative disorders such as speech disorders which include dysarthria, echolalia, mutism and stuttering, voice disorders such as aphonia and hoarseness, decerebrate state, delirium, fasciculation, hallucinations, meningism, movement disorders such as angelman syndrome, ataxia, athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hypokinesia, muscle hypotonia, myoclonus, tic, torticollis and tremor, muscle hypertonia such as muscle rigidity such as stiff-man syndrome, muscle spasticity, paralysis such as facial paralysis which includes Herpes Zoster Oticus, Gastroparesis, Hemiplegia, ophthalmoplegia such as diplopia, Duane's Syndrome, Homer's Syndrome, Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia such as Kearns Syndrome, Bulbar Paralysis, Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, Paraplegia such as Brown-Sequard Syndrome, quadriplegia, respiratory paralysis and vocal cord paralysis, paresis, phantom limb, taste disorders such as ageusia and dysgeusia, vision disorders such as amblyopia, blindness, color vision defects, diplopia, hemianopsia, scotoma and subnormal vision, sleep disorders such as hypersomnia which includes Kleine-Levin Syndrome, insomnia, and somnambulism, spasm such as trismus, unconsciousness such as coma, persistent vegetative state and syncope and vertigo, neuromuscular diseases such as amyotonia congenita, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome, motor neuron disease, muscular atrophy such as spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie Disease and Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease, Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome, Muscular Dystrophy, Myasthenia Gravis, Myotonia Atrophica, Myotonia Confenita, Nemaline Myopathy, Familial Periodic Paralysis, Multiplex Paramyloclonus, Tropical Spastic Paraparesis and Stiff-Man Syndrome, peripheral nervous system diseases such as acrodynia, amyloid neuropathies, autonomic nervous system diseases such as Adie's Syndrome, Barre-Lieou Syndrome, Familial Dysautonomia, Homer's Syndrome, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Shy-Drager Syndrome, Cranial Nerve Diseases such as Acoustic Nerve Diseases such as Acoustic Neuroma which includes Neurofibromatosis 2, Facial Nerve Diseases such as Facial Neuralgia,Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome, ocular motility disorders which includes amblyopia, nystagmus, oculomotor nerve paralysis, ophthalmoplegia such as Duane's Syndrome, Horner's Syndrome, Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia which includes Kearns Syndrome, Strabismus such as Esotropia and Exotropia, Oculomotor Nerve Paralysis, Optic Nerve Diseases such as Optic Atrophy which includes Hereditary Optic Atrophy, Optic Disk Drusen, Optic Neuritis such as Neuromyelitis Optica, Papilledema, Trigeminal Neuralgia, Vocal Cord Paralysis, Demyelinating Diseases such as Neuromyelitis Optica and Swayback, and Diabetic neuropathies such as diabetic foot.

[0746] Additional neurologic diseases which can be treated or detected with polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists, and/or antagonists of the present invention include nerve compression syndromes such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome such as cervical rib syndrome, ulnar nerve compression syndrome, neuralgia such as causalgia, cervico-brachial neuralgia, facial neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia, neuritis such as experimental allergic neuritis, optic neuritis, polyneuritis, polyradiculoneuritis and radiculities such as polyradiculitis, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie Disease, Hereditary Optic Atrophy, Refsum's Disease, Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia and Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease, Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies which include Congenital Analgesia and Familial Dysautonomia, POEMS Syndrome, Sciatica, Gustatory Sweating and Tetany).

[0747] Anti-Angiogenesis Activity

[0748] The naturally occurring balance between endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of angiogenesis is one in which inhibitory influences predominate. Rastinejad et al., Cell 56:345-355 (1989). In those rare instances in which neovascularization occurs under normal physiological conditions, such as wound healing, organ regeneration, embryonic development, and female reproductive processes, angiogenesis is stringently regulated and spatially and temporally delimited. Under conditions of pathological angiogenesis such as that characterizing solid tumor growth, these regulatory controls fail. Unregulated angiogenesis becomes pathologic and sustains progression of many neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. A number of serious diseases are dominated by abnormal neovascularization including solid tumor growth and metastases, arthritis, some types of eye disorders, and psoriasis. See, e.g., reviews by Moses et al., Biotech. 9:630-634 (1991); Folkman et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 333:1757-1763 (1995); Auerbach et al., J. Microvasc. Res. 29:401-411 (1985); Folkman, Advances in Cancer Research, eds. Klein and Weinhouse, Academic Press, New York, pp. 175-203 (1985); Patz, Am. J. Opthalmol. 94:715-743 (1982); and Folkman et al., Science 221:719-725 (1983). In a number of pathological conditions, the process of angiogenesis contributes to the disease state. For example, significant data have accumulated which suggest that the growth of solid tumors is dependent on angiogenesis. Folkman and Klagsbrun, Science 235:442-447 (1987).

[0749] The present invention provides for treatment of diseases or disorders associated with neovascularization by administration of the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention. Malignant and metastatic conditions which can be treated with the polynucleotides and polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention include, but are not limited to, malignancies, solid tumors, and cancers described herein and otherwise known in the art (for a review of such disorders, see Fishman et al., Medicine, 2d Ed., J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia (1985)).Thus, the present invention provides a method of treating an angiogenesis-related disease and/or disorder, comprising administering to an individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist of the invention. For example, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be utilized in a variety of additional methods in order to therapeutically treat a cancer or tumor. Cancers which may be treated with polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists include, but are not limited to solid tumors, including prostate, lung, breast, ovarian, stomach, pancreas, larynx, esophagus, testes, liver, parotid, biliary tract, colon, rectum, cervix, uterus, endometrium, kidney, bladder, thyroid cancer; primary tumors and metastases; melanomas; glioblastoma; Kaposi's sarcoma; leiomyosarcoma; non-small cell lung cancer; colorectal cancer; advanced malignancies; and blood born tumors such as leukemias. For example, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be delivered topically, in order to treat cancers such as skin cancer, head and neck tumors, breast tumors, and Kaposi's sarcoma.

[0750] Within yet other aspects, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be utilized to treat superficial forms of bladder cancer by, for example, intravesical administration. Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be delivered directly into the tumor, or near the tumor site, via injection or a catheter. Of course, as the artisan of ordinary skill will appreciate, the appropriate mode of administration will vary according to the cancer to be treated. Other modes of delivery are discussed herein.

[0751] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be useful in treating other disorders, besides cancers, which involve angiogenesis. These disorders include, but are not limited to: benign tumors, for example hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, neurofibromas, trachomas, and pyogenic granulomas; artheroscleric plaques; ocular angiogenic diseases, for example, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, macular degeneration, corneal graft rejection, neovascular glaucoma, retrolental fibroplasia, rubeosis, retinoblastoma, uvietis and Pterygia (abnormal blood vessel growth) of the eye; rheumatoid arthritis; psoriasis; delayed wound healing; endometriosis; vasculogenesis; granulations; hypertrophic scars (keloids); nonunion fractures; scleroderma; trachoma; vascular adhesions; myocardial angiogenesis; coronary collaterals; cerebral collaterals; arteriovenous malformations; ischemic limb angiogenesis; Osler-Webber Syndrome; plaque neovascularization; telangiectasia; hemophiliac joints; angiofibroma; fibromuscular dysplasia; wound granulation; Crohn's disease; and atherosclerosis.

[0752] For example, within one aspect of the present invention methods are provided for treating hypertrophic scars and keloids, comprising the step of administering a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist of the invention to a hypertrophic scar or keloid.

[0753] Within one embodiment of the present invention polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists are directly injected into a hypertrophic scar or keloid, in order to prevent the progression of these lesions. This therapy is of particular value in the prophylactic treatment of conditions which are known to result in the development of hypertrophic scars and keloids (e.g., burns), and is preferably initiated after the proliferative phase has had time to progress (approximately 14 days after the initial injury), but before hypertrophic scar or keloid development. As noted above, the present invention also provides methods for treating neovascular diseases of the eye, including for example, corneal neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and macular degeneration.

[0754] Moreover, Ocular disorders associated with neovascularization which can be treated with the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention (including agonists and/or antagonists) include, but are not limited to: neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinoblastoma, retrolental fibroplasia, uveitis, retinopathy of prematurity macular degeneration, corneal graft neovascularization, as well as other eye inflammatory diseases, ocular tumors and diseases associated with choroidal or iris neovascularization. See, e.g., reviews by Waltman et al., Am. J. Ophthal. 85:704-710 (1978) and Gartner et al., Surv. Ophthal. 22:291-312 (1978).

[0755] Thus, within one aspect of the present invention methods are provided for treating neovascular diseases of the eye such as corneal neovascularization (including corneal graft neovascularization), comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound (as described above) to the cornea, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited. Briefly, the cornea is a tissue which normally lacks blood vessels. In certain pathological conditions however, capillaries may extend into the cornea from the pericorneal vascular plexus of the limbus. When the cornea becomes vascularized, it also becomes clouded, resulting in a decline in the patient's visual acuity. Visual loss may become complete if the cornea completely opacitates. A wide variety of disorders can result in corneal neovascularization, including for example, corneal infections (e.g., trachoma, herpes simplex keratitis, leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis), immunological processes (e.g., graft rejection and Stevens-Johnson's syndrome), alkali burns, trauma, inflammation (of any cause), toxic and nutritional deficiency states, and as a complication of wearing contact lenses.

[0756] Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, may be prepared for topical administration in saline (combined with any of the preservatives and antimicrobial agents commonly used in ocular preparations), and administered in eyedrop form. The solution or suspension may be prepared in its pure form and administered several times daily. Alternatively, anti-angiogenic compositions, prepared as described above, may also be administered directly to the cornea. Within preferred embodiments, the anti-angiogenic composition is prepared with a muco-adhesive polymer which binds to cornea. Within further embodiments, the anti-angiogenic factors or anti-angiogenic compositions may be utilized as an adjunct to conventional steroid therapy. Topical therapy may also be useful prophylactically in corneal lesions which are known to have a high probability of inducing an angiogenic response (such as chemical burns). In these instances the treatment, likely in combination with steroids, may be instituted immediately to help prevent subsequent complications.

[0757] Within other embodiments, the compounds described above may be injected directly into the corneal stroma by an ophthalmologist under microscopic guidance. The preferred site of injection may vary with the morphology of the individual lesion, but the goal of the administration would be to place the composition at the advancing front of the vasculature (i.e., interspersed between the blood vessels and the normal cornea). In most cases this would involve perilimbic corneal injection to “protect” the cornea from the advancing blood vessels. This method may also be utilized shortly after a corneal insult in order to prophylactically prevent corneal neovascularization. In this situation the material could be injected in the perilimbic cornea interspersed between the corneal lesion and its undesired potential limbic blood supply. Such methods may also be utilized in a similar fashion to prevent capillary invasion of transplanted corneas. In a sustained-release form injections might only be required 2-3 times per year. A steroid could also be added to the injection solution to reduce inflammation resulting from the injection itself.

[0758] Within another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for treating neovascular glaucoma, comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist to the eye, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited. In one embodiment, the compound may be administered topically to the eye in order to treat early forms of neovascular glaucoma. Within other embodiments, the compound may be implanted by injection into the region of the anterior chamber angle. Within other embodiments, the compound may also be placed in any location such that the compound is continuously released into the aqueous humor. Within another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for treating proliferative diabetic retinopathy, comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist to the eyes, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited.

[0759] Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be treated by injection into the aqueous humor or the vitreous, in order to increase the local concentration of the polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist in the retina. Preferably, this treatment should be initiated prior to the acquisition of severe disease requiring photocoagulation.

[0760] Within another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for treating retrolental fibroplasia, comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist to the eye, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited. The compound may be administered topically, via intravitreous injection and/or via intraocular implants.

[0761] Additionally, disorders which can be treated with the polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists include, but are not limited to, hemangioma, arthritis, psoriasis, angiofibroma, atherosclerotic plaques, delayed wound healing, granulations, hemophilic joints, hypertrophic scars, nonunion fractures, Osler-Weber syndrome, pyogenic granuloma, scleroderma, trachoma, and vascular adhesions.

[0762] Moreover, disorders and/or states, which can be treated with be treated with the polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists include, but are not limited to, solid tumors, blood born tumors such as leukemias, tumor metastasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, benign tumors, for example hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, neurofibromas, trachomas, and pyogenic granulomas, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ocular angiogenic diseases, for example, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, macular degeneration, corneal graft rejection, neovascular glaucoma, retrolental fibroplasia, rubeosis, retinoblastoma, and uvietis, delayed wound healing, endometriosis, vascluogenesis, granulations, hypertrophic scars (keloids), nonunion fractures, scleroderma, trachoma, vascular adhesions, myocardial angiogenesis, coronary collaterals, cerebral collaterals, arteriovenous malformations, ischemic limb angiogenesis, Osler-Webber Syndrome, plaque neovascularization, telangiectasia, hemophiliac joints, angiofibroma fibromuscular dysplasia, wound granulation, Crohn's disease, atherosclerosis, birth control agent by preventing vascularization required for embryo implantation controlling menstruation, diseases that have angiogenesis as a pathologic consequence such as cat scratch disease (Rochele minalia quintosa), ulcers (Helicobacter pylori), Bartonellosis and bacillary angiomatosis.

[0763] In one aspect of the birth control method, an amount of the compound sufficient to block embryo implantation is administered before or after intercourse and fertilization have occurred, thus providing an effective method of birth control, possibly a “morning after” method. Polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists may also be used in controlling menstruation or administered as either a peritoneal lavage fluid or for peritoneal implantation in the treatment of endometriosis.

[0764] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists of the present invention may be incorporated into surgical sutures in order to prevent stitch granulomas.

[0765] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists may be utilized in a wide variety of surgical procedures. For example, within one aspect of the present invention, a composition (in the form of, for example, a spray or film) may be utilized to coat or spray an area prior to removal of a tumor, in order to isolate normal surrounding tissues from malignant tissue, and/or to prevent the spread of disease to surrounding tissues. Within other aspects of the present invention, compositions (e.g., in the form of a spray) may be delivered via endoscopic procedures in order to coat tumors, or inhibit angiogenesis in a desired locale. Within yet other aspects of the present invention, surgical meshes which have been coated with anti-angiogenic compositions of the present invention may be utilized in any procedure wherein a surgical mesh might be utilized. For example, within one embodiment of the invention a surgical mesh laden with an anti-angiogenic composition may be utilized during abdominal cancer resection surgery (e.g., subsequent to colon resection) in order to provide support to the structure, and to release an amount of the anti-angiogenic factor.

[0766] Within further aspects of the present invention, methods are provided for treating tumor excision sites, comprising administering a polynucleotide, polypeptide, agonist and/or agonist to the resection margins of a tumor subsequent to excision, such that the local recurrence of cancer and the formation of new blood vessels at the site is inhibited. Within one embodiment of the invention, the anti-angiogenic compound is administered directly to the tumor excision site (e.g., applied by swabbing, brushing or otherwise coating the resection margins of the tumor with the anti-angiogenic compound). Alternatively, the anti-angiogenic compounds may be incorporated into known surgical pastes prior to administration. Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, the anti-angiogenic compounds are applied after hepatic resections for malignancy, and after neurosurgical operations.

[0767] Within one aspect of the present invention, polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists may be administered to the resection margin of a wide variety of tumors, including for example, breast, colon, brain and hepatic tumors. For example, within one embodiment of the invention, anti-angiogenic compounds may be administered to the site of a neurological tumor subsequent to excision, such that the formation of new blood vessels at the site is inhibited.

[0768] The polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists of the present invention may also be administered along with other anti-angiogenic factors. Representative examples of other anti-angiogenic factors include: Anti-Invasive Factor, retinoic acid and derivatives thereof, paclitaxel, Suramin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2, and various forms of the lighter “d group” transition metals.

[0769] Lighter “d group” transition metals include, for example, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, niobium, and tantalum species. Such transition metal species may form transition metal complexes. Suitable complexes of the above-mentioned transition metal species include oxo transition metal complexes.

[0770] Representative examples of vanadium complexes include oxo vanadium complexes such as vanadate and vanadyl complexes. Suitable vanadate complexes include metavanadate and orthovanadate complexes such as, for example, ammonium metavanadate, sodium metavanadate, and sodium orthovanadate. Suitable vanadyl complexes include, for example, vanadyl acetylacetonate and vanadyl sulfate including vanadyl sulfate hydrates such as vanadyl sulfate mono- and trihydrates.

[0771] Representative examples of tungsten and molybdenum complexes also include oxo complexes. Suitable oxo tungsten complexes include tungstate and tungsten oxide complexes. Suitable tungstate complexes include ammonium tungstate, calcium tungstate, sodium tungstate dihydrate, and tungstic acid. Suitable tungsten oxides include tungsten (IV) oxide and tungsten (VI) oxide. Suitable oxo molybdenum complexes include molybdate, molybdenum oxide, and molybdenyl complexes. Suitable molybdate complexes include ammonium molybdate and its hydrates, sodium molybdate and its hydrates, and potassium molybdate and its hydrates. Suitable molybdenum oxides include molybdenum (VI) oxide, molybdenum (VI) oxide, and molybdic acid. Suitable molybdenyl complexes include, for example, molybdenyl acetylacetonate. Other suitable tungsten and molybdenum complexes include hydroxo derivatives derived from, for example, glycerol, tartaric acid, and sugars.

[0772] A wide variety of other anti-angiogenic factors may also be utilized within the context of the present invention. Representative examples include platelet factor 4; protamine sulphate; sulphated chitin derivatives (prepared from queen crab shells), (Murata et al., Cancer Res. 51:22-26 (1991)); Sulphated Polysaccharide Peptidoglycan Complex (SP-PG) (the function of this compound may be enhanced by the presence of steroids such as estrogen, and tamoxifen citrate); Staurosporine; modulators of matrix metabolism, including for example, proline analogs, cishydroxyproline, d,L-3,4-dehydroproline, Thiaproline, alpha,alpha-dipyridyl, aminopropionitrile fumarate; 4-propyl-5-(4-pyridinyl)-2(3H)-oxazolone; Methotrexate; Mitoxantrone; Heparin; Interferons; 2 Macroglobulin-serum; ChIMP-3 (Pavloff et al., J. Bio. Chem. 267:17321-17326 (1992)); Chymostatin (Tomkinson et al., Biochem J. 286:475-480 (1992)); Cyclodextrin Tetradecasulfate; Eponemycin; Camptothecin; Fumagillin (Ingber et al., Nature 348:555-557 (1990)); Gold Sodium Thiomalate (“GST”; Matsubara and Ziff, J. Clin. Invest. 79:1440-1446 (1987)); anticollagenase-serum; alpha2-antiplasmin (Holmes et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262(4):1659-1664 (1987)); Bisantrene (National Cancer Institute); Lobenzarit disodium (N-(2)-carboxyphenyl-4-chloroanthronilic acid disodium or “CCA”; Takeuchi et al., Agents Actions 36:312-316 (1992)); Thalidomide; Angostatic steroid; AGM-1470; carboxynaminolmidazole; and metalloproteinase inhibitors such as BB94.

[0773] Diseases at the Cellular Level

[0774] Diseases associated with increased cell survival or the inhibition of apoptosis that could be treated or detected by polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as antagonists or agonists of the present invention, include cancers (such as follicular lymphomas, carcinomas with p53 mutations, and hormone-dependent tumors, including, but not limited to colon cancer, cardiac tumors, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, testicular cancer, stomach cancer, neuroblastoma, myxoma, myoma, lymphoma, endothelioma, osteoblastoma, osteoclastoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma and ovarian cancer); autoimmune disorders (such as, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, biliary cirrhosis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and immune-related glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis) and viral infections (such as herpes viruses, pox viruses and adenoviruses), inflammation, graft v. host disease, acute graft rejection, and chronic graft rejection. In preferred embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, and/or antagonists of the invention are used to inhibit growth, progression, and/or metasis of cancers, in particular those listed above.

[0775] Additional diseases or conditions associated with increased cell survival that could be treated or detected by polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention include, but are not limited to, progression, and/or metastases of malignancies and related disorders such as leukemia (including acute leukemias (e.g., acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia (including myeloblastic, promyelocytic, myelomonocytic, monocytic, and erythroleukemia)) and chronic leukemias (e.g., chronic myelocytic (granulocytic) leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia)), polycythemia vera, lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's disease), multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, heavy chain disease, and solid tumors including, but not limited to, sarcomas and carcinomas such as fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, colon carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilm's tumor, cervical cancer, testicular tumor, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, menangioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma.

[0776] Diseases associated with increased apoptosis that could be treated or detected by polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, include AIDS; neurodegenerative disorders (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Retinitis pigmentosa, Cerebellar degeneration and brain tumor or prior associated disease); autoimmune disorders (such as, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, biliary cirrhosis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and immune-related glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis) myelodysplastic syndromes (such as aplastic anemia), graft v. host disease, ischemic injury (such as that caused by myocardial infarction, stroke and reperfusion injury), liver injury (e.g., hepatitis related liver injury, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cholestosis (bile duct injury) and liver cancer); toxin-induced liver disease (such as that caused by alcohol), septic shock, cachexia and anorexia.

[0777] Wound Healing and Epithelial Cell Proliferation

[0778] In accordance with yet a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for utilizing polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, for therapeutic purposes, for example, to stimulate epithelial cell proliferation and basal keratinocytes for the purpose of wound healing, and to stimulate hair follicle production and healing of dermal wounds. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may be clinically useful in stimulating wound healing including surgical wounds, excisional wounds, deep wounds involving damage of the dermis and epidermis, eye tissue wounds, dental tissue wounds, oral cavity wounds, diabetic ulcers, dermal ulcers, cubitus ulcers, arterial ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, bums resulting from heat exposure or chemicals, and other abnormal wound healing conditions such as uremia, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies and complications associated with systemic treatment with steroids, radiation therapy and antineoplastic drugs and antimetabolites. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to promote dermal reestablishment subsequent to dermal loss

[0779] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to increase the adherence of skin grafts to a wound bed and to stimulate re-epithelialization from the wound bed. The following are types of grafts that polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to increase adherence to a wound bed: autografts, artificial skin, allografts, autodermic graft, autoepdermic grafts, avacular grafts, Blair-Brown grafts, bone graft, brephoplastic grafts, cutis graft, delayed graft, dermic graft, epidermic graft, fascia graft, full thickness graft, heterologous graft, xenograft, homologous graft, hyperplastic graft, lamellar graft, mesh graft, mucosal graft, Ollier-Thiersch graft, omenpal graft, patch graft, pedicle graft, penetrating graft, split skin graft, thick split graft. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, can be used to promote skin strength and to improve the appearance of aged skin.

[0780] It is believed that polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, will also produce changes in hepatocyte proliferation, and epithelial cell proliferation in the lung, breast, pancreas, stomach, small intesting, and large intestine. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could promote proliferation of epithelial cells such as sebocytes, hair follicles, hepatocytes, type II pneumocytes, mucin-producing goblet cells, and other epithelial cells and their progenitors contained within the skin, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may promote proliferation of endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and basal keratinocytes.

[0781] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could also be used to reduce the side effects of gut toxicity that result from radiation, chemotherapy treatments or viral infections. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may have a cytoprotective effect on the small intestine mucosa. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may also stimulate healing of mucositis (mouth ulcers) that result from chemotherapy and viral infections.

[0782] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could further be used in full regeneration of skin in full and partial thickness skin defects, including burns, (i.e., repopulation of hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands), treatment of other skin defects such as psoriasis. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to treat epidermolysis bullosa, a defect in adherence of the epidermis to the underlying dermis which results in frequent, open and painful blisters by accelerating reepithelialization of these lesions. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could also be used to treat gastric and doudenal ulcers and help heal by scar formation of the mucosal lining and regeneration of glandular mucosa and duodenal mucosal lining more rapidly. Inflamamatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are diseases which result in destruction of the mucosal surface of the small or large intestine, respectively. Thus, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to promote the resurfacing of the mucosal surface to aid more rapid healing and to prevent progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment with polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the present invention, is expected to have a significant effect on the production of mucus throughout the gastrointestinal tract and could be used to protect the intestinal mucosa from injurious substances that are ingested or following surgery. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to treat diseases associate with the under expression.

[0783] Moreover, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to prevent and heal damage to the lungs due to various pathological states. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, which could stimulate proliferation and differentiation and promote the repair of alveoli and brochiolar epithelium to prevent or treat acute or chronic lung damage. For example, emphysema, which results in the progressive loss of aveoli, and inhalation injuries, i.e., resulting from smoke inhalation and burns, that cause necrosis of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveoli could be effectively treated using polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the present invention. Also, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to stimulate the proliferation of and differentiation of type II pneumocytes, which may help treat or prevent disease such as hyaline membrane diseases, such as infant respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary displasia, in premature infants.

[0784] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of hepatocytes and, thus, could be used to alleviate or treat liver diseases and pathologies such as fulminant liver failure caused by cirrhosis, liver damage caused by viral hepatitis and toxic substances (i.e., acetaminophen, carbon tetraholoride and other hepatotoxins known in the art).

[0785] In addition, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used treat or prevent the onset of diabetes mellitus. In patients with newly diagnosed Types I and II diabetes, where some islet cell function remains, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used to maintain the islet function so as to alleviate, delay or prevent permanent manifestation of the disease. Also, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, could be used as an auxiliary in islet cell transplantation to improve or promote islet cell function.

[0786] In another preferred embodiment, the present invention encompasses a method of treating, preventing or ameliorating conditions associated with type II and/or type I diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a patient in which such a treatment, prevention or amelioration is desired an HLDOU18 polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist or antagonist of the invention. A non-exhaustive list of conditions associated with diabetes mellitus is, for example, hyperglycemia, obesity, diabetic retinopathy, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, atherosclerosis, ulcers, heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence, infections, cataract, poor kidney function, malfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system, impaired white blood cell function, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, and diabetic ketoacidosis. In a further preferred embodiment, the present invention encompasses a method of treating, preventing or ameliorating obesity comprising administering to a patient in which such treatment, prevention or amelioration is desired an HLDOU18 polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist or antagonist of the invention.

[0787] Infectious Disease

[0788] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used to treat or detect infectious agents. For example, by increasing the immune response, particularly increasing the proliferation and differentiation of B and/or T cells, infectious diseases may be treated. The immune response may be increased by either enhancing an existing immune response, or by initiating a new immune response. Alternatively, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also directly inhibit the infectious agent, without necessarily eliciting an immune response.

[0789] Viruses are one example of an infectious agent that can cause disease or symptoms that can be treated or detected by a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention. Examples of viruses, include, but are not limited to Examples of viruses, include, but are not limited to the following DNA and RNA viruses and viral families: Arbovirus, Adenoviridae, Arenaviridae, Arterivirus, Bimaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Coronaviridae, Dengue, EBV, HIV, Flaviviridae, Hepadnaviridae (Hepatitis), Herpesviridae (such as, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster), Mononegavirus (e.g., Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus, Rhabdoviridae), Orthomyxoviridae (e.g., Influenza A, Influenza B, and parainfluenza), Papiloma virus, Papovaviridae, Parvoviridae, Picomaviridae, Poxviridae (such as Smallpox or Vaccinia), Reoviridae (e.g., Rotavirus), Retroviridae (HTLV-I, HTLV-II, Lentivirus), and Togaviridae (e.g., Rubivirus). Viruses falling within these families can cause a variety of diseases or symptoms, including, but not limited to: arthritis, bronchiollitis, respiratory syncytial virus, encephalitis, eye infections (e.g., conjunctivitis, keratitis), chronic fatigue syndrome, hepatitis (A, B, C, E, Chronic Active, Delta), Japanese B encephalitis, Junin, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, meningitis, opportunistic infections (e.g., AIDS), pneumonia, Burkitt's Lymphoma, chickenpox, hemorrhagic fever, Measles, Mumps, Parainfluenza, Rabies, the common cold, Polio, leukemia, Rubella, sexually transmitted diseases, skin diseases (e.g., Kaposi's, warts), and viremia. polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used to treat or detect any of these symptoms or diseases. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat: meningitis, Dengue, EBV, and/or hepatitis (e.g., hepatitis B). In an additional specific embodiment polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat patients nonresponsive to one or more other commercially available hepatitis vaccines. In a further specific embodiment polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat AIDS.

[0790] Similarly, bacterial and fungal agents that can cause disease or symptoms and that can be treated or detected by a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention include, but not limited to, the following Gram-Negative and Gram-positive bacteria, bacterial families, and fungi: Actinomyces (e.g., Norcardia), Acinetobacter, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus, Bacillaceae (e.g., Bacillus anthrasis), Bacteroides (e.g., Bacteroides fragilis), Blastomycosis, Bordetella, Borrelia (e.g., Borrelia burgdorferi), Brucella , Candidia, Campylobacter, Chlamydia, Clostridium (e.g., Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium dificile, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani), Coccidioides, Corynebacterium (e.g., Corynebacterium diptheriae), Cryptococcus, Dermatocycoses, E. coli (e.g., Enterotoxigenic E. coli and Enterohemorrhagic E. coli), Enterobacter (e.g., Enterobacter aerogenes), Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella, Salmonella (e.g., Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi), Serratia, Yersinia, Shigella), Erysipelothrix, Haemophilus (e.g., Haemophilus influenza type B), Helicobacter, Legionella (e.g., Legionella pneumophila), Leptospira, Listeria (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes), Mycoplasma, Mycobacterium (e.g., Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Vibrio (e.g., Vibrio cholerae), Neisseriaceae (e.g., Neisseria gonorrhea, Neisseria meningitidis), Pasteurellacea, Proteus, Pseudomonas (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Rickettsiaceae, Spirochetes (e.g., Treponema spp., Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp.), Shigella spp., Staphylococcus (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus), Meningiococcus, Pneumococcus and Streptococcus (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Groups A, B, and C Streptococci), and Ureaplasmas. These bacterial, parasitic, and fungal families can cause diseases or symptoms, including, but not limited to: antibiotic-resistant infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, septicemia, eye infections (e.g., conjunctivitis), uveitis, tuberculosis, gingivitis, bacterial diarrhea, opportunistic infections (e.g., AIDS related infections), paronychia, prosthesis-related infections, dental caries, Reiter's Disease, respiratory tract infections, such as Whooping Cough or Empyema, sepsis, Lyme Disease, Cat-Scratch Disease, dysentery, paratyphoid fever, food poisoning, Legionella disease, chronic and acute inflammation, erythema, yeast infections, typhoid, pneumonia, gonorrhea, meningitis (e.g., mengitis types A and B), chlamydia, syphillis, diphtheria, leprosy, brucellosis, peptic ulcers, anthrax, spontaneous abortions, birth defects, pneumonia, lung infections, ear infections, deafness, blindness, lethargy, malaise, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, Crohn's disease, colitis, vaginosis, sterility, pelvic inflammatory diseases, candidiasis, paratuberculosis, tuberculosis, lupus, botulism, gangrene, tetanus, impetigo, Rheumatic Fever, Scarlet Fever, sexually transmitted diseases, skin diseases (e.g., cellulitis, dermatocycoses), toxemia, urinary tract infections, wound infections, noscomial infections. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used to treat or detect any of these symptoms or diseases. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat: tetanus, diptheria, botulism, and/or meningitis type B.

[0791] Moreover, parasitic agents causing disease or symptoms that can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention include, but not limited to, the following families or class: Amebiasis, Babesiosis, Coccidiosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Dientamoebiasis, Dourine, Ectoparasitic, Giardias, Helminthiasis, Leishmaniasis, Schistisoma, Theileriasis, Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Trichomonas and Sporozoans (e.g., Plasmodium virax, Plasmodium falciparium, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale). These parasites can cause a variety of diseases or symptoms, including, but not limited to: Scabies, Trombiculiasis, eye infections, intestinal disease (e.g., dysentery, giardiasis), liver disease, lung disease, opportunistic infections (e.g., AIDS related), malaria, pregnancy complications, and toxoplasmosis. polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose any of these symptoms or diseases. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose malaria.

[0792] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention of the present invention could either be by administering an effective amount of a polypeptide to the patient, or by removing cells from the patient, supplying the cells with a polynucleotide of the present invention, and returning the engineered cells to the patient (ex vivo therapy). Moreover, the polypeptide or polynucleotide of the present invention can be used as an antigen in a vaccine to raise an immune response against infectious disease.

[0793] Regeneration

[0794] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used to differentiate, proliferate, and attract cells, leading to the regeneration of tissues. (See, Science 276:59-87 (1997)). The regeneration of tissues could be used to repair, replace, or protect tissue damaged by congenital defects, trauma (wounds, burns, incisions, or ulcers), age, disease (e.g., osteoporosis, osteocarthritis, periodontal disease, liver failure), surgery, including cosmetic plastic surgery, fibrosis, reperfusion injury, or systemic cytokine damage.

[0795] Tissues that could be regenerated using the present invention include organs (e.g., pancreas, liver, intestine, kidney, skin, endothelium), muscle (smooth, skeletal or cardiac), vasculature (including vascular and lymphatics), nervous, hematopoietic, and skeletal (bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament) tissue. Preferably, regeneration occurs without or decreased scarring. Regeneration also may include angiogenesis.

[0796] Moreover, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, may increase regeneration of tissues difficult to heal. For example, increased tendon/ligament regeneration would quicken recovery time after damage. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention could also be used prophylactically in an effort to avoid damage. Specific diseases that could be treated include of tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other tendon or ligament defects. A further example of tissue regeneration of non-healing wounds includes pressure ulcers, ulcers associatedwith vascular insufficiency, surgical, and traumatic wounds.

[0797] Similarly, nerve and brain tissue could also be regenerated by using polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention, to proliferate and differentiate nerve cells. Diseases that could be treated using this method include central and peripheral nervous system diseases, neuropathies, or mechanical and traumatic disorders (e.g., spinal cord disorders, head trauma, cerebrovascular disease, and stoke). Specifically, diseases associated with peripheral nerve injuries, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., resulting from chemotherapy or other medical therapies), localized neuropathies, and central nervous system diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Shy-Drager syndrome), could all be treated using the polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention.

[0798] Chemotaxis

[0799] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention may have chemotaxis activity. A chemotaxic molecule attracts or mobilizes cells (e.g., monocytes, fibroblasts, neutrophils, T-cells, mast cells, eosinophils, epithelial and/or endothelial cells) to a particular site in the body, such as inflammation, infection, or site of hyperproliferation. The mobilized cells can then fight off and/or heal the particular trauma or abnormality.

[0800] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention may increase chemotaxic activity of particular cells. These chemotactic molecules can then be used to treat inflammation, infection, hyperproliferative disorders, or any immune system disorder by increasing the number of cells targeted to a particular location in the body. For example, chemotaxic molecules can be used to treat wounds and other trauma to tissues by attracting immune cells to the injured location. Chemotactic molecules of the present invention can also attract fibroblasts, which can be used to treat wounds.

[0801] It is also contemplated that polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention may inhibit chemotactic activity. These molecules could also be used to treat disorders. Thus, polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used as an inhibitor of chemotaxis.

[0802] Binding Activity

[0803] A polypeptide of the present invention may be used to screen for molecules that bind to the polypeptide or for molecules to which the polypeptide binds. The binding of the polypeptide and the molecule may activate (agonist), increase, inhibit (antagonist), or decrease activity of the polypeptide or the molecule bound. Examples of such molecules include antibodies, oligonucleotides, proteins (e.g., receptors),or small molecules.

[0804] Preferably, the molecule is closely related to the natural ligand of the polypeptide, e.g., a fragment of the ligand, or a natural substrate, a ligand, a structural or functional mimetic. (See, Coligan et al., Current Protocols in Immunology 1(2): Chapter 5 (1991)). Similarly, the molecule can be closely related to the natural receptor to which the polypeptide binds, or at least, a fragment of the receptor capable of being bound by the polypeptide (e.g., active site). In either case, the molecule can be rationally designed using known techniques.

[0805] Preferably, the screening for these molecules involves producing appropriate cells which express the polypeptide. Preferred cells include cells from mammals, yeast, Drosophila, or E. coli. Cells expressing the polypeptide (or cell membrane containing the expressed polypeptide) are then preferably contacted with a test compound potentially containing the molecule to observe binding, stimulation, or inhibition of activity of either the polypeptide or the molecule.

[0806] The assay may simply test binding of a candidate compound to the polypeptide, wherein binding is detected by a label, or in an assay involving competition with a labeled competitor. Further, the assay may test whether the candidate compound results in a signal generated by binding to the polypeptide.

[0807] Alternatively, the assay can be carried out using cell-free preparations, polypeptide/molecule affixed to a solid support, chemical libraries, or natural product mixtures. The assay may also simply comprise the steps of mixing a candidate compound with a solution containing a polypeptide, measuring polypeptide/molecule activity or binding, and comparing the polypeptide/molecule activity or binding to a standard.

[0808] Preferably, an ELISA assay can measure polypeptide level or activity in a sample (e.g., biological sample) using a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody. The antibody can measure polypeptide level or activity by either binding, directly or indirectly, to the polypeptide or by competing with the polypeptide for a substrate.

[0809] Additionally, the receptor to which the polypeptide of the present invention binds can be identified by numerous methods known to those of skill in the art, for example, ligand panning and FACS sorting (Coligan, et al., Current Protocols in Immun., 1(2), Chapter 5, (1991)). For example, expression cloning is employed wherein polyadenylated RNA is prepared from a cell responsive to the polypeptides, for example, NIH3T3 cells which are known to contain multiple receptors for the FGF family proteins, and SC-3 cells, and a cDNA library created from this RNA is divided into pools and used to transfect COS cells or other cells that are not responsive to the polypeptides. Transfected cells which are grown on glass slides are exposed to the polypeptide of the present invention, after they have been labelled. The polypeptides can be labeled by a variety of means including iodination or inclusion of a recognition site for a site-specific protein kinase.

[0810] Following fixation and incubation, the slides are subjected to auto-radiographic analysis. Positive pools are identified and sub-pools are prepared and re-transfected using an iterative sub-pooling and re-screening process, eventually yielding a single clones that encodes the putative receptor.

[0811] As an alternative approach for receptor identification, the labeled polypeptides can be photoaffinity linked with cell membrane or extract preparations that express the receptor molecule. Cross-linked material is resolved by PAGE analysis and exposed to X-ray film. The labeled complex containing the receptors of the polypeptides can be excised, resolved into peptide fragments, and subjected to protein microsequencing. The amino acid sequence obtained from microsequencing would be used to design a set of degenerate oligonucleotide probes to screen a cDNA library to identify the genes encoding the putative receptors.

[0812] Moreover, the techniques of gene-shuffling, motif-shuffling, exon-shuffling, and/or codon-shuffling (collectively referred to as “DNA shuffling”) may be employed to modulate the activities of the polypeptide of the present invention thereby effectively generating agonists and antagonists of the polypeptide of the present invention. See generally, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,605,793, 5,811,238, 5,830,721, 5,834,252, and 5,837,458, and Patten, P. A., et al., Curr. Opinion Biotechnol. 8:724-33 (1997); Harayama, S. Trends Biotechnol. 16(2):76-82 (1998); Hansson, L. O., et al., J. Mol. Biol. 287:265-76 (1999); and Lorenzo, M. M. and Blasco, R. Biotechniques 24(2):308-13 (1998) (each of these patents and publications are hereby incorporated by reference). In one embodiment, alteration of polynucleotides and corresponding polypeptides may be achieved by DNA shuffling. DNA shuffling involves the assembly of two or more DNA segments into a desired molecule by homologous, or site-specific, recombination. In another embodiment, polynucleotides and corresponding polypeptides may be alterred by being subjected to random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, random nucleotide insertion or other methods prior to recombination. In another embodiment, one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc., of the polypeptide of the present invention may be recombined with one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc. of one or more heterologous molecules. In preferred embodiments, the heterologous molecules are family members. In further preferred embodiments, the heterologous molecule is a growth factor such as, for example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), TGF-beta, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, activins A and B, decapentaplegic (dpp), 60A, OP-2, dorsalin, growth differentiation factors (GDFs), nodal, MIS, inhibin-alpha, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, TGF-beta5, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).

[0813] Other preferred fragments are biologically active fragments of the polypeptide of the present invention. Biologically active fragments are those exhibiting activity similar, but not necessarily identical, to an activity of the polypeptide of the present invention. The biological activity of the fragments may include an improved desired activity, or a decreased undesirable activity.

[0814] Additionally, this invention provides a method of screening compounds to identify those which modulate the action of the polypeptide of the present invention. An example of such an assay comprises combining a mammalian fibroblast cell, a the polypeptide of the present invention, the compound to be screened and 3[H] thymidine under cell culture conditions where the fibroblast cell would normally proliferate. A control assay may be performed in the absence of the compound to be screened and compared to the amount of fibroblast proliferation in the presence of the compound to determine if the compound stimulates proliferation by determining the uptake of 3[H] thymidine in each case. The amount of fibroblast cell proliferation is measured by liquid scintillation chromatography which measures the incorporation of 3[H] thymidine. Both agonist and antagonist compounds may be identified by this procedure.

[0815] In another method, a mammalian cell or membrane preparation expressing a receptor for a polypeptide of the present invention is incubated with a labeled polypeptide of the present invention in the presence of the compound. The ability of the compound to enhance or block this interaction could then be measured. Alternatively, the response of a known second messenger system following interaction of a compound to be screened and the receptor is measured and the ability of the compound to bind to the receptor and elicit a second messenger response is measured to determine if the compound is a potential agonist or antagonist. Such second messenger systems include but are not limited to, cAMP guanylate cyclase, ion channels or phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

[0816] All of these above assays can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers. The molecules discovered using these assays can be used to treat disease or to bring about a particular result in a patient (e.g., blood vessel growth) by activating or inhibiting the polypeptide/molecule. Moreover, the assays can discover agents which may inhibit or enhance the production of the polypeptides of the invention from suitably manipulated cells or tissues.

[0817] Therefore, the invention includes a method of identifying compounds which bind to a polypeptide of the invention comprising the steps of: (a) incubating a candidate binding compound with a polypeptide of the present invention; and (b) determining if binding has occurred. Moreover, the invention includes a method of identifying agonists/antagonists comprising the steps of: (a) incubating a candidate compound with a polypeptide of the present invention, (b) assaying a biological activity, and (b) determining if a biological activity of the polypeptide has been altered.

[0818] Targeted Delivery

[0819] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of delivering compositions to targeted cells expressing a receptor for a polypeptide of the invention, or cells expressing a cell bound form of a polypeptide of the invention.

[0820] As discussed herein, polypeptides or antibodies of the invention may be associated with heterologous polypeptides, heterologous nucleic acids, toxins, or prodrugs via hydrophobic, hydrophilic, ionic and/or covalent interactions. In one embodiment, the invention provides a method for the specific delivery of compositions of the invention to cells by administering polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies) that are associated with heterologous polypeptides or nucleic acids. In one example, the invention provides a method for delivering a therapeutic protein into the targeted cell. In another example, the invention provides a method for delivering a single stranded nucleic acid (e.g., antisense or ribozymes) or double stranded nucleic acid (e.g., DNA that can integrate into the cell's genome or replicate episomally and that can be transcribed) into the targeted cell.

[0821] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method for the specific destruction of cells (e.g., the destruction of tumor cells) by administering polypeptides of the invention (e.g., polypeptides of the invention or antibodies of the invention) in association with toxins or cytotoxic prodrugs.

[0822] By “toxin” is meant compounds that bind and activate endogenous cytotoxic effector systems, radioisotopes, holotoxins, modified toxins, catalytic subunits of toxins, or any molecules or enzymes not normally present in or on the surface of a cell that under defined conditions cause the cell's death. Toxins that may be used according to the methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, radioisotopes known in the art, compounds such as, for example, antibodies (or complement fixing containing portions thereof) that bind an inherent or induced endogenous cytotoxic effector system, thymidine kinase, endonuclease, RNAse, alpha toxin, ricin, abrin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin, saporin, momordin, gelonin, pokeweed antiviral protein, alpha-sarcin and cholera toxin. By “cytotoxic prodrug” is meant a non-toxic compound that is converted by an enzyme, normally present in the cell, into a cytotoxic compound. Cytotoxic prodrugs that may be used according to the methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, glutamyl derivatives of benzoic acid mustard alkylating agent, phosphate derivatives of etoposide or mitomycin C, cytosine arabinoside, daunorubisin, and phenoxyacetamide derivatives of doxorubicin.

[0823] Drug Screening

[0824] Further contemplated is the use of the polypeptides of the present invention, or the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, to screen for molecules which modify the activities of the polypeptides of the present invention. Such a method would include contacting the polypeptide of the present invention with a selected compound(s) suspected of having antagonist or agonist activity, and assaying the activity of these polypeptides following binding.

[0825] This invention is particularly useful for screening therapeutic compounds by using the polypeptides of the present invention, or binding fragments thereof, in any of a variety of drug screening techniques. The polypeptide or fragment employed in such a test may be affixed to a solid support, expressed on a cell surface, free in solution, or located intracellularly. One method of drug screening utilizes eukaryotic or prokaryotic host cells which are stably transformed with recombinant nucleic acids expressing the polypeptide or fragment. Drugs are screened against such transformed cells in competitive binding assays. One may measure, for example, the formulation of complexes between the agent being tested and a polypeptide of the present invention.

[0826] Thus, the present invention provides methods of screening for drugs or any other agents which affect activities mediated by the polypeptides of the present invention. These methods comprise contacting such an agent with a polypeptide of the present invention or a fragment thereof and assaying for the presence of a complex between the agent and the polypeptide or a fragment thereof, by methods well known in the art. In such a competitive binding assay, the agents to screen are typically labeled. Following incubation, free agent is separated from that present in bound form, and the amount of free or uncomplexed label is a measure of the ability of a particular agent to bind to the polypeptides of the present invention.

[0827] Another technique for drug screening provides high throughput screening for compounds having suitable binding affinity to the polypeptides of the present invention, and is described in great detail in European Patent Application 84/03564, published on Sep. 13, 1984, which is incorporated herein by reference herein. Briefly stated, large numbers of different small peptide test compounds are synthesized on a solid substrate, such as plastic pins or some other surface. The peptide test compounds are reacted with polypeptides of the present invention and washed. Bound polypeptides are then detected by methods well known in the art. Purified polypeptides are coated directly onto plates for use in the aforementioned drug screening techniques. In addition, non-neutralizing antibodies may be used to capture the peptide and immobilize it on the solid support.

[0828] This invention also contemplates the use of competitive drug screening assays in which neutralizing antibodies capable of binding polypeptides of the present invention specifically compete with a test compound for binding to the polypeptides or fragments thereof. In this manner, the antibodies are used to detect the presence of any peptide which shares one or more antigenic epitopes with a polypeptide of the invention.

[0829] Antisense and Ribozyme (Antagonists)

[0830] In specific embodiments, antagonists according to the present invention are nucleic acids corresponding to the sequences contained in SEQ ID NO: X, or the complementary strand thereof, and/or to nucleotide sequences contained in the cDNA Clone ID NO: V identified in Table 1 or Table 2. In one embodiment, antisense sequence is generated internally, by the organism, in another embodiment, the antisense sequence is separately administered (see, for example, O'Connor, J., Neurochem. 56:560 (1991). Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988). Antisense technology can be used to control gene expression through antisense DNA or RNA, or through triple-helix formation. Antisense techniques are discussed for example, in Okano, J., Neurochem. 56:560 (1991); Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988). Triple helix formation is discussed in, for instance, Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Research 6:3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241:456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251:1300 (1991). The methods are based on binding of a polynucleotide to a complementary DNA or RNA.

[0831] For example, the use of c-myc and c-myb antisense RNA constructs to inhibit the growth of the non-lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and other cell lines was previously described. (Wickstrom et al. (1988); Anfossi et al. (1989)). These experiments were performed in vitro by incubating cells with the oligoribonucleotide. A similar procedure for in vivo use is described in WO 91/15580. Briefly, a pair of oligonucleotides for a given antisense RNA is produced as follows: A sequence complimentary to the first 15 bases of the open reading frame is flanked by an EcoR1 site on the 5′ end and a HindIII site on the 3′ end. Next, the pair of oligonucleotides is heated at 90° C. for one minute and then annealed in 2× ligation buffer (20 mM TRIS HCl pH 7.5, 10 mM MgCl2, 10 MM dithiothreitol (DTT) and 0.2 mM ATP) and then ligated to the EcoRI/Hind III site of the retroviral vector PMV7 (WO 91/15580).

[0832] For example, the 5′ coding portion of a polynucleotide that encodes the polypeptide of the present invention may be used to design an antisense RNA oligonucleotide of from about 10 to 40 base pairs in length. A DNA oligonucleotide is designed to be complementary to a region of the gene involved in transcription thereby preventing transcription and the production of the receptor. The antisense RNA oligonucleotide hybridizes to the mRNA in vivo and blocks translation of the mRNA molecule into receptor polypeptide.

[0833] In one embodiment, the antisense nucleic acid of the invention is produced intracellularly by transcription from an exogenous sequence. For example, a vector or a portion thereof, is transcribed, producing an antisense nucleic acid (RNA) of the invention. Such a vector would contain a sequence encoding the antisense nucleic acid. Such a vector can remain episomal or become chromosomally integrated, as long as it can be transcribed to produce the desired antisense RNA. Such vectors can be constructed by recombinant DNA technology methods standard in the art. Vectors can be plasmid, viral, or others known in the art, used for replication and expression in vertebrate cells. Expression of the sequence encoding the polypeptide of the present invnetion or fragments thereof, can be by any promoter known in the art to act in vertebrate, preferably human cells. Such promoters can be inducible or constitutive. Such promoters include, but are not limited to, the SV40 early promoter region (Bernoist and Chambon, Nature 29:304-310 (1981), the promoter contained in the 3′ long terminal repeat of Rous sarcoma virus (Yamamoto et al., Cell 22:787-797 (1980), the herpes thymidine promoter (Wagner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:1441-1445 (1981), the regulatory sequences of the metallothionein gene (Brinster, et al., Nature 296:39-42 (1982)), etc.

[0834] The antisense nucleic acids of the invention comprise a sequence complementary to at least a portion of an RNA transcript of a gene of the present invention. However, absolute complementarity, although preferred, is not required. A sequence “complementary to at least a portion of an RNA,” referred to herein, means a sequence having sufficient complementarity to be able to hybridize with the RNA, forming a stable duplex; in the case of double stranded antisense nucleic acids, a single strand of the duplex DNA may thus be tested, or triplex formation may be assayed. The ability to hybridize will depend on both the degree of complementarity and the length of the antisense nucleic acid. Generally, the larger the hybridizing nucleic acid, the more base mismatches with a RNA it may contain and still form a stable duplex (or triplex as the case may be). One skilled in the art can ascertain a tolerable degree of mismatch by use of standard procedures to determine the melting point of the hybridized complex.

[0835] Oligonucleotides that are complementary to the 5′ end of the message, e.g., the 5′ untranslated sequence up to and including the AUG initiation codon, should work most efficiently at inhibiting translation. However, sequences complementary to the 3′ untranslated sequences of mRNAs have been shown to be effective at inhibiting translation of mRNAs as well. See generally, Wagner, R., 1994, Nature 372:333-335 (1994). Thus, oligonucleotides complementary to either the 5′- or 3′-non-translated, non-coding regions of polynucleotide sequences described herein could be used in an antisense approach to inhibit translation of endogenous mRNA. Oligonucleotides complementary to the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA should include the complement of the AUG start codon. Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to mRNA coding regions are less efficient inhibitors of translation but could be used in accordance with the invention. Whether designed to hybridize to the 5′-, 3′- or coding region of mRNA of the present invention, antisense nucleic acids should be at least six nucleotides in length, and are preferably oligonucleotides ranging from 6 to about 50 nucleotides in length. In specific aspects the oligonucleotide is at least 10 nucleotides, at least 17 nucleotides, at least 25 nucleotides or at least 50 nucleotides.

[0836] The polynucleotides of the invention can be DNA or RNA or chimeric mixtures or derivatives or modified versions thereof, single-stranded or double-stranded. The oligonucleotide can be modified at the base moiety, sugar moiety, or phosphate backbone, for example, to improve stability of the molecule, hybridization, etc. The oligonucleotide may include other appended groups such as peptides (e.g., for targeting host cell receptors in vivo), or agents facilitating transport across the cell membrane (see, e.g., Letsinger et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:6553-6556 (1989); Lemaitre et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:648-652 (1987); PCT Publication No. WO88/09810, published Dec. 15, 1988) or the blood-brain barrier (see, e.g., PCT Publication No. WO89/10134, published Apr. 25, 1988), hybridization-triggered cleavage agents. (See, e.g., Krol et al., BioTechniques 6:958-976 (1988)) or intercalating agents. (See, e.g., Zon, Pharm. Res. 5:539-549 (1988)). To this end, the oligonucleotide may be conjugated to another molecule, e.g., a peptide, hybridization triggered cross-linking agent, transport agent, hybridization-triggered cleavage agent, etc.

[0837] The antisense oligonucleotide may comprise at least one modified base moiety which is selected from the group including, but not limited to, 5-fluorouracil, 5-bromouracil, 5-chlorouracil, 5-iodouracil, hypoxanthine, xantine, 4-acetylcytosine, 5-(carboxyhydroxylmethyl) uracil, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluracil, dihydrouracil, beta-D-galactosylqueosine, inosine, N6-isopentenyladenine, 1-methylguanine, 1-methylinosine, 2,2-dimethylguanine, 2-methyladenine, 2-methylguanine, 3-methylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, N6-adenine, 7-methylguanine, 5-methylaminomethyluracil, 5-methoxyaminomethyl-2-thiouracil, beta-D-mannosylqueosine, 5′-methoxycarboxymethyluracil, 5-methoxyuracil, 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenine, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid (v), wybutoxosine, pseudouracil, queosine, 2-thiocytosine, 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil, 5-methyluracil, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid methylester, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid (v), 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, 3-(3-amino-3-N-2-carboxypropyl) uracil, (acp3)w, and 2,6-diaminopurine.

[0838] The antisense oligonucleotide may also comprise at least one modified sugar moiety selected from the group including, but not limited to, arabinose, 2-fluoroarabinose, xylulose, and hexose.

[0839] In yet another embodiment, the antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified phosphate backbone selected from the group including, but not limited to, a phosphorothioate, a phosphorodithioate, a phosphoramidothioate, a phosphoramidate, a phosphordiamidate, a methylphosphonate, an alkyl phosphotriester, and a formacetal or analog thereof.

[0840] In yet another embodiment, the antisense oligonucleotide is an a-anomeric oligonucleotide. An a-anomeric oligonucleotide forms specific double-stranded hybrids with complementary RNA in which, contrary to the usual b-units, the strands run parallel to each other (Gautier et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 15:6625-6641 (1987)). The oligonucleotide is a 2′-0-methylribonucleotide (Inoue et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 15:6131-6148 (1987)), or a chimeric RNA-DNA analogue (Inoue et al., FEBS Lett. 215:327-330 (1987)).

[0841] Polynucleotides of the invention may be synthesized by standard methods known in the art, e.g.,by use of an automated DNA synthesizer (such as are commercially available from Biosearch, Applied Biosystems, etc.). As examples, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides may be synthesized by the method of Stein et al. (Nucl. Acids Res. 16:3209 (1988)), methylphosphonate oligonucleotides can be prepared by use of controlled pore glass polymer supports (Sarin et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:7448-7451 (1988)), etc.

[0842] While antisense nucleotides complementary to the coding region sequence could be used, those complementary to the transcribed untranslated region are most preferred.

[0843] Potential antagonists according to the invention also include catalytic RNA, or a ribozyme (See, e.g., PCT International Publication WO 90/11364, published Oct. 4, 1990; Sarver et al, Science 247:1222-1225 (1990). While ribozymes that cleave mRNA at site specific recognition sequences can be used to destroy mRNAs, the use of hammerhead ribozymes is preferred. Hammerhead ribozymes cleave mRNAs at locations dictated by flanking regions that form complementary base pairs with the target mRNA. The sole requirement is that the target mRNA have the following sequence of two bases: 5′-UG-3′. The construction and production of hammerhead ribozymes is well known in the art and is described more fully in Haseloff and Gerlach, Nature 334:585-591 (1988). There are numerous potential hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites within the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X. Preferably, the ribozyme is engineered so that the cleavage recognition site is located near the 5′ end of the mRNA; i.e., to increase efficiency and minimize the intracellular accumulation of non-functional mRNA transcripts.

[0844] As in the antisense approach, the ribozymes of the invention can be composed of modified oligonucleotides (e.g., for improved stability, targeting, etc.) and should be delivered to cells which express polypeptides of the present invention in vivo. DNA constructs encoding the ribozyme may be introduced into the cell in the same manner as described above for the introduction of antisense encoding DNA. A preferred method of delivery involves using a DNA construct “encoding” the ribozyme under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, such as, for example, pol III or pol II promoter, so that transfected cells will produce sufficient quantities of the ribozyme to destroy endogenous messages and inhibit translation. Since ribozymes unlike antisense molecules, are catalytic, a lower intracellular concentration is required for efficiency.

[0845] Antagonist/agonist compounds may be employed to inhibit the cell growth and proliferation effects of the polypeptides of the present invention on neoplastic cells and tissues, i.e. stimulation of angiogenesis of tumors, and, therefore, retard or prevent abnormal cellular growth and proliferation, for example, in tumor formation or growth.

[0846] The antagonist/agonist may also be employed to prevent hyper-vascular diseases, and prevent the proliferation of epithelial lens cells after extracapsular cataract surgery. Prevention of the mitogenic activity of the polypeptides of the present invention may also be desirous in cases such as restenosis after balloon angioplasty.

[0847] The antagonist/agonist may also be employed to prevent the growth of scar tissue during wound healing.

[0848] The antagonist/agonist may also be employed to treat the diseases described herein.

[0849] Thus, the invention provides a method of treating disorders or diseases, including but not limited to the disorders or diseases listed throughout this application, associated with overexpression of a polynucleotide of the present invention by administering to a patient (a) an antisense molecule directed to the polynucleotide of the present invention, and/or (b) a ribozyme directed to the polynucleotide of the present invention.

[0850] Binding Peptides and Other Molecules

[0851] The invention also encompasses screening methods for identifying polypeptides and nonpolypeptides that bind BMP polypeptides, and the BMP binding molecules identified thereby. These binding molecules are useful, for example, as agonists and antagonists of the BMP polypeptides. Such agonists and antagonists can be used, in accordance with the invention, in the therapeutic embodiments described in detail, below.

[0852] This method comprises the steps of:

[0853] a. contacting BMP polypeptides with a plurality of molecules; and

[0854] b. identifying a molecule that binds the BMP polypeptides.

[0855] The step of contacting the BMP polypeptides with the plurality of molecules may be effected in a number of ways. For example, one may contemplate immobilizing the BMP polypeptides on a solid support and bringing a solution of the plurality of molecules in contact with the immobilized BMP polypeptides. Such a procedure would be akin to an affinity chromatographic process, with the affinity matrix being comprised of the immobilized BMP polypeptides. The molecules having a selective affinity for the BMP polypeptides can then be purified by affinity selection. The nature of the solid support, process for attachment of the BMP polypeptides to the solid support, solvent, and conditions of the affinity isolation or selection are largely conventional and well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

[0856] Alternatively, one may also separate a plurality of polypeptides into substantially separate fractions comprising a subset of or individual polypeptides. For instance, one can separate the plurality of polypeptides by gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, or like method known to those of ordinary skill for the separation of polypeptides. The individual polypeptides can also be produced by a transformed host cell in such a way as to be expressed on or about its outer surface (e.g., a recombinant phage). Individual isolates can then be “probed” by the BMP polypeptides, optionally in the presence of an inducer should one be required for expression, to determine if any selective affinity interaction takes place between the BMP polypeptides and the individual clone. Prior to contacting the BMP polypeptides with each fraction comprising individual polypeptides, the polypeptides could first be transferred to a solid support for additional convenience. Such a solid support may simply be a piece of filter membrane, such as one made of nitrocellulose or nylon. In this manner, positive clones could be identified from a collection of transformed host cells of an expression library, which harbor a DNA construct encoding a polypeptide having a selective affinity for BMP polypeptides. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide having a selective affinity for the BMP polypeptides can be determined directly by conventional means or the coding sequence of the DNA encoding the polypeptide can frequently be determined more conveniently. The primary sequence can then be deduced from the corresponding DNA sequence. If the amino acid sequence is to be determined from the polypeptide itself, one may use microsequencing techniques. The sequencing technique may include mass spectroscopy.

[0857] In certain situations, it may be desirable to wash away any unbound BMP polypeptides, or alternatively, unbound polypeptides, from a mixture of the BMP polypeptides and the plurality of polypeptides prior to attempting to determine or to detect the presence of a selective affinity interaction. Such a wash step may be particularly desirable when the BMP polypeptides or the plurality of polypeptides is bound to a solid support.

[0858] The plurality of molecules provided according to this method may be provided by way of diversity libraries, such as random or combinatorial peptide or nonpeptide libraries which can be screened for molecules that specifically bind BMP polypeptides. Many libraries are known in the art that can be used, e.g., chemically synthesized libraries, recombinant (e.g., phage display libraries), and in vitro translation-based libraries. Examples of chemically synthesized libraries are described in Fodor et al., Science 251:767-773 (1991); Houghten et al., Nature 354:84-86 (1991); Lam et al., Nature 354:82-84 (1991); Medynski, Bio/Technology 12:709-710 (1994); Gallop et al., J. Medicinal Chemistry 37(9):1233-1251 (1994); Ohlmeyer et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:10922-10926 (1993); Erb et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11422-11426 (1994); Houghten et al., Biotechniques 13:412 (1992); Jayawickreme et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1614-1618 (1994); Salmon et al., 1993, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11708-11712; PCT Publication No. WO 93/20242; and Brenner and Lerner, 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:5381-5383.

[0859] Examples of phage display libraries are described in Scott and Smith, Science 249:386-390 (1990); Devlin et al., Science, 249:404-406 (1990); Christian, R. B., et al., J. Mol. Biol. 227:711-718 (1992)); Lenstra, J. Immunol. Meth. 152:149-157 (1992); Kay et al., Gene 128:59-65 (1993); and PCT Publication No. WO 94/18318 dated Aug. 18, 1994.

[0860] In vitro translation-based libraries include but are not limited to those described in PCT Publication No. WO 91/05058 dated Apr. 18, 1991; and Mattheakis et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:9022-9026 (1994).

[0861] By way of examples of nonpeptide libraries, a benzodiazepine library (see e.g., Bunin et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:4708-4712 (1994)) can be adapted for use. Peptoid libraries (Simon et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:9367-9371 (1992)) can also be used. Another example of a library that can be used, in which the amide functionalities in peptides have been permethylated to generate a chemically transformed combinatorial library, is described by Ostresh et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11138-11142 (1994)).

[0862] The variety of non-peptide libraries that are useful in the present invention is great. For example, Ecker and Crooke, Bio/Technology 13:351-360 (1995) list benzodiazepines, hydantoins, piperazinediones, biphenyls, sugar analogs, beta-mercaptoketones, arylacetic acids, acylpiperidines, benzopyrans, cubanes, xanthines, aminimides, and oxazolones as among the chemical species that form the basis of various libraries.

[0863] Non-peptide libraries can be classified broadly into two types: decorated monomers and oligomers. Decorated monomer libraries employ a relatively simple scaffold structure upon which a variety functional groups is added. Often the scaffold will be a molecule with a known useful pharmacological activity. For example, the scaffold might be the benzodiazepine structure.

[0864] Non-peptide oligomer libraries utilize a large number of monomers that are assembled together in ways that create new shapes that depend on the order of the monomers. Among the monomer units that have been used are carbamates, pyrrolinones, and morpholinos. Peptoids, peptide-like oligomers in which the side chain is attached to the alpha amino group rather than the alpha carbon, form the basis of another version of non-peptide oligomer libraries. The first non-peptide oligomer libraries utilized a single type of monomer and thus contained a repeating backbone. Recent libraries have utilized more than one monomer, giving the libraries added flexibility.

[0865] Screening the libraries can be accomplished by any of a variety of commonly known methods. See, e.g., the following references, which disclose screening of peptide libraries: Parmley and Smith, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 251:215-218 (1989); Scott and Smith, Science 249:386-390 (1990); Fowlkes et al., BioTechniques 13:422-427 (1992); Oldenburg et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:5393-5397 (1992); Yu et al., Cell 76:933-945 (1994); Staudt et al., Science 241:577-580 (1988); Bock et al., Nature 355:564-566 (1992); Tuerk et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:6988-6992 (1992); Ellington et al., Nature 355:850-852 (1992); U.S. Pat. No. 5,096,815, U.S. Pat. No. 5,223,409, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,198,346, all to Ladner et al.; Rebar and Pabo, Science 263:671-673 (1993); and CT Publication No. WO 94/18318.

[0866] In a specific embodiment, screening to identify a molecule that binds BMP polypeptides can be carried out by contacting the library members with BMP polypeptides immobilized on a solid phase and harvesting those library members that bind to the BMP polypeptides. Examples of such screening methods, termed “panning” techniques are described by way of example in Parmley and Smith, Gene 73:305-318 (1988); Fowlkes et al., BioTechniques 13:422-427 (1992); PCT Publication No. WO 94/18318; and in references cited herein.

[0867] In another embodiment, the two-hybrid system for selecting interacting proteins in yeast (Fields and Song, Nature 340:245-246 (1989); Chien et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:9578-9582 (1991)) can be used to identify molecules that specifically bind to BMP polypeptides.

[0868] Where the BMP binding molecule is a polypeptide, the polypeptide can be conveniently selected from any peptide library, including random peptide libraries, combinatorial peptide libraries, or biased peptide libraries. The term “biased” is used herein to mean that the method of generating the library is manipulated so as to restrict one or more parameters that govern the diversity of the resulting collection of molecules, in this case peptides.

[0869] Thus, a truly random peptide library would generate a collection of peptides in which the probability of finding a particular amino acid at a given position of the peptide is the same for all 20 amino acids. A bias can be introduced into the library, however, by specifying, for example, that a lysine occur every fifth amino acid or that positions 4, 8, and 9 of a decapeptide library be fixed to include only arginine. Clearly, many types of biases can be contemplated, and the present invention is not restricted to any particular bias. Furthermore, the present invention contemplates specific types of peptide libraries, such as phage displayed peptide libraries and those that utilize a DNA construct comprising a lambda phage vector with a DNA insert.

[0870] As mentioned above, in the case of a BMP binding molecule that is a polypeptide, the polypeptide may have about 6 to less than about 60 amino acid residues, preferably about 6 to about 10 amino acid residues, and most preferably, about 6 to about 22 amino acids. In another embodiment, a BMP binding polypeptide has in the range of 15-100 amino acids, or 20-50 amino acids.

[0871] The selected BMP binding polypeptide can be obtained by chemical synthesis or recombinant expression.

[0872] Other Activities

[0873] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention, as a result of the ability to stimulate vascular endothelial cell growth, may be employed in treatment for stimulating re-vascularization of ischemic tissues due to various disease conditions such as thrombosis, arteriosclerosis, and other cardiovascular conditions. The polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be employed to stimulate angiogenesis and limb regeneration, as discussed above.

[0874] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be employed for treating wounds due to injuries, burns, post-operative tissue repair, and ulcers since they are mitogenic to various cells of different origins, such as fibroblast cells and skeletal muscle cells, and therefore, facilitate the repair or replacement of damaged or diseased tissue.

[0875] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be employed stimulate neuronal growth and to treat and prevent neuronal damage which occurs in certain neuronal disorders or neuro-degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and AIDS-related complex. A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may have the ability to stimulate chondrocyte growth, therefore, they may be employed to enhance bone and periodontal regeneration and aid in tissue transplants or bone grafts.

[0876] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may be also be employed to prevent skin aging due to sunburn by stimulating keratinocyte growth.

[0877] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be employed for preventing hair loss, since FGF family members activate hair-forming cells and promotes melanocyte growth. Along the same lines, a polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may be employed to stimulate growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells and bone marrow cells when used in combination with other cytokines.

[0878] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be employed to maintain organs before transplantation or for supporting cell culture of primary tissues. A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be employed for inducing tissue of mesodermal origin to differentiate in early embryos.

[0879] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also increase or decrease the differentiation or proliferation of embryonic stem cells, besides, as discussed above, hematopoietic lineage.

[0880] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be used to modulate mammalian characteristics, such as body height, weight, hair color, eye color, skin, percentage of adipose tissue, pigmentation, size, and shape (e.g., cosmetic surgery). Similarly, a polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may be used to modulate mammalian metabolism affecting catabolism, anabolism, processing, utilization, and storage of energy.

[0881] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may be used to treat weight disorders, including but not limited to, obesity, cachexia, wasting disease, anorexia, and bulimia.

[0882] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may be used to change a mammal's mental state or physical state by influencing biorhythms, caricadic rhythms, depression (including depressive disorders), tendency for violence, tolerance for pain, reproductive capabilities (preferably by Activin or Inhibin-like activity), hormonal or endocrine levels, appetite, libido, memory, stress, or other cognitive qualities.

[0883] A polypeptide, polynucleotide, agonist, or antagonist of the present invention may also be used as a food additive or preservative, such as to increase or decrease storage capabilities, fat content, lipid, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, cofactors or other nutritional components.

[0884] The above-recited applications have uses in a wide variety of hosts. Such hosts include, but are not limited to, human, murine, rabbit, goat, guinea pig, camel, horse, mouse, rat, hamster, pig, micro-pig, chicken, goat, cow, sheep, dog, cat, non-human primate, and human. In specific embodiments, the host is a mouse, rabbit, goat, guinea pig, chicken, rat, hamster, pig, sheep, dog or cat. In preferred embodiments, the host is a mammal. In most preferred embodiments, the host is a human.

[0885] Other Preferred Embodiments

[0886] Other preferred embodiments of the claimed invention include an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 50 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto, and/or cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0887] Also preferred is a nucleic acid molecule wherein said sequence of contiguous nucleotides is included in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X in the range of positions identified for SEQ ID NO: X in Table 1 or Table 2.

[0888] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 150 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto, and/or cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0889] Further preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 500 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto, and/or cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0890] A further preferred embodiment is a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucloetide sequence which is at least 95% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X in the range of positions identified for SEQ ID NO: X in Table 1 or Table 2.

[0891] A further preferred embodiment is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to the complete nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto, and/or cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0892] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule which hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions to a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and/or cDNA Clone ID NO: V, wherein said nucleic acid molecule which hybridizes does not hybridize under stringent hybridization conditions to a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence consisting of only A residues or of only T residues.

[0893] Also preferred is a composition of matter comprising a DNA molecule which comprises cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0894] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0895] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein said sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides is included in the nucleotide sequence of an open reading frame sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0896] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to sequence of at least 150 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0897] A further preferred embodiment is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to sequence of at least 500 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0898] A further preferred embodiment is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to the complete nucleotide sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0899] A further preferred embodiment is a method for detecting in a biological sample a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a nucleotide sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V; which method comprises a step of comparing a nucleotide sequence of at least one nucleic acid molecule in said sample with a sequence selected from said group and determining whether the sequence of said nucleic acid molecule in said sample is at least 95% identical to said selected sequence.

[0900] Also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing sequences comprises determining the extent of nucleic acid hybridization between nucleic acid molecules in said sample and a nucleic acid molecule comprising said sequence selected from said group. Similarly, also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing sequences is performed by comparing the nucleotide sequence determined from a nucleic acid molecule in said sample with said sequence selected from said group. The nucleic acid molecules can comprise DNA molecules or RNA molecules.

[0901] A further preferred embodiment is a method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample which method comprises a step of detecting nucleic acid molecules in said sample, if any, comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a nucleotide sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0902] The method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample can comprise a step of detecting nucleic acid molecules comprising a nucleotide sequence in a panel of at least two nucleotide sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from said group.

[0903] Also preferred is a method for diagnosing in a subject a pathological condition associated with abnormal structure or expression of a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto or cDNA Clone ID NO: V which encodes a protein, wherein the method comprises a step of detecting in a biological sample obtained from said subject nucleic acid molecules, if any, comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a nucleotide sequence of cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0904] The method for diagnosing a pathological condition can comprise a step of detecting nucleic acid molecules comprising a nucleotide sequence in a panel of at least two nucleotide sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from said group.

[0905] Also preferred is a composition of matter comprising isolated nucleic acid molecules wherein the nucleotide sequences of said nucleic acid molecules comprise a panel of at least two nucleotide sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a nucleotide sequence encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V. The nucleic acid molecules can comprise DNA molecules or RNA molecules.

[0906] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least about 10 contiguous amino acids in the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and/or a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0907] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 30 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and/or a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0908] Further preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 100 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and/or a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0909] Further preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and/or a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0910] Further preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least about 10 contiguous amino acids in the complete amino acid sequence of a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0911] Also preferred is a polypeptide wherein said sequence of contiguous amino acids is included in the amino acid sequence of a portion of said polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and/or the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y.

[0912] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 30 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0913] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 100 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0914] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0915] Further preferred is an isolated antibody which binds specifically to a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0916] Further preferred is a method for detecting in a biological sample a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence which is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V; which method comprises a step of comparing an amino acid sequence of at least one polypeptide molecule in said sample with a sequence selected from said group and determining whether the sequence of said polypeptide molecule in said sample is at least 90% identical to said sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids.

[0917] Also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing an amino acid sequence of at least one polypeptide molecule in said sample with a sequence selected from said group comprises determining the extent of specific binding of polypeptides in said sample to an antibody which binds specifically to a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0918] Also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing sequences is preformed by comparing the amino acid sequence determined from a polypeptide molecule in said sample with said sequence selected from said group.

[0919] Also preferred is a method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample which method comprises a step of detecting polypeptide molecules in said sample, if any, comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0920] Also preferred is the above method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample, which method comprises a step of detecting polypeptide molecules comprising an amino acid sequence in a panel of at least two amino acid sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the above group.

[0921] Also preferred is a method for diagnosing in a subject a pathological condition associated with abnormal structure or expression of a nucleic acid sequence identified in Table 1 or Table 2 encoding a polypeptide, which method comprises a step of detecting in a biological sample obtained from said subject polypeptide molecules comprising an amino acid sequence in a panel of at least two amino acid sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0922] In any of these methods, the step of detecting said polypeptide molecules includes using an antibody.

[0923] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide wherein said polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0924] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein said nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide has been optimized for expression of said polypeptide in a prokaryotic host.

[0925] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein said polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V.

[0926] Further preferred is a method of making a recombinant vector comprising inserting any of the above isolated nucleic acid molecule into a vector. Also preferred is the recombinant vector produced by this method. Also preferred is a method of making a recombinant host cell comprising introducing the vector into a host cell, as well as the recombinant host cell produced by this method.

[0927] Also preferred is a method of making an isolated polypeptide comprising culturing this recombinant host cell under conditions such that said polypeptide is expressed and recovering said polypeptide. Also preferred is this method of making an isolated polypeptide, wherein said recombinant host cell is a eukaryotic cell and said polypeptide is a human protein comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO: Y; a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO: X or the complementary strand thereto and a polypeptide encoded by cDNA Clone ID NO: V. The isolated polypeptide produced by this method is also preferred.

[0928] Also preferred is a method of treatment of an individual in need of an increased level of a protein activity, which method comprises administering to such an individual a Therapeutic comprising an amount of an isolated polypeptide, polynucleotide, immunogenic fragment or analogue thereof, binding agent, antibody, or antigen binding fragment of the claimed invention effective to increase the level of said protein activity in said individual.

[0929] Also preferred is a method of treatment of an individual in need of a decreased level of a protein activity, which method comprised administering to such an individual a Therapeutic comprising an amount of an isolated polypeptide, polynucleotide, immunogenic fragment or analogue thereof, binding agent, antibody, or antigen binding fragment of the claimed invention effective to decrease the level of said protein activity in said individual.

[0930] In specific embodiments of the invention, for each “Contig ID” listed in the fourth column of Table 2, preferably excluded are one or more polynucleotides comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a nucleotide sequence referenced in the fifth column of Table 2 and described by the general formula of a-b, whereas a and b are uniquely determined for the corresponding SEQ ID NO: X referred to in column 3 of Table 2. Further specific embodiments are directed to polynucleotide sequences excluding one, two, three, four, or more of the specific polynucleotide sequences referred to in the fifth column of Table 2.

[0931] Preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of c-d, where both c and d correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO: X, and where d is greater than or equal to c+14.

[0932] In no way is this listing meant to encompass all of the sequences which may be excluded by the general formula, it is just a representative example. All references available through these accessions are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Having generally described the invention, the same will be more readily understood by reference to the following examples, which are provided by way of illustration and are not intended as limiting.

EXAMPLES Example 1

[0933] Isolation of a Selected cDNA Clone From the Deposited Sample

[0934] Each cDNA clone in a cited ATCC deposit is contained in a plasmid vector. Table 1 identifies the vectors used to construct the cDNA library from which each clone was isolated. In many cases, the vector used to construct the library is a phage vector from which a plasmid has been excised. The table immediately below correlates the related plasmid for each phage vector used in constructing the cDNA library. For example, where a particular clone is identified in Table 1 as being isolated in the vector “Lambda Zap,” the corresponding deposited clone is in “pBluescript.”

Vector Used to Construct Library Corresponding Deposited Plasmid
Lambda Zap pBluescript (pBS)
Uni-Zap XR pBluescript (pBS)
Zap Express pBK
lafmid BA plafmid BA
pSport1 pSport1
pCMVSport 2.0 pCMVSport 2.0
pCMVSport 3.0 pCMVSport 3.0
pCR ®2.1 pCR ®2.1

[0935] Vectors Lambda Zap (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,128,256 and 5,286,636), Uni-Zap XR (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,128, 256 and 5,286,636), Zap Express (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,128,256 and 5,286,636), pBluescript (pBS) (Short et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 16:7583-7600 (1988); Alting-Mees et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 17:9494 (1989)) and pBK (Alting-Mees et al., Strategies, 5:58-61 (1992)) are commercially available from Stratagene Cloning Systems, Inc., 11011 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, Calif., 92037. pBS contains an ampicillin resistance gene and pBK contains a neomycin resistance gene. Both can be transformed into E. coli strain XL-1 Blue, also available from Stratagene. pBS comes in 4 forms SK+, SK−, KS+ and KS. The S and K refers to the orientation of the polylinker to the T7 and T3 primer sequences which flank the polylinker region (“S” is for Sacd and “K” is for KpnI which are the first sites on each respective end of the linker). “+” or “−” refer to the orientation of the f1 origin of replication (“ori”), such that in one orientation, single stranded rescue initiated from the f1 ori generates sense strand DNA and in the other, antisense.

[0936] Vectors pSport1, pCMVSport 2.0 and pCMVSport 3.0, were obtained from Life Technologies, Inc., P. O. Box 6009, Gaithersburg, Md. 20897. All Sport vectors contain an ampicillin resistance gene and may be transformed into E. coli strain DH10B, also available from Life Technologies. (See, for instance, Gruber et al., Focus 15:59 (1993)). Vector lafmid BA (Bento Soares, Columbia University, NY) contains an ampicillin resistance gene and can be transformed into E. coli strain XL-1 Blue. Vector pCR®2.1, which is available from Invitrogen, 1600 Faraday Avenue, Carlsbad, Calif. 92008, contains an ampicillin resistance gene and may be transformed into E. coli strain DH10B, available from Life Technologies. (See, for instance, Clark, Nuc. Acids Res., 16:9677-9686 (1988) and Mead et al., Bio/Technology, 9 (1991)). Preferably, a polynucleotide of the present invention does not comprise the phage vector sequences identified for the particular clone in Table 1, as well as the corresponding plasmid vector sequences designated above.

[0937] The deposited material in the sample assigned the ATCC Deposit Number cited in Table 1 for any given cDNA clone also may contain one or more additional plasmids, each comprising a cDNA clone different from that given clone. Thus, deposits sharing the same ATCC Deposit Number contain at least a plasmid for each cDNA clone identified in Table 1. Typically, each ATCC deposit sample cited in Table 1 comprises a mixture of approximately equal amounts (by weight) of about 50 plasmid DNAs, each containing a different cDNA clone; but such a deposit sample may include plasmids for more or less than 50 cDNA clones, up to about 500 cDNA clones.

[0938] Two approaches can be used to isolate a particular clone from the deposited sample of plasmid DNAs cited for that clone in Table 1. First, a plasmid is directly isolated by screening the clones using a polynucleotide probe corresponding to SEQ ID NO: X.

[0939] Particularly, a specific polynucleotide with 30-40 nucleotides is synthesized using an Applied Biosystems DNA synthesizer according to the sequence reported. The oligonucleotide is labeled, for instance, with 32P-γ-ATP using T4 polynucleotide kinase and purified according to routine methods. (E.g., Maniatis et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring, N.Y. (1982)). The plasmid mixture is transformed into a suitable host, as indicated above (such as XL-1 Blue (Stratagene)) using techniques known to those of skill in the art, such as those provided by the vector supplier or in related publications or patents cited above. The transformants are plated on 1.5% agar plates (containing the appropriate selection agent, e.g., ampicillin) to a density of about 150 transformants (colonies) per plate. These plates are screened using Nylon membranes according to routine methods for bacterial colony screening (e.g., Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Edit., (1989), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pages 1.93 to 1.104), or other techniques known to those of skill in the art.

[0940] Alternatively, two primers of 17-20 nucleotides derived from both ends of the SEQ ID NO: X (i.e., within the region of SEQ ID NO: X bounded by the 5′ NT and the 3′ NT of the clone defined in Table 1) are synthesized and used to amplify the desired cDNA using the deposited cDNA plasmid as a template. The polymerase chain reaction is carried out under routine conditions, for instance, in 25 μl of reaction mixture with 0.5 ug of the above cDNA template. A convenient reaction mixture is 1.5-5 mM MgCl2, 0.01% (w/v) gelatin, 20 μM each of dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP, 25 pmol of each primer and 0.25 Unit of Taq polymerase. Thirty-five cycles of PCR (denaturation at 94° C. for 1 min; annealing at 55° C. for 1 min; elongation at 72° C. for 1 min) are performed with a Perkin-Elmer Cetus automated thermal cycler. The amplified product is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the DNA band with expected molecular weight is excised and purified. The PCR product is verified to be the selected sequence by subcloning and sequencing the DNA product.

[0941] Several methods are available for the identification of the 5′ or 3′ non-coding portions of a gene which may not be present in the deposited clone. These methods include but are not limited to, filter probing, clone enrichment using specific probes, and protocols similar or identical to 5′ and 3′ “RACE” protocols which are well known in the art. For instance, a method similar to 5′ RACE is available for generating the missing 5′ end of a desired full-length transcript. (Fromont-Racine et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 21(7):1683-1684 (1993)).

[0942] Briefly, a specific RNA oligonucleotide is ligated to the 5′ ends of a population of RNA presumably containing full-length gene RNA transcripts. A primer set containing a primer specific to the ligated RNA oligonucleotide and a primer specific to a known sequence of the gene of interest is used to PCR amplify the 5′ portion of the desired full-lenght gene. This amplified product may then be sequenced and used to generate the full length gene.

[0943] This above method starts with total RNA isolated from the desired source, although poly-A+ RNA can be used. The RNA preparation can then be treated with phosphatase if necessary to eliminate 5′ phosphate groups on degraded or damaged RNA which may interfere with the later RNA ligase step. The phosphatase should then be inactivated and the RNA treated with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase in order to remove the cap structure present at the 5′ ends of messenger RNAs. This reaction leaves a 5′ phosphate group at the 5′ end of the cap cleaved RNA which can then be ligated to an RNA oligonucleotide using T4 RNA ligase.

[0944] This modified RNA preparation is used as a template for first strand cDNA synthesis using a gene specific oligonucleotide. The first strand synthesis reaction is used as a template for PCR amplification of the desired 5′ end using a primer specific to the ligated RNA oligonucleotide and a primer specific to the known sequence of the gene of interest. The resultant product is then sequenced and analyzed to confirm that the 5′ end sequence belongs to the desired gene.

Example 2

[0945] Isolation of Genomic Clones Corresponding to a Polynucleotide

[0946] A human genomic P1 library (Genomic Systems, Inc.) is screened by PCR using primers selected for the cDNA sequence corresponding to SEQ ID NO: X., according to the method described in Example 1. (See also, Sambrook.)

Example 3

[0947] Tissue Distribution of Polypeptide

[0948] Tissue distribution of mRNA expression of polynucleotides of the present invention is determined using protocols for Northern blot analysis, described by, among others, Sambrook et al. For example, a cDNA probe produced by the method described in Example 1 is labeled with P32 using the rediprime™ DNA labeling system (Amersham Life Science), according to manufacturer's instructions. After labeling, the probe is purified using CHROMA SPIN-100™ column (Clontech Laboratories, Inc.), according to manufacturer's protocol number PT1200-1. The purified labeled probe is then used to examine various human tissues for mRNA expression.

[0949] Multiple Tissue Northern (MTN) blots containing various human tissues (H) or human immune system tissues (IM) (Clontech) are examined with the labeled probe using ExpressHyb™ hybridization solution (Clontech) according to manufacturer's protocol number PT1190-1. Following hybridization and washing, the blots are mounted and exposed to film at −70° C. overnight, and the films developed according to standard procedures.

Example 4

[0950] Chromosomal Mapping of the Polynucleotides

[0951] An oligonucleotide primer set is designed according to the sequence at the 5′ end of SEQ ID NO: X. This primer preferably spans about 100 nucleotides. This primer set is then used in a polymerase chain reaction under the following set of conditions: 30 seconds, 95° C.; 1 minute, 56° C.; 1 minute, 70° C. This cycle is repeated 32 times followed by one 5 minute cycle at 70° C. Human, mouse, and hamster DNA is used as template in addition to a somatic cell hybrid panel containing individual chromosomes or chromosome fragments (Bios, Inc). The reactions are analyzed on either 8% polyacrylamide gels or 3.5% agarose gels. Chromosome mapping is determined by the presence of an approximately 100 bp PCR fragment in the particular somatic cell hybrid.

Example 5

[0952] Bacterial Expression of a Polypeptide

[0953] A polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of the present invention is amplified using PCR oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the 5′ and 3′ ends of the DNA sequence, as outlined in Example 1, to synthesize insertion fragments. The primers used to amplify the cDNA insert should preferably contain restriction sites, such as BamHI and XbaI and initiation/stop codons, if necessary, to clone the amplified product into the expression vector. For example, BamHI and XbaI correspond to the restriction enzyme sites on the bacterial expression vector pQE-9. (Qiagen, Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.). This plasmid vector encodes antibiotic resistance (Ampr), a bacterial origin of replication (ori), an IPTG-regulatable promoter/operator (P/O), a ribosome binding site (RBS), a 6-histidine tag (6-His), and restriction enzyme cloning sites.

[0954] The pQE-9 vector is digested with BamHI and XbaI and the amplified fragment is ligated into the pQE-9 vector maintaining the reading frame initiated at the bacterial RBS. The ligation mixture is then used to transform the E. coli strain M15/rep4 (Qiagen, Inc.) which contains multiple copies of the plasmid pREP4, which expresses the lacI repressor and also confers kanamycin resistance (Kanr). Transformants are identified by their ability to grow on LB plates and ampicillin/kanamycin resistant colonies are selected. Plasmid DNA is isolated and confirmed by restriction analysis.

[0955] Clones containing the desired constructs are grown overnight (O/N) in liquid culture in LB media supplemented with both Amp (100 ug/ml) and Kan (25 ug/ml). The O/N culture is used to inoculate a large culture at a ratio of 1:100 to 1:250. The cells are grown to an optical density 600 (O.D.600) of between 0.4 and 0.6. IPTG (Isopropyl-B-D-thiogalacto pyranoside) is then added to a final concentration of 1 mM. IPTG induces by inactivating the lacI repressor, clearing the P/O leading to increased gene expression.

[0956] Cells are grown for an extra 3 to 4 hours. Cells are then harvested by centrifugation (20 mins at 6000×g). The cell pellet is solubilized in the chaotropic agent 6 Molar Guanidine HCl by stirring for 3-4 hours at 4° C. The cell debris is removed by centrifugation, and the supernatant containing the polypeptide is loaded onto a nickel-nitrilo-tri-acetic acid (“Ni-NTA”) affinity resin column (available from QIAGEN, Inc., supra). Proteins with a 6× His tag bind to the Ni-NTA resin with high affinity and can be purified in a simple one-step procedure (for details see: The QIAexpressionist (1995) QIAGEN, Inc., supra).

[0957] Briefly, the supernatant is loaded onto the column in 6 M guanidine-HCl, pH 8, the column is first washed with 10 volumes of 6 M guanidine-HCl, pH 8, then washed with 10 volumes of 6 M guanidine-HCl pH 6, and finally the polypeptide is eluted with 6 M guanidine-HCl, pH 5.

[0958] The purified protein is then renatured by dialyzing it against phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or 50 mM Na-acetate, pH 6 buffer plus 200 mM NaCl. Alternatively, the protein can be successfully refolded while immobilized on the Ni-NTA column. The recommended conditions are as follows: renature using a linear 6M-1M urea gradient in 500 mM NaCl, 20% glycerol, 20 mM Tris/HCl pH 7.4, containing protease inhibitors. The renaturation should be performed over a period of 1.5 hours or more. After renaturation the proteins are eluted by the addition of 250 mM immidazole. Immidazole is removed by a final dialyzing step against PBS or 50 mM sodium acetate pH 6 buffer plus 200 mM NaCl. The purified protein is stored at 4° C. or frozen at −80° C.

[0959] In addition to the above expression vector, the present invention further includes an expression vector comprising phage operator and promoter elements operatively linked to a polynucleotide of the present invention, called pHE4a. (ATCC Accession Number 209645, deposited on Feb. 25, 1998.) This vector contains: 1) a neomycinphosphotransferase gene as a selection marker, 2) an E. coli origin of replication, 3) a T5 phage promoter sequence, 4) two lac operator sequences, 5) a Shine-Delgamo sequence, and 6) the lactose operon repressor gene (lacIq). The origin of replication (oriC) is derived from pUC19 (LTI, Gaithersburg, Md.). The promoter sequence and operator sequences are made synthetically.

[0960] DNA can be inserted into the pHEa by restricting the vector with NdeI and XbaI, BamHI, XhoI, or Asp718, running the restricted product on a gel, and isolating the larger fragment (the stuffer fragment should be about 310 base pairs). The DNA insert is generated according to the PCR protocol described in Example 1, using PCR primers having restriction sites for NdeI (5′ primer) and XbaI, BamHI, XhoI, or Asp718 (3′ primer). The PCR insert is gel purified and restricted with compatible enzymes. The insert and vector are ligated according to standard protocols.

[0961] The engineered vector could easily be substituted in the above protocol to express protein in a bacterial system.

Example 6

[0962] Purification of a Polypeptide from an Inclusion Body

[0963] The following alternative method can be used to purify a polypeptide expressed in E coli when it is present in the form of inclusion bodies. Unless otherwise specified, all of the following steps are conducted at 4-10° C.

[0964] Upon completion of the production phase of the E. coli fermentation, the cell culture is cooled to 4-10° C. and the cells harvested by continuous centrifugation at 15,000 rpm (Heraeus Sepatech). On the basis of the expected yield of protein per unit weight of cell paste and the amount of purified protein required, an appropriate amount of cell paste, by weight, is suspended in a buffer solution containing 100 mM Tris, 50 mM EDTA, pH 7.4. The cells are dispersed to a homogeneous suspension using a high shear mixer.

[0965] The cells are then lysed by passing the solution through a microfluidizer (Microfuidics, Corp. or APV Gaulin, Inc.) twice at 4000-6000 psi. The homogenate is then mixed with NaCl solution to a final concentration of 0.5 M NaCl, followed by centrifugation at 7000×g for 15 min. The resultant pellet is washed again using 0.5M NaCl, 100 mM Tris, 50 mM EDTA, pH 7.4.

[0966] The resulting washed inclusion bodies are solubilized with 1.5 M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) for 2-4 hours. After 7000×g centrifugation for 15 min., the pellet is discarded and the polypeptide containing supernatant is incubated at 4° C. overnight to allow further GuHCl extraction.

[0967] Following high speed centrifugation (30,000×g) to remove insoluble particles, the GuHCl solubilized protein is refolded by quickly mixing the GuHCl extract with 20 volumes of buffer containing 50 mM sodium, pH 4.5, 150 mM NaCl, 2 MM EDTA by vigorous stirring. The refolded diluted protein solution is kept at 4° C. without mixing for 12 hours prior to further purification steps.

[0968] To clarify the refolded polypeptide solution, a previously prepared tangential filtration unit equipped with 0.16 μm membrane filter with appropriate surface area (e.g., Filtron), equilibrated with 40 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0 is employed) The filtered sample is loaded onto a cation exchange resin (e.g., Poros HS-50, Perseptive Biosystems). The column is washed with 40 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0 and eluted with 250 mM, 500 mM, 1000 mM, and 1500 mM NaCl in the same buffer, in a stepwise manner. The absorbance at 280 nm of the effluent is continuously monitored. Fractions are collected and further analyzed by SDS-PAGE.

[0969] Fractions containing the polypeptide are then pooled and mixed with 4 volumes of water. The diluted sample is then loaded onto a previously prepared set of tandem columns of strong anion (Poros HQ-50, Perseptive Biosystems) and weak anion (Poros CM-20, Perseptive Biosystems) exchange resins. The columns are equilibrated with 40 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0. Both columns are washed with 40 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0, 200 mM NaCl. The CM-20 column is then eluted using a 10 column volume linear gradient ranging from 0.2 M NaCl, 50 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0 to 1.0 M NaCl, 50 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.5. Fractions are collected under constant A280 monitoring of the effluent. Fractions containing the polypeptide (determined, for instance, by 16% SDS-PAGE) are then pooled.

[0970] The resultant polypeptide should exhibit greater than 95% purity after the above refolding and purification steps. No major contaminant bands should be observed from Commassie blue stained 16% SDS-PAGE gel when 5 μg of purified protein is loaded. The purified protein can also be tested for endotoxin/LPS contamination, and typically the LPS content is less than 0.1 ng/ml according to LAL assays.

Example 7

[0971] Cloning and Expression of a Polypeptide in a Baculovirus Expression System

[0972] In this example, the plasmid shuttle vector pA2 is used to insert a polynucleotide into a baculovirus to express a polypeptide. This expression vector contains the strong polyhedrin promoter of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) followed by convenient restriction sites such as BamHI, Xba I and Asp718. The polyadenylation site of the simian virus 40 (“SV40”) is used for efficient polyadenylation. For easy selection of recombinant virus, the plasmid contains the beta-galactosidase gene from E. coli under control of a weak Drosophila promoter in the same orientation, followed by the polyadenylation signal of the polyhedrin gene. The inserted genes are flanked on both sides by viral sequences for cell-mediated homologous recombination with wild-type viral DNA to generate a viable virus that express the cloned polynucleotide.

[0973] Many other baculovirus vectors can be used in place of the vector above, such as pAc373, pVL941, and pAcIM1, as one skilled in the art would readily appreciate, as long as the construct provides appropriately located signals for transcription, translation, secretion and the like, including a signal peptide and an in-frame AUG as required. Such vectors are described, for instance, in Luckow et al., Virology 170:31-39 (1989).

[0974] Specifically, the cDNA sequence contained in the deposited clone is amplified using the PCR protocol described in Example 1 using primers with appropriate restriction sites and initiation/stop codons. If the naturally occurring signal sequence is used to produce the secreted protein, the pA2 vector does not need a second signal peptide. Alternatively, the vector can be modified (pA2 GP) to include a baculovirus leader sequence, using the standard methods described in Summers et al., “A Manual of Methods for Baculovirus Vectors and Insect Cell Culture Procedures,” Texas Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin NO: 1555 (1987).

[0975] The amplified fragment is isolated from a 1% agarose gel using a commercially available kit (“Geneclean,” BIO 101 Inc., La Jolla, Calif.). The fragment then is digested with appropriate restriction enzymes and again purified on a 1% agarose gel.

[0976] The plasmid is digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and optionally, can be dephosphorylated using calf intestinal phosphatase, using routine procedures known in the art. The DNA is then isolated from a 1% agarose gel using a commercially available kit (“Geneclean” BIO 101 Inc., La Jolla, Calif.).

[0977] The fragment and the dephosphorylated plasmid are ligated together with T4 DNA ligase. E. coli HB101 or other suitable E. coli hosts such as XL-1 Blue (Stratagene Cloning Systems, La Jolla, Calif.) cells are transformed with the ligation mixture and spread on culture plates. Bacteria containing the plasmid are identified by digesting DNA from individual colonies and analyzing the digestion product by gel electrophoresis. The sequence of the cloned fragment is confirmed by DNA sequencing.

[0978] Five μg of a plasmid containing the polynucleotide is co-transfected with 1.0 μg of a commercially available linearized baculovirus DNA (“BaculoGold™ baculovirus DNA”, Pharmingen, San Diego, Calif.), using the lipofection method described by Felgner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:7413-7417 (1987). One μg of BaculoGold™ virus DNA and 5 μg of the plasmid are mixed in a sterile well of a microtiter plate containing 50 μl of serum-free Grace's medium (Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.). Afterwards, 10 μl Lipofectin plus 90 μl Grace's medium are added, mixed and incubated for 15 minutes at room temperature. Then the transfection mixture is added drop-wise to Sf9 insect cells (ATCC CRL 1711) seeded in a 35 mm tissue culture plate with 1 ml Grace's medium without serum. The plate is then incubated for 5 hours at 27° C. The transfection solution is then removed from the plate and 1 ml of Grace's insect medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum is added. Cultivation is then continued at 27° C. for four days.

[0979] After four days the supernatant is collected and a plaque assay is performed, as described by Summers and Smith, supra. An agarose gel with “Blue Gal” (Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg) is used to allow easy identification and isolation of gal-expressing clones, which produce blue-stained plaques. (A detailed description of a “plaque assay” of this type can also be found in the user's guide for insect cell culture and baculovirology distributed by Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, page 9-10.) After appropriate incubation, blue stained plaques are picked with the tip of a micropipettor (e.g., Eppendorf). The agar containing the recombinant viruses is then resuspended in a microcentrifuge tube containing 200 μl of Grace's medium and the suspension containing the recombinant baculovirus is used to infect Sf9 cells seeded in 35 mm dishes. Four days later the supernatants of these culture dishes are harvested and then they are stored at 4° C.

[0980] To verify the expression of the polypeptide, Sf9 cells are grown in Grace's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FBS. The cells are infected with the recombinant baculovirus containing the polynucleotide at a multiplicity of infection (“MOI”) of about 2. If radiolabeled proteins are desired, 6 hours later the medium is removed and is replaced with SF900 II medium minus methionine and cysteine (available from Life Technologies Inc., Rockville, Md.). After 42 hours, 5 μCi of 35S-methionine and 5 μCi 35S-cysteine (available from Amersham) are added. The cells are further incubated for 16 hours and then are harvested by centrifugation. The proteins in the supernatant as well as the intracellular proteins are analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by autoradiography (if radiolabeled).

[0981] Microsequencing of the amino acid sequence of the amino terminus of purified protein may be used to determine the amino terminal sequence of the produced protein.

Example 8

[0982] Expression of a Polypeptide in Mammalian Cells

[0983] The polypeptide of the present invention can be expressed in a mammalian cell. A typical mammalian expression vector contains a promoter element, which mediates the initiation of transcription of mRNA, a protein coding sequence, and signals required for the termination of transcription and polyadenylation of the transcript. Additional elements include enhancers, Kozak sequences and intervening sequences flanked by donor and acceptor sites for RNA splicing. Highly efficient transcription is achieved with the early and late promoters from SV40, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) from Retroviruses, e.g., RSV, HTLVI, HIVI and the early promoter of the cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, cellular elements can also be used (e.g., the human actin promoter).

[0984] Suitable expression vectors for use in practicing the present invention include, for example, vectors such as pSVL and pMSG (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden), pRSVcat (ATCC 37152), pSV2dhfr (ATCC 37146), pBC12MI (ATCC 67109), pCMVSport 2.0, and pCMVSport 3.0. Mammalian host cells that could be used include, human Hela, 293, H9 and Jurkat cells, mouse NIH3T3 and C127 cells, Cos 1, Cos 7 and CV1, quail QC1-3 cells, mouse L cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

[0985] Alternatively, the polypeptide can be expressed in stable cell lines containing the polynucleotide integrated into a chromosome. The co-transfection with a selectable marker such as dhfr, gpt, neomycin, hygromycin allows the identification and isolation of the transfected cells.

[0986] The transfected gene can also be amplified to express large amounts of the encoded protein. The DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) marker is useful in developing cell lines that carry several hundred or even several thousand copies of the gene of interest. (See, e.g., Alt et al., J. Biol. Chem., 253:1357-1370 (1978); Hamlin et al., Biochem. et Biophys. Acta, 1097:107-143 (1990); Page et al., Biotechnology 9:64-68 (1991)). Another useful selection marker is the enzyme glutamine synthase (GS) (Murphy et al., Biochem J., 227:277-279 (1991); Bebbington et al., Bio/Technology, 10:169-175 (1992). Using these markers, the mammalian cells are grown in selective medium and the cells with the highest resistance are selected. These cell lines contain the amplified gene(s) integrated into a chromosome. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and NSO cells are often used for the production of proteins.

[0987] Derivatives of the plasmid pSV2-dhfr (ATCC Accession No.: 37146), the expression vectors pC4 (ATCC Accession No.: 209646) and pC6 (ATCC Accession No.:209647) contain the strong promoter (LTR) of the Rous Sarcoma Virus (Cullen et al., Molecular and Cellular Biology, 438-447 (March, 1985)) plus a fragment of the CMV-enhancer (Boshart et al., Cell, 41:521-530 (1985)). Multiple cloning sites, e.g., with the restriction enzyme cleavage sites BamHII, XbaI and Asp718, facilitate the cloning of the gene of interest. The vectors also contain the 3′ intron, the polyadenylation and termination signal of the rat preproinsulin gene, and the mouse DHFR gene under control of the SV40 early promoter.

[0988] Specifically, the plasmid pC6, for example, is digested with appropriate restriction enzymes and then dephosphorylated using calf intestinal phosphates by procedures known in the art. The vector is then isolated from a 1% agarose gel.

[0989] A polynucleotide of the present invention is amplified according to the protocol outlined in Example 1 using primers with appropriate restrictions sites and initiation/stop codons, if necessary. The vector can be modified to include a heterologous signal sequence if necessary for secretion. (See, e.g., WO 96/34891.)

[0990] The amplified fragment is isolated from a 1% agarose gel using a commercially available kit (“Geneclean,” BIO 101 Inc., La Jolla, Calif.). The fragment then is digested with appropriate restriction enzymes and again purified on a 1% agarose gel.

[0991] The amplified fragment is then digested with the same restriction enzyme and purified on a 1% agarose gel. The isolated fragment and the dephosphorylated vector are then ligated with T4 DNA ligase. E. coli HB101 or XL-1 Blue cells are then transformed and bacteria are identified that contain the fragment inserted into plasmid pC6 using, for instance, restriction enzyme analysis.

[0992] Chinese hamster ovary cells lacking an active DHFR gene are used for transfection. Five fig of the expression plasmid pC6 is cotransfected with 0.5 μg of the plasmid pSVneo using lipofectin (Felgner et al., supra). The plasmid pSV2-neo contains a dominant selectable marker, the neo gene from Tn5 encoding an enzyme that confers resistance to a group of antibiotics including G418. The cells are seeded in alpha minus MEM supplemented with 1 mg/ml G418. After 2 days, the cells are trypsinized and seeded in hybridoma cloning plates (Greiner, Germany) in alpha minus MEM supplemented with 10, 25, or 50 ng/ml of metothrexate plus 1 mg/ml G418. After about 10-14 days single clones are trypsinized and then seeded in 6-well petri dishes or 10 ml flasks using different concentrations of methotrexate (50 nM, 100 nM, 200 nM, 400 nM, 800 nM). Clones growing at the highest concentrations of methotrexate are then transferred to new 6-well plates containing even higher concentrations of methotrexate (1 μM, 2 μM, 5 μM, 10 mM, 20 mM). The same procedure is repeated until clones are obtained which grow at a concentration of 100-200 μM. Expression of the desired gene product is analyzed, for instance, by SDS-PAGE and Western blot or by reversed phase HPLC analysis.

Example 9

[0993] Protein Fusions

[0994] The polypeptides of the present invention are preferably fused to other proteins. These fusion proteins can be used for a variety of applications. For example, fusion of the present polypeptides to His-tag, HA-tag, protein A, IgG domains, and maltose binding protein facilitates purification. (See Example 5; see also EP A 394,827; Traunecker, et al., Nature, 331:84-86 (1988)) The polypeptides can also be fused to heterologous polypeptide sequences to facilitate secretion and intracellular trafficking (e.g., KDEL (SEQ ID NO: 77)). Moreover, fusion to IgG-1, IgG-3, and albumin increases the halflife time in vivo. Nuclear localization signals fused to the polypeptides of the present invention can target the protein to a specific subcellular localization, while covalent heterodimer or homodimers can increase or decrease the activity of a fusion protein. Fusion proteins can also create chimeric molecules having more than one function. Finally, fusion proteins can increase solubility and/or stability of the fused protein compared to the non-fused protein. All of the types of fusion proteins described above can be made by modifying the following protocol, which outlines the fusion of a polypeptide to an IgG molecule, or the protocol described in Example 5.

[0995] Briefly, the human Fc portion of the IgG molecule can be PCR amplified, using primers that span the 5′ and 3′ ends of the sequence described below. These primers also should have convenient restriction enzyme sites that will facilitate cloning into an expression vector, preferably a mammalian expression vector, and initiation/stop codons, if necessary.

[0996] For example, if pC4 (Accession No.: 209646) is used, the human Fc portion can be ligated into the BamHI cloning site. Note that the 3′ BamHI site should be destroyed. Next, the vector containing the human Fe portion is re-restricted with BamHI, linearizing the vector, and a polynucleotide of the present invention, isolated by the PCR protocol described in Example 1, is ligated into this BamHI site. Note that the polynucleotide is cloned without a stop codon, otherwise a fusion protein will not be produced.

[0997] If the naturally occurring signal sequence is used to produce the secreted protein, pC4 does not need a second signal peptide. Alternatively, if the naturally occurring signal sequence is not used, the vector can be modified to include a heterologous signal sequence. (See, e.g., WO 96/34891.)

Human IgG Fc region:
(SEQ ID NO:1)
GGGATCCGGAGCCCAAATCTTCTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGC
CCAGCACCTGAATTCGAGGGTGCACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAA
ACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACTCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGG
TGGTGGACGTAAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTG
GACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTA
CAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACT
GGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCCCA
ACCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACC
ACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGG
TCAGCCTGACCTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCAAGCGACATCGCCGTG
GAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCC
CGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGG
ACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCAT
GAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGG
TAAATGAGTGCGACGGCCGCGACTCTAGAGGAT

Example 10

[0998] Formulating a Therapeutic

[0999] The invention also provides methods of treatment and/or prevention of diseases or disorders (such as, for example, any one or more of the diseases or disorders disclosed herein) by administration to a subject of an effective amount of a Therapeutic. In preferred embodiments, the administration of a Therapeutic of the invention is immediately prior to, during, or immediately after nutrient consumption (e.g., a meal). By Therapeutic is meant polynucleotides or polypeptides of the invention (including fragments and variants), agonists or antagonists thereof, and/or antibodies thereto, in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier type (e.g., a sterile carrier).

[1000] The Therapeutic (e.g., polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention) composition will be formulated and dosed in a fashion consistent with good medical practice, taking into account the clinical condition of the individual patient (especially the side effects of treatment with the secreted polypeptide alone), the site of delivery, the method of administration, the scheduling of administration, and other factors known to practitioners. The “effective amount” for purposes herein is thus determined by such considerations.

[1001] As a general proposition, the total pharmaceutically effective amount of polypeptide administered parenterally per dose will be in the range of about 1 μg/kg/day to 10 mg/kg/day of patient body weight, although, as noted above, this will be subject to therapeutic discretion. More preferably, this dose is at least 0.01 mg/kg/day, and most preferably for humans between about 0.01 and I mg/kg/day for the hormone. If given continuously, the polypeptide is typically administered at a dose rate of about 1 μg/kg/hour to about 50 μg/kg/hour, either by 1-4 injections per day or by continuous subcutaneous infusions, for example, using a mini-pump. An intravenous bag solution may also be employed. The length of treatment needed to observe changes and the interval following treatment for responses to occur appears to vary depending on the desired effect.

[1002] Pharmaceutical compositions containing the polypeptide of the invention are administered orally, rectally, parenterally, intracistemally, intravaginally, intraperitoneally, topically (as by powders, ointments, gels, drops or transdermal patch), bucally, or as an oral or nasal spray. “Pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” refers to a non-toxic solid, semisolid or liquid filler, diluent, encapsulating material or formulation auxiliary of any type. The term “parenteral” as used herein refers to modes of administration which include intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intrastemal, subcutaneous and intraarticular injection and infusion.

[1003] In addition pharmaceutical compositions of the invention comprise a therapeutic amount of a BMP protein of the invention with a therapeutic amount of at least one of the other BMP proteins disclosed herein or otherwise known in the art. Such combinations may comprise separate molecules of the BMP proteins or heteromolecules comprised of different BMP moieties. For example, a BMP-2 or BMP-4 subunit may be linked to a BMP-1, BMP-3, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7 or BMP-8 subunit. Such linkage may comprise disulfide bonds.

[1004] In specific embodiments, the Therapeutic (e.g., polypeptides, antibodies, and/or agonists or antagonists) of the invention is administered immediately prior to, during, or immediately after nutrient consumption (e.g., a meal).

[1005] The polypeptide is also suitably administered by sustained-release systems. Suitable examples of sustained-release compositions include semi-permeable polymer matrices in the form of shaped articles, e.g., films, or mirocapsules. Sustained-release matrices include polylactides (U.S. Pat. No. 3,773,919, EP 58,481), copolymers of L-glutamic acid and gamma-ethyl-L-glutamate (Sidman et al., Biopolymers, 22:547-556 (1983)), poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (Langer et al., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 15:167-277 (1981), and Langer, Chem. Tech., 12:98-105 (1982)), ethylene vinyl acetate (R. Langer et al.) or poly-D-(−)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (EP 133,988). Sustained-release compositions also include liposomally entrapped polypeptides. Liposomes containing the secreted polypeptide are prepared by methods known per se: DE 3,218,121; Epstein et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:3688-3692 (1985); Hwang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77:4030-4034 (1980); EP 52,322; EP 36,676; EP 88,046; EP 143,949; EP 142,641; Japanese Pat. Appl. 83-118008; U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,485,045 and 4,544,545; and EP 102,324. Ordinarily, the liposomes are of the small (about 200-800 Angstroms) unilamellar type in which the lipid content is greater than about 30 mol. percent cholesterol, the selected proportion being adjusted for the optimal secreted polypeptide therapy.

[1006] For parenteral administration, in one embodiment, the polypeptide is formulated generally by mixing it at the desired degree of purity, in a unit dosage injectable form (solution, suspension, or emulsion), with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, i.e., one that is non-toxic to recipients at the dosages and concentrations employed and is compatible with other ingredients of the formulation. For example, the formulation preferably does not include oxidizing agents and other compounds that are known to be deleterious to polypeptides.

[1007] Generally, the formulations are prepared by contacting the polypeptide uniformly and intimately with liquid carriers or finely divided solid carriers or both. Then, if necessary, the product is shaped into the desired formulation. Preferably the carrier is a parenteral carrier, more preferably a solution that is isotonic with the blood of the recipient. Examples of such carrier vehicles include water, saline, Ringer's solution, and dextrose solution. Non-aqueous vehicles such as fixed oils and ethyl oleate are also useful herein, as well as liposomes.

[1008] The carrier suitably contains minor amounts of additives such as substances that enhance isotonicity and chemical stability. Such materials are non-toxic to recipients at the dosages and concentrations employed, and include buffers such as phosphate, citrate, succinate, acetic acid, and other organic acids or their salts; antioxidants such as ascorbic acid; low molecular weight (less than about ten residues) polypeptides, e.g., polyarginine or tripeptides; proteins, such as serum albumin, gelatin, or immunoglobulins; hydrophilic polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone; amino acids, such as glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, or arginine; monosaccharides, disaccharides, and other carbohydrates including cellulose or its derivatives, glucose, manose, or dextrins; chelating agents such as EDTA; sugar alcohols such as mannitol or sorbitol; counterions such as sodium; and/or nonionic surfactants such as polysorbates, poloxamers, or PEG.

[1009] The polypeptide is typically formulated in such vehicles at a concentration of about 0.1 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml, preferably 1-10 mg/ml, at a pH of about 3 to 8. It will be understood that the use of certain of the foregoing excipients, carriers, or stabilizers will result in the formation of polypeptide salts.

[1010] Any polypeptide to be used for therapeutic administration can be sterile. Sterility is readily accomplished by filtration through sterile filtration membranes (e.g., 0.2 micron membranes). Therapeutic polypeptide compositions generally are placed into a container having a sterile access port, for example, an intravenous solution bag or vial having a stopper pierceable by a hypodermic injection needle.

[1011] Polypeptides ordinarily will be stored in unit or multi-dose containers, for example, sealed ampoules or vials, as an aqueous solution or as a lyophilized formulation for reconstitution. As an example of a lyophilized formulation, 10-ml vials are filled with 5 ml of sterile-filtered 1% (w/v) aqueous polypeptide solution, and the resulting mixture is lyophilized. The infusion solution is prepared by reconstituting the lyophilized polypeptide using bacteriostatic Water-for-Injection.

[1012] The invention also provides a pharmaceutical pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with one or more of the ingredients of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention. Associated with such container(s) can be a notice in the form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals or biological products, which notice reflects approval by the agency of manufacture, use or sale for human administration. In addition, the polypeptides of the present invention may be employed in conjunction with other therapeutic compounds.

[1013] The Therapeutics of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with adjuvants. Adjuvants that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, alum, alum plus deoxycholate (ImmunoAg), MTP-PE (Biocine Corp.), QS21 (Genentech, Inc.), BCG (e.g., THERACYS®), MPL and nonviable prepartions of Corynebacterium parvum. In a specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with alum. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with QS-21. Further adjuvants that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, Monophosphoryl lipid immunomodulator, AdjuVax 100a, QS-21, QS-18, CRL1005, Aluminum salts, MF-59, and Virosomal adjuvant technology. Vaccines that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, vaccines directed toward protection against MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), polio, varicella, tetanus/diptheria, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae B, whooping cough, pneumonia, influenza, Lyme's Disease, rotavirus, cholera, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, rabies, typhoid fever, and pertussis. Combinations may be administered either concomitantly, e.g., as an admixture, separately but simultaneously or concurrently; or sequentially. This includes presentations in which the combined agents are administered together as a therapeutic mixture, and also procedures in which the combined agents are administered separately but simultaneously, e.g., as through separate intravenous lines into the same individual. Administration “in combination” further includes the separate administration of one of the compounds or agents given first, followed by the second.

[1014] The Therapeutics of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents. Therapeutic agents that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention, include but not limited to, chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, conventional immunotherapeutic agents, and/or therapeutic treatments described below. In preferred embodiments, the Therapeutics (i.e., compositions) of the invention may be administered in combination with other insulin and/or other proteins (including antibodies), peptides, or small molecules that regulate weight, heart disease, hypertension, neuropathy, cell metabolism, and/or glucose and insulin or other hormone levels, in a patient). In specific embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with insulin (or an insulin derivative, analog, or secretagogue). Combinations may be administered either concomitantly, e.g., as an admixture, separately but simultaneously or concurrently; or sequentially.

[1015] This includes presentations in which the combined agents are administered together as a therapeutic mixture, and also procedures in which the combined agents are administered separately but simultaneously, e.g., as through separate intravenous lines into the same individual. Administration “in combination” further includes the separate administration of one of the compounds or agents given first, followed by the second. In preferred embodiments, this administration immediately prior to, during, or immediately after nutrient consumption (e.g., a meal).

[1016] In preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Glucagon-Like Peptide 1. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, AC-2993 (Exendin-4), insulinotropin (GLP-1-(7-37)), and NNC 90-1170.

[1017] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1018] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Beta-cell Growth Factors. Beta-cell Growth Factors (Stewart, et al., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 86(3): 984-988 (2001)) that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, betacellulin, exendin-4, glucagons-like peptide-1, hepatocyte growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-II, islet neogenesis-associated protein, placental lactogen, PTH-related protein, and cytokeratin 20 (Anastasi, et al., Eur J Endocrinol 141(6): 644-52 (1999)). In another preferred embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with RegIV (The RegIV gene and protein have also been identified by the names “Colon Specific Gene” and “Colon Specific Protein”, respectively. See e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,861,494, U.S. Pat. No. 6,080,722, and PCT Publication No. WO96/39541).

[1019] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Beta-cell Growth Factors is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1020] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, miglitol (Glyset), acarbose (Precose), voglibose (Basen; Glustat).

[1021] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1022] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Insulin and Related Agents. Insulin and Related Agents that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, Insulin Mixtures (Humulin 50/50, Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30), intermediate acting insulin (Humulin L, Humulin N, Iletin II Lente, Iletin II NPH, Novolin L, Novolin N), long acting insulin (Humulin U, Lantus), rapid acting insulin (Humalog, Insulin lispro, Insulin Aspart), short acting insulin (Humulin R, Iletin II Regular, Novolin R, Novolin BR), AERx Insulin Inhaler, Basulin (Insulin Flamel), Inhaled Insulin, Insulin detemir (long-acting insulin, NN-304), Macrulin (oral insulin), Mecasermin (Somazon), Oral Insulin, Oralin (Oralgen, RapidMist), and Transfersulin (insulin, Transfersome).

[1023] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Insulin and Related Agents is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM. In a highly preferred embodiment Therapeutic proteins of the invention are administered in combination with insulin and/or related molecules.

[1024] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Hormone Inhibitors. Hormone Inhibitors that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, BAY-27-9955 and pegvisomant (Somavert, Trovert).

[1025] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Hormone Inhibitors is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of conditions associated with diabetes mellitus, for example, diabetic retinopathy.

[1026] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with the mature (secreted) portion, the cysteine rich region(s), the precursor polypeptide, the propeptide polypeptide, or any fragment thereof, of one or more of the polypeptides selected from the group: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-3b, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, GDF-1, GDF-3, GDF-8, GDF-9, and MIS.

[1027] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Sulfonylureas. Sulfonylureas that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), acetohexamide (Dymelor), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), tolbutamide (Orinase), tolazamide (Tolinase), gliclazide (Adianor), and glipentide (Staticum).

[1028] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Sulfonylureas is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1029] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Biguanides. Biguanides that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, metformin (Glucophage) and a combination of metformin with glibenclamide (Glucovance, Glucophage+Glyburide).

[1030] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Biguanides is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1031] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Thiazolidinediones. Thiazolidinediones that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, rosiglitazone maleate (Avandia), pioglitazone hydrochloride (Actos), isaglitazone (MCC-555, RWJ241947), and troglitazone (Rezulin, Romozin, Prelay, Noscal).

[1032] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Thiazolidinediones is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1033] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with other Insulin Sensitizers. Other Insulin Sensitizers that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, Bexarotene (Targretin), Chiro inositol (INS-1), Chromium picolinate (Chromax Plus; Chromax), Vanadium (KP-102, LP-100), and PPAR-gamma Activators which include, but are not limited to, GI-262570 (GW-2570), GW-409544 (GW-544), and KRP-297.

[1034] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with other Insulin Sensitizers is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1035] In other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Non-Sulfonylureas including Meglitinides. Non-Sulfonylureas that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, repaglinide (Prandin, Aculin), rateglinide (Starlix), BTS 67582, Mitiglinide (KAD-1229), and ProBeta.

[1036] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with Non-Sulfonylureas is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1037] In preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with immunomodulators. Immunomodulators that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, AI-401, CDP-571 (anti-TNF monoclonal antibody), CG-1088, Diamyd (diabetes vaccine), ICM3 (anti-ICAM-3 monoclonal antibody), linomide (Roquinimex), NBI-6024 (altered peptide ligand), TM-27, VX-740 (HMR-3480), caspase 8 protease inhibitors, thalidomide, hOKT3gammal (Ala-ala) (anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody), Oral Interferon-Alpha, oral lactobacillus, and LymphoStat-B™.

[1038] In particular embodiments, the use of Therapeutics of the invention in combination with immunomodulators is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of autoimmune diabetes, i.e., IDDM Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

[1039] In still other preferred embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with one or more of the following: bromocriptine (Ergoset), etomoxir, iloprost (Endoprost), acetylcholine, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and antagonists of resistin (Steppan et al., January 2001, Nature 409(6818):307-12) and is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of diabetes mellitus, i.e., IDDM and/or NIDDM.

[1040] In one embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with an anticoagulant. Anticoagulants that may be administered with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, heparin, low molecular weight heparin, warfarin sodium (e.g., COUMADIN®), dicumarol, 4-hydroxycoumarin, anisindione (e.g., MIRADON™), acenocoumarol (e.g., nicoumalone, SINTHROME™), indan-1,3-dione, phenprocoumon (e.g., MARCUMAR™), ethyl biscoumacetate (e.g., TROMEXAN™), and aspirin. In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with heparin and/or warfarin. In another specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with warfarin. In another specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with warfarin and aspirin. In another specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with heparin. In another specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with heparin and aspirin.

[1041] In another embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with thrombolytic drugs. Thrombolytic drugs that may be administered with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, plasminogen, lys-plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, streptokinae (e.g., KABIKINASE™), antiresplace (e.g., EMINASE™), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, altevase, ACTIVASE™), urokinase (e.g., ABBOKINASE™), sauruplase, (Prourokinase, single chain urokinase), and aminocaproic acid (e.g., AMICAR™). In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with tissue plasminogen activator and aspirin.

[1042] In another embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with antiplatelet drugs. Antiplatelet drugs that may be administered with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, aspirin, dipyridamole (e.g., PERSANTINE™), and ticlopidine (e.g., TICLID™).

[1043] In specific embodiments, the use of anti-coagulants, thrombolytic and/or antiplatelet drugs in combination with Therapeutics of the invention is contemplated for the prevention, diagnosis, and/or treatment of thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, unstable angina. In specific embodiments, the use of anticoagulants, thrombolytic drugs and/or antiplatelet drugs in combination with Therapeutics of the invention is contemplated for the prevention of occlusion of saphenous grafts, for reducing the risk of periprocedural thrombosis as might accompany angioplasty procedures, for reducing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation including nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation, for reducing the risk of embolism associated with mechanical heart valves and or mitral valves disease. Other uses for the therapeutics of the invention, alone or in combination with antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and/or thrombolytic drugs, include, but are not limited to, the prevention of occlusions in extracorporeal devices (e.g., intravascular canulas, vascular access shunts in hemodialysis patients, hemodialysis machines, and cardiopulmonary bypass machines).

[1044] In certain embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with antiretroviral agents, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and/or protease inhibitors (PIs). NRTIs that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention, include, but are not limited to, RETROVIR™ (zidovudine/AZT), VIDEX™ (didanosine/ddI), HIVID™ (zalcitabine/ddC), ZERIT™ (stavudine/d4T), EPIVIR™ (lamivudine/3TC), and COMBIVIR™ (zidovudine/lamivudine). NNRTIs that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention, include, but are not limited to, VIRAMUNE™ (nevirapine), RESCRIPTOR™ (delavirdine), and SUSTIVA™ (efavirenz). Protease inhibitors that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention, include, but are not limited to, CRIXIVAN™ (indinavir), NORVIR™ (ritonavir), INVIRASE™ (saquinavir), and VIRACEPT™ (nelfinavir). In a specific embodiment, antiretroviral agents, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and/or protease inhibitors may be used in any combination with Therapeutics of the invention to treat AIDS and/or to prevent or treat HIV infection.

[1045] Additional NRTIs include LODENOSINE™ (F-ddA; an acid-stable adenosine NRTI; Triangle/Abbott; COVIRAClL™ (emtricitabine/FTC; structurally related to lamivudine (3TC) but with 3- to 10-fold greater activity in vitro; Triangle/Abbott); dOTC (BCH-10652, also structurally related to lamivudine but retains activity against a substantial proportion of lamivudine-resistant isolates; Biochem Pharma); Adefovir (refused approval for anti-HIV therapy by FDA; Gilead Sciences); PREVEON® (Adefovir Dipivoxil, the active prodrug of adefovir; its active form is PMEA-pp); TENOFOVIR™ (bis-POC PMPA, a PMPA prodrug; Gilead); DAPD/DXG (active metabolite of DAPD; Triangle/Abbott); D-D4FC (related to 3TC, with activity against AZT/3TC-resistant virus); GW420867X (Glaxo Wellcome); ZIAGEN™ (abacavir/159U89; Glaxo Wellcome Inc.); CS-87 (3′azido-2′,3′-dideoxyuridine; WO 99/66936); and S-acyl-2-thioethyl (SATE)-bearing prodrug forms of β-L-FD4C and β-L-FddC (WO 98/17281).

[1046] Additional NNRTIs include COACTINON™ (Emivirine/MKC-442, potent NNRTI of the HEPT class; Triangle/Abbott); CAPRAVIRINE™ (AG-1549/S-1153, a next generation NNRTI with activity against viruses containing the K103N mutation; Agouron); PNU-142721 (has 20- to 50-fold greater activity than its predecessor delavirdine and is active against K103N mutants; Pharmacia & Upjohn); DPC-961 and DPC-963 (second-generation derivatives of efavirenz, designed to be active against viruses with the K103N mutation; DuPont); GW-420867X (has 25-fold greater activity than HBY097 and is active against K103N mutants; Glaxo Wellcome); CALANOLIDE A (naturally occurring agent from the latex tree; active against viruses containing either or both the Y181C and K103N mutations); and Propolis (WO 99/49830).

[1047] Additional protease inhibitors include LOPINAVIR™ (ABT378/r; Abbott Laboratories); BMS-232632 (an azapeptide; Bristol-Myres Squibb); TIPRANAVIR™ (PNU-140690, a non-peptic dihydropyrone; Pharmacia & Upjohn); PD-178390 (a nonpeptidic dihydropyrone; Parke-Davis); BMS 232632 (an azapeptide; Bristol-Myers Squibb); L-756,423 (an indinavir analog; Merck); DMP-450 (a cyclic urea compound; Avid & DuPont); AG-1776 (a peptidomimetic with in vitro activity against protease inhibitor-resistant viruses; Agouron); VX-175/GW-433908 (phosphate prodrug of amprenavir; Vertex & Glaxo Welcome); CGP61755 (Ciba); and AGENERASE™ (amprenavir; Glaxo Wellcome Inc.).

[1048] Additional antiretroviral agents include fusion inhibitors/gp41 binders. Fusion inhibitors/gp41 binders include T-20 (a peptide from residues 643-678 of the HIV gp41 transmembrane protein ectodomain which binds to gp41 in its resting state and prevents transformation to the fusogenic state; Trimeris) and T-1249 (a second-generation fusion inhibitor; Trimeris).

[1049] Additional antiretroviral agents include fusion inhibitors/chemokine receptor antagonists. Fusion inhibitors/chemokine receptor antagonists include CXCR4 antagonists such as AMD 3100 (a bicyclam), SDF-1 and its analogs, and ALX40-4C (a cationic peptide), T22 (an 18 amino acid peptide; Trimeris) and the T22 analogs T134 and T140; CCR5 antagonists such as RANTES (9-68), AOP-RANTES, NNY-RANTES, and TAK-779; and CCR5/CXCR4 antagonists such as NSC 651016 (a distamycin analog). Also included are CCR2B, CCR3, and CCR6 antagonists. Chemokine receptor agonists such as RANTES, SDF-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, etc., may also inhibit fusion.

[1050] Additional antiretroviral agents include integrase inhibitors. Integrase inhibitors include dicaffeoylquinic (DFQA) acids; L-chicoric acid (a dicaffeoyltartaric (DCTA) acid); quinalizarin (QLC) and related anthraquinones; ZINTEVIR™ (AR 177, an oligonucleotide that probably acts at cell surface rather than being a true integrase inhibitor; Arondex); and naphthols such as those disclosed in WO 98/50347.

[1051] Additional antiretroviral agents include hydroxyurea-like compounds such as BCX-34 (a purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor; Biocryst); ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors such as DIDOX™ (Molecules for Health); inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors such as VX-497 (Vertex); and mycopholic acids such as CellCept (mycophenolate mofetil; Roche).

[1052] Additional antiretroviral agents include inhibitors of viral integrase, inhibitors of viral genome nuclear translocation such as arylene bis(methylketone) compounds; inhibitors of HIV entry such as AOP-RANTES, NNY-RANTES, RANTES-IgG fusion protein, soluble complexes of RANTES and glycosaminoglycans (GAG), and AMD-3100; nucleocapsid zinc finger inhibitors such as dithiane compounds; targets of HIV Tat and Rev; and pharmacoenhancers such as ABT-378.

[1053] Other antiretroviral therapies and adjunct therapies include cytokines and lymphokines such as MIP-1α, MIP-1β, SDF-1α, IL-2, PROLEUKIN™ (aldesleukin/L2-7001; Chiron), IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13; interferons such as IFN-α2a; antagonists of TNFs, NFκB, GM-CSF, M-CSF, and IL-10; agents that modulate immune activation such as cyclosporin and prednisone; vaccines such as Remune™ (HIV Immunogen), APL 400-003 (Apollon), recombinant gp120 and fragments, bivalent (B/E) recombinant envelope glycoprotein, rgp120CM235, MN rgp120, SF-2 rgp120, gp120/soluble CD4 complex, Delta JR-FL protein, branched synthetic peptide derived from discontinuous gp120 C3/C4 domain, fusion-competent immunogens, and Gag, Pol, Nef, and Tat vaccines; gene-based therapies such as genetic suppressor elements (GSEs; WO 98/54366), and intrakines (genetically modified CC chemokines targeted to the ER to block surface expression of newly synthesized CCR5 (Yang et al., PNAS 94:11567-72 (1997); Chen et al., Nat. Med. 3:1110-16 (1997)); antibodies such as the anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5, the anti-CCR5 antibodies 2D7, 5C7, PA8, PA9, PA10, PA11, PA12, and PA14, the anti-CD4 antibodies Q4120 and RPA-T4, the anti-CCR3 antibody 7B11, the anti-gp120 antibodies 17b, 48d, 447-52D, 257-D, 268-D and 50.1, anti-Tat antibodies, anti-TNF-α antibodies, and monoclonal antibody 33A; aryl hydrocarbon (AH) receptor agonists and antagonists such as TCDD, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and α-naphthoflavone (WO 98/30213); and antioxidants such as γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (γ-GCE; WO 99/56764).

[1054] In a further embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with an antiviral agent. Antiviral agents that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, acyclovir, ribavirin, amantadine, and remantidine.

[1055] In other embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention may be administered in combination with anti-opportunistic infection agents. Anti-opportunistic agents that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention, include, but are not limited to, TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE™, DAPSONE™, PENTAMIDINE™, ATOVAQUONE™, ISONIAZID™, RIFAMPIN™, PYRAZINAMIDE™, ETHAMBUTOL™, RIFABUTIN™, CLARITHROMYCIN™, AZITHROMYClN™, GANClCLOVIR™, FOSCARNET™, ClDOFOVIR™, FLUCONAZOLE™, ITRACONAZOLE™, KETOCONAZOLE™, ACYCLOVIR™, FAMClCOLVIR™, PYRIMETHAMINE™, LEUCOVORIN™, NEUPOGEN™ (filgrastim/G-CSF), and LEUKINE™ (sargramostim/GM-CSF). In a specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE™, DAPSONE™, PENTAMIDINE™, and/or ATOVAQUONE™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with ISONIAZID™, RIFAMPIN™, PYRAZINAMIDE™, and/or ETHAMBUTOL™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic Mycobacterium avium complex infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with RIFABUTIN™, CLARITHROMYCIN™, and/or AZITHROMYCIN™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with GANClCLOVIR™, FOSCARNET™, and/or CIDOFOVR™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic cytomegalovirus infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with FLUCONAZOLE™, ITRACONAZOLE™, and/or KETOCONAZOLE™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic fungal infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with ACYCLOVIR™ and/or FAMClCOLVIR™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic herpes simplex virus type I and/or type II infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with PYRIMETHAMINE™ and/or LEUCOVORIN™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection. In another specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are used in any combination with LEUCOVORIN™ and/or NEUPOGEN™ to prophylactically treat or prevent an opportunistic bacterial infection.

[1056] In a further embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with an antibiotic agent. Antibiotic agents that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, amoxicillin, beta-lactamases, aminoglycosides, beta-lactam (glycopeptide), beta-lactamases, Clindamycin, chloramphenicol, cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, metronidazole, penicillins, quinolones, rapamycin, rifampin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin.

[1057] In other embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with immunestimulants. Immunostimulants that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, levamisole (e.g., ERGAMISOL™), isoprinosine (e.g., INOSIPLEX™), interferons (e.g., interferon alpha), and interleukins (e.g., IL-2).

[1058] In other embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with immunosuppressive agents. Immunosuppressive agents that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, steroids, cyclosporine, cyclosporine analogs, cyclophosphamide methylprednisone, prednisone, azathioprine, FK-506, 15-deoxyspergualin, and other immunosuppressive agents that act by suppressing the function of responding T cells. Other immunosuppressive agents that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, prednisolone, methotrexate, thalidomide, methoxsalen, rapamycin, leflunomide, mizoribine (BREDININ™), brequinar, deoxyspergualin, and azaspirane (SKF 105685), ORTHOCLONE OKT® 3 (muromonab-CD3), SANDIMMUNE™, NEORAL™, SANGDYA™ (cyclosporine), PROGRAF® (FK506, tacrolimus), CELLCEPT® (mycophenolate motefil, of which the active metabolite is mycophenolic acid), IMURAN™ (azathioprine), glucocorticosteroids, adrenocortical steroids such as DELTASONE™ (prednisone) and HYDELTRASOL™ (prednisolone), FOLEX™ and MEXATE™ (methotrxate), OXSORALEN-ULTRA™ (methoxsalen) and RAPAMUNE™ (sirolimus). In a specific embodiment, immunosuppressants may be used to prevent rejection of organ or bone marrow transplantation.

[1059] In an additional embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are administered alone or in combination with one or more intravenous immune globulin preparations. Intravenous immune globulin preparations that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but not limited to, GAMMAR™, IVEEGAM™, SANDOGLOBULIN™, GAMMAGARD S/D™, ATGAM™ (antithymocyte glubulin), and GAMIMUNE™. In a specific embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with intravenous immune globulin preparations in transplantation therapy (e.g., bone marrow transplant).

[1060] In certain embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered alone or in combination with an anti-inflammatory agent. Anti-inflammatory agents that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, corticosteroids (e.g., betamethasone, budesonide, cortisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, prednisone, and triamcinolone), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., diclofenac, diflunisal, etodolac, fenoprofen, floctafenine, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, meclofenamate, mefenamic acid, meloxicam, nabumetone, naproxen, oxaprozin, phenylbutazone, piroxicam, sulindac, tenoxicam, tiaprofenic acid, and tolmetin.), as well as antihistamines, aminoarylcarboxylic acid derivatives, arylacetic acid derivatives, arylbutyric acid derivatives, arylcarboxylic acids, arylpropionic acid derivatives, pyrazoles, pyrazolones, salicylic acid derivatives, thiazinecarboxamides, e-acetamidocaproic acid, S-adenosylmethionine, 3-amino-4-hydroxybutyric acid, amixetrine, bendazac, benzydamine, bucolome, difenpiramide, ditazol, emorfazone, guaiazulene, nabumetone, nimesulide, orgotein, oxaceprol, paranyline, perisoxal, pifoxime, proquazone, proxazole, and tenidap.

[1061] In an additional embodiment, the compositions of the invention are administered alone or in combination with an anti-angiogenic agent. Anti-angiogenic agents that may be administered with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, Angiostatin (Entremed, Rockville, Md.), Troponin-1 (Boston Life Sciences, Boston, Mass.), anti-Invasive Factor, retinoic acid and derivatives thereof, paclitaxel (Taxol), Suramin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2, VEGI, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2, and various forms of the lighter “d group” transition metals.

[1062] Lighter “d group” transition metals include, for example, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, niobium, and tantalum species. Such transition metal species may form transition metal complexes. Suitable complexes of the above-mentioned transition metal species include oxo transition metal complexes.

[1063] Representative examples of vanadium complexes include oxo vanadium complexes such as vanadate and vanadyl complexes. Suitable vanadate complexes include metavanadate and orthovanadate complexes such as, for example, ammonium metavanadate, sodium metavanadate, and sodium orthovanadate. Suitable vanadyl complexes include, for example, vanadyl acetylacetonate and vanadyl sulfate including vanadyl sulfate hydrates such as vanadyl sulfate mono- and trihydrates.

[1064] Representative examples of tungsten and molybdenum complexes also include oxo complexes. Suitable oxo tungsten complexes include tungstate and tungsten oxide complexes. Suitable tungstate complexes include ammonium tungstate, calcium tungstate, sodium tungstate dihydrate, and tungstic acid. Suitable tungsten oxides include tungsten (IV) oxide and tungsten (VI) oxide. Suitable oxo molybdenum complexes include molybdate, molybdenum oxide, and molybdenyl complexes. Suitable molybdate complexes include ammonium molybdate and its hydrates, sodium molybdate and its hydrates, and potassium molybdate and its hydrates. Suitable molybdenum oxides include molybdenum (VI) oxide, molybdenum (VI) oxide, and molybdic acid. Suitable molybdenyl complexes include, for example, molybdenyl acetylacetonate. Other suitable tungsten and molybdenum complexes include hydroxo derivatives derived from, for example, glycerol, tartaric acid, and sugars.

[1065] A wide variety of other anti-angiogenic factors may also be utilized within the context of the present invention. Representative examples include, but are not limited to, platelet factor 4; protamine sulphate; sulphated chitin derivatives (prepared from queen crab shells), (Murata et al., Cancer Res. 51:22-26, (1991)); Sulphated Polysaccharide Peptidoglycan Complex (SP-PG) (the function of this compound may be enhanced by the presence of steroids such as estrogen, and tamoxifen citrate); Staurosporine; modulators of matrix metabolism, including for example, proline analogs, cishydroxyproline, d,L-3,4-dehydroproline, Thiaproline, alpha,alpha-dipyridyl, aminopropionitrile fumarate; 4-propyl-5-(4-pyridinyl)-2(3H)-oxazolone; Methotrexate; Mitoxantrone; Heparin; Interferons; 2 Macroglobulin-serum; ChIMP-3 (Pavloff et al., J. Bio. Chem. 267:17321-17326, (1992)); Chymostatin (Tomkinson et al., Biochem J. 286:475-480, (1992)); Cyclodextrin Tetradecasulfate; Eponemycin; Camptothecin; Fumagillin (Ingber et al., Nature 348:555-557, (1990)); Gold Sodium Thiomalate (“GST”; Matsubara and Ziff, J. Clin. Invest. 79:1440-1446, (1987)); anticollagenase-serum; alpha2-antiplasmin (Holmes et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262(4):1659-1664, (1987)); Bisantrene (National Cancer Institute); Lobenzarit disodium (N-(2)-carboxyphenyl-4-chloroanthronilic acid disodium or “CCA”; (Takeuchi et al., Agents Actions 36:312-316, (1992)); and metalloproteinase inhibitors such as BB94.

[1066] Additional anti-angiogenic factors that may also be utilized within the context of the present invention include Thalidomide, (Celgene, Warren, N.J.); Angiostatic steroid; AGM-1470 (H. Brem and J. Folkman J Pediatr. Surg. 28:445-51 (1993)); an integrin alpha v beta 3 antagonist (C. Storgard et al., J Clin. Invest. 103:47-54 (1999)); carboxynaminolmidazole; Carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.); Conbretastatin A-4 (CA4P) (OXiGENE, Boston, Mass.); Squalamine (Magainin Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting, Pa.); TNP-470, (Tap Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, Ill.); ZD-0101 AstraZeneca (London, UK); APRA (CT2584); Benefin, Byrostatin-1 (SC339555); CGP-41251 (PKC 412); CM101; Dexrazoxane (ICRF187); DMXAA; Endostatin; Flavopridiol; Genestein; GTE; ImmTher; Iressa (ZD1839); Octreotide (Somatostatin); Panretin; Penacillamine; Photopoint; PI-88; Prinomastat (AG-3340) Purlytin; Suradista (FCE26644); Tamoxifen (Nolvadex); Tazarotene; Tetrathiomolybdate; Xeloda (Capecitabine); and 5-Fluorouracil.

[1067] Anti-angiogenic agents that may be administed in combination with the compounds of the invention may work through a variety of mechanisms including, but not limited to, inhibiting proteolysis of the extracellular matrix, blocking the function of endothelial cell-extracellular matrix adhesion molecules, by antagonizing the function of angiogenesis inducers such as growth factors, and inhibiting integrin receptors expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. Examples of anti-angiogenic inhibitors that interfere with extracellular matrix proteolysis and which may be administered in combination with the compositons of the invention include, but are not limited to, AG-3340 (Agouron, La Jolla, Calif.), BAY-12-9566 (Bayer, West Haven, Conn.), BMS-275291 (Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, N.J.), CGS-27032A (Novartis, East Hanover, N.J.), Marimastat (British Biotech, Oxford, UK), and Metastat (Aeterna, St-Foy, Quebec). Examples of anti-angiogenic inhibitors that act by blocking the function of endothelial cell-extracellular matrix adhesion molecules and which may be administered in combination with the compositons of the invention include, but are not limited to, EMD-121974 (Merck KcgaA Darmstadt, Germany) and Vitaxin (Ixsys, La Jolla, Calif./Medimmune, Gaithersburg, Md.). Examples of anti-angiogenic agents that act by directly antagonizing or inhibiting angiogenesis inducers and which may be administered in combination with the compositons of the invention include, but are not limited to, Angiozyme (Ribozyme, Boulder, Colo.), Anti-VEGF antibody (Genentech, S. San Francisco, Calif.), PTK-787/ZK-225846 (Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), SU-101 (Sugen, S. San Francisco, Calif.), SU-5416 (Sugen/Pharmacia Upjohn, Bridgewater, N.J.), and SU-6668 (Sugen). Other anti-angiogenic agents act to indirectly inhibit angiogenesis. Examples of indirect inhibitors of angiogenesis which may be administered in combination with the compositons of the invention include, but are not limited to, IM-862 (Cytran, Kirkland, Wash.), Interferon-alpha, IL-12 (Roche, Nutley, N.J.), and Pentosan polysulfate (Georgetown University, Washington, DC).

[1068] In particular embodiments, the use of compositions of the invention in combination with anti-angiogenic agents is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of an autoimmune disease, such as for example, an autoimmune disease described herein.

[1069] In a particular embodiment, the use of compositions of the invention in combination with anti-angiogenic agents is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of arthritis. In a more particular embodiment, the use of compositions of the invention in combination with anti-angiogenic agents is contemplated for the treatment, prevention, and/or amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis.

[1070] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide of the present invention are administered in combination with an angiogenic protein, or polynucleotides encoding an angiogenic protein. Examples of angiogenic proteins that may be administered with the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, VEGF-1, VEGF-2, VEGF-3, epidermal growth factor alpha and beta, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, colony stimulating factor, macrophage colony stimulating factor, granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor, and nitric oxide synthase.

[1071] In additional embodiments, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent. Chemotherapeutic agents that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards (for example, Mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, Cyclophosphamide Ifosfamide, Melphalan (L-sarcolysin), and Chlorambucil), ethylenimines and methylmelamines (for example, Hexamethylmelamine and Thiotepa), alkyl sulfonates (for example, Busulfan), nitrosoureas (for example, Carmustine (BCNU), Lomustine (CCNU), Semustine (methyl-CCNU), and Streptozocin (streptozotocin)), triazenes (for example, Dacarbazine (DTIC; dimethyltriazenoimidazolecarboxamide)), folic acid analogs (for example, Methotrexate (amethopterin)), pyrimidine analogs (for example, Fluorouacil (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU), Floxuridine (fluorodeoxyuridine; FudR), and Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside)), purine analogs and related inhibitors (for example, Mercaptopurine (6-mercaptopurine; 6-MP), Thioguanine (6-thioguanine; TG), and Pentostatin (2′-deoxycoformycin)), vinca alkaloids (for example, Vinblastine (VLB, vinblastine sulfate)) and Vincristine (vincristine sulfate)), epipodophyllotoxins (for example, Etoposide and Teniposide), antibiotics (for example, Dactinomycin (actinomycin D), Daunorubicin (daunomycin; rubidomycin), Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Plicamycin (mithramycin), and Mitomycin (mitomycin C), enzymes (for example, L-Asparaginase), biological response modifiers (for example, Interferon-alpha and interferon-alpha-2b), platinum coordination compounds (for example, Cisplatin (cis-DDP) and Carboplatin), anthracenedione (Mitoxantrone), substituted ureas (for example, Hydroxyurea), methylhydrazine derivatives (for example, Procarbazine (N-methylhydrazine; MIH), adrenocorticosteroids (for example, Prednisone), progestins (for example, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Medroxyprogesterone, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, and Megestrol acetate), estrogens (for example, Diethylstilbestrol (DES), Diethylstilbestrol diphosphate, Estradiol, and Ethinyl estradiol), antiestrogens (for example, Tamoxifen), androgens (Testosterone proprionate, and Fluoxymesterone), antiandrogens (for example, Flutamide), gonadotropin-releasing horomone analogs (for example, Leuprolide), other hormones and hormone analogs (for example, methyltestosterone, estramustine, estramustine phosphate sodium, chlorotrianisene, and testolactone), and others (for example, dicarbazine, glutamic acid, and mitotane).

[1072] In one embodiment, the compositions of the invention are administered in combination with one or more of the following drugs: infliximab (also known as Remicade™ Centocor, Inc.), Trocade (Roche, RO-32-3555), Leflunomide (also known as Arava™ from Hoechst Marion Roussel), Kineret™ (an IL-1 Receptor antagonist also known as Anakinra from Amgen, Inc.)

[1073] In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or combination of one or more of the components of CHOP. In one embodiment, the compositions of the invention are administered in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies, human monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies. In another embodiment, the compositions of the invention are administered in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies and CHOP, or anti-CD20 antibodies and any combination of one or more of the components of CHOP, particularly cyclophosphamide and/or prednisone. In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with Rituximab. In a further embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered with Rituximab and CHOP, or Rituximab and any combination of one or more of the components of CHOP, particularly cyclophosphamide and/or prednisone. In a specific embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered in combination with tositumomab. In a further embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered with tositumomab and CHOP, or tositumomab and any combination of one or more of the components of CHOP, particularly cyclophosphamide and/or prednisone. The anti-CD20 antibodies may optionally be associated with radioisotopes, toxins or cytotoxic prodrugs.

[1074] In another specific embodiment, the compositions of the invention are administered in combination Zevalin™. In a further embodiment, compositions of the invention are administered with Zevalin™ and CHOP, or Zevalin™ and any combination of one or more of the components of CHOP, particularly cyclophosphamide and/or prednisone. Zevalin™ may be associated with one or more radisotopes. Particularly preferred isotopes are 90Y and 111In.

[1075] In an additional embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with cytokines. Cytokines that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL7, IL10, IL12, IL13, IL15, anti-CD40, CD40L, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. In another embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention may be administered with any interleukin, including, but not limited to, IL-1 alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, IL-19, IL-20, and IL-21.

[1076] In one embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with members of the TNF family. TNF, TNF-related or TNF-like molecules that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, soluble forms of TNF-alpha, lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha, also known as TNF-beta), LT-beta (found in complex heterotrimer LT-alpha2-beta), OPGL, FasL, CD27L, CD30L, CD40L, 4-1BBL, DcR3, OX40L, TNF-gamma (International Publication No. WO 96/14328), AIM-I (International Publication No. WO 97/33899), endokine-alpha (International Publication No. WO 98/07880), OPG, and neutrokine-alpha (International Publication No. WO 98/18921, OX40, and nerve growth factor (NGF), and soluble forms of Fas, CD30, CD27, CD40 and 4-IBB, TR2 (International Publication No. WO 96/34095), DR3 (International Publication No. WO 97/33904), DR4 (International Publication No. WO 98/32856), TR5 (International Publication No. WO 98/30693), TRANK, TR9 (International Publication No. WO 98/56892), TRIO (International Publication No. WO 98/54202), 312C2 (International Publication No. WO 98/06842), and TR12, and soluble forms CD154, CD70, and CD153.

[1077] In an additional embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with angiogenic proteins. Angiogenic proteins that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, Glioma Derived Growth Factor (GDGF), as disclosed in European Patent Number EP-399816; Platelet Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGF-A), as disclosed in European Patent Number EP-682110; Platelet Derived Growth Factor-B (PDGF-B), as disclosed in European Patent Number EP-282317; Placental Growth Factor (PIGF), as disclosed in International Publication Number WO 92/06194; Placental Growth Factor-2 (PIGF-2), as disclosed in Hauser et al., Growth Factors, 4:259-268 (1993); Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), as disclosed in International Publication Number WO 90/13649; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), as disclosed in European Patent Number EP-506477; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-2 (VEGF-2), as disclosed in International Publication Number WO 96/39515; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B (VEGF-3); Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B-186 (VEGF-B186), as disclosed in International Publication Number WO 96/26736; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D (VEGF-D), as disclosed in International Publication Number WO 98/02543; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D (VEGF-D), as disclosed in International Publication Number WO 98/07832; and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-E (VEGF-E), as disclosed in German Patent Number DE19639601. The above mentioned references are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[1078] In an additional embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with Fibroblast Growth Factors. Fibroblast Growth Factors that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-3, FGF-4, FGF-5, FGF-6, FGF-7, FGF-8, FGF-9, FGF-10, FGF-11, FGF-12, FGF-13, FGF-14, and FGF-15.

[1079] In an additional embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with hematopoietic growth factors. Hematopoietic growth factors that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (sargramostim, LEUKINE™, PROKINE™), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (filgrastim, NEUPOGEN™), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, CSF-1) erythropoietin (epoetin alfa, EPOGEN™, PROCRIT™), stem cell factor (SCF, c-kit ligand, steel factor), megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor, PIXY321 (a GMCSF/IL-3 fusion protein), interleukins, especially any one or more of IL-1 through IL-12, interferon-gamma, or thrombopoietin.

[1080] In certain embodiments, Therapeutics of the present invention are administered in combination with adrenergic blockers, such as, for example, acebutolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, carteolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, and timolol.

[1081] In another embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with an antiarrhythmic drug (e.g., adenosine, amidoarone, bretylium, digitalis, digoxin, digitoxin, diliazem, disopyramide, esmolol, flecainide, lidocaine, mexiletine, moricizine, phenytoin, procainamide, N-acetyl procainamide, propafenone, propranolol, quinidine, sotalol, tocainide, and verapamil).

[1082] In another embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with diuretic agents, such as carbonic anhydrase-inhibiting agents (e.g., acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, and methazolamide), osmotic diuretics (e.g., glycerin, isosorbide, mannitol, and urea), diuretics that inhibit Na+—K+-2Cl symport (e.g., furosemide, bumetanide, azosemide, piretanide, tripamide, ethacrynic acid, muzolimine, and torsemide), thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics (e.g., bendroflumethiazide, benzthiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, methyclothiazide, polythiazide, trichormethiazide, chlorthalidone, indapamide, metolazone, and quinethazone), potassium sparing diuretics (e.g., amiloride and triamterene), and mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists (e.g., spironolactone, canrenone, and potassium canrenoate).

[1083] In one embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with treatments for endocrine and/or hormone imbalance disorders. Treatments for endocrine and/or hormone imbalance disorders include, but are not limited to, 127I, radioactive isotopes of iodine such as 131I and 123I; recombinant growth hormone, such as HUMATROPE™ (recombinant somatropin); growth hormone analogs such as PROTROPIN™ (somatrem); dopamine agonists such as PARLODEL™ (bromocriptine); somatostatin analogs such as SANDOSTATIN™ (octreotide); gonadotropin preparations such as PRFGNYL™, A.P.L.™ and PROFASI™ (chorionic gonadotropin (CG)), PERGONAL™ (menotropins), and METRODIN™ (urofollitropin (uFSH)); synthetic human gonadotropin releasing hormone preparations such as FACTREL™ and LUTREPULSE™ (gonadorelin hydrochloride); synthetic gonadotropin agonists such as LUPRON™ (leuprolide acetate), SUPPRELIN™ (histrelin acetate), SYNAREL™ (nafarelin acetate), and ZOLADEX™ (goserelin acetate); synthetic preparations of thyrotropin-releasing hormone such as RELEFACT TRH™ and THYPINONE™ (protirelin); recombinant human TSH such as THYROGEN™; synthetic preparations of the sodium salts of the natural isomers of thyroid hormones such as L-T4™, SYNTHROID™ and LEVOTHROID™ (levothyroxine sodium), L-T3™, CYTOMEL™ and TRIOSTAT™ (liothyroine sodium), and THYROLAR™ (liotrix); antithyroid compounds such as 6-n-propylthiouracil (propylthiouracil), 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole and TAPAZOLE™ (methimazole), NEO-MERCAZOLE™ (carbimazole); beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists such as propranolol and esmolol; Ca2+ channel blockers; dexamethasone and iodinated radiological contrast agents such as TELEPAQUE™ (iopanoic acid) and ORAGRAFIN™ (sodium ipodate).

[1084] Additional treatments for endocrine and/or hormone imbalance disorders include, but are not limited to, estrogens or congugated estrogens such as ESTRACE™ (estradiol), ESTINYL™ (ethinyl estradiol), PREMARIN™, ESTRATAB™, ORTHO-EST™, OGEN™ and estropipate (estrone), ESTROVIS™ (quinestrol), ESTRADERM™ (estradiol), DELESTROGEN™ and VALERGEN™ (estradiol valerate), DEPO-ESTRADIOL CYPIONATE™ and ESTROJECT LA™ (estradiol cypionate); antiestrogens such as NOLVADEX™ (tamoxifen), SEROPHENE™ and CLOMID™ (clomiphene); progestins such as DURALUTIN™ (hydroxyprogesterone caproate), MPA™ and DEPO-PROVERA™ (medroxyprogesterone acetate), PROVERA™ and CYCRIN™ (MPA), MEGACE™ (megestrol acetate), NORLUTIN™ (norethindrone), and NORLUTATE™ and AYGESTIN™ (norethindrone acetate); progesterone implants such as NORPLANT SYSTEM™ (subdermal implants of norgestrel); antiprogestins such as RU 486™ (mifepristone); hormonal contraceptives such as ENOVID™ (norethynodrel plus mestranol), PROGESTASERT™ (intrauterine device that releases progesterone), LOESTRIN™, BREVICON™, MODICON™, GENORA™, NELONA™, NORINYL™, OVACON-35™ and OVACON-50™ (ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone), LEVLEN™, NORDETTE™, TRI-LEVLEN™ and TRLPHASIL-21™ (ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel) LO/OVRAL™ and OVRAL™ (ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel), DEMULEN™ (ethinyl estradiol/ethynodiol diacetate), NORINYL™, ORTHO-NOVUM™, NORETHIN™, GENORA™, and NELOVA™ (norethindrone/mestranol), DESOGEN™ and ORTHO-CEPT™ (ethinyl estradiol/desogestrel), ORTHO-CYCLEN™ and ORTHO-TRICYCLEN™ (ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate), MICRONOR™ and NOR-QD™ (norethindrone), and OVRETTE™ (norgestrel).

[1085] Additional treatments for endocrine and/or hormone imbalance disorders include, but are not limited to, testosterone esters such as methenolone acetate and testosterone undecanoate; parenteral and oral androgens such as TESTOJECT-50™ (testosterone), TESTEX™ (testosterone propionate), DELATESTRYL™ (testosterone enanthate), DEPO-TESTOSTERONE™ (testosterone cyp ionate), DANOCRINE™ (danazol), HALOTESTIN™ (fluoxymesterone), ORETON METHYL™, TESTRED™ and VIRILON™ (methylte stosterone), and OXANDRIN™ (oxandrolone); testosterone transdermal systems such as TESTODERM™; androgen receptor antagonist and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors such as ANDROCUR™ (cyproterone acetate), EULEXIN™ (flutamide), and PROSCAR™ (finasteride); adrenocorticotropic hormone preparations such as CORTROSYN™ (cosyntropin); adrenocortical steroids and their synthetic analogs such as ACLOVATE™ (alclometasone dipropionate), CYCLOCORT™ (amcinonide), BECLOVENT™ and VANCERIL™ (beclomethasone dipropionate), CELESTONE™ (betamethasone), BENISONE™ and UTICORT™ (betamethasone benzoate), DIPROSONE™ (betamethasone dipropionate), CELESTONE PHOSPHATE™ (betamethasone sodium phosphate), CELESTONE SOLUSPAN™ (betamethasone sodium phosphate and acetate), BETA-VAL ™ and VALISONE™ (betamethasone valerate), TEMOVATE™ (clobetasol propionate), CLODERM™ (clocortolone pivalate), CORTEF™ and HYDROCORTONE™ (cortisol (hydrocortisone)), HYDROCORTONE ACETATE™ (cortisol (hydrocortisone) acetate), LOCOID™ (cortisol (hydrocortisone) butyrate), HYDROCORTONE PHOSPHATE™ (cortisol (hydrocortisone) sodium phosphate), A-HYDROCORT™ and SOLU CORTEF™ (cortisol (hydrocortisone) sodium succinate), WESTCORT™ (cortisol (hydrocortisone) valerate), CORTISONE ACETATE™ (cortisone acetate), DESOWEN™ and TRIDESILON™ (desonide), TOPICORT™ (desoximetasone), DECADRON™ (dexamethasone), DECADRON LA™ (dexamethasone acetate), DECADRON PHOSPHATE™ and HEXADROL PHOSPHATE™ (dexamethasone sodium phosphate), FLORONE™ and MAXIFLOR™ (diflorasone diacetate), FLORINEF ACETATE™ (fludrocortisone acetate), AEROBID™ and NASALIDE™ (flunisolide), FLUONID™ and SYNALAR™ (fluocinolone acetonide), LIDEX™ (fluocinonide), FLUOR-OP™ and FML™ (fluorometholone), CORDRAN™ (flurandrenolide), HALOG™ (halcinonide), HMS LIZUIFILM™ (medrysone), MEDROL™ (methylprednisolone), DEPO-MEDROL™ and MEDROL ACETATE™ (methylprednisone acetate), A-METHAPRED™ and SOLUMEDROL™ (methylprednisolone sodium succinate), ELOCON™ (mometasone fuiroate), HALDRONE™ (paramethasone acetate), DELTA-CORTEF™ (prednisolone), ECONOPRED™ (prednisolone acetate), HYDELTRASOL™ (prednisolone sodium phosphate), HYDELTRA-T.B.A™ (prednisolone tebutate), DELTASONE™ (prednisone), ARISTOCORT™ and KENACORT™ (triamcinolone), KENALOG™ (triamcinolone acetonide), ARISTOCORT™ and KENACORT DIACETATE™ (triamcinolone diacetate), and ARISTOSPAN™ (triarncinolone hexacetonide); inhibitors of biosynthesis and action of adrenocortical steroids such as CYTADREN™ (aminoglutethimide), NIZORAL™ (ketoconazole), MODRASTANE™ (trilostane), and METOPIRONE™ (metyrapone);

[1086] Additional treatments for endocrine and/or hormone imbalance disorders include, but are not limited to bovine, porcine or human insulin or mixtures thereof; insulin analogs; recombinant human insulin such as HUMULIN™ and NOVOLIN™; oral hypoglycemic agents such as ORAMIDE™ and ORINASE™ (tolbutamide), DIABINESE™ (chlorpropamide), TOLAMIDE™ and TOLINASE™ (tolazamide), DYMELOR™ (acetohexamide), glibenclamide, MICRONASE™, DIETA™ and GLYNASE™ (glyburide), GLUCOTROL™ (glipizide), and DLIMICRON™ (gliclazide), GLUCOPHAGE™ (metformin), PRECOSE™ (acarbose), AMARYL™ (glimepiride), and ciglitazone; thiazolidinediones (TZDs) such as rosiglitazone, AVANDIA™ (rosiglitazone maleate) ACTOS™ (piogliatazone), and troglitazone; alpha-glucosidase inhibitors; bovine or porcine glucagon; somatostatins such as SANDOSTATIN™ (octreotide); and diazoxides such as PROGLYCEM™ (diazoxide). In still other embodiments, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with one or more of the following: a biguanide antidiabetic agent, a glitazone antidiabetic agent, and a sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent.

[1087] In one embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with treatments for uterine motility disorders. Treatments for uterine motility disorders include, but are not limited to, estrogen drugs such as conjugated estrogens (e.g., PREMARIN® and ESTRATAB®), estradiols (e.g., CLIMARA® and ALORA®), estropipate, and chlorotrianisene; progestin drugs (e.g., AMEN® (medroxyprogesterone), MICRONOR® (norethidrone acetate), PROMETRIUM® progesterone, and megestrol acetate); and estrogen/progesterone combination therapies such as, for example, conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone (e.g., PREMPRO™ and PREMPHASE®) and norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estsradiol (e.g., FEMHRT™).

[1088] In an additional embodiment, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with drugs effective in treating iron deficiency and hypochromic anemias, including but not limited to, ferrous sulfate (iron sulfate, FEOSOL™), ferrous fumarate (e.g., FEOSTAT™), ferrous gluconate (e.g., FERGON™), polysaccharide-iron complex (e.g., NIFEREX™), iron dextran injection (e.g., INFED™), cupric sulfate, pyroxidine, riboflavin, Vitamin B12, cyancobalamin injection (e.g., REDISOL™, RUBRAMIN PC™), hydroxocobalamin, folic acid (e.g., FOLVITE™), leucovorin (folinic acid, 5-CHOH4PteGlu, citrovorum factor) or WELLCOVORIN (Calcium salt of leucovorin), transferrin or ferritin.

[1089] In certain embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with agents used to treat psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric drugs that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, antipsychotic agents (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, clozapine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, mesoridazine, molindone, olanzapine, perphenazine, pimozide, quetiapine, risperidone, thioridazine, thiothixene, trifluoperazine, and triflupromazine), antimanic agents (e.g., carbamazepine, divalproex sodium, lithium carbonate, and lithium citrate), antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, amoxapine, bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, imipramine, isocarboxazid, maprotiline, mirtazapine, nefazodone, nortriptyline, paroxetine, phenelzine, protriptyline, sertraline, tranylcypromine, trazodone, trimipramine, and venlafaxine), antianxiety agents (e.g., alprazolam, buspirone, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, halazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, and prazepam), and stimulants (e.g., d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and pemoline).

[1090] In other embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with agents used to treat neurological disorders. Neurological agents that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, antiepileptic agents (e.g., carbamazepine, clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, valproic acid, divalproex sodium, felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate, zonisamide, diazepam, lorazepam, and clonazepam), antiparkinsonian agents (e.g., levodopa/carbidopa, selegiline, amantidine, bromocriptine, pergolide, ropinirole, pramipexole, benztropine; biperiden; ethopropazine; procyclidine; trihexyphenidyl, tolcapone), and ALS therapeutics (e.g., riluzole).

[1091] In another embodiment, Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with vasodilating agents and/or calcium channel blocking agents. Vasodilating agents that may be administered with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., papaverine, isoxsuprine, benazepril, captopril, cilazapril, enalapril, enalaprilat, fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, spirapril, trandolapril, and nylidrin), and nitrates (e.g., isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate, and nitroglycerin). Examples of calcium channel blocking agents that may be administered in combination with the Therapeutics of the invention include, but are not limited to amlodipine, bepridil, diltiazem, felodipine, flunarizine, isradipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine, and verapaml.

[1092] In certain embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with treatments for gastrointestinal disorders. Treatments for gastrointestinal disorders that may be administered with the Therapeutic of the invention include, but are not limited to, H2 histamine receptor antagonists (e.g., TAGAMET™ (cimetidine), ZANTAC™ (ranitidine), PEPCID™ (famotidine), and AXID™ (nizatidine)); inhibitors of H+, K+ ATPase (e.g., PREVAClD™ (lansoprazole) and PRILOSEC™ (omeprazole)); Bismuth compounds (e.g., PEPTO-BISMOL™ (bismuth subsalicylate) and DE-NOL™ (bismuth subcitrate)); various antacids; sucralfate; prostaglandin analogs (e.g.,CYTOTEC™ (misoprostol)); muscarinic cholinergic antagonists; laxatives (e.g., surfactant laxatives, stimulant laxatives, saline and osmotic laxatives); antidiarrheal agents (e.g., LOMOTIL™ (diphenoxylate), MOTOFEN™ (diphenoxin), and IMODIUM™ (loperamide hydrochloride)), synthetic analogs of somatostatin such as SANDOSTATIN™ (octreotide), antiemetic agents (e.g., ZOFRAN™ (ondansetron), KYTRIL™ (granisetron hydrochloride), tropisetron, dolasetron, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, promethazine, thiethylperazine, triflupromazine, domperidone, haloperidol, droperidol, trimethobenzamide, dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, dronabinol, and nabilone); D2 antagonists (e.g., metoclopramide, trimethobenzamide and chlorpromazine); bile salts; chenodeoxycholic acid; ursodeoxycholic acid; and pancreatic enzyme preparations such as pancreatin and pancrelipase.

[1093] In additional embodiments, the Therapeutics of the invention are administered in combination with other therapeutic or prophylactic regimens, such as, for example, radiation therapy.

Example 11

[1094] Method of Treating Decreased Levels of the Polypeptide

[1095] It will be appreciated that conditions caused by a decrease in the standard or normal expression level of a polypeptide in an individual can be treated by administering the polypeptide of the present invention, preferably in the secreted and/or soluble form. Thus, the invention also provides a method of treatment of an individual in need of an increased level of the polypeptide comprising administering to such an individual a pharmaceutical composition comprising an amount of the polypeptide to increase the activity level of the polypeptide in such an individual.

[1096] For example, a patient with decreased levels of a polypeptide receives a daily dose 0.1-100 ug/kg of the polypeptide for six consecutive days. Preferably, the polypeptide is in the secreted form. The exact details of the dosing scheme, based on administration and formulation, are provided in Example 10.

Example 12

[1097] Method of Treating Increased Levels of the Polypeptide

[1098] Antisense technology is used to inhibit production of a polypeptide of the present invention. This technology is one example of a method of decreasing levels of a polypeptide, preferably a secreted form, due to a variety of etiologies, such as cancer.

[1099] For example, a patient diagnosed with abnormally increased levels of a polypeptide is administered intravenously antisense polynucleotides at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg day for 21 days. This treatment is repeated after a 7-day rest period if the treatment was well tolerated. The antisense polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated using techniques and formulations described herein (e.g., see Example 10) or otherwise known in the art.

Example 13

[1100] Method of Treatment Using Gene Therapy—Ex Vivo

[1101] One method of gene therapy transplants fibroblasts, which are capable of expressing a polypeptide, onto a patient. Generally, fibroblasts are obtained from a subject by skin biopsy. The resulting tissue is placed in tissue-culture medium and separated into small pieces. Small chunks of the tissue are placed on a wet surface of a tissue culture flask, approximately ten pieces are placed in each flask. The flask is turned upside down, closed tight and left at room temperature over night. After 24 hours at room temperature, the flask is inverted and the chunks of tissue remain fixed to the bottom of the flask and fresh media (e.g., Ham's F12 media, with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin) is added. The flasks are then incubated at 37° C. for approximately one week.

[1102] At this time, fresh media is added and subsequently changed every several days. After an additional two weeks in culture, a monolayer of fibroblasts emerges. The monolayer is trypsinized and scaled into larger flasks.

[1103] pMV-7 (Kirschmeier, P. T. et al., DNA, 7:219-25 (1988)), flanked by the long terminal repeats of the Moloney murine sarcoma virus, is digested with EcoRI and HindIII and subsequently treated with calf intestinal phosphatase. The linear vector is fractionated on agarose gel and purified, using glass beads.

[1104] The cDNA encoding a polypeptide of the present invention can be amplified using PCR primers which correspond to the 5′ and 3′ end sequences respectively as set forth in Example 1 using primers and having appropriate restriction sites and initiation/stop codons, if necessary. Preferably, the 5′ primer contains an EcoRI site and the 3′ primer includes a HindIII site. Equal quantities of the Moloney murine sarcoma virus linear backbone and the amplified EcoRI and HindIII fragment are added together, in the presence of T4 DNA ligase. The resulting mixture is maintained under conditions appropriate for ligation of the two fragments. The ligation mixture is then used to transform bacteria HB101, which are then plated onto agar containing kanamycin for the purpose of confirming that the vector has the gene of interest properly inserted.

[1105] The amphotropic pA317 or GP+am12 packaging cells are grown in tissue culture to confluent density in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) with 10% calf serum (CS), penicillin and streptomycin. The MSV vector containing the gene is then added to the media and the packaging cells transduced with the vector. The packaging cells now produce infectious viral particles containing the gene (the packaging cells are now referred to as producer cells).

[1106] Fresh media is added to the transduced producer cells, and subsequently, the media is harvested from a 10 cm plate of confluent producer cells. The spent media, containing the infectious viral particles, is filtered through a millipore filter to remove detached producer cells and this media is then used to infect fibroblast cells. Media is removed from a sub-confluent plate of fibroblasts and quickly replaced with the media from the producer cells. This media is removed and replaced with fresh media. If the titer of virus is high, then virtually all fibroblasts will be infected and no selection is required. If the titer is very low, then it is necessary to use a retroviral vector that has a selectable marker, such as neo or his. Once the fibroblasts have been efficiently infected, the fibroblasts are analyzed to determine whether protein is produced.

[1107] The engineered fibroblasts are then transplanted onto the host, either alone or after having been grown to confluence on cytodex 3 microcarrier beads.

Example 14

[1108] Gene Therapy Using Endogenous BMP Genes

[1109] Another method of gene therapy according to the present invention involves operably associating the endogenous BMP gene sequence with a promoter via homologous recombination as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,641,670, issued Jun. 24, 1997; International Publication NO: WO 96/29411, published Sep. 26, 1996; International Publication NO: WO 94/12650, published Aug. 4, 1994; Koller et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86:8932-8935 (1989); and Zijlstra et al., Nature, 342:435-438 (1989). This method involves the activation of a gene which is present in the target cells, but which is not expressed in the cells, or is expressed at a lower level than desired.

[1110] Polynucleotide constructs are made which contain a promoter and targeting sequences, which are homologous to the 5′ non-coding sequence of the endogenous BMP gene, flanking the promoter. The targeting sequence will be sufficiently near the 5′ end of the BMP gene so the promoter will be operably linked to the endogenous sequence upon homologous recombination. The promoter and the targeting sequences can be amplified using PCR. Preferably, the amplified promoter contains distinct restriction enzyme sites on the 5′ and 3′ ends. Preferably, the 3′ end of the first targeting sequence contains the same restriction enzyme site as the 5′ end of the amplified promoter and the 5′ end of the second targeting sequence contains the same restriction site as the 3′ end of the amplified promoter.

[1111] The amplified promoter and the amplified targeting sequences are digested with the appropriate restriction enzymes and subsequently treated with calf intestinal phosphatase. The digested promoter and digested targeting sequences are added together in the presence of T4 DNA ligase. The resulting mixture is maintained under conditions appropriate for ligation of the two fragments. The construct is size fractionated on an agarose gel then purified by phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation.

[1112] In this Example, the polynucleotide constructs are administered as naked polynucleotides via electroporation. However, the polynucleotide constructs may also be administered with transfection-facilitating agents, such as liposomes, viral sequences, viral particles, precipitating agents, etc. Such methods of delivery are known in the art.

[1113] Once the cells are transfected, homologous recombination will take place which results in the promoter being operably linked to the endogenous BMP gene sequence. This results in the expression of BMP polypeptides in the cell. Expression may be detected by immunological staining, or any other method known in the art.

[1114] Fibroblasts are obtained from a subject by skin biopsy. The resulting tissue is placed in DMEM+10% fetal calf serum. Exponentially growing or early stationary phase fibroblasts are trypsinized and rinsed from the plastic surface with nutrient medium. An aliquot of the cell suspension is removed for counting, and the remaining cells are subjected to centrifligation. The supernatant is aspirated and the pellet is resuspended in 5 ml of electroporation buffer (20 mM HEPES pH 7.3, 137 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 0.7 mM Na2 HPO4, 6 mM dextrose). The cells are recentriftiged, the supernatant aspirated, and the cells resuspended in electroporation buffer containing 1 mg/ml acetylated bovine serum albumin. The final cell suspension contains approximately 3×106 cells/ml. Electroporation should be performed immediately following resuspension.

[1115] Plasmid DNA is prepared according to standard techniques. For example, to construct a plasmid for targeting to the BMP locus, plasmid pUC18 (MBI Fermentas, Amherst, N.Y.) is digested with HindIII. The CMV promoter is amplified by PCR with an XbaI site on the 5′ end and a BamHI site on the 3′ end. Two BMP non-coding gene sequences are amplified via PCR: one BMP non-coding sequence (BMP fragment 1) is amplified with a HindIII site at the 5′ end and an Xba site at the 3′ end; the other BMP non-coding sequence (BMP fragment 2) is amplified with a BamHI site at the 5′ end and a HindIII site at the 3′ end. The CMV promoter and BMP fragments are digested with the appropriate enzymes (CMV promoter—XbaI and BamHI; BMP fragment 1—XbaI; BMP fragment 2—BamHI) and ligated together. The resulting ligation product is digested with HindIII, and ligated with the HindIII-digested pUC18 plasmid.

[1116] Plasmid DNA is added to a sterile cuvette with a 0.4 cm electrode gap (Bio-Rad). The final DNA concentration is generally at least 120 μg/ml. 0.5 ml of the cell suspension (containing approximately 1.5.×106 cells) is then added to the cuvette, and the cell suspension and DNA solutions are gently mixed. Electroporation is performed with a Gene-Pulser apparatus (Bio-Rad). Capacitance and voltage are set at 960 μF and 250-300 V, respectively. As voltage increases, cell survival decreases, but the percentage of surviving cells that stably incorporate the introduced DNA into their genome increases dramatically. Given these parameters, a pulse time of approximately 14-20 mSec should be observed.

[1117] Electroporated cells are maintained at room temperature for approximately 5 min, and the contents of the cuvette are then gently removed with a sterile transfer pipette. The cells are added directly to 10 ml of prewarmed nutrient media (DMEM with 15% calf serum) in a 10 cm dish and incubated at 37 degree C. The following day, the media is aspirated and replaced with 10 ml of fresh media and incubated for a further 16-24 hours.

[1118] The engineered fibroblasts are then injected into the host, either alone or after having been grown to confluence on cytodex 3 microcarrier beads. The fibroblasts now produce the protein product. The fibroblasts can then be introduced into a patient as described above.

Example 15 Method of Treatment Using Gene Therapy—In Vivo

[1119] Another aspect of the present invention is using in vivo gene therapy methods to treat disorders, diseases and conditions. The gene therapy method relates to the introduction of naked nucleic acid (DNA, RNA, and antisense DNA or RNA) BMP sequences into an animal to -increase or decrease the expression of the BMP polypeptide. The BMP polynucleotide may be operatively linked to a promoter or any other genetic elements necessary for the expression of the BMP polypeptide by the target tissue. Such gene therapy and delivery techniques and methods are known in the art, see, for example, WO90/11092, WO98/11779; U.S. Pat. No. 5,693,622, 5,705,151, 5,580,859; Tabata et al., Cardiovasc. Res. 35(3):470-479 (1997), Chao J et al., Pharmacol. Res., 35(6):517-522 (1997), Wolff, Neuromuscul. Disord. 7(5):314-318 (1997), Schwartz et al., Gene Ther., 3(5):405-411 (1996), Tsurumi Y. et al., Circulation, 94(12):3281-3290 (1996) (incorporated herein by reference).

[1120] The BMP polynucleotide constructs may be delivered by any method that delivers injectable materials to the cells of an animal, such as, injection into the interstitial space of tissues (heart, muscle, skin, lung, liver, intestine and the like). The BMP polynucleotide constructs can be delivered in a pharmaceutically acceptable liquid or aqueous carrier.

[1121] The term “naked” polynucleotide, DNA or RNA, refers to sequences that are free from any delivery vehicle that acts to assist, promote, or facilitate entry into the cell, including viral sequences, viral particles, liposome formulations, lipofectin or precipitating agents and the like. However, the BMP polynucleotides may also be delivered in liposome formulations (such as those taught in Felgner et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 772:126-139 (1995) and Abdallah et al., Biol. Cell, 85(1):1-7 (1995)) which can be prepared by methods well known to those skilled in the art.

[1122] The BMP polynucleotide vector constructs used in the gene therapy method are preferably constructs that will not integrate into the host genome nor will they contain sequences that allow for replication. Any strong promoter known to those skilled in the art can be used for driving the expression of DNA. Unlike other gene therapies techniques, one major advantage of introducing naked nucleic acid sequences into target cells is the transitory nature of the polynucleotide synthesis in the cells. Studies have shown that non-replicating DNA sequences can be introduced into cells to provide production of the desired polypeptide for periods of up to six months.

[1123] The polynucleotide constructs can be delivered to the interstitial space of tissues within the an animal, including of muscle, skin, brain, lung, liver, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, heart, lymph, blood, bone, cartilage, pancreas, kidney, gall bladder, stomach, intestine, testis, ovary, uterus, rectum, nervous system, eye, gland, and connective tissue. Interstitial space of the tissues comprises the intercellular fluid, mucopolysaccharide matrix among the reticular fibers of organ tissues, elastic fibers in the walls of vessels or chambers, collagen fibers of fibrous tissues, or that same matrix within connective tissue ensheathing muscle cells or in the lacunae of bone. It is similarly the space occupied by the plasma of the circulation and the lymph fluid of the lymphatic channels. Delivery to the interstitial space of muscle tissue is preferred for the reasons discussed below. They may be conveniently delivered by injection into the tissues comprising these cells. They are preferably delivered to and expressed in persistent, non-dividing cells which are differentiated, although delivery and expression may be achieved in non-differentiated or less completely differentiated cells, such as, for example, stem cells of blood or skin fibroblasts. In vivo muscle cells are particularly competent in their ability to take up and express polynucleotides.

[1124] For the naked BMP polynucleotide injection, an effective dosage amount of DNA or RNA will be in the range of from about 0.05 g/kg body weight to about 50 mg/kg body weight. Preferably the dosage will be from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 20 mg/kg and more preferably from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg. Of course, as the artisan of ordinary skill will appreciate, this dosage will vary according to the tissue site of injection. The appropriate and effective dosage of nucleic acid sequence can readily be determined by those of ordinary skill in the art and may depend on the condition being treated and the route of administration. The preferred route of administration is by the parenteral route of injection into the interstitial space of tissues. However, other parenteral routes may also be used, such as, inhalation of an aerosol formulation particularly for delivery to lungs or bronchial tissues, throat or mucous membranes of the nose. In addition, naked BMP polynucleotide constructs can be delivered to arteries during angioplasty by the catheter used in the procedure.

[1125] The dose response effects of injected BMP polynucleotide in muscle in vivo are determined as follows. Suitable BMP template DNA for production of mRNA coding for BMP polypeptide is prepared in accordance with a standard recombinant DNA methodology. The template DNA, which may be either circular or linear, is either used as naked DNA or complexed with liposomes. The quadriceps muscles of mice are then injected with various amounts of the template DNA.

[1126] Five to six week old female and male Balb/C mice are anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection with 0.3 ml of 2.5% Avertin. A 1.5 cm incision is made on the anterior thigh, and the quadriceps muscle is directly visualized. The BMP template DNA is injected in 0.1 ml of carrier in a 1 cc syringe through a 27 gauge needle over one minute, approximately 0.5 cm from the distal insertion site of the muscle into the knee and about 0.2 cm deep. A suture is placed over the injection site for future localization, and the skin is closed with stainless steel clips.

[1127] After an appropriate incubation time (e.g., 7 days) muscle extracts are prepared by excising the entire quadriceps. Every fifth 15 um cross-section of the individual quadriceps muscles is histochemically stained for BMP protein expression. A time course for BMP protein expression may be done in a similar fashion except that quadriceps from different mice are harvested at different times. Persistence of BMP DNA in muscle following injection may be determined by Southern blot analysis after preparing total cellular DNA and HIRT supernatants from injected and control mice. The results of the above experimentation in mice can be use to extrapolate proper dosages and other treatment parameters in humans and other animals using BMP naked DNA.

Example 16

[1128] Production of an Antibody

[1129] a) Hybridoma Technology

[1130] The antibodies of the present invention can be prepared by a variety of methods. (See, Current Protocols, Chapter 2.) As one example of such methods, cells expressing BMP polypeptide(s) are administered to an animal to induce the production of sera containing polyclonal antibodies. In a preferred method, a preparation of BMP polypeptide(s) is prepared and purified to render it substantially free of natural contaminants. Such a preparation is then introduced into an animal in order to produce polyclonal antisera of greater specific activity.

[1131] Monoclonal antibodies specific for BMP polypeptide(s) are prepared using hybridoma technology. (Kohler et al., Nature 256:495 (1975); Kohler et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 6:511 (1976); Kohler et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 6:292 (1976); Hammerling et al., in: Monoclonal Antibodies and T-Cell Hybridomas, Elsevier, N.Y., pp. 563-681 (1981)). In general, an animal (preferably a mouse) is immunized with BMP polypeptide(s) or, more preferably, with a secreted BMP polypeptide-expressing cell. Such polypeptide-expressing cells are cultured in any suitable tissue culture medium, preferably in Earle's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (inactivated at about 56° C.), and supplemented with about 10 g/l of nonessential amino acids, about 1,000 U/ml of penicillin, and about 100 μg/ml of streptomycin.

[1132] The splenocytes of such mice are extracted and fused with a suitable myeloma cell line. Any suitable myeloma cell line may be employed in accordance with the present invention; however, it is preferable to employ the parent myeloma cell line (SP2O), available from the ATCC. After fusion, the resulting hybridoma cells are selectively maintained in HAT medium, and then cloned by limiting dilution as described by Wands et al. (Gastroenterology 80:225-232 (1981)). The hybridoma cells obtained through such a selection are then assayed to identify clones which secrete antibodies capable of binding the BMP polypeptide(s).

[1133] Alternatively, additional antibodies capable of binding to BMP polypeptide(s) can be produced in a two-step procedure using anti-idiotypic antibodies. Such a method makes use of the fact that antibodies are themselves antigens, and therefore, it is possible to obtain an antibody which binds to a second antibody. In accordance with this method, protein specific antibodies are used to immunize an animal, preferably a mouse. The splenocytes of such an animal are then used to produce hybridoma cells, and the hybridoma cells are screened to identify clones which produce an antibody whose ability to bind to the BMP protein-specific antibody can be blocked by BMP polypeptide(s). Such antibodies comprise anti-idiotypic antibodies to the BMP protein-specific antibody and are used to immunize an animal to induce formation of further BMP protein-specific antibodies.

[1134] For in vivo use of antibodies in humans, an antibody is “humanized”. Such antibodies can be produced using genetic constructs derived from hybridoma cells producing the monoclonal antibodies described above. Methods for producing chimeric and humanized antibodies are known in the art and are discussed herein. (See, for review, Morrison, Science 229:1202 (1985); Oi et al., BioTechniques 4:214 (1986); Cabilly et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,816,567; Taniguchi et al., EP 171496; Morrison et al., EP 173494; Neuberger et al., WO 8601533; Robinson et al., WO 8702671; Boulianne et al., Nature 312:643 (1984); Neuberger et al., Nature 314:268 (1985)).

[1135] b) Isolation of Antibody Fragments Directed Against BMP Polypeptide(s) From a Library of scFvs

[1136] Naturally occurring V-genes isolated from human PBLs are constructed into a library of antibody fragments which contain reactivities against BMP polypeptide(s) to which the donor may or may not have been exposed (see e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,885,793 incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[1137] Rescue of the Library.

[1138] A library of scFvs is constructed from the RNA of human PBLs as described in PCT publication WO 92/01047. To rescue phage displaying antibody fragments, approximately 109 E. coli harboring the phagemid are used to inoculate 50 ml of 2×TY containing 1% glucose and 100 μg/ml of ampicillin (2×TY-AMP-GLU) and grown to an O.D. of 0.8 with shaking. Five ml of this culture is used to innoculate 50 ml of 2×TY-AMP-GLU, 2×108 TU of delta gene 3 helper (M13 delta gene III, see PCT publication WO 92/01047) are added and the culture incubated at 37° C. for 45 minutes without shaking and then at 37° C. for 45 minutes with shaking. The culture is centrifuged at 4000 r.p.m. for 10 min. and the pellet resuspended in 2 liters of 2×TY containing 100 μg/ml ampicillin and 50 ug/ml kanamycin and grown overnight. Phage are prepared as described in PCT publication WO 92/01047.

[1139] M13 delta gene III is prepared as follows: M13 delta gene III helper phage does not encode gene III protein, hence the phage(mid) displaying antibody fragments have a greater avidity of binding to antigen. Infectious M13 delta gene III particles are made by growing the helper phage in cells harboring a pUC19 derivative supplying the wild type gene III protein during phage morphogenesis. The culture is incubated for 1 hour at 37° C. without shaking and then for a further hour at 37° C. with shaking. Cells are spun down (IEC-Centra 8,400 r.p.m. for 10 min), resuspended in 300 ml 2×TY broth containing 100 μg ampicillin/ml and 25 μg kanamycin/ml (2×TY-AMP-KAN) and grown overnight, shaking at 37° C. Phage particles are purified and concentrated from the culture medium by two PEG-precipitations (Sambrook et al., 1990), resuspended in 2 ml PBS and passed through a 0.45 μm filter (Minisart NML; Sartorius) to give a final concentration of approximately 1013 transducing units/ml (ampicillin-resistant clones).

[1140] Panning of the Library.

[1141] Immunotubes (Nunc) are coated overnight in PBS with 4 ml of either 100 μg/ml or 10 μg/ml of a polypeptide of the present invention. Tubes are blocked with 2% Marvel-PBS for 2 hours at 37° C. and then washed 3 times in PBS. Approximately 1013 TU of phage is applied to the tube and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature tumbling on an over and under turntable and then left to stand for another 1.5 hours. Tubes are washed 10 times with PBS 0.1% Tween-20 and 10 times with PBS. Phage are eluted by adding 1 ml of 100 mM triethylamine and rotating 15 minutes on an under and over turntable after which the solution is immediately neutralized with 0.5 ml of 1.0M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4. Phage are then used to infect 10 ml of mid-log E. coli TG1 by incubating eluted phage with bacteria for 30 minutes at 37° C. The E. coli are then plated on TYE plates containing 1% glucose and 100 μg/ml ampicillin. The resulting bacterial library is then rescued with delta gene 3 helper phage as described above to prepare phage for a subsequent round of selection. This process is then repeated for a total of 4 rounds of affinity purification with tube-washing increased to 20 times with PBS, 0.1% Tween-20 and 20 times with PBS for rounds 3 and 4.

[1142] Characterization of Binders.

[1143] Eluted phage from the 3rd and 4th rounds of selection are used to infect E. coli HB 2151 and soluble scFv is produced (Marks, et al., 1991) from single colonies for assay. ELISAs are performed with microtitre plates coated with either 10 pg/ml of the polypeptide of the present invention in 50 mM bicarbonate pH 9.6. Clones positive in ELISA are further characterized by PCR fingerprinting (see, e.g., PCT publication WO 92/01047) and then by sequencing. These ELISA positive clones may also be further characterized by techniques known in the art, such as, for example, epitope mapping, binding affinity, receptor signal transduction, ability to block or competitively inhibit antibody/antigen binding, and competitive agonistic or antagonistic activity.

Example 17

[1144] [3H]-2-Deoxytlucose Uptake Assay.

[1145] Adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver are insulin-sensitive tissues. Insulin can stimulate glucose uptake/transport into these tissues. In the case of adipose and skeletal muscle, insulin initiates the signal transduction that eventually leads to the translocation of the glucose transporter 4 molecule, GLUT4, from a specialized intracellular compartment to the cell surface. Once on the cell surface, GLUT4 allows for glucose uptake/transport.

[1146] [3H]-2-Deoxyglucose Uptake

[1147] A number of adipose and muscle related cell-lines can be used to test for glucose uptake/transport activity in the absence or presence of a combination of any one or more of the therapeutic drugs listed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In particular, the 3T3-L1 murine fibroblast cells and the L6 murine skeletal muscle cells can be differentiated into 3T3-L1 adipocytes and into myotubes, respectively, to serve as appropriate in vitro models for the [3H]-2-deoxyglucose uptake assay (Urso et al., J Biol Chem, 274(43): 30864-73 (1999); Wang et al., J Mol Endocrinol, 19(3): 241-8 (1997); Haspel et al., J Membr Biol, 169 (1): 45-53 (1999); Tsakiridis et al., Endocrinology, 136(10): 4315-22 (1995)). Briefly, 2×105 cells/100 μL of adipocytes or differentiated L6 cells are transferred to 96-well Tissue-Culture, “TC”, treated, i.e., coated with 50 μg/mL of poly-L-lysine, plates in post-differentiation medium and are incubated overnight at 37° C. in 5% CO2. The cells are first washed once with serum free low glucose DMEM medium and are then starved with 100 μL/well of the same medium and with 100 μL/well of either buffer or of a combination of any one or more of the therapeutic drugs listed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, for example, increasing concentrations of 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM of the therapeutics of the subject invention (e.g., specific fusions disclosed as SEQ ID NO: Y and fragments and variants thereof) for 16 hours at 37° C. in the absence or presence of 1 nM insulin. The plates are washed three times with 100 μL/well of HEPES buffered saline. Insulin is added at 1 nM in HEPES buffered saline for 30 min at 37° C. in the presence of 10 μM labeled [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (Amersham, #TRK672) and 10 μM unlabeled 2-deoxyglucose (SIGMA, D-3179). As control, the same conditions are carried out except in the absence of insulin. A final concentration of 10 μM cytochalasin B (SIGMA, C6762) is added at 100 μL/well in a separate well to measure the non-specific uptake. The cells are washed three times with HEPES buffered saline. Labeled, i.e., 10 μM of [3H]-2-deoxyglucose, and unlabeled, i.e., 10 μM of 2-deoxyglucose, are added for 10 minutes at room temperature. The cells are washed three times with cold Phosphate Buffered Sal ine, “PBS”. The cells are lysed upon the addition of 150 μL/well of 0.2 N NaOH and subsequent incubation with shaking for 20 minutes at room temperature. Samples are then transferred to a scintillation vial to which is added 5 mL of scintillation fluid. The vials are counted in a Beta-Scintillation counter. Uptake in duplicate conditions, the difference being the absence or presence of insulin, is determined with the following equation: [(Insulin counts per minute “cpm”−Non-Specific cpm)/(No Insulin cpm−Non-Specific cpm)]. Average responses fall within the limits of about 5-fold and 3-fold that of controls for adipocytes and myotubes, respectively.

[1148] Differentiation of Cells

[1149] The cells are allowed to become fully confluent in a T-75 cm2 flask. The medium is removed and replaced with 25 mL of pre-differentiation medium for 48 hours. The cells are incubated at 37° C., in 5% CO2, 85% humidity. After 48 hours, the pre-differentiation medium is removed and replaced with 25 mL differentiation medium for 48 hours. The cells are again incubated at 37° C., in 5% CO2, 85% humidity. After 48 hours, the medium is removed and replaced with 30 mL post-differentiation medium. Post-differentiation medium is maintained for 14-20 days or until complete differentiation is achieved. The medium is changed every 2-3 days. Human adipocytes can be purchased from Zen-Bio, INC (# SA-1096).

Example 18

[1150] In Vitro Assay of [3H]-Thymidine Incorporation Into Pancreatic Cell-Lines.

[1151] It has recently been shown that GLP-1 induces differentiation of the rat pancreatic ductal epithelial cell-line ARIP in a time- and dose-dependent manner which is associated with an increase in Islet Duodenal Homeobox-1 (IDX-1) and insulin mRNA levels (Hui et al., Diabetes, 50(4): 785-96 (2001)). The IDX-1 in turn increases mRNA levels of the GLP-1 receptor.

[1152] Cells Types Tested

[1153] RIN-M cells: These cells are available from the American Type Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC Cell Line Number CRL-2057). The RIN-M cell line was derived from a radiation induced transplantable rat islet cell tumor. The line was established from a nude mouse xenograft of the tumor. The cells produce and secrete islet polypeptide hormones, and produce L-dopa decarboxylase (a marker for cells having amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation, or APUD, activity).

[1154] ARIP cells: These are pancreatic exocrine cells of epithelial morphology available from the American Type Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC Cell Line Number CRL-1674). See also, references: Jessop, N. W. and Hay, R. J., “Characteristics of two rat pancreatic exocrine cell lines derived from transplantable tumors,” In Vitro 16: 212, (1980); Cockell, M. et al., “Identification of a cell-specific DNA-binding activity that interacts with a transcriptional activator of genes expressed in the acinar pancreas,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 9: 2464-2476, (1989); Roux, E., et al. “The cell-specific transcription factor PTF1 contains two different subunits that interact with the DNA” Genes Dev. 3: 1613-1624, (1989); and, Hui, H., et al., “Glucagon-like peptide 1 induces differentiation of islet duodenal homeobox-1-positive pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting cells,” Diabetes 50: 785-796 (2001).

[1155] Preparation of Cells

[1156] The RIN-M cell-line is grown in RPMI 1640 medium (Hyclone, #SH300027.01) with 10% fetal bovine serum (HyClone, #SH30088.03) and is subcultured every 6 to 8 days at a ratio of 1:3 to 1:6. The medium is changed every 3 to 4 days.

[1157] The ARIP (ATCC #CRL-1674) cell-line is grown in Ham's F12K medium (ATCC, #30-2004) with 2 mM L-glutamine adjusted to contain 1.5 g/L sodium bicarbonate and 10% fetal bovine serum. The ARIP cell-line is subcultured at a ratio of 1:3 to 1:6 twice per week. The medium is changed every 3 to 4 days.

[1158] Assay Protocol

[1159] The cells are seeded at 4000 cells/well in 96-well plates and cultured for 48 to 72 hours to 50% confluence. The cells are switched to serum-free media at 100 μL/well. After incubation for 48-72 hours, serum and/or the therapeutics of the subject invention (e.g., specific fusions disclosed as SEQ ID NO: Y and fragments and variants thereof) are added to the well. Incubation persists for an additional 36 hours. [3H]-Thymidine (5-20 Ci/mmol) (Amersham Pharmacia, #TRK120) is diluted to 1 microCuries/5 microliters. After the 36 hour incubation, 5 microliters is added per well for a further 24 hours. The reaction is terminated by washing the cells gently with cold Phosphate-Buffered Sal ine, “PBS”, once. The cells are then fixed with 100 microliters of 10% ice cold TCA for 15 min at 4° C. The PBS is removed and 200 microliters of 0.2 N NaOH is added. The plates are incubated for 1 hour at room temperature with shaking. The solution is transferred to a scintillation vial and 5 mL of scintillation fluid compatible with aqueous solutions is added and mixed vigorously. The vials are counted in a beta scintillation counter. As negative control, only buffer is used. As a positive control fetal calf serum is used.

Example 19

[1160] Assaying for Glycosuria.

[1161] Glycosuria (i.e., excess sugar in the urine), can be readily assayed to provide an index of the disease state of diabetes mellitus. Excess urine in a patient sample as compared with a normal patient sample is symptomatic of IDDM and NIDDM. Efficacy of treatment of such a patient having IDDM and NIDDM is indicated by a resulting decrease in the amount of excess glucose in the urine. In a preferred embodiment for IDDM and NIDDM monitoring, urine samples from patients are assayed for the presence of glucose using techniques known in the art. Glycosuria in humans is defined by a urinary glucose concentration exceeding 100 mg per 100 ml. Excess sugar levels in those patients exhibiting glycosuria can be measured even more precisely by obtaining blood samples and assaying serum glucose.

Example 20

[1162] Occurrence of Diabetes in NOD Mice.

[1163] Female NOD (non-obese diabetic) mice are characterized by displaying IDDM with a course which is similar to that found in humans, although the disease is more pronounced in female than male NOD mice. Hereinafter, unless otherwise stated, the term “NOD mouse” refers to a female NOD mouse. NOD mice have a progressive destruction of beta cells which is caused by a chronic autoimmune disease. Thus, NOD mice begin life with euglycemia, or normal blood glucose levels. By about 15 to 16 weeks of age, however, NOD mice start becoming hyperglycemic, indicating the destruction of the majority of their pancreatic beta cells and the corresponding inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient insulin. Thus, both the cause and the progression of the disease are similar to human IDDM patients.

[1164] In vivo assays of efficacy of the immunization regimens can be assessed in female NOD/LtJ mice (commercially available from The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Me.). In the literature, it's reported that 80% of female mice develop diabetes by 24 weeks of age and onset of insulitis begins between 6-8 weeks age. NOD mice are inbred and highly responsive to a variety of immunoregulatory strategies. Adult NOD mice (6-8 weeks of age) have an average mass of 20-25 g.

[1165] These mice can be either untreated (control), treated with the therapeutics of the subject invention (e.g., specific fusions disclosed as SEQ ID NO: Y and fragments and variants thereof), alone or in combination with other therapeutic compounds stated above. The effect of these various treatments on the progression of diabetes can be measured as follows:

[1166] At 14 weeks of age, the female NOD mice can be phenotyped according to glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance can be measured with the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Briefly, blood is drawn from the paraorbital plexus at 0 minutes and 60 minutes after the intraperitoneal injection of glucose (1 g/kg body weight). Normal tolerance is defined as plasma glucose at 0 minutes of less than 144 mg %, or at 60 minutes of less than 160 mg %. Blood glucose levels are determined with a Glucometer Elite apparatus.

[1167] Based upon this phenotypic analysis, animals can be allocated to the different experimental groups. In particular, animals with more elevated blood glucose levels can be assigned to the impaired glucose tolerance group. The mice can be fed ad libitum and can be supplied with acidified water (pH 2.3).

[1168] The glucose tolerant and intolerant mice can be further subdivided into control, albumin fusion proteins of the subject invention, and albumin fusion proteins/therapeutic compounds combination groups. Mice in the control group can receive an interperitoneal injection of vehicle daily, six times per week. Mice in the albumin fusion group can receive an interperitoneal injection of the therapeutics of the subject invention (e.g., specific fusions disclosed as SEQ ID NO: Y and fragments and variants thereof) in vehicle daily, six times per week. Mice in the albumin fusion proteins/therapeutic compounds combination group can receive both albumin fusion proteins and combinations of therapeutic compounds as described above.

[1169] The level of urine glucose in the NOD mice can be determined on a biweekly basis using Labstix (Bayer Diagnostics, Hampshire, England). Weight and fluid intake can also be determined on a bi-weekly basis. The onset of diabetes is defined after the appearance of glucosuria on two consecutive determinations. After 10 weeks of treatment, an additional IPGTT can be performed and animals can be sacrificed the following day.

[1170] Over the 10 week course of treatment, control animals in both the glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant groups develop diabetes at a rate of 60% and 86%, respectively (see U.S. Pat. No. 5,866,546, Gross et al.). Thus, high rates of diabetes occur even in NOD mice which are initially glucose tolerant if no intervention is made.

[1171] Results can be confirmed by the measurement of blood glucose levels in NOD mice, before and after treatment. Blood glucose levels are measured as described above in both glucose tolerant and intolerant mice in all groups described.

[1172] In an alternative embodiment, the therapeutics of the subject invention (e.g., specific fusions disclosed as SEQ ID NO: Y and fragments and variants thereof) can be quantified using spectrometric analysis and appropriate protein quantities can be resuspended prior to injection in 50 .mu.l phosphate buffered saline (PBS) per dose. Two injections, one week apart, can be administered subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of each mouse. Monitoring can be performed on two separate occasions prior to immunization and can be performed weekly throughout the treatment and continued thereafter. Urine can be tested for glucose every week (Keto-Diastix. RTM.; Miles Inc., Kankakee, Ill.) and glycosuric mice can be checked for serum glucose (ExacTech.RTM., MediSense, Inc., Waltham, Mass.). Diabetes is diagnosed when fasting glycemia is greater than 2.5 g/L.

Example 21

[1173] Histological Examination of NOD Mice.

[1174] Histological examination of tissue samples from NOD mice can demonstrate the ability of the compositions of the present invention, and/or a combination of the compositions of the present invention with other therapeutic agents for diabetes, to increase the relative concentration of beta cells in the pancreas. The experimental method is as follows:

[1175] The mice from Example 20 can be sacrificed at the end of the treatment period and tissue samples can be taken from the pancreas. The samples can be fixed in 10% formalin in 0.9% saline and embedded in wax. Two sets of 5 serial 5 .mu.m sections can be cut for immunolabelling at a cutting interval of 150 .mu.m. Sections can be immunolabelled for insulin (guinea pig anti-insulin antisera dilution 1:1000, ICN Thames U.K.) and glucagon (rabbit anti-pancreatic glucagon antisera dilution 1:2000) and detected with peroxidase conjugated anti-guinea pig (Dako, High Wycombe, U.K.) or peroxidase conjugated anti-rabbit antisera (dilution 1:50, Dako).

[1176] The composition of the present invention may or may not have as strong an effect on the visible mass of beta cells as it does on the clinical manifestations of diabetes in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant animals.

Example 22

[1177] Pancreatic Beta-Cell Transplantation Combination Therapy.

[1178] Transplantation is a common form of treatment of autoimmune disease, especially when the target self tissue has been severely damaged. For example, and not by way of limitation, pancreas transplantation and islet cell transplantation are common treatment options for IDDM (See, e.g., Stewart et al., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 86 (3): 984-988 (2001); Brunicardi, Transplant. Proc. 28: 2138-40 (1996); Kendall & Robertson, Diabetes Metab. 22: 157-163 (1996); Hamano et al., Kobe J. Med. Sci. 42: 93-104 (1996); Larsen & Stratta, Diabetes Metab. 22: 139-146 (1996); and Kinkhabwala, et al., Am. J. Surg. 171: 516-520 (1996)). As with any transplantation method, transplantation therapies for autoimmune disease patients include treatments to minimize the risk of host rejection of the transplanted tissue. However, autoimmune disease involves the additional, independent risk that the pre-existing host autoimmune response which damaged the original self tissue will exert the same damaging effect on the transplanted tissue. Accordingly, the present invention encompasses methods and compositions for the treatment of autoimmune pancreatic disease using the albumin fusion proteins of the subject invention in combination with immunomodulators/immunosuppressants in individuals undergoing transplantation therapy of the autoimmune disease.

[1179] In accordance with the invention, the albumin fusion-based compositions and formulations described above, are administered to prevent and treat damage to the transplanted organ, tissue, or cells resulting from the host individual's autoimmune response initially directed against the original self tissue. Administration may be carried out both prior and subsequent to transplantation in 2 to 4 doses each one week apart.

[1180] The following immunomodulators/immunosuppressants including, but not limited to, AI-401, CDP-571 (anti-TNF monoclonal antibody), CG-1088, Diamyd (diabetes vaccine), ICM3 (anti-ICAM-3 monoclonal antibody), linomide (Roquinimex), NBI-6024 (altered peptide ligand), TM-27, VX-740 (HMR-3480), caspase 8 protease inhibitors, thalidomide, hOKT3gammal (Ala-ala) (anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody), Oral Interferon-Alpha, oral lactobacillus, and LymphoStat-B™ can be used together with the albumin fusion therapeutics of the subject invention in islet cell or pancreas transplantation.

Example 23

[1181] In Vivo Mouse Model of NIDDM.

[1182] Male C57BL/6J mice from Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Me.) can be obtained at 3 weeks of age and fed on conventional chow or diets enriched in either fat (35.5% wt/wt; Bioserv.Frenchtown, N.J.) or fructose (60% wt/wt; Harlan Teklad, Madison, Wis.). The regular chow is composed of 4.5% wt/wt fat, 23% wt/wt protein, 31.9% wt/wt starch, 3.7% wt/wt fructose, and 5.3% wt/wt fiber. The high-fat (lard) diet is composed of 35.5% wt/wt fat, 20% wt/wt protein, 36.4% wt/wt starch, 0.0% wt/wt fructose, and 0.1% wt/wt fiber. The high-fructose diet is composed of 5% wt/wt fat, 20% wt/wt protein, 0.0% wt/wt starch, 60% wt/wt fructose, and 9.4% wt/wt fiber. The mice may be housed no more than five per cage at 22°±3° C. temperature- and 50% ±20% humidity-controlled room with a 12-hour light (6 am to 6 pm)/dark cycle (Luo et al., Metabolism 47(6): 663-8 (1998), “Nongenetic mouse models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”; Larsen et al., Diabetes 50(11): 2530-9 (2001), “Systemic administration of the long-acting GLP-1 derivative NN2211 induces lasting and reversible weight loss in both normal and obese rats”). After exposure to the respective diets for 3 weeks, mice can be injected intraperitoneally with either streptozotocin, “STZ” (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.), at 100 mg/kg body weight or vehicle (0.05 mol/L citric acid, pH 4.5) and kept on the same diet for the next 4 weeks. Under nonfasting conditions, blood is obtained 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-STZ by nipping the distal part of the tail. Samples are used to measure nonfasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Body weight and food intake are recorded weekly.

[1183] To directly determine the effect of the high-fat diet on the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal, the experiments can be initiated on three groups of mice, fat-fed, chow-fed injected with vehicle, and fat-fed injected with STZ at the end of the 7-week period described above. Mice can be fasted for 4 hours before the experiments. In the first series of experiments, mice can be anesthetized with methoxyflurane (Pitman-Moor, Mundelein, Ill.) inhalation. Regular insulin (Sigma) can be injected intravenously ([IV] 0.1 U/kg body weight) through a tail vein, and blood can be collected 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes after the injection from a different tail vein. Plasma glucose concentrations can be determined on these samples, and the half-life (t½) of glucose disappearance from plasma can be calculated using WinNonlin (Scientific Consulting, Apex, N.C.), a pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics software program.

[1184] In the second series of experiments, mice can be anesthetized with intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital (Sigma). The abdominal cavity is opened, and the main abdominal vein is exposed and catheterized with a 24-gauge IV catheter (Johnson-Johnson Medical, Arlington, Tex.). The catheter is secured to muscle tissue adjacent to the abdominal vein, cut on the bottom of the syringe connection, and hooked to a prefilled PE50 plastic tube, which in turn is connected to a syringe with infusion solution. The abdominal cavity is then sutured closed. With this approach, there would be no blockage of backflow of the blood from the lower part of the body. Mice can be infused continuously with glucose (24.1 mg/kg/min) and insulin (10 mU/kg/min) at an infusion volume of 10 μL/min. Retro-orbital blood samples (70 μL each) can be taken 90, 105, 120, and 135 minutes after the start of infusion for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The mean of these four samples is used to estimate steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) and insulin (SSPI) concentrations for each animal.

[1185] Finally, experiments to evaluate the ability of the albumin fusion proteins, the therapeutic compositions of the instant application, either alone or in combination with any one or more of the therapeutic drugs listed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, to decrease plasma glucose can be performed in the following two groups of “NIDDM” mice models that are STZ-injected: (1) fat-fed C57BL/6J, and (2) fructose-fed C57BL/6J. Plasma glucose concentrations of the mice for these studies may range from 255 to 555 mg/dL. Mice are randomly assigned to treatment with either vehicle, albumin fusion therapeutics of the present invention either alone or in combination with any one or more of the therapeutic drugs listed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. A total of three doses can be administered. Tail vein blood samples can be taken for measurement of the plasma glucose concentration before the first dose and 3 hours after the final dose.

[1186] Plasma glucose concentrations can be determined using the Glucose Diagnostic Kit from Sigma (Sigma No. 315), an enzyme colorimetric assay. Plasma insulin levels can be determined using the Rat Insulin RIA Kit from Linco Research (#RI-13K; St. Charles, Mo.).

Example 24

[1187] In Vitro H4IIe—SEAP Reporter Assays Establishing Involvement in Insulin Action.

[1188] The Various H4IIe Reporters

[1189] H4IIe/rMEP-SEAP: The malic enzyme promoter isolated from rat (rMEP) contains a PPAR-gamma element which is in the insulin pathway. This reporter construct is stably transfected into the liver H4IIe cell-line.

[1190] H4IIe/SREBP-SEAP:The sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c) is a transcription factor which acts on the promoters of a number of insulin-responsive genes, for example, fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and which regulates expression of key genes in fatty acid metabolism in fibroblasts, adipocytes, and hepatocytes. SREBP-1c, also known as the adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD-1), is considered as the primary mediator of insulin effects on gene expression in adipose cells. It's activity is modulated by the levels of insulin, sterols, and glucose. This reporter construct is stably transfected into the liver H4IIe cell-line.

[1191] H4IIe/FAS-SEAP: The fatty acid synthetase reporter constructs contain a minimal SREBP-responsive FAS promoter. This reporter construct is stably transfected into the liver H4IIe cell-line.

[1192] H4IIe/PEPCK-SEAP: The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter is the primary site of hormonal regulation of PEPCK gene transcription modulating PEPCK activity. PEPCK catalyzes a committed and rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis and must therefore be carefully controlled to maintain blood glucose levels within normal limits. This reporter construct is stably transfected into the liver H4IIe cell-line.

[1193] These reporter constructs can also be stably transfected into 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and L6 myoblasts. These stable cell-lines are then differentiated into 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes as previously described in Example 17. The differentiated cell-lines can then be used in the SEAP assay described below.

[1194] Growth and Assay Medium

[1195] The growth medium comprises 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 10% Calf Serum, 1% NEAA, 1× penicillin/streptomycin, and 0.75 mg/mL G418 (for H4IIe/rFAS-SEAP and H4IIe/SREBP-SEAP) or 0.50 mg/mL G418 (for H4IIe/rMEP-SEAP). For H4IIe/PEPCK-SEAP, the growth medium consists of 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 15 mM HEPES buffered saline, and 0.50 mg/mL G418. 111141 The assay medium consists of low glucose DMEM medium (Life Technologies), 1% NEAA, 1× penicillin/streptomycin for the H4IIe/rFAS-SEAP, H4IIe/SREBP-SEAP, H4IIe/rMEP-SEAP reporters. The assay medium for H4IIe/PEPCK-SEAP reporter consists of 0.1% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, and 15 mM HEPES buffered saline.

[1196] Method

[1197] The 96-well plates are seeded at 75,000 cells/well in 100 μL/well of growth medium until cells in log growth phase become adherent. Cells are starved for 48 hours by replacing growth medium with assay medium, 200 μL/well. (For H4IIe/PEPCK-SEAP cells, assay medium containing 0.5 μM dexamethasone is added at 100 μL/well and incubated for approximately 20 hours). The assay medium is replaced thereafter with 100 μL/well of fresh assay medium, and a 50 μL aliquot of cell supernatant obtained from transfected cell-lines expressing the therapeutics of the subject invention (e.g., specific fusions disclosed as SEQ ID NO: Y and fragments and variants thereof) is added to the well. Supernatants from empty vector transfected cell-lines are used as negative control. Addition of 10 nM and/or 100 nM insulin to the wells is used as positive control. After 48 hours of incubation, the conditioned media are harvested and SEAP activity measured (Phospha-Light System protocol, Tropix #BP2500). Briefly, samples are diluted 1:4 in dilution buffer and incubated at 65° C. for 30 minutes to inactivate the endogenous non-placental form of SEAP. An aliquot of 50 μL of the diluted samples is mixed with 50 μL of SEAP Assay Buffer which contains a mixture of inhibitors active against the non-placental SEAP isoenzymes and is incubated for another 5 minutes. An aliquot of 50 μL of CSPD chemiluminescent substrate which is diluted 1:20 in Emerald luminescence enhancer is added to the mixture and incubated for 15-20 minutes. Plates are read in a Dynex plate luminometer.

Example 25

[1198] Glucose Production Assay

[1199] Insulin lowers blood sugar levels by various mechanisms. It removes glucose from the bloodstream by glucose uptake, mainly into muscle and fat cells. On the other hand, it also reduces the production and release of new glucose due to repression of gluconeogenesis in the liver. In this study we examined whether HLDOU18 has a similar effect on gluconeogenesis as insulin.

[1200] The rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE may be used to establish a glucose production assay. This assay could be based on a previously published procedure by Wang, J. -C., Stafford, J. M., Scott, D. K., Sutherland, C. and Granner, D. K. (2000), J. Biol. Chem. 275, 14717-14721.

[1201] H4IIE is grown in collagen-coated 24-well plates in high-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37° C. in a humidified incubator in 5% CO2. After reaching 90% confluency (approximately), the cells are washed twice with Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) containing calcium and magnesium. Serum-free high-glucose DMEM containing HLDOU18, the polypeptide of interest, or insulin is added (1 ml) and the plates were incubated for 17 hours at 37° C. For each data point six wells could be used. Cells are then washed three times with glucose-free DMEM, and 400 μl of glucose production media (glucose-free DMEM containing 20 mM sodium lactate and 2 mM sodium pyruvate) is added. After incubation for 5 hours at 37° C., the supernatants are collected and the cells are lysed in 2 ml of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in phosphate-buffered saline. Protein content is measured in duplicate using the BCA protein assay kit from Pierce (#23223). The supernatants are analyzed for glucose content in duplicate using the Amplex Red Glucose Assay Kit from Molecular Probes (A-12210). The results are adjusted for protein concentration to correct for variations in cell numbers.

Example 26

[1202] Full Thickness Articular Cartilage Repair Model

[1203] A full thickness articular cartilage defect model in the femoral-patellar joint of adult rabbits is used to evaluate the ability of the combination of BMPs to affect cartilage and bone repair. Adult New Zealand White rabbits are anesthetized and prepared for sterile surgery. A 3.3 mm defect through articular cartilage and into underlying subchondral bone is drilled into the patellar groove of the knee joint. The defect is either left empty, filled with collagen sponge (controls), or with collagen sponge soaked with 10 μg BMP. The incision is closed and animals are allowed free movement within their cages for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks the animals are humanely euthanatized and the articular cartilage/subchondral bone defect is evaluated histologically for tissue architecture, quantity and quality of repair tissue. Northern analysis is performed for additional phenotyping.

Example 27

[1204] Rat Model Bioassay for Tendon/Ligament-Like Tissue Formation

[1205] A modified version of the rat ectopic implant assay described in Sampath and Reddi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:6591-6595 (1983) is another method used to evaluate the activity of the BMPs. This modified assay is herein called the Rosen-modified Sampath-Reddi assay. The assay has been widely used to evaluate the bone and cartilage-inducing activity of BMPs. The ethanol precipitation step of the Sampath-Reddi procedure is replaced by dialyzing (if the composition is a solution) or diafiltering (if the composition is a suspension) the fraction to be assayed against water. The solution or suspension is then equilibrated to 0.1% TFA. The resulting solution is added to 20 mg of rat matrix. A mock rat matrix sample not treated with the protein serves as a control. This material is frozen and lyophilized and the resulting powder enclosed in #5 gelatin capsules. The capsules are implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal thoracic area of 21-49 day old male Long Evans rats. The implants are removed after 10 days. A section of each implant is fixed and processed for histological analysis. One (1) μm glycolmethacrylate sections are stained with Von Kossa and acid fuschin to score the amount of induced tendon/ligament-like tissue formation present in each implant.

Example 28

[1206] Rat Model Bioassay for Bone Induction

[1207] This assay consists of implanting allogenic or xenogenic test samples in subcutaneous sites in recipient rats under ether anesthesia. Male Long-Evans rats, aged 28-32 days, may be used. A vertical incision (1 cm) is made under sterile conditions in the skin over the thoracic region, and a pocket is prepared by blunt dissection. Approximately 25 mg of the BMP test sample is implanted deep into the pocket and the incision is closed with a metallic skin clip. The day of implantation is designated as day one of the experiment. Implants are removed on day 12. The heterotropic site allows for the study of bone induction without the possible ambiguities resulting from the use of orthotropic sites.

[1208] Bone inducing activity is determined biochemically by the specific activity of alkaline phosphatase and calcium content of the day 12 implant. An increase in the specific activity of alkaline phosphatase indicates the onset of bone formation. Calcium content, on the other hand, is proportional to the amount of bone formed in the implant. Bone formation therefore is calculated by determining the calcium content of the implant on day 12 in rats and is expressed as “bone forming units,” where one bone forming unit represents the amount of protein that is needed for half maximal bone forming activity of the implant on day 12. Bone induction exhibited by intact demineralized rat bone matrix is considered to be the maximal bone differentiation activity for comparison purposes in this assay.

[1209] Successful implants exhibit a controlled progression through the stages of protein-induced endochondral bone development, including: (1) transient infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes on day one; (2) mesenchymal cell migration and proliferation on days two and three; (3) chondrocyte appearance on days five and six; (4) cartilage matrix formation on day seven; (5) cartilage calcification on day eight; (6) vascular invasion, appearance of osteoblasts, and formation of new bone on days nine and ten; (7) appearance of osteoclasts, bone remodeling and dissolution of the implanted matrix on days twelve to eighteen; and (8) hematopoietic bone marrow differentiation in the ossicles on day twenty-one. It is possible that increasing amounts of one or more BMPs may accelerate this time course. The shape of the new bone conforms to the shape of the implanted matrix.

[1210] Histological sectioning and staining is preferred to determine the extent of osteogenesis in the implants. Implants are fixed in Bouins Solution, embedded in paraffin, and cut into 6-8 μm sections. Staining with toluidine blue or hemotoxylin/eosin demonstrates clearly the ultimate development of endochondral bone. Twelve-day implants are usually sufficient to determine whether the implants contain newly-induced bone.

[1211] Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity may be used as a marker for osteogenesis. The enzyme activity may be determined spectrophotometrically after homogenization of the implant. The activity peaks at 9-10 days in vivo and thereafter slowly declines. Implants showing no bone development by histology have little or no alkaline phosphatase activity under these assay conditions. The assay is useful for quantification and obtaining an estimate of bone formation quickly after the implants are removed from the rat. Alternatively, the amount of bone formation can be determined by measuring the calcium content of the implant.

[1212] Gene expression patterns that correlate with endochondral bone or other types of tissue formation can also be monitored by quantitating mRNA levels using procedures known to those of skill in the art such as Northern Blot analysis. Such developmental gene expression markers may be used to determine progression through tissue differentiation pathways after BMP treatments. These markers include osteoblastic-related matrix proteins such as procollagen α2 (I), procollagen α1 (I), procollagen α1 (III), osteonectin, osteopontin, biglycan, and alkaline phosphatase for bone regeneration (see, e.g., Suva et al., J. Bone Miner. Res., 8:379-88 (1993); Benayahu et al., J. Cell. Biochem., 56:62-73 (1994)).

Example 29

[1213] Feline Model Bioassay for Bone Repair

[1214] A femoral osteotomy defect is surgically prepared. Without further intervention, the simulated fracture defect would consistently progress to non-union. The effects of BMP compositions and devices implanted into the created bone defects are evaluated by the following study protocol.

[1215] The 1 cm and 2 cm femoral defect cat studies demonstrate that devices comprising a matrix containing a BMP can: (1) repair a weight-bearing bone defect in a large animal; (2) consistently induce bone formation shortly following (less than two weeks) implantation; and (3) induce bone by endochondral ossification, with a strength equal to normal bone, on a volume for volume basis. Furthermore, all animals remain healthy during the study and show no evidence of clinical or histological laboratory reaction to the implanted device. In this bone defect model, there is little or no healing at control bone implant sites. The results provide evidence for the successful use of the BMP compositions and devices of this invention to repair large, non-union bone defects.

[1216] Briefly, the procedure is as follows: Sixteen adult cats each weighing less than 10 lbs. undergo unilateral preparation of a 1 cm bone defect in the right femur through a lateral surgical approach. In other experiments, a 2 cm bone defect may be created. The femur is immediately internally fixed by lateral placement of an 8-hole plate to preserve the exact dimensions of the defect.

[1217] Three different types of materials may be implanted in the surgically created cat femoral defects: group I is a negative control group which undergoes the same plate fixation with implants of 4M guanidine-HCl-treated (inactivated) cat demineralized bone matrix powder (GuHCl-DBM) (360 mg); group II is a positive control group implanted with biologically active demineralized bone matrix powder (DBM) (360 mg); and groups III and IV undergo a procedure identical to groups I-II, with the addition of a BMP alone (group III) and a combination of more than one BMP or a BMP and another appropriate factor (group IV) onto each of the GuHCl-DBM carrier samples.

[1218] All animals are allowed to ambulate ad libitum within their cages post-operatively. All cats are injected with tetracycline (25 mg/kg subcutaneously (SQ) each week for four weeks) for bone labeling. All but four group III and four group IV animals are sacrificed four months after femoral osteotomy.

[1219] In vivo radiomorphometric studies are carried out immediately post-op at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks by taking a standardized X-ray of the lightly-anesthetized,animal positioned in a cushioned X-ray jig designed to consistently produce a true anterio-posterior view of the femur and the osteotomy site. All X-rays are taken in exactly the same fashion and in exactly the same position on each animal. Bone repair is calculated as a function of mineralization by means of random point analysis. A final specimen radiographic study of the excised bone is taken in two planes after sacrifice.

[1220] At 16 weeks, the percentage of groups III and IV femurs that are united, and the average percent bone defect regeneration in groups I-IV are compared. The group I GuHCl-DMB negative-control implants should generally exhibit no bone growth at four weeks, less than 10% at eight and 12 weeks, and about 16% (±10%) at 16 weeks. The group II DMB positive-control implants should generally exhibit about 15-20% repair at four weeks, 35% at eight weeks, 50% (±10%,) at 12 weeks and 70% (±12%) by 16 weeks.

[1221] Excised test and normal femurs may be immediately studied by bone densitometry, or wrapped in two layers of saline-soaked towels, placed into sealed plastic bags, and stored at −20° C. until further study. Bone repair strength, load-to-failure, and work-to-failure are tested by loading to failure on a specially designed steel 4-point bending jig attached to an Instron testing machine to quantitate bone strength, stiffness, energy absorbed and deformation to failure. The study of test femurs and normal femurs yields the bone strength (load) in pounds and work-to-failure in joules. Normal femurs exhibit a strength of 96 (±12) pounds. BMP device-implanted femur strength should be corrected for surface area at the site of fracture (due to the “hourglass” shape of the bone defect repair). With this correction, the result should correlate closely with normal bone strength.

[1222] Following biomechanical testing, the bones are immediately sliced into two longitudinal sections at the defect site, weighed, and the volume measured. One-half is fixed for standard calcified bone histomorphometrics with fluorescent stain incorporation evaluation, and one-half is fixed for decalcified hemotoxylin/eosin stain histology preparation.

[1223] Selected specimens from the bone repair site are homogenized in cold 0.15M NaCl, 3 mM NaHCO.sub.3, pH 9.0 by a Spex freezer mill. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the supernatant and total calcium content of the acid soluble fraction of sediment is then determined.

Example 30

[1224] Dog Ulnar Defect Bioassay for Bone Repair

[1225] This assay is performed essentially as described in Cook et al., Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 301:302-112 (1994), which is incorporated herein by reference). Briefly, an ulnar segmental defect model is used to evaluate bone healing in 35-45 kg adult male dogs. Experimental composites comprising 500 mg of insoluble bovine bone collagen are reconstituted with either 0, 625, 1200 or 2500 ftg of BMP in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of one or more additional BMPs of the present invention or other factor. Implantations at defect sites are performed with one carrier control and with the experimental series of BMP concentrations being tested. Mechanical testing is performed on ulnae of animals receiving composites at 12 weeks after implantation. Radiographs of the forelimbs are obtained weekly until the animals are sacrificed at either 12 or 16 postoperative weeks. Histological sections are analyzed from the defect site and from adjacent normal bone.

Example 31

[1226] Monkey Ulnar and Tibial Defect Bioassay for Bone Repair

[1227] This bone healing assay in African green monkeys is performed essentially as described in Cook et al., J. Bone and Joint Surgery, 77A:734-50 (1995), which is incorporated herein by reference. Briefly, a 2.0 cm osteoperiosteal defect is created in the middle of the ulnar shaft and filled with an implant comprising various matrices containing 1000 μg of BMP in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of one or more BMPs of the present invention or other factor. Experimental composites comprising various matrices reconstituted with either 0, 250, 500 or 100 or 2000 fig of BMP is used to fill 2.0 cm BMP defects created in the diaphysis of the tibia. Implantations at defect sites are performed with one carrier control and with the experimental series of BMP concentrations being tested. Mechanical testing is performed on ulnae and tibia of animals receiving composites. Radiographs and histological sections are analyzed from the defect sites and from adjacent normal bone as described in Cook et al.

Example 32

[1228] Rat Model Bioassay for Nerve Regeneration and Repair

[1229] A matrix carrier is prepared. Wang et al. (WO 95/05846) used Collastat.RTM., a collagen sponge (Vitaphore Wound Healing, Inc.), but any other desired carrier, such as those described herein, may be tested for applicability. The collagen carrier is prepared by washing, lyophilizing, sterilizing and,degassing, and is then loaded with, for example, either: with no BMP (negative control group), with BMP only (group I), or with a particular combination of BMPs or BMP(s) and other factor(s) (group II). Variations on the experimental design allow one skilled in the art to test a variety of different BMP combinations under various conditions.

[1230] All manipulations are performed under sterile conditions. The loaded matrices are placed inside approximately 1.6×20 mm lengths of sterile vented silastic or biodegradable tubing (stents) which may be trimmed to remove excess tubing before surgery. Vented silastic or biodegradable stents containing the matrices are applied microscopically and anastomized to the severed nerve endings, which are inserted into the stent for about 1 mm at each end, leaving a 15 mm “nerve defect” gap. Rats are tested for electrical return of function over a time course of weeks after implantation. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) provide a reproducible transcutaneous measurement for assessing the degree of functional return. CMAP amplitude and latency is proportional to the number of reinnervated axon/motor endplates and thus serves as a useful index of neuronal regeneration. Animals may be sacrificed for histopathological examination at various times post-implantation. Control stents implanted within subcutaneous tissues serve as histochemical controls.

[1231] It will be clear that the invention may be practiced otherwise than as particularly described in the foregoing description and examples. Numerous modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings and, therefore, are within the scope of the appended claims.

[1232] The entire disclosure of each document cited (including patents, patent applications, journal articles, abstracts, laboratory manuals, books, or other disclosures) in the Background of the Invention, Detailed Description, and Examples is hereby incorporated herein by reference. Further, the hard copy of the sequence listing submitted herewith and the corresponding computer readable form are both incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[1233] Certain BMP polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention, including antibodies, were disclosed in U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/190,067, filed Mar. 17, 2000, the specification and sequence listing of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[1234] Additionally, the specifications and sequence listings of International Application No. PCT/US01/09229 filed Mar. 23, 2001, and of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/277,980 filed Mar. 23, 2001, and of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/348,621 filed Jan. 17, 2002, and of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/349,356 filed Jan. 22, 2002, and of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/351,520 filed Jan. 28, 2002, and of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/354,265 filed Feb. 6, 2002, and of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/809,269, filed Mar. 16, 2001, and of international patent application number PCT/US95/07915, filed Jun. 6, 1995 and published as WO96/39431, are all hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

TABLE 2
SEQ. Genbank or SEQ SWISS-PROT
ID Geneseq ID Accession No.
Gene NO: Accession NO: or Genbank Gene Signal Pro- Mature
No. X No. Y Accession No. Names Description Peptide peptide (Secreted)
2 6 AF101441 30 O95393 BMP10 Bone morphogenetic protein 10 precursor (BMP-10) 1-21 22-316 317-424
3 7 AF082350 31 O95972 BMP15, Bone morphogenetic protein 15 precursor (BMP-15) 1-18 19-267 268-392
GDF9B Growth/differentiation factor 9B (GDF-9B)
4 8 D49493 32 P55107 GDF10, Bone morphogenetic protein 3b precursor (BMP-3b) 1-33 34-368 369-478
BMP3b Growth/differentiation factor 10 (GDF-10)
(Bone inducing protein) (BIP)
5 9 M22488 33 P13497 BMP1 Bone morphogenetic protein 1 precursor (BMP-1) 1-22 23-120 121-986
Procollagen C-proteinase (PCP)
Mammalian tolloid protein (mTld)
6 10 M22489 34 P12643 BMP2, Bone morphogenetic protein 2 precursor (BMP-2) 1-23 24-282 283-396
BMP2A (BMP-2A)
7 11 M22491 35 P12645 BMP3 Bone morphogenetic protein 3 precursor (BMP-3) 1-22 23-362 363-472
(Osteogenin) (BMP-3A)
8 12 U43842 36 P12644 BMP4, Bone morphogenetic protein 4 precursor (BMP-4) 1-19 20-292 293-408
BMP2B (BMP-2B)
9 13 M60314 37 P22003 BMP5 Bone morphogenetic protein 5 precursor (BMP-5) 1-30 31-322 323-454
10 14 M60315 38 P22004 BMP6 Bone morphogenetic protein 6 precursor (BMP-6) 1-20 21-381 382-513
(VGR1)
11 15 AL157414 39 P18075 BMP7, Bone morphogenetic protein 7 precursor (BMP-7) 1-29 30-292 293-431
OP1 (Osteogenic protein 1) (OP-1)
12 16 M97016 40 P34820 BMP8 Bone morphogenetic protein 8 precursor (BMP-8) 1-19 20-263 264-402
(Osteogenic protein 2) (OP-2)
13 17 AF188285 41 Q9UK05 GDF2, Growth/differentiation factor 2 precursor (GDF-2) 1-22 23-319 320-429
BMP9 (Bone morphogenetic protein 9) (BMP-9)
14 18 AF100907 42 O95390 GDF11, Growth/differentiation factor 11 precursor (Bone 1-24 25-298 299-407
BMP11 morphogenetic protein 11)
15 19 43 Bone morphogenetic protein 12 (BMP-12)
16 20 44 Bone morphogenetic protein 13 (BMP-13)
17 21 45 Bone morphogenetic protein 14 (BMP-14)
18 22 X05839 46 P01137 TGF-β1 Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) 1-23 24-278 279-390
19 23 Y00083 47 B31249. TGF-β2 Transforming Growth Factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) 1-20 21-330 331-442
20 24 J03241 48 P10600 TGF-β3 Transforming Growth Factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) 1-20 21-300 301-412
21 25 M62302 49 P27539. GDF-1 Growth Differentiation Factor 1 (GDF-1) 1-29 30-253 254-372
22 26 AF263538 50 Q9NR23 GDF-3 Growth Differentiation Factor 3 (GDF-3) 1-24 25-250 251-364
23 27 AF019627 51 O14793 GDF-8 Growth Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF-8) 1-23 24-266 267-375
24 28 AC004500 52 O60383 GDF-9 Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9) 1-27 28-319 320-454
25 29 K03474 53 P03971 MIS Mullerian Inhibiting Factor 1-18 19-25 26-560

[1235]

1 77 1 733 DNA Homo sapiens 1 gggatccgga gcccaaatct tctgacaaaa ctcacacatg cccaccgtgc ccagcacctg 60 aattcgaggg tgcaccgtca gtcttcctct tccccccaaa acccaaggac accctcatga 120 tctcccggac tcctgaggtc acatgcgtgg tggtggacgt aagccacgaa gaccctgagg 180 tcaagttcaa ctggtacgtg gacggcgtgg aggtgcataa tgccaagaca aagccgcggg 240 aggagcagta caacagcacg taccgtgtgg tcagcgtcct caccgtcctg caccaggact 300 ggctgaatgg caaggagtac aagtgcaagg tctccaacaa agccctccca acccccatcg 360 agaaaaccat ctccaaagcc aaagggcagc cccgagaacc acaggtgtac accctgcccc 420 catcccggga tgagctgacc aagaaccagg tcagcctgac ctgcctggtc aaaggcttct 480 atccaagcga catcgccgtg gagtgggaga gcaatgggca gccggagaac aactacaaga 540 ccacgcctcc cgtgctggac tccgacggct ccttcttcct ctacagcaag ctcaccgtgg 600 acaagagcag gtggcagcag gggaacgtct tctcatgctc cgtgatgcat gaggctctgc 660 acaaccacta cacgcagaag agcctctccc tgtctccggg taaatgagtg cgacggccgc 720 gactctagag gat 733 2 3257 DNA Homo sapiens 2 ccacgcgtcc ggtgggtgct ggccaggacg gttccttcag agcaaacagc agggagatgc 60 cggcccgctc cttcccagct cctccccgtg cccgctaaca cagcacggcc gcctgcagtc 120 tcctctctgg gtgattgcgc gggcctaaga tgtgtcctgg ggcactgtgg gtggccctgc 180 ccctgctgtc cctgctggct ggctccctac aggggaagcc actgcagagc tggggacgag 240 ggtctgctgg gggaaacgcc cacagcccac tgggggtgcc tggaggtggg ctgcctgagc 300 acaccttcaa cctgaagatg tttctggaga acgtgaaggt ggatttcctg cgcagcctta 360 acctgagtgg ggtcccttcg caggacaaaa ccagggtgga gccgccgcag tacatgattg 420 acctgtacaa caggtacacg tccgataagt cgactacgcc agcgtccaac attgtgcgga 480 gcttcagcat ggaagatgcc atctccataa ctgccacaga ggacttcccc ttccagaagc 540 acatcttgct cttcaacatc tccattccta ggcatgagca gatcaccaga gctgagctcc 600 gactctatgt ctcctgtcaa aatcacgtgg acccctctca tgacctgaaa ggaagcgtgg 660 tcatttatga tgttctggat ggaacagatg cctgggatag tgctacagag accaagacct 720 tcctggtgtc ccaggacatt caggatgagg gctgggagac cttggaagtg tccagcgccg 780 tgaagcgctg ggtccggtcc gactccacca agagcaaaaa taagctggaa gtgactgtgg 840 agagccacag gaagggctgc gacacgctgg acatcagtgt ccccccaggt tccagaaacc 900 tgcccttctt tgttgtcttc tccaatgacc acagcagtgg gaccaaggag accaggctgg 960 agctgaggga gatgatcagc catgaacaag agagcgtgct caagaagctg tccaaggacg 1020 gctccacaga ggcaggtgag agcagtcacg aggaggacac ggatggccac gtggctgcgg 1080 ggtcgacttt agccaggcgg aaaaggagcg ccggggctgg cagccactgt caaaagacct 1140 ccctgcgggt aaacttcgag gacatcggct gggacagctg gatcattgca cccaaggagt 1200 atgaagccta cgagtgtaag ggcggctgct tcttcccctt ggctgacgat gtgacgccga 1260 cgaaacacgc tatcgtgcag accctggtgc atctcaagtt ccccacaaag gtgggcaagg 1320 cctgctgtgt gcccaccaaa ctgagcccca tctccgtcct ctacaaggat gacatggggg 1380 tgcccaccct caagtaccat tacgagggca tgagcgtggc agagtgtggg tgcaggtagt 1440 atctgcctgc ggggctgggg aggcaggcca aaggggctcc acatgagagg tcctgcatgc 1500 ccctgggcac aacaaggact gattcaatct gcatgccagc ctggaggagg aaagggagcc 1560 tgctctccct ccccacaccc cacccaaagc atacaccgct gagctcaact gccagggaag 1620 gctaaggaaa tggggatttg agcacaacag gaaagcctgg gagggttgtt gggatgcaag 1680 gaggtgatga aaaggagaca gggggaaaaa taatccatag tcagcagaaa acaacagcag 1740 tgaaccagag gagcacaggc gggcaggtca ctgcagagac tgatggaagt tagagaggtg 1800 gaggaggcca gctcgctcca aaacccttgg ggagtagagg gaaggagcag gccgcgtgtc 1860 acacccatca ttgtatgtta tttcccacaa cccagttgga ggggcatggc ttccaattta 1920 gagacataaa acacaggcag atcaagtagc attgatcaat ggcatgattc caactcagat 1980 ttgtgggaca ccaaagccca ggatcttccc aagtgccctg ctgcagttta gcaggtcctc 2040 tccagctaaa gagcagtgag acattgggag cccaggagtg ttgaggccag gccaggctga 2100 ggcccatcag tcacaggtgt gactgggctg cttgtcacac acagggcgtg gtctggccac 2160 tgttgccagt gctcactcag cggccacatg ctttttaata tgacccctga ggcactgaaa 2220 aataacccca ggccaactgc aggatagaga gagaggtcag gacagcagcc ctgtgggctg 2280 catgatacac tgtggctgga gttattgtga ccccctggtg cagtgctccc acggccagtg 2340 gtgcacacag ggccattcac tgtccataga ctgaaaccat gtgaccattt gagagggccg 2400 ggcacacttt cccctgaggg atggggcagc ctgtggccag cacctctgca gttactctgc 2460 atagccagct caccagcatg ccatgcccag ggtgcccccc agtgacaacc tcatgggaga 2520 cgggcctgga tttgaatttg ttggaattaa atgtgctctg gctttggtct ttgaaacata 2580 tctattttta ttccttggtg acatgtcctt aagtgacaag actccagcct tcctgggcga 2640 ggcctctcca gcctcggaag agctgcagtc cttatcggct atcactggct ctgcctgcat 2700 ttgccggctc tcttgagtca cgtgcatccc agcaccccgc ctgggctcgg actgtgggac 2760 cagactcagc ctccccgaac acaagggaag ataaggcttc catttgctct gtgtttcacc 2820 ctctcctctg tctctccagg ccacacatgg aacggggcgg tatgaggaag agtctgaaag 2880 tggtgaagag tgcacctatg gccctctgac ctccagccag agcagggcct aggggaggct 2940 tagagaggcc agggcctctc cccgtggttg aagctcccat ttatttaaga aaaagtgggg 3000 ggtggggaaa acgttatgtt aaatgtttac atggaaccaa tgaacaactt taacacacaa 3060 atacaacgaa acattcttgt ttaattactg gcgttataga aaatatgaat tcctgctaca 3120 tgccgggcag tgtagtgtta caatgctatt ccaagttggg tgttgagcat cttctttcag 3180 tcctggtggt gtgcttctgt gcctgcttga aaatttcact cggaaataaa gtcaaatgtc 3240 taaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa 3257 3 3295 DNA Homo sapiens misc_feature (3295)..(3295) n equals a, t, g, or c 3 ggtacgcctg caggtaccgg tccggaattc ccgggtcgac ccacgcgtcc ggtgggtgct 60 ggccaggacg gttccttcag agcaaacagc agggagatgc cggcccgctc cttcccagct 120 cctccccgtg cccgctaaca cagcacggcc gcctgcagtc tcctctctgg gtgattgcgc 180 gggcctaaga tgtgtcctgg ggcactgtgg gtggccctgc ccctgctgtc cctgctggct 240 ggctccctac aggggaagcc actgcagagc tggggacgag ggtctgctgg gggaaacgcc 300 cacagcccac tgggggtgcc tggaggtggg ctgcctgagc acaccttcaa cctgaagatg 360 tttctggaga acgtgaaggt ggatttcctg cgcagcctta acctgagtgg ggtcccttcg 420 caggacaaaa ccagggtgga gccgccgcag tacatgattg acctgtacaa caggtacacg 480 tccgataagt cgactacgcc agcgtccaac attgtgcgga gcttcagcat ggaagatgcc 540 atctccataa ctgccacaga ggacttcccc ttccagaagc acatcttgct cttcaacatc 600 tccattccta ggcatgagca gatcaccaga gctgagctcc gactctatgt ctcctgtcaa 660 aatcacgtgg acccctctca tgacctgaaa ggaagcgtgg tcatttatga tgttctggat 720 ggaacagatg cctgggatag tgctacagag accaagacct tcctggtgtc ccaggacatt 780 caggatgagg gctgggarac cttggaagtg tccagcgccg tgaarcgctg ggtccggtcc 840 gactccacca agagcaaaaa taagctggaa gtgactgtgg agagccacag gaagggctgc 900 gacacgctgg acatcagtgt ccccccaggt tccagaaacc tgsccttctt tgktgtcttc 960 tccaatgacc acagcagtgg gaccaaggag accaggctgg agctgaggga gatgatcagc 1020 catgaacaag agagcgtgct caagaagctg tccaaggacg gctccacaga rgcaggtgag 1080 agcagtcacg agraggacac ggatggccac gtggctgcgg ggtcgacttt agccaggcgg 1140 aaaaggagcg ccggggctgg cagccactgt caaaagacct ccctgcgggt aaacttcgag 1200 gacatcggct gggacagctg gatcattgca cccaaggagt atgaagccta cgagtgtaag 1260 ggcggctgct tcttcccctt ggctgacgat gtgacgccga cgaaacacgc tatcgtgcag 1320 accctggtgc atctcaagtt ccccacaaag gtgggcaagg cctgctgtgt gcccaccaaa 1380 ctgagcccca tctccgtcct ctacaaggat gacatggggg tgcccaccct caagtaccat 1440 tacgagggca tgagcgtggc agagtgtggg tgcaggtagt atctgcctgc ggggctgggg 1500 aggcaggyca awggggctcc acatgagagg tcctgcatgc ccctgggcac aacaaggact 1560 gattcaatct gcatgccagc ctggaggagg aaagggagcc tgctctccct ccccacaccc 1620 cacccaaagc atacaccgct gagctcaact gccagggaag gctaaggaaa tggggatttg 1680 agcacaacag gaaagcctgg gagggttgtt gggatgcaag gaggtgatga aaaggagaca 1740 gggggaaaaa taatccatag tcagcagaaa acaacagcag tgaaccagag gagcacaggc 1800 gggcaggtca ctgcagagac tgatggaagt tagagaggtg gaggaggcca gctcgctcca 1860 aaacccttgg ggagtagagg gaaggagcag gccgcgtgtc acacccatca ttgtatgtta 1920 tttcccacaa cccagttgga ggggcatggc ttcaatttag agacataaaa cacaggcrga 1980 tcaagtagca ttgatcaatg gcatgattcc aactcagatt tgtgggacac caaagcccag 2040 gatcttccca agtgccctgc tgcagtttag caggtcctct ccagctaaag agcagtgaga 2100 cattgggagc ccaggagtgt tgaggccagg ccaggctgag gcccatcagt cacaggtgtg 2160 actgggctgc ttgtcacaca cagggcgtgg tctggccact gttgccagtg ctcactcagc 2220 ggccacatgc tttttaatat gacccctgag gcactgaaaa ataaccccag gccaactgca 2280 ggatagagag agaggtcagg acagcagccc tgtgggctgc atgatacact gtggctggag 2340 ttattgtgac cccctggtgc agtgctccca cggccagtgg tgcacacagg gccattcact 2400 gtccatagac tgaaaccatg tgaccatttg agagggccgg gcacactttc ccctgaggga 2460 tggggcarcc tgtggccagc acctctgcag ttactctgca tagccagctc accagcatgc 2520 catgcccagg gtgcccccca gtgacaacct catgggagac gggcctggat ttgaatttgt 2580 tggaattaaa tgtgctctgg ctttggtctt tgaaacatat ctatttttat tccttggtga 2640 catgtcctta agtgacaaga ctycagcytt ctgggcgagg cctctccagc ctcggaagag 2700 ctgcagtcct tatcggctat cactggctct gcctgcattt gccggctctc ttgagtcacg 2760 tgcatcccag caccccgcct gggctcggac tgtgggacca gactcagcct ccccgaacac 2820 aagggaagat aaggcttcca tttgctctgt gtttcaccct ctcctctgtc tctccaggcc 2880 acacatggaa cggggcggta tgaggaagag tctgaaagtg gtgaagagtg cacctatggc 2940 cytctgacct ccagccagag cagggcctag gggaggctta gagaggccag ggcctctccc 3000 cgtggttgaa gctcccattt atttaagaaa aagtgggggg tggggaaaac gttatgttaa 3060 atgtttacat ggaaccaatg aacaacttta acacacaaat acaacgaaac attcttgktt 3120 aattactggc gttatagaaa atatgaattc ctgctacatg ccgggcagtg tagtgktaca 3180 atgctattcc aagttgggtg ktgagcatct tctttcagtc ctggtggtgt gcttctgtgc 3240 ctgcttgaaa atttcactcg gaaataaagt caaatgctaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaan 3295 4 429 PRT Homo sapiens 4 Met Cys Pro Gly Ala Leu Trp Val Ala Leu Pro Leu Leu Ser Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Gly Ser Leu Gln Gly Lys Pro Leu Gln Ser Trp Gly Arg Gly Ser 20 25 30 Ala Gly Gly Asn Ala His Ser Pro Leu Gly Val Pro Gly Gly Gly Leu 35 40 45 Pro Glu His Thr Phe Asn Leu Lys Met Phe Leu Glu Asn Val Lys Val 50 55 60 Asp Phe Leu Arg Ser Leu Asn Leu Ser Gly Val Pro Ser Gln Asp Lys 65 70 75 80 Thr Arg Val Glu Pro Pro Gln Tyr Met Ile Asp Leu Tyr Asn Arg Tyr 85 90 95 Thr Ser Asp Lys Ser Thr Thr Pro Ala Ser Asn Ile Val Arg Ser Phe 100 105 110 Ser Met Glu Asp Ala Ile Ser Ile Thr Ala Thr Glu Asp Phe Pro Phe 115 120 125 Gln Lys His Ile Leu Leu Phe Asn Ile Ser Ile Pro Arg His Glu Gln 130 135 140 Ile Thr Arg Ala Glu Leu Arg Leu Tyr Val Ser Cys Gln Asn His Val 145 150 155 160 Asp Pro Ser His Asp Leu Lys Gly Ser Val Val Ile Tyr Asp Val Leu 165 170 175 Asp Gly Thr Asp Ala Trp Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Thr Lys Thr Phe Leu 180 185 190 Val Ser Gln Asp Ile Gln Asp Glu Gly Trp Glu Thr Leu Glu Val Ser 195 200 205 Ser Ala Val Lys Arg Trp Val Arg Ser Asp Ser Thr Lys Ser Lys Asn 210 215 220 Lys Leu Glu Val Thr Val Glu Ser His Arg Lys Gly Cys Asp Thr Leu 225 230 235 240 Asp Ile Ser Val Pro Pro Gly Ser Arg Asn Leu Pro Phe Phe Val Val 245 250 255 Phe Ser Asn Asp His Ser Ser Gly Thr Lys Glu Thr Arg Leu Glu Leu 260 265 270 Arg Glu Met Ile Ser His Glu Gln Glu Ser Val Leu Lys Lys Leu Ser 275 280 285 Lys Asp Gly Ser Thr Glu Ala Gly Glu Ser Ser His Glu Glu Asp Thr 290 295 300 Asp Gly His Val Ala Ala Gly Ser Thr Leu Ala Arg Arg Lys Arg Ser 305 310 315 320 Ala Gly Ala Gly Ser His Cys Gln Lys Thr Ser Leu Arg Val Asn Phe 325 330 335 Glu Asp Ile Gly Trp Asp Ser Trp Ile Ile Ala Pro Lys Glu Tyr Glu 340 345 350 Ala Tyr Glu Cys Lys Gly Gly Cys Phe Phe Pro Leu Ala Asp Asp Val 355 360 365 Thr Pro Thr Lys His Ala Ile Val Gln Thr Leu Val His Leu Lys Phe 370 375 380 Pro Thr Lys Val Gly Lys Ala Cys Cys Val Pro Thr Lys Leu Ser Pro 385 390 395 400 Ile Ser Val Leu Tyr Lys Asp Asp Met Gly Val Pro Thr Leu Lys Tyr 405 410 415 His Tyr Glu Gly Met Ser Val Ala Glu Cys Gly Cys Arg 420 425 5 429 PRT Homo sapiens MISC_FEATURE (252)..(252) Xaa equals any of the naturally occurring L-amino acids 5 Met Cys Pro Gly Ala Leu Trp Val Ala Leu Pro Leu Leu Ser Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Gly Ser Leu Gln Gly Lys Pro Leu Gln Ser Trp Gly Arg Gly Ser 20 25 30 Ala Gly Gly Asn Ala His Ser Pro Leu Gly Val Pro Gly Gly Gly Leu 35 40 45 Pro Glu His Thr Phe Asn Leu Lys Met Phe Leu Glu Asn Val Lys Val 50 55 60 Asp Phe Leu Arg Ser Leu Asn Leu Ser Gly Val Pro Ser Gln Asp Lys 65 70 75 80 Thr Arg Val Glu Pro Pro Gln Tyr Met Ile Asp Leu Tyr Asn Arg Tyr 85 90 95 Thr Ser Asp Lys Ser Thr Thr Pro Ala Ser Asn Ile Val Arg Ser Phe 100 105 110 Ser Met Glu Asp Ala Ile Ser Ile Thr Ala Thr Glu Asp Phe Pro Phe 115 120 125 Gln Lys His Ile Leu Leu Phe Asn Ile Ser Ile Pro Arg His Glu Gln 130 135 140 Ile Thr Arg Ala Glu Leu Arg Leu Tyr Val Ser Cys Gln Asn His Val 145 150 155 160 Asp Pro Ser His Asp Leu Lys Gly Ser Val Val Ile Tyr Asp Val Leu 165 170 175 Asp Gly Thr Asp Ala Trp Asp Ser Ala Thr Glu Thr Lys Thr Phe Leu 180 185 190 Val Ser Gln Asp Ile Gln Asp Glu Gly Trp Glu Thr Leu Glu Val Ser 195 200 205 Ser Ala Val Lys Arg Trp Val Arg Ser Asp Ser Thr Lys Ser Lys Asn 210 215 220 Lys Leu Glu Val Thr Val Glu Ser His Arg Lys Gly Cys Asp Thr Leu 225 230 235 240 Asp Ile Ser Val Pro Pro Gly Ser Arg Asn Leu Xaa Phe Phe Xaa Val 245 250 255 Phe Ser Asn Asp His Ser Ser Gly Thr Lys Glu Thr Arg Leu Glu Leu 260 265 270 Arg Glu Met Ile Ser His Glu Gln Glu Ser Val Leu Lys Lys Leu Ser 275 280 285 Lys Asp Gly Ser Thr Glu Ala Gly Glu Ser Ser His Glu Xaa Asp Thr 290 295 300 Asp Gly His Val Ala Ala Gly Ser Thr Leu Ala Arg Arg Lys Arg Ser 305 310 315 320 Ala Gly Ala Gly Ser His Cys Gln Lys Thr Ser Leu Arg Val Asn Phe 325 330 335 Glu Asp Ile Gly Trp Asp Ser Trp Ile Ile Ala Pro Lys Glu Tyr Glu 340 345 350 Ala Tyr Glu Cys Lys Gly Gly Cys Phe Phe Pro Leu Ala Asp Asp Val 355 360 365 Thr Pro Thr Lys His Ala Ile Val Gln Thr Leu Val His Leu Lys Phe 370 375 380 Pro Thr Lys Val Gly Lys Ala Cys Cys Val Pro Thr Lys Leu Ser Pro 385 390 395 400 Ile Ser Val Leu Tyr Lys Asp Asp Met Gly Val Pro Thr Leu Lys Tyr 405 410 415 His Tyr Glu Gly Met Ser Val Ala Glu Cys Gly Cys Arg 420 425 6 1584 DNA Homo sapiens 6 ggggagagga agagtggtag ggggagggag agagagagga agagtttcca aacttgtctc 60 cagtgacagg agacatttac gttccacaag ataaaactgc cacttagagc ccagggaagc 120 taaaccttcc tggcttggcc taggagctcg agcggagtca tgggctctct ggtcctgaca 180 ctgtgcgctc ttttctgcct ggcagcttac ttggtttctg gcagccccat catgaaccta 240 gagcagtctc ctctggaaga agatatgtcc ctctttggtg atgttttctc agagcaagac 300 ggtgtcgact ttaacacact gctccagagc atgaaggatg agtttcttaa gacactaaac 360 ctctctgaca tccccacgca ggattcagcc aaggtggacc caccagagta catgttggaa 420 ctctacaaca aatttgcaac agatcggacc tccatgccct ctgccaacat cattaggagt 480 ttcaagaatg aagatctgtt ttcccagccg gtcagtttta atgggctccg aaaatacccc 540 ctcctcttca atgtgtccat tcctcaccat gaagaggtca tcatggctga acttaggcta 600 tacacactgg tgcaaaggga tcgtatgata tacgatggag tagaccggaa aattaccatt 660 tttgaagtgc tggagagcaa aggggataat gagggagaaa gaaacatgct ggtcttggtg 720 tctggggaga tatatggaac caacagtgag tgggagactt ttgatgtcac agatgccatc 780 agacgttggc aaaagtcagg ctcatccacc caccagctgg aggtccacat tgagagcaaa 840 cacgatgaag ctgaggatgc cagcagtgga cggctagaaa tagataccag tgcccagaat 900 aagcataacc ctttgctcat cgtgttttct gatgaccaaa gcagtgacaa ggagaggaag 960 gaggaactga atgaaatgat ttcccatgag caacttccag agctggacaa cttgggcctg 1020 gatagctttt ccagtggacc tggggaagag gctttgttgc agatgagatc aaacatcatc 1080 tatgactcca ctgcccgaat cagaaggaac gccaaaggaa actactgtaa gaggaccccg 1140 ctctacatcg acttcaagga gattgggtgg gactcctgga tcatcgctcc gcctggatac 1200 gaagcctatg aatgccgtgg tgtttgtaac taccccctgg cagagcatct cacacccaca 1260 aagcatgcaa ttatccaggc cttggtccac ctcaagaatt cccagaaagc ttccaaagcc 1320 tgctgtgtgc ccacaaagct agagcccatc tccatcctct atttagacaa aggcgtcgtc 1380 acctacaagt ttaaatacga aggcatggcc gtctccgaat gtggctgtag atagaagaag 1440 agtcctatgg cttatttaat aactgtaaat gtgtatattt ggtgttccta tttaatgaga 1500 ttatttaata agggtgtaca gtaatagagg cttgctgcct tcaggaaatg gacaggtcag 1560 tttgttgtag gaaatgcata tttt 1584 7 2996 DNA Homo sapiens 7 gaattccagg cttgtggatt cagtggagaa gaaggactag gtgaataaat acaaattaac 60 atggaattat ttactgataa gatgtctgaa gatgagaggt ggctttttcc tgtggtgcca 120 ggcttttgta atctttgctc ttgaccttcg ccgggagggg gtgcagaagt ttggagcacc 180 atggatgtaa cctttcaatc ctttggccgt tgagtgtcag cactacagtt tggattaaag 240 ctcttattca caaagcagca tccagctttt agtagacttc tcagcaaaca aaatatttat 300 gtgatcaaga ctgtgttgaa aatagtatat agaggaatag tggtaaaatg aatggggtaa 360 atggagaaca atttccagca aggagtggta aagagagaga ttaagggcca aaggaggaaa 420 agatgcttaa gaagcaattc ttgaagtaga tggaaggcag aagtggtaag atagctgtct 480 gtactagagg atgatagaca aaattatttt gtagtgcctt ggtcctgagt ttgaaattat 540 agcaggccat agcacccaat actgaattgt tgtcccaaag ctgcatctgt atagtgatat 600 gacatgagac tctttcttaa tccatgtatg tttcaacaat tctaaatgga cacatttaat 660 ggtcaactaa taataatatt gatcttctcc cctacataca gtatgcacac aagataattc 720 tatatttgag ttttttcccc cgagcccagc actgtaagta atctaacagt gagacagttt 780 ctcttaagaa aaacagactt gggttcaaat cttaactcta ccacatacca gctgtgtgtc 840 ctttgtcata gcttctctga gcctcaattt ccttatctgc aaaatgggga taataactat 900 ctcataagac tattaagaat taaagagcta atacatgtaa agcatctagt gtattagtaa 960 gtgctcagta aatgatagta tcattatctt gagttaattt tagggctgat tatagctatc 1020 agtctatatc aagacagttt atgaggaata ttcatgttaa gaggtaagaa gctaaacctc 1080 tgctcttgtt ccctcttact tctgcaggta cctggcatat acagatcctg ggctttcctc 1140 tcagaccaaa ccgaggacta taccaactag ttagagccac tgtggtttac cgccatcatc 1200 tccaactaac tcgcttcaat ctctcctgcc atgtggagcc ctgggtgcag aaaaacccaa 1260 ccaaccactt cccttcctca gaaggagatt cctcaaaacc ttccctgatg tctaacgctt 1320 ggaaagagat ggatatcaca caacttgttc agcaaaggtt ctggaataac aagggacaca 1380 ggatcctacg actccgtttt atgtgtcagc agcaaaaaga tagtggtggt cttgagctct 1440 ggcatggcac ttcatccttg gacattgcct tcttgttact ctatttcaat gatactcata 1500 aaagcattcg gaaggctaaa tttcttccca ggggcatgga ggagttcatg gaaagggaat 1560 ctcttctccg gagaacccga caagcagatg gtatctcagc tgaggttact gcctcttcct 1620 caaaacatag cgggcctgaa aataaccagt gttccctcca ccctttccaa atcagcttcc 1680 gccagctggg ttgggatcac tggatcattg ctcccccttt ctacacccca aactactgta 1740 aaggaacttg tctccgagta ctacgcgatg gtctcaattc ccccaatcac gccattattc 1800 agaaccttat caatcagttg gtggaccaga gtgtcccccg gccctcctgt gtcccgtata 1860 agtatgttcc aattagtgtc cttatgattg aggcaaatgg gagtattttg tacaaggagt 1920 atgagggtat gattgctgag tcttgtacat gcagatgaca gcaacagtac ggctagatca 1980 ggtttcccag gaaactggag gagagtttaa aatatcagtg ttaaagctgc aagtaatcct 2040 gtaccaatct gtaggttata tttcttgcct taagtgttac ttaagtctct tcccccactt 2100 gtgagctagt cagtttatag aaacagttct gataccagtc ccctagcatg aatcagtaca 2160 gtttgaccac taatcagagc ccttaatgct tgggtaaaat gtcctctatt ttactttcct 2220 tggggctttg tcaaaagtca gcagtcagta gtggtagaac ttcagaaatt ttccaacttt 2280 tcccagcctg ggaaaggtgg gtgtccatat tttcctagtg tccatattct gacgctctat 2340 aagatttggg gtggtgaaaa tagcttggga ttttatactc ctcttcttgc ctcctatgtc 2400 ctggaaacta ctagtagcta atcagataaa ttgcctgctt ctgtgttagt attaccttct 2460 aaaacttttc tcagactgga aatttttcag gtaacagtct ttatagaaat cttttgaggg 2520 actagaagga aggaaatgtt tttctaaacc agcagggctt ttcctcttag cctctgaatc 2580 tgggaaaagt atctgggatt atttcctgtc ctaggtgagt acagtagcat ttaatgaagc 2640 ccataaggaa actagagtat ggagctgtct gagataatct acttcaaacc tgcatttatg 2700 gtgaagaaga gaaaacctgt cattgctgat tagtattatg aatgggggag ttattttaag 2760 tattctatgg aacaatagag ttcagagtat tttccttatg tgacacttaa acccctgtaa 2820 attatcctac aaagttcctt ggtggctccg aggctaggag ttggcctgat tgggggtgca 2880 ggggattaga gggctgtgaa ggaaggacta cagaataagg gtgaaacctg ccaaggcctg 2940 gagctgactt tattctgggc ttgcctgttt cttgtgttca gtttggatcc gaattc 2996 8 17286 DNA Homo sapiens 8 tctagatgaa gagctgtgaa tcttcctccc aatctttgga caagaacccg cagacacaga 60 caataacagc ataacagttc cttggtagag gtctgtgact tcctcatcaa ggaaacattc 120 cttttctctt tccttttttt tttttttttt tagttgttgg cactgtgcac taagaaacga 180 attttctctg cagagtaagg aacagccagg cttgaaactc tcaccaaatc tgccagtctg 240 ggtctacttt aaatgtgcta caacttcttt caaacacaca ataaatgaaa agaccaatct 300 gaatgatcag tgcaatttag ttagtatcat gtcactttaa aatctggcca agaatcctca 360 tactatcctg ctcttgtccc catcttagag ttgaaaaaac tgaggtccag agaaggcaag 420 taacttgctt aacatcacac agctaagtag cagtgaaaat agggacatga atctagtccc 480 agttgactcc acagggtcat gggagcaccc tcacttccaa gaacatgttg acatggggcc 540 acagaaccaa cgggagagta caggagctac agcagagcct ggaggccaga cttctcactt 600 aaagaagagg ctcctaggat tccagagagg caatggggct gccccagggt tacagagcta 660 gttaaaatca cacactagct ctgctacaaa ttaactggac gatatcatga aacaatcgct 720 tgggaacatt tatttgggga gaggttcttg atgaaaccaa atgagcttgc ttttcaaaac 780 tacccagggt ttgttttact tccttacttg ggtgcagagc ttcataacta tggagtctct 840 tcactccttg ctcatgactt tctgagctga agaaaaccct gctatcccag agtgcacagc 900 aaggaggcct agaggactga gggcccccaa actacttctc acctgtctgg agagaacact 960 gttcactcca atcagcaagt tcaagacctc agcacccctg gcaattgcag tgtacggaac 1020 tcccagaacc atgataattt tgtaggaagc tgtcagaaat cacagatcca aggacttgtc 1080 tccacaatct gccatctcaa ctcttattct gagctgcggc ctgagctatt aaaaacaaaa 1140 cattctcgtg ggcaagctcc acaattagcc tcatttccac actagaaaaa ctgttctgca 1200 tgagctgaaa ttgcacagag attgtttctt gtcatagtga tgcttttcaa gggccgtgct 1260 gagagccagc gaggatgtga cccagtggta atctgaattg cttcaccaaa cacattttta 1320 tcccatcatc tcggctacat gaaagggggc cacagtgctc gtgttcaagg ctttacagtc 1380 ccgctgttca gcaataaaat gaggcaagaa atattagcca tccctggctg atgccttaat 1440 tctttcccaa caatgtcaga gaatctgtac cctacaggtt ttagtgctgg ctaaagcctg 1500 accctcaggc tggcttgaat ggagcgggaa tgagttaagg agagccagaa ggctttaatg 1560 gacacggatt ccaaatagcc cagcttgtgc gggcctcctg cggactcacc ctccttttca 1620 acaggcctcg attgtgtatg gccccaacag acacaaaact acccatgagc agaggttacc 1680 cccagccggt gcaggtcaga ggcattctgg gggggaaggg gagaggggga cagaggggaa 1740 gtgaggggca catggagaag gagggaaatg ggggtgggag tgggggaagg gaccactgaa 1800 agatggtctg gatcatttat aaggagagat tcactaagtc ccaggctgag acccgatcat 1860 ctcacttcca ggcaaaccat ttttgaaaac tggttcagaa caaatgggag ctatcctaat 1920 gggaagttga acacactgtg atctaatttt caaaacaaat aaaatgcttt tctctggttt 1980 tccaaaagct acaagtctga ggttcagaag ctcttaatag gatggcctct aatttgacac 2040 tgcaagattt aaaaaaatta caaatgggtc atgttttaca caccaacaga agccttttcc 2100 agcaattttt caattattgc attgtgagcc ctccaagaaa agtaactatt ttggctcaca 2160 gagcccaaag ttaccaagta aagggaacag cctgttcaca agtttgcaaa tagtcctttg 2220 aaatgtagca tagactgtat ctgggagctt tctggaagaa catgggcttg acgtggtcct 2280 ttccttccct ctcaagggtc cttaaacttt ttaggtgggt cttgggcccc cttctaagtc 2340 tagggaagcc agtggacccc ttcttaaaag aatgttttta aatgcataaa ataaaatatg 2400 cagagttaca aaggaagaca attacgttag aatagagtta tcacaaatat ttaaaaacaa 2460 ttttgtaaca tagtaactat gttccttttt gctaactaac tagcagtagg cctaactgaa 2520 gtggtaatga gcaaacatga tactttgatg aatccgcaac cactctcatg tgatatgaaa 2580 atatctgtgg atggtgccta ttggtgacaa agtcactaat accactgtgg ttggttgctt 2640 gcatttataa cattagttaa tgctaagttt cagttagagt taatgaaaat aaagatgtat 2700 ttttttcccc atcaagttca taagagccct tgaattctat caatggagaa gaaatcctgc 2760 tagaggcaag acaaagatca ggaccttctg ccccagggtt aagctgaggg gcagtgggcc 2820 agggactcac tacaccctca cttcactggg aatccttctt aggaaagcca ctgctttctc 2880 tcttcctgct ctgatgcttt ggaaatgttt ttaaaggcaa attgaaagca tgtcttattc 2940 ctgcaatcct gaaggctaca tgtccaaaga ttaataagga cctttgatgt gtttcttcaa 3000 caactgaaat tactctcgtc aaataaaggg ctggttaatg agctaattct gagttttaat 3060 cacgatcttg ttccagttcc cttgggtggc atgagctttg gggtgagggc ttttctttac 3120 ggagtcagcc cagagaggat ctctgttccc cacactctca cattttggac atacgctgac 3180 tccgaggcaa ctgggcgcac acatatcccc tctctggtcc tcacagggga gctgtcatct 3240 tgcaatcaca tagccatcgc atgccattgc aggggcaacc cagcaggcag gcccccctcc 3300 aactgccgcc cagcccccct cgcagccagg gcaggctgcg gcgccgacac acaggagccg 3360 gctgcggggc tgggtctcgg gctctcggct ggggagcggg gagcgcgctc gcccacgccc 3420 cccacactcg cgggcgcaca ccccggcgcg cgcacgctgc cacacacggg cgcacgcaca 3480 cggcagccgg gccagggacg accctgtcag ctgcagcccc agaggtccgg ggcgcgcagc 3540 cgggtcccct cgagggcgca gccggccgcc ccgccccgcc cctcgaagca gccgggccgg 3600 gcgcgcagtg ggctacaaac tttcgcagcg cgagtccgcc aaggcagcgc gccgactcgg 3660 gctcggctcg gctctgcgct gctccggacg gctgtgaccg ctggccgggg gctcgggcca 3720 ccggtaccca cggaccgcgc gcccgggtgc ctgctccgct aagcccctcg ccccgcgcgg 3780 acctcggtat ccagcgccct gctgcccggg ctctccccgc gcgccctact gccgcgaggt 3840 cagtccgcag cctccggtgc gccagcgctc gccttcctcc tcctggactt cgaccctttg 3900 ccgccctcac cacgccatgg ctcatgtccc cgctcggacc agcccgggac ccgggcccca 3960 gctgctgctg ctgctgctgc cgttgtttct gctgttgctc cgggatgtgg ccggcagcca 4020 cagggccccc gcctggtccg cactgcccgc ggccgccgac ggcctgcagg gggacaggga 4080 tctccagcgg caccctgggg acgcggccgc cacgttgggc cccagcgccc aggacatggt 4140 cgctgtccac atgcacaggc tctatgagaa gtacagccgg cagggcgcgc ggccgggagg 4200 gggcaacacg gtccgcagct tcagggccag gctgggtaag tagagggtgc cccaggaccc 4260 cttctcctca ttctccacct tcctcacttt tctgtctccc cacccgtgca cctctacttt 4320 tcctcttcta gccaacgggt gagtggttca ttcattcttt cactaatgat tcactgatct 4380 ctccatgcca ggccctgaac ctccagtggg gcaccaagag tggcagcagg tggcacagag 4440 gtcctgcccc tggggtgctc ccacattgct ggacatacaa agactacccc atacacaagg 4500 ctgtaagcac agagagtgga agaggggaca taggccaggg gagtatccct gtcatagggt 4560 caattatgtg ggcattttac aaatgagaag ggcacagcca gtgaacatag gcagccctgc 4620 agaagctcca ggcactgggc cctgtcagga agcaggagcc cctagctggc gtcagctatg 4680 gttcctgtgt ccagggaagc agagtggact gagaagggcc ttggctgccc gggattgagg 4740 acttccacgg actggcatga agcgttcaga ccacaggggt ttaaggaaag gcccaggggc 4800 ttaggcagtg ggaacactct gcctatctcc ggcctctgtc ccacctttcc acttcctcag 4860 ccccttggat ggagctgggc agagggcact tgcaaaggcc catgctgccc tgttctgaga 4920 gcacttccag gctcctgcct cagcagcctg cccacctttg caggccctgg gtagagagga 4980 ggtgcagcca gggccacagg ggtggtgaga agaccctggt tgtcatggtg attactcctg 5040 gttgcagaat aatgttccag aaaatgtggg tgggggtctc ctgcagctct gcagaagatg 5100 aggccattca acaggagaaa aatctgcagt ctacaggctc ccctcctgag ggtgagggaa 5160 acaagcctag ctgtggagct agacagcctg gggtcagatc tgtcactggc tgtgtgactc 5220 aaggtaacat ctgtggcctc tcataaccat ggattgggga gcacctgcca caaagaggcc 5280 ccatgccctc ctcctccact tagcagactc accaggtcag tggccctggg ctccaggcca 5340 attggatcta actccatcct cactcataac tttcttgcac catgtggggt ccatttcttg 5400 aggaacgtta ttaaattaaa ccatttaaga atcatctggc atgaacatga ccttgggtaa 5460 atcactaaag ctaggtggac ttgagtgtat tcatcgataa aatgggcaag gcttgccaat 5520 atctcccctg tgcagttgaa gggaagatga aatgaggtca tatgtgcaag ctcagagccc 5580 agcactggcc agattaagtg ttgatgtacg ggattcccct gggagcacaa ataatcgtgc 5640 taagtattgt gtattcctgt gggtttaaac ttgaccttgc ttctctatta actcaatcct 5700 caaagccttg tagttgagga agcaaggcca gcagggtcac tgctgcgaca cgggtgagcc 5760 tgcccactga gcccatctac ttgctgcagc caggcatgga gatgccttct tgtgtcattc 5820 tgttttcaca gaaagggggt agtacaagta gcagtggagt tcaggatatt aatctcaaaa 5880 aggacctgaa gacagtatct caaatccagc actcccactt taaagataag gaaactgaga 5940 ctcagtggtt gttcacagtg gcaggggttg gcaactccca tctgccaggt cattgctgtt 6000 ctcactgtca ctccccacac cctgtcatct ccctcagagc tatgaccagg gtctgggagg 6060 ggtagggtga aacagacaag cctgggaaat caggattctg gtagtctgga gtgtctgaca 6120 aatccctctt ctttggaagc ctgaggcaca tttgggtgtg aatcccagct gtaccagcta 6180 ccaggtgtgt gcagtggcac aggttagttt acctctctga gcatcagttt ccttgtagta 6240 cagtgaagaa gtgaggatta aatgggctaa gcaggttttg tgctttgcat acagtggggg 6300 cccaggcagg ttgcttgatc ctctcctccc ttgattcatc tgagtgtttc atgccaagcc 6360 tcttgcctgc cctcagatgt gcctgcttcc tgatccagtg acctgtctga ggaggtatga 6420 gtttgggcag ggacccttct ctcatggatg atgccaccca tgtgggaggc ttcagctctg 6480 gtccgagaac atgccagtct cagcctgctc cccagtggtg ggtttctgct gcctcagtgg 6540 ggcagcacct cttcctgaac aacaaatgcc tccatcccca cagcctgcga tacgtaacta 6600 tacctccccc gccaccgggc agtgcagctc agctgccaag tgctggctgt gagctggcct 6660 cgtggggtcc aaatcccaat tctgcgatct gggcaaggga ctgaacttgt ccatgactca 6720 gtttttttca cttctaaaat ggagctaata gtgctcccct ccttatagga ttttttttaa 6780 tggaaactga gatatgtcaa gtgcttacac cattcctgac acaggtaagt gtcaatggtg 6840 tattagctct tgctgttgat ataccagcca ccccttcctt ccttccctca ttgctccctg 6900 aagtgaattt cgttccttat taaatctgca tcggtgggga aagcctatga acctgaccct 6960 aagggttaag gttagaccac ccctaattcc cactgaatga cgtgtgttta aatgtaagct 7020 ttgtcaccta ccaatgtgat actgagttgg ttttcttcat ctctaaattg aaaataatac 7080 tacatactca cctgtcaaaa atgccaaaat tcaagttgat ttcagttccc caagtattcc 7140 ctaagcactt cgtttggtag cagatgctgt aagctcaggg agcacaaaga tgcccagaaa 7200 agctcataaa ctagcagggc agatcaaagt aagcagcaga atagggcagc aggcctgggg 7260 ggtggcatat aagaaggagg gcaggggtgc tgcgggagcc caaaggcgca ctgacctggc 7320 aggggcagag cctctgggtg gggccaggaa agccttccca gagcaggcca ggccccagcc 7380 actttgaagg gcaggtgggc cttagccagg tgcggaagtg aagctgtcca ctgtgttcag 7440 agactgccag gagtttggtt ttaatgataa cgcaaggaga gaaaggcagg agatggagac 7500 ggacaaatag gttgcaagca ggccatggag agccatgagt attatgaatt tgttccccca 7560 taggcaatgg ggcaatatac aacgtgcatg cgtaagggac agaaggaagg aaggagggag 7620 agagagaaga ctagagggga gagagagaaa ggagagaggg agagagaggg aggaagagga 7680 gagactgcag ggaaaaagag ggataaagga gagagagtga ttataaataa atgcatgctt 7740 attggggaaa acctggaaat tatagaagat cacagtaaag aacataagtc atccctaatc 7800 acatagccag atataaccgg aattgttagt atgatatttt ggtagaatca ttccagccat 7860 atctatctat ctatctatgt ctccactatc tatatctcca ttgttttacc cttatatgta 7920 agatatatat ggatatatgg atatatttga gagatatata tgtgagatat atgtggatac 7980 atcttttatg gattatattt tcagcatgca ggtaaaactt gcaggtattt ccatttgaaa 8040 ttactttttt tcattactgg tcatcttgaa cttttcccca tgcctgctgg ctatttgcaa 8100 ttcttcctgt ggaaactgcc tccttgtatg ggagtccctc ctttgtccta ctgatatgca 8160 aaggttcttt acacagtaag gatcttaacc tttcacttct aatagacaat ttgcttttga 8220 gacatgagtg cgatgtaaga gggaacaaag ttctgggacc actgttgtgg ttgagtctgg 8280 agccctgagc gcagggtgga aagatgctgt gttcaggatg gttgtgtaga aacaggaagc 8340 agagcaaaca gggcctggag attggttaaa agcaggaatg ggagaggcaa aagagttctc 8400 agtctcctgc tggaagggct ggaggagaag tgaggcctcc cactgggcag gaggtcaggg 8460 agcaagggtg tagtgccctg agggtggcaa tagttcctga ggccataact gttctgagcc 8520 cttgctgggt gccaggcaca gtgctgctag tgcgctctgc agagctgatc tcacaataac 8580 ttttggaggt gcaaatactc tatccagttt atgaatgagg aaactgaggc acaaagtggc 8640 tccatgactt gcctgagtcc ccacagctag taagggatgc cagcaggcgt tgaacctcaa 8700 ccctagagcc tgcatggaaa cgggcactaa gtactaaatc tgtgttagtt ccctgctctt 8760 ctctgcagca ccgtctggcc caccgcccct tcctccagct tctgttggtg catgcatcta 8820 agcccagcgt tctcactgat tgccctagtg gctgtttgag gggcagtggg tgaagggaca 8880 gatctccaaa ccgtcttgga atctttttat atagggcaga gcatctaagg ggctgctctt 8940 ggcctgagag ttgaccagca gtggggctgg acaggccttt ggatgaggaa gtcccttccc 9000 ccagtaccat ccccactgcc ctcaggaagg aggctgagtg cccagcaaag tggacctggt 9060 cacagttctg agaattccca agagccactg agatcagctt gtctaaataa agtcagtctt 9120 tctcttctta gggagtcaga actcaaaaat atcaaaataa tgacctctgt ttgcaaaacg 9180 tgctgcagtt cacagcacat gatctttgtc cattagctct taggcagatc atgaacatat 9240 ccagaacaca tggaggagca aaaggcatgg gcttggggtc agacagagct gggtacaagc 9300 cccgactcca ccccttgcca actgtgtgac tttaggcaaa ttgcacaccc tctctgaagc 9360 ttcagctctt tgtccacaga atgaatgacc gctccctact ctcttcatgg tgaaaatgat 9420 gaatcaagca tgcagaacac tcagcatagg accaagcaca tacacttgga gctcagaatg 9480 tcataattaa taaacaattt tcttccaatt taaagatgag aacactgagg ctcaagggga 9540 agtctggcta aacacctggg tgcccactgt ctccatttgg atttgcatca tcagctgcat 9600 ctttgtaaag aatgaggatt ccttgacttc ttaaggctgt ggttactgca ctctagggaa 9660 gcatgccagg aacccccagt gttaactgaa gtaacagacc acacttctct tgtgcccact 9720 tgggcaggat tttcacagac aatctcattc aacatgcatc tctgagctcc aactgtcacc 9780 taagccttat ggtgaggtct agcggtgcag tagtgaataa aactggcagt gtccctgtcc 9840 cgttagagtt tatgttttag gaagataaga gcagtaaatc agtatacagc aggatgtcag 9900 gaagtgctct gaaggccaat gaagcagggg cagacagagt gatgaggctg ttctccagcc 9960 acgggagccc aggggaccca ttgtgggagg ttccatttga gcagatacct gaagaggttg 10020 agtggtactg gatggggaac catgaaggtg gaaggaagcg tgaggcacag tcctgagaat 10080 aaagccacat gttggaagga gaagaacgcc agtgtgacgg gggcagaggg gtggggttgg 10140 gctgtggata ggagataaag ttgcagaggt aggcaggcca gatcaagtaa ggccttggta 10200 aggggttgag ttttatttgg ggcaatggag ggctccgagc ttggggggtg acctgtgatg 10260 gaatgcaccc agcacaccgg gggcctcgct tggacagtgc tctttaaaac tgtgacatga 10320 ggagacactg aagacgggtg tcattgccat taccagtctg tctcccctct aggctgaact 10380 cctcctgggc aactttgtta tctgtctccc ctctaggctg aactcctcct gggcaacttt 10440 gttatgaccc tggtcagccc aacttagcct ggagtaggag ttttgcaaat ctttatcagg 10500 aaaacaaaga gaagaagagg aagaaagaaa ggaaaagagg gtggatagaa aaggggaaag 10560 aggggaagaa aagagaggag ggaggaaggc agagaagaaa gaagagagaa aagacatgaa 10620 tcacagagca ccagcacgca tcagaggaaa taatgacgtt ctcttcaatg cttctctgtt 10680 atggcttggg ctcggctaaa ctgaaagatt tcaggttgag gtcccttctc tgagccacag 10740 cctggagccc cctgcactgc gtacatgcag aaacatccag agagaggacc agcctgtggt 10800 ccctcatgca ctggggctgg gggtgaccca tcttgtcccc agcagtcccc agcagggagg 10860 gtcttcccag agcaggctgc ccagtgaggg ctgagctccc tctggcagga ggcattcaag 10920 ccacatggag gtagaactta tacccttttg cacaacctca aaggttcctc cccactctga 10980 atctgttagc agaacaatgg aggagttgag acttgaactg gatcaaagaa aaacaatgtg 11040 ctgtgttggc tgggttgcag ctcagatatt tggatcagtg aatgcaaggt accccagttg 11100 atggacggga gcttgctctg ccagccttgg tcctttagat tcaagaggca gaaagcacat 11160 ttgggggcac ctcctttgta cctggcactt cactagggtg tttctgtgat cttccagaca 11220 atcctctgtg tgagatggag gctgttgtcc ctgtgaggca gatggggaaa gcaaggttca 11280 gggcgtggcg ccactgagtc ctgggagctt ggttcctagg gcattttcta gcttggggat 11340 gggggggtgc aacattattg gtgaactttc accccatcca tcggtcaacc ccagatgctg 11400 cagatacacc accgctacca ccggagtgag ctatcagctg ccactgactt cccaaacttc 11460 cctgatggcc agagtcccct ggagtgctga ttaaaatgtg gaagtcattg ttatgccgtc 11520 aaggccacat gcttggggaa gccaggttca agtgtgcatt gagaccctgg gctgctgctt 11580 atgtgtggag catgttgagg ggctgtgaca ctgtcctggc aggtttgttg tgaggattaa 11640 ataaggtaat ggcttcagtg ccacctgagc ctttactggc atttatttat caggccttcc 11700 atagatgtgc ttctctgttt cttcccgctc atagtccctt aagagtatgt gaacaatccc 11760 agttgaatta tgccttcttc ccaacagaaa caaagaagag aaagtggaat atttctgtta 11820 aaaaaaaaaa tccctgcaga tgctgtaggt acaggggtca gagaggtgtg gccctgaccc 11880 atgcccctag agagcccagt gtcccccaca cacacttccc gggcttggga gccctgctcc 11940 tctccagacg ttccccagca gaaggacact tcgttgtcag gaaatgaagc agtggaaagg 12000 agaaagccag cctggcctct ctggtgtcct gttagtgtgc ggcatcctag ggaggcacca 12060 ggaaagactc cccactcctc agaagcctag agcggacttg gccatttgag aacgctcact 12120 gatatataat aatgtttagg cgattcaaac ctgacacaat actcatgctg ctgccaaggt 12180 tggggcagct tcctgggact gctgacatgg ctgtgctgcc ctggtgccct ggggaacgcc 12240 tgcttccacc aggcaaatag gaaggagtgg ccggcagccc cagggaagcc ggagctggag 12300 cattcttgaa ccaagttgca gatgtaatgg ttgagacgtc ccggtcttta cctggacctt 12360 ggagatttag tcaggttgcc ttgtgtaatc ctgatgctgc tcttttcttg ttaaaacaat 12420 cttaaaagtc ctcaggcaga acaaagagca gatgcctaaa tggctgtact tttgatcctg 12480 gtttccctta ggaggtgctc aaaaagcatg agcgtttatt tatttcgtct cttttggaag 12540 aatgtttggg tttaatgtga agtgtattta atgattgcat ttaaaaactg attgcataaa 12600 tagagggctg tgcaaataca ggaggggctg ccttgatgca gggcttggac ccaacccaag 12660 ccatcctgag cacttaatga aggtgtcagt gacatttgtt catttgtgca tgcagaggca 12720 gtagagggca gggggagcaa acaggagctt tggagtccag caggcctgaa tgcctccctg 12780 tctgccccta tttctttgct gttgcttttt gttgttgttg ttgtttgcta cgggatattg 12840 acaatctcaa ccttaattcc tcacctgtgc actgaggatt gcaaagggcg ccctcatcag 12900 tttcatgtga ggattacacg aaaggaggga agcaaagcgg gggaggagga tggtcctgaa 12960 agtgtggatc ggtgggtgtt tgctcctcca gccctgggtg ggagaccctc aggagcacga 13020 gcgagaactt cacagcctgt ggtctctcct tccctcacag aagtggtcga ccagaaggcc 13080 gtgtatttct tcaacctgac ttccatgcaa gactcggaaa tgatccttac ggccactttc 13140 cacttctact cagagccgcc tcggtggcct cgagcgctcg aggtgctatg caagccgcgg 13200 gccaagaacg cttcaggccg cccgctgccc ctgggcccgc ccacacgcca gcacctgctc 13260 ttccgcagcc tctcgcagaa cacggccaca caggggctac tccgcggggc catggccctg 13320 gcgcccccac cgcgcggcct gtggcaggcc aaggacatct cccccatcgt caaggcggcc 13380 cgccgggatg gcgagctgct cctctccgcc cagctggatt ctgaggagag ggacccgggg 13440 gtgccccggc ccagccccta tgcgccctac atcctagtct atgccaacga tctggccatc 13500 tcggagccca acagcgtggc agtgacgctg cagagatacg accccttccc tgccggagac 13560 cccgagcccc gcgcagcccc caacaactca gcggaccccc gcgtgcgccg agccgcgcag 13620 gccactgggc ccctccagga caacgagctg ccggggctgg atgagaggcc gccgcgcgcc 13680 cacgcacagc acttccacaa gcaccagctg tggcccagcc ccttccgggc gctgaaaccc 13740 cggccagggc gcaaagaccg caggaagaag ggccaggagg tgttcatggc cgcctcgcag 13800 gtgctggact ttgacgagaa gacgatgcag aaagcccgga ggaagcagtg ggatgagccg 13860 agggtgtgct cccggaggta cctgaaggtg gacttcgcag acatcggctg gaatgaatgg 13920 ataatctcac cgaaatcttt tgatgcctac tactgcgcgg gagcatgtga gttccccatg 13980 cctaaggtag ggtttcttcc gccttttgcc aaattctaag gctcagctct gccgctaccg 14040 tcaagttcct cagcctgcag gacttctgtt tccccatctg caaaatggga ataacagtac 14100 ttcctatcta ttccaggcag gaaataggta gacataggtc accaagtggc agcccgtagg 14160 gtagttgccg cccacatatg tgtgagtttg gctgtgtttt ttgaagtatt ggcttggttg 14220 aattgggact ttaaaatgag aacattcttt tgaaaagcag gagaatccat gtctttagaa 14280 acgcatcccc acatagcaac tatctgcaga ggttgagtag atgctgcttc ctgtacacac 14340 ggcaggtccc agaagctcct tcctgaccaa ggctctcatt tctgttccca gcctggaccc 14400 cagagtgtgg caatctgtga ctagcacagt gctagcctca gcagctctcc cactgtagat 14460 tccctcctcc ttgcagctca gggcaggaat ccacagggaa taggccttca ctgtgcacag 14520 ggtctgcagg acacacagca ctgggctgtt ctgtctgttg caccagccta aggatttcca 14580 gttctcacct tcgctccaga ctgggctgtg gctgagtcca tccctctccc tgcagcctgc 14640 tctgcagcag cctggctgct tgtgatgtca gccctcggca ctcagcacac agtttcttcc 14700 tgcttagtta ctctgcccag ggcaggtcat gcctttccct ccaagaaaag aaagtcagtg 14760 cataaatcca atttgaactt aaataatcag ccagctgggg aagtccagac ccagacatgg 14820 ggcagcagta acgtgtttgg gaattaaatg gcttctcctc aaaacttctc ctcaaaaccg 14880 tgcatgtgca agagagaggg aggtgcctga catagagacg gagcctgcta aaagggccta 14940 gcaaagaccc aggcagatgc aagcccggaa ccctgaaggc ttgcagctgg ttggccatgc 15000 ggttagctta tcaccctggc ttgctgcctc cccaccttcc gggacaccag ccagaacgct 15060 gcaaaggcag gtgtccctgc cctgctccct tcccaccaca cccacacaag agggcttcct 15120 cctcaacagc actacatata caaatctctg tttggctggt gatgcactga agtggatgac 15180 ccggttggtt catcttgtca gaggtgggca cagttttcca agccaggtca ctttctaact 15240 aggggtcttg gtcaagttac tcagtcattt taaacctcgg tgtcttccca gtaaagtcca 15300 ggtaataccc accccataaa attgctaagc tgacaaaaaa aagggggtga tgcagggaga 15360 gcagccccta ggaaatgtca atgtccagcc tgtcacactg ccacgcacat gccaggcctt 15420 cccttcagtg acaagagcac aacctcgtga gaagcatgcc tgtcctcctc agactgcgag 15480 accagggctg tgctggcatc tcgctgggtt ttccctctgg gcagcttctg cctgcttcct 15540 ggtgctccgc ggggatgtgt gacactcagg cgcccccatg tggccctgcc gtgttgggga 15600 cacagcgtgc ctcagggaag ccaaagggca ggaaggcctg ggggctcttg gagacctcag 15660 cccggaactc agcgtatgtc tgattttaga ggaaccgtgt gccccgcctt gggatctcgt 15720 ccattcctct aggtggatgc ctattctgtg gcctcagccg gggaacaaca gcagagcagt 15780 atggcctggg actgtgagga tggcatgggt gcgtgggtgg gtgagggcag agctgaggta 15840 accctactcc ttttctgcct tgcagatcgt tcgtccatcc aaccatgcca ccatccagag 15900 cattgtcagg gctgtgggca tcatccctgg catcccagag ccctgctgtg ttcccgataa 15960 gatgaactcc cttggggtcc tcttcctgga tgagaatcgg aatgtggttc tgaaggtgta 16020 ccccaacatg tccgtggaca cctgtgcctg ccggtgagac cactccaggg tggaaagaag 16080 ccacgcccag cagagctgcc ttctcggagc cttctgcaac caggacttgt ggtgcagctg 16140 cagacacaga gcacagctca tgggcaacat cactggggcc cagagagagc tgtccgccag 16200 tgcatcatta gggggtcttt cattgctagt gactagcccc ttaaatgcca gcctgagtac 16260 ctgaaggaat ctgggaatta gccctggcct gaaagtggcc catcattcat acccactgtt 16320 ctgaaggctt gaaaacaaaa catatccaca acattggctt gatgtgatca tcatctcata 16380 actgagcaag aagactatgc aaatcttagg gcgctcgctc cctgcacacg gaaagaactc 16440 tgtttaaatg ctcagttcag aacactttgg gccacatagt gattttggaa aacaggataa 16500 tcgtggtgta aatgagtgtt tcctttcaaa gtccactgca gagcttttat ccatatggta 16560 tgcacatgta gccaatattg gtttcttttt cttaatatat atattttatt ttaaaacaac 16620 aaaaagggag ggcgttgaca ccattcccca cagagatagt catgctgagt gtgggttgtt 16680 taaacatgca tattgaaata acacatatag taacgtggga atactaaaaa ataaccaaga 16740 ttttatattt ttgtaaatta tactttctat actgtagatt gtgtatgtta tgtgttttta 16800 tggaaagcta ataaattaaa ggtacagtgg tatcttgaaa aactgaatgt cacccatttc 16860 aaaatctcac tggctcccca tctgtaagta caccatctgg tggttgctgg ggactcagcc 16920 tcttttaggg tcgctggagt cccctaagcc atctccatac tccctggtgt ctgtcccagg 16980 ctccagaaac ccaggctttc ccatgctttc caggggcctg tcccactact ggttcctgca 17040 aacccaagct aggctgatgt tgagaatgga catggctcca gacagggaca gtggcctctc 17100 ggggtttctc ctcatcccct agcctcaggg acatggattg attgggaggt gcctggggtg 17160 ttttaaaaaa catctatggt tgcctggtca gagatctttt acttctggta attcatggag 17220 caagagattc aacataagta ggggtctctc ctgaggtcca aggactcatg aggaagttgg 17280 acgggc 17286 9 2487 DNA Homo sapiens 9 gccgcttccc tcgccgccgc cccgccagca tgcccggcgt ggcccgcctg ccgctgctgc 60 tcgggctgct gctgctcccg cgtcccggcc ggccgctgga cttggccgac tacacctatg 120 acctggcgga ggaggacgac tcggagcccc tcaactacaa agacccctgc aaggcggctg 180 cctttcttgg ggacattgcc ctggacgaag aggacctgag ggccttccag gtacagcagg 240 ctgtggatct cagacggcac acagctcgta agtcctccat caaagctgca gttccaggaa 300 acacttctac ccccagctgc cagagcacca acgggcagcc tcagagggga gcctgtggga 360 gatggagagg tagatcccgt agccggcggg cggcgacgtc ccgaccagag cgtgtgtggc 420 ccgatggggt catccccttt gtcattgggg gaaacttcac tggtagccag agggcagtct 480 tccggcaggc catgaggcac tgggagaagc acacctgtgt caccttcctg gagcgcactg 540 acgaggacag ctatattgtg ttcacctatc gaccttgcgg gtgctgctcc tacgtgggtc 600 gccgcggcgg gggcccccag gccatctcca tcggcaagaa ctgtgacaag ttcggcattg 660 tggtccacga gctgggccac gtcgtcggct tctggcacga acacactcgg ccagaccggg 720 accgccacgt ttccatcgtt cgtgagaaca tccagccagg gcaggagtat aacttcctga 780 agatggagcc tcaggaggtg gagtccctgg gggagaccta tgacttcgac agcatcatgc 840 attacgctcg gaacacattc tccaggggca tcttcctgga taccattgtc cccaagtatg 900 aggtgaacgg ggtgaaacct cccattggcc aaaggacacg gctcagcaag ggggacattg 960 cccaagcccg caagctttac aagtgcccag cctgtggaga gaccctgcaa gacagcacag 1020 gcaacttctc ctcccctgaa taccccaatg gctactctgc tcacatgcac tgcgtgtggc 1080 gcatctctgt cacacccggg gagaagatca tcctgaactt cacgtccctg gacctgtacc 1140 gcagccgcct gtgctggtac gactatgtgg aggtccgaga tggcttctgg aggaaggcgc 1200 ccctccgagg ccgcttctgc gggtccaaac tccctgagcc tatcgtctcc actgacagcc 1260 gcctctgggt tgaattccgc agcagcagca attgggttgg aaagggcttc tttgcagtct 1320 acgaagccat ctgcgggggt gatgtgaaaa aggactatgg ccacattcaa tcgcccaact 1380 acccagacga ttaccggccc agcaaagtct gcatctggcg gatccaggtg tctgagggct 1440 tccacgtggg cctcacattc cagtcctttg agattgagcg ccacgacagc tgtgcctacg 1500 actatctgga ggtgcgcgac gggcacagtg agagcagcac cctcatcggg cgctactgtg 1560 gctatgagaa gcctgatgac atcaagagca cgtccagccg cctctggctc aagttcgtct 1620 ctgacgggtc cattaacaaa gcgggctttg ccgtcaactt tttcaaagag gtggacgagt 1680 gctctcggcc caaccgcggg ggctgtgagc agcggtgcct caacaccctg ggcagctaca 1740 agtgcagctg tgaccccggg tacgagctgg ccccagacaa gcgccgctgt gaggctgctt 1800 gtggcggatt cctcaccaag ctcaacggct ccatcaccag cccgggctgg cccaaggagt 1860 acccccccaa caagaactgc atctggcagc tggtggcccc cacccagtac cgcatctccc 1920 tgcagtttga cttctttgag acagagggca atgatgtgtg caagtacgac ttcgtggagg 1980 tgcgcagtgg actcacagct gactccaagc tgcatggcaa gttctgtggt tctgagaagc 2040 ccgaggtcat cacctcccag tacaacaaca tgcgcgtgga gttcaagtcc gacaacaccg 2100 tgtccaaaaa gggcttcaag gcccacttct tctcagaaaa gaggccagct ctgcagcccc 2160 ctcggggacg cccccaccag ctcaaattcc gagtgcagaa aagaaaccgg accccccagt 2220 gaggcctgcc aggcctcccg gaccccttgt tactcaggaa cctcaccttg gacggaatgg 2280 gatgggggct tcggtgccca ccaacccccc acctccactc tgccattccg gcccacctcc 2340 ctctggccgg acagaactgg tgctctcttc tccccactgt gcccgtccgc ggaccgggga 2400 cccttccccg tgccctaccc cctcccattt tgatggtgtc tgtgacattt cctgttgtga 2460 agtaaaagag ggacccctgc gtcctgc 2487 10 1547 DNA Homo sapiens 10 ggggacttct tgaacttgca gggagaataa cttgcgcacc ccactttgcg ccggtgcctt 60 tgccccagcg gagcctgctt cgccatctcc gagccccacc gcccctccac tcctcggcct 120 tgcccgacac tgagacgctg ttcccagcgt gaaaagagag actgcgcggc cggcacccgg 180 gagaaggagg aggcaaagaa aaggaacgga cattcggtcc ttgcgccagg tcctttgacc 240 agagtttttc catgtggacg ctctttcaat ggacgtgtcc ccgcgtgctt cttagacgga 300 ctgcggtctc ctaaaggtcg accatggtgg ccgggacccg ctgtcttcta gcgttgctgc 360 ttccccaggt cctcctgggc ggcgcggctg gcctcgttcc ggagctgggc cgcaggaagt 420 tcgcggcggc gtcgtcgggc cgcccctcat cccagccctc tgacgaggtc ctgagcgagt 480 tcgagttgcg gctgctcagc atgttcggcc tgaaacagag acccaccccc agcagggacg 540 ccgtggtgcc cccctacatg ctagacctgt atcgcaggca ctcaggtcag ccgggctcac 600 ccgccccaga ccaccggttg gagagggcag ccagccgagc caacactgtg cgcagcttcc 660 accatgaaga atctttggaa gaactaccag aaacgagtgg gaaaacaacc cggagattct 720 tctttaattt aagttctatc cccacggagg agtttatcac ctcagcagag cttcaggttt 780 tccgagaaca gatgcaagat gctttaggaa acaatagcag tttccatcac cgaattaata 840 tttatgaaat cataaaacct gcaacagcca actcgaaatt ccccgtgacc agacttttgg 900 acaccaggtt ggtgaatcag aatgcaagca ggtgggaaag ttttgatgtc acccccgctg 960 tgatgcggtg gactgcacag ggacacgcca accatggatt cgtggtggaa gtggcccact 1020 tggaggagaa acaaggtgtc tccaagagac atgttaggat aagcaggtct ttgcaccaag 1080 atgaacacag ctggtcacag ataaggccat tgctagtaac ttttggccat gatggaaaag 1140 ggcatcctct ccacaaaaga gaaaaacgtc aagccaaaca caaacagcgg aaacgcctta 1200 agtccagctg taagagacac cctttgtacg tggacttcag tgacgtgggg tggaatgact 1260 ggattgtggc tcccccgggg tatcacgcct tttactgcca cggagaatgc ccttttcctc 1320 tggctgatca tctgaactcc actaatcatg ccattgttca gacgttggtc aactctgtta 1380 actctaagat tcctaaggca tgctgtgtcc cgacagaact cagtgctatc tcgatgctgt 1440 accttgacga gaatgaaaag gttgtattaa agaactatca ggacatggtt gtggagggtt 1500 gtgggtgtcg ctagtacagc aaaattaaat acataaatat atatata 1547 11 1774 DNA Homo sapiens 11 agatcttgaa aacacccggg ccacacacgc cgcgacctac agctctttct cagcgttgga 60 gtggagacgg cgcccgcagc gccctgcgcg ggtgaggtcc gcgcagctgc tggggaagag 120 cccacctgtc aggctgcgct gggtcagcgc agcaagtggg gctggccgct atctcgctgc 180 acccggccgc gtcccgggct ccgtgcgccc tcgccccagc tggtttggag ttcaaccctc 240 ggctccgccg ccggctcctt gcgccttcgg agtgtcccgc agcgacgccg ggagccgacg 300 cgccgcgcgg gtacctagcc atggctgggg cgagcaggct gctctttctg tggctgggct 360 gcttctgcgt gagcctggcg cagggagaga gaccgaagcc acctttcccg gagctccgca 420 aagctgtgcc aggtgaccgc acggcaggtg gtggcccgga ctccgagctg cagccgcaag 480 acaaggtctc tgaacacatg ctgcggctct atgacaggta cagcacggtc caggcggccc 540 ggacaccggg ctccctggag ggaggctcgc agccctggcg ccctcggctc ctgcgcgaag 600 gcaacacggt tcgcagcttt cgggcggcag cagcagaaac tcttgaaaga aaaggactgt 660 atatcttcaa tctgacatcg ctaaccaagt ctgaaaacat tttgtctgcc acactgtatt 720 tctgtattgg agagctagga aacatcagcc tgagttgtcc agtgtctgga ggatgctccc 780 atcatgctca gaggaaacac attcagattg atctttctgc atggaccctc aaattcagca 840 gaaaccaaag tcaactcctt ggccatctgt cagtggatat ggccaaatct catcgagata 900 ttatgtcctg gctgtctaaa gatatcactc aattcttgag gaaggccaaa gaaaatgaag 960 agttcctcat aggatttaac attacgtcca agggacgcca gctgccaaag aggaggttac 1020 cttttccaga gccttatatc ttggtatatg ccaatgatgc cgccatttct gagccagaaa 1080 gtgtggtatc aagcttacag ggacaccgga attttcccac tggaactgtt cccaaatggg 1140 atagccacat cagagctgcc ctttccattg agcggaggaa gaagcgctct actggggtct 1200 tgctgcctct gcagaacaac gagcttcctg gggcagaata ccagtataaa aaggatgagg 1260 tgtgggagga gagaaagcct tacaagaccc ttcaggctca ggcccctgaa aagagtaaga 1320 ataaaaagaa acagagaaag gggcctcatc ggaagagcca gacgctccaa tttgatgagc 1380 agaccctgaa aaaggcaagg agaaagcagt ggattgaacc tcggaattgc gccaggagat 1440 acctcaaggt agactttgca gatattggct ggagtgaatg gattatctcc cccaagtcct 1500 ttgatgccta ttattgctct ggagcatgcc agttccccat gccaaagtct ttgaagccat 1560 caaatcatgc taccatccag agtatagtga gagctgtggg ggtcgttcct gggattcctg 1620 agccttgctg tgtaccagaa aagatgtcct cactcagtat tttattcttt gatgaaaata 1680 agaatgtagt gcttaaagta taccctaaca tgacagtaga gtcttgcgct tgcagataac 1740 ctggcaaaga actcatttga atgcttaatt caat 1774 12 11233 DNA Homo sapiens 12 gaattccttc cgtagcttca ccagacacct aattggccaa gaaggtttga agacctgatg 60 tggttcttaa ttggggatgg ggaattaagg gctactgtat ctataggatt atcttttcac 120 ttgcatagac ctatttggtg tgttcagggc atagtgatac tataattgcc atatttaaca 180 gtttataaag ttcaagccca gcatattctt tgcctgttta atgatgtctt ggtatcagcc 240 ttttaatggt acttatcagc atagaaaatg gaaacaaaat aacttttaaa acagtagctc 300 tcaagcttta gtgtgctcag aatgaccaga gaaccttgtg aaatatacag atttctgggt 360 ccagatctgg ggcaggacca ggaagtctgc atttcatctg cacccccacc ctactctgag 420 gcttatagtc ctgagaacat gctttgaaaa aggctgtccc aagggctcgc agacaggcta 480 ttgaccagct actctttctt gatgttctcc aggaaaaacc caacaaagga atgcctttca 540 ttgagtagta gcagcatagg agcaatagtt gctcctgaat tatggtgggt ttcccctctt 600 catcaatgtg ctttaagggt acagtttcat ttggtctatc taccatgttc tataaaaaca 660 tgaaaattca caggtaagtt tgagatacag aaaataacta aactgattct tctcacgaac 720 tctgatcact aggctgtggt tgatttagct ctctaaccaa caagtaattt gttctttggc 780 atgagtaagg ggggaaaagg aggagtgggt aaaagcagct gataacagat ggcttgcgcc 840 catctaaaat gtggggagag aaataaagct gtcccaagag aactaaagct gagttctctc 900 gtcatatatc tgaagattca tatcaggggt ctaaacatgg tatgtcgggt agcttaattg 960 gaaactcctg gactgtgagt gtcacagact catggatggg ccaatcagtg gccactttag 1020 tgtctgggct gcagcaaaat gagacaatag ctgtcattca caaacctttg gaattaaaaa 1080 aaccccgaaa tgacattggt gctttaaagt aaaataaagt cctgccttta agtccagcat 1140 atcactgttg tttctgagtt taaatattaa gaaccacatt tcgttaatga ttaaaacaac 1200 agtgattgat ttaggggctc agtgagcatt taatctgtcc tgacttcagg taccatgcta 1260 aaggagcaca atgcctgatg ctgcaggaga aacattaggt aactatttaa tggagtttta 1320 attttctgtt attattttta ataattaatt gtgattttga ctatttggaa gctacaggta 1380 tattttgtcc tccttttggg gtggtgttat tgccctgccc tgttttaatc agtggttctt 1440 agagaaagtg aactcaggag tgacttaaaa tgaaggaaga cggactttgg ctaaaattac 1500 aattaaataa tcaaatcatt ttcaaatata aagggagcat gcagatgatc tggcccaatc 1560 ctttcattct gcagatgaga aaactgagac tcataggaat gaaaagactt gcccaaagcc 1620 atacagcttg tttctgttgt ttggtgcatt aggccaaaag acctaggcct aatagatgga 1680 aaagatggca ggatgtcttg gccttgctct gacagttgct tctctgatct cagatatttc 1740 ccaccctttg taatctgtgt tccacacagg aagtagttct tgttttttaa atatcgaagg 1800 tgtataaacg taaagttttt atagatgagc cacccagggc caatatctgt ttaagtaaag 1860 acctaaatgc tttgcagaga cagtaaagtg tcatgtctgt cccagggaaa gaaatccagg 1920 acaggaaatg ctcagtcttc cagcactcct ctggctacct ggagctcagg ctatgagcct 1980 caacccctcc ctgaagcatt agctctggag cagaggctgt gatttacttc agagatctgg 2040 gcaagtccct ttaacctggt agtccttcct ttccttgttt gtaaaacaga gagatgaggc 2100 tgatagctcc ctcacagctc catcagaggc agtgtgtgaa attagttcct gtttgggaag 2160 gtttaaaagc caccacattc cacctccctg ctaatatgat tactaaaatg tttttatatg 2220 aaagggccaa ttcctcatct cccctcttcc tttaaaaaca gaccaagggg catcttttct 2280 tgtctccctg tggcctaaaa ggttactgct tctgtggtta tctccttgga aagacagagt 2340 gtcaggactc ttaggtacac caaaaatgaa caaaaaaatc aacaacaacc ataacaccaa 2400 caaaaataac tgctgtgtcg gttcttaaga cggcttctga gctagaaaca gatttttcta 2460 actgtaaaaa acgtggcccc agcctgtctg caggccacct ctgtctttag gccttggggg 2520 gaggagggaa gtgagctcat ttactggggt ctacctcagg gtcatcacca aggtgttcta 2580 caaaacgcac tttaagaatg ttttggaagg aaattcacct tttaacagcc caagaggtat 2640 ctctctctgg cacacagttc tgcacacagc ctgtttctca acgtttggaa atcttttaac 2700 agtttatgga aggccacctt ttaaaccgat ccaacagctc ctttctccat aacctgattt 2760 tagaggtgtt tcattatctc taattactca gggtaaatgg tgattactca gtgttttaat 2820 catcagtttg ggcagcagtt acactaaact cagggaagcc cagactccca tgggtatttt 2880 tggaaggtac ggcgactagt cggtgcatgc tttctagtac ctccgcacgt ggtccccagg 2940 tgagccccag ccgcttccca gagctggagg cagcggcgtc ccagctccga cggcagctgc 3000 ggactcgggc gctgcctggg cttccgggac ccgggcctgc taggcgaggt cgggcggctg 3060 gaggggagga tgtgggcggg gctcccatcc ccagaaaggg aggcgagcga gggaggaggg 3120 aaggagggag gggccgccgg ggaagaggag gaggaaggaa agaaagaaag cgagggaggg 3180 aaagaggagg aaggaagatg cgagaaggca gaggaggagg gagggaggga aggagcgcgg 3240 agcccggccc ggaagctagg tgagtgtggc atccgagctg agggacgcga gcctgagacg 3300 ccgctgctgc tccggctgag tatctagctt gtctccccga tgggattccc gtccaagcta 3360 tctcgagcct gcagcgccac agtccccggc cctcgcccag gttcactgca accgttcaga 3420 ggtccccagg agctgctgct ggcgagcccg ctactgcagg gacctatggt gagcaaggct 3480 acctggtgag gggagacagg cagagggggt ctaggagcct ccttgggggg aagaagctgg 3540 tcacaggctg tgaccgaggc aaaaggtggc ctaattattt tccaatagtg gtgctggagg 3600 tggggatgct ggcgctgaaa gacctttaaa tatcggctac tgcccctgcc caggccttct 3660 ctgtccagca gtccctggga gattctcacc tttgggaagt gcggggcagg agagcagaaa 3720 caagagaagc ccttggtagg ggggtcgttg ggaaaaactg tggggtcttg ggctgaacgc 3780 gttgcccacg ggctggaggt tgcgatcccc ggacggaaag cgcgggagga ggaaggagag 3840 aaccggctct gaggtccaga gagagtgagg gggcagagcg acggcgagat ggggagagaa 3900 cacctagctg gagcaggttc tgcggtagag agcgcagtcc tgctggcctc tggagagtgc 3960 gcgccgctac ggaggctgcg tcgaggggag tgtcacccaa tctggccccc agctggcggg 4020 gcgccctgag agcttgcgaa ctgcagttgc aggacgcgcc ttctccacga gctattttcg 4080 tcgacttgcg gaacccaagg aacctcgcct ctatcatttc acggtgtagg gtccctagag 4140 acgacagcca agatcccagg ggctcccagg acgcttgttc ctgcggtgtc gtgtcctatg 4200 gggagttcct ggcgggacga aaggcggacg cgcggctctt cctggccctc caggcccgga 4260 accgacggga aaggttcccg tgattcccga gtccctgcag gcttcttcca gcgggagttg 4320 gtccgggggc cttagaggcc tccaagcact gctttggagg atggtttcca aggatcgcgg 4380 tttgtgagtt gaaggctttg tgagaggtta aacccccaaa agatacatac ttggtaaact 4440 gaggctacct gtaaacacat ttcggcatta ggagaagatt cgagtaggga agtgaaggac 4500 aaccaccccg agttacattc ctttccccca ataaaaagct ctggggatga aagttctttt 4560 ggcttttatc ttttcgattt aaaaatttga gaagaaaaat gtgactagag atgaatcctg 4620 gtgaatccga aattgaaaca caactccccc ttccccttcc tatcctctcg gttttagaac 4680 cgcgctctcc cgccccagga gattccttgg ggccgagggt tttccgggga acccgggcgc 4740 ccgccccttc tactgtccct ttgccccgcg ggcacagctt gcctccgtct gctttctcta 4800 cttctggacc tctcctcgcc gggcttttta aagggcttct gcgtctcaaa acaaaacaaa 4860 aaaacccttt gctcttccca accctttcgc agcccgcccc agcggtggcg cgggaccagc 4920 aaaggcgaaa gccgcgcggc tcttgccggg cgcggacggt cgcgcagggg cgcccgcggc 4980 ctccgcaccc ggacctgagg tgttggtcga ctccgggcat ccacggtcgg gagggagggc 5040 tgagctgttc gatcctttac ttttcttcct caaagtctac ctgccaatgc ccctaagaag 5100 aaaaccaagt atgtgcgtgg agagtggggc ggcaggcaac ccgagttctt gagctccgga 5160 gcgacccaaa gcagcaactg ggaacagcct caggaaaggg aggtcgggtg gagtgggctt 5220 tggggcagga gtcatggggc ccgggccccg gggacgacct ggcgctcccg gccctgctga 5280 acgctgagtt gcgcctagtc gggttttcga agaggccctt gcgcagagcg acccacgcgc 5340 gcggcagcat cttcgattag tcaggacatc ccagtaactg cttgaactgt aggtaggtaa 5400 aattcttgaa ggagtatttg ctgcgtgcga ctctgctgct ggtgcaacgg aggaaggggg 5460 tgggggaagg aagtggcggg ggaaggagtg tggtggtggt ttaaaaaata agggaagccg 5520 aggcgagaga gacgcagacg cagaggtcga gcgcaggccg aaagctgttc accgttttct 5580 cgactccggg gaacatggtg ggatttcctt tctgcgccgg gtcgggagtt gtaaaacctc 5640 ggccacatta agatctgaaa actgtgatgc gtcctttctg cagagacgcc tctttctgaa 5700 tctgcccgga gcttcgagcc ccggcgtctg tccctcagcc tggcatggct tcttcggggg 5760 tctgctttgc atggggagag gggccacgca gcggcggact aggtttgggg attctcggta 5820 atggacccgg agcaatgact aacagccgct ccctctcact ttcccacagc gatcaccctc 5880 taacaccctc cctcccattc ccggccccgc gcgtgacaag gtcggctgct ttcagccggg 5940 agctagatcg gtggcccggc tcttcggagc cttagcaggc gttcgccaag gggtgactgg 6000 ctgtcattgg gagcaatatt tggccttgag gagaccctgg ggaggaagtg gcggggagct 6060 cgtgtttgct tgtgtgtgtg tggggggggg ggtgtgtgta cacgcgcgtg ggcagggtcc 6120 ctctgcgctt tcctttttaa gtgcctctcg gtggtgaggc tttgggcggg tgagactttc 6180 ccgacctcgc tcccggcccc acttaagccg ggttcgagct gggagacgca gtcccttcag 6240 tgcgccccaa atcctctggc ttcaggtggc ccggcgcggg ggcccagcac gacgcaccgc 6300 gccgagaacc gggttctccg tgcgctgcgc cagtagccct gggagcgcgg cggccgcggg 6360 gcaccggccg agggctctgc cgagcgccgc cgggagctcc tcccggaccg ctgaggctcg 6420 ggcggcgggc gcggaggttg gcctcgcctg gaggggcggg cccgcgaggg gcggggggct 6480 gtggaggagg ggagggcgcg caggcccttt cgccgcctgc cgcgggaggg gcctcggcgc 6540 tcacgtgact ccgaggggct ggaagaaaaa cagagcctgt ctgcggtgga gtctcattat 6600 attcaaatat tccttttagg agccattccg tagtgccatc ccgagcaacg cactgctgca 6660 gcttccctga gcctttccag caagtttgtt caagattggc tgtcaagaat catggactgt 6720 tattatatgc cttgttttct gtcagtgagt agacacctct tccttccccc tctccggaat 6780 tcactctgcc ctcaccaccc ctgctcgccg gctgtccctt ccgtcggacc tcctttacaa 6840 tatccacact ctgctccctg gcagcactgt cgctcccttc ttggcccggc agccggggcg 6900 ctggaagcgt acgggttcct tttaaagtgc tgctagcgcg cactcgccct ctcagcgttg 6960 caagaaaggg gagcgcgagg gagctaaaga gatgaaagcc cggggttgta ccttgagggc 7020 taaccactcc cttcccctat ccaacttgtc tgggagagcc cccagtgtct ccgtggcgcg 7080 ttcccactct cttgtcaaaa ctcacagagg tctctccgga atcgtctctc accccttccc 7140 tggggatgag cgggcacgat caggcacttt tggctgaata tttcaaactc atcggccaca 7200 ataaaataag ccctcaagcc acccggttag ctcccagacc accttctcgg cttctggacc 7260 ctgtcgccct ctgtcttcgc ccagcccctg cctctcactt tccctccctc tggctctgaa 7320 ccaactggaa gttgtgaaag ttgggctctg agggtggagg aaaagggaga gaagctgaag 7380 gtctaaagtg gagagcaatg ccattttaat tctccctccc ccaccccttt tcaccccctc 7440 aatgttaact gtttatcctt caagaagcca cgctgagatc atggcccaga tagcagttag 7500 gacaaaaaaa gattaacagg atggaggcta tctgatttgg ggttatttga ctgtaaacaa 7560 gttagaccaa gtaattacag ggcaattctt actttcaggc cgtgcatggc tgcagctggt 7620 gggtgggcgg gtggtgtgag ggagaagaca caaacttgat ctttctgacc tgctttccat 7680 cttgcccctc catttctagc cctaaatgca tatgcagaca catctctatt tctccctatt 7740 tattggtgtt tgtttattct ttaaccttcc actcccctcc ccctccccag agacaccatg 7800 attcctggta accgaatgct gatggtcgtt ttattatgcc aagtcctgct aggaggcgcg 7860 agccatgcta gtttgatacc tgagacgggg aagaaaaaag tcgccgagat tcagggccac 7920 gcgggaggac gccgctcagg gcagagccat gagctcctgc gggacttcga ggcgacactt 7980 ctgcagatgt ttgggctgcg ccgccgcccg cagcctagca agagtgccgt cattccggac 8040 tacatgcggg atctttaccg gcttcagtct ggggaggagg aggaagagca gatccacagc 8100 actggtcttg agtatcctga gcgcccggcc agccgggcca acaccgtgag gagcttccac 8160 cacgaaggtc agtctcttcc cccagtctgc gtgggggagg gctggtggga ctggctagag 8220 gggcagtgaa agccctgggg aagaagagtt cgggttacat caaaccccag tccaggaggc 8280 tgaggaacag agctgcttac ctccaagaat ttgcagagct gccgccgaac ttattttttg 8340 gagacagagg gggaggtgtt caggggaagg ggaatgacag cactcagacg tgggctagcc 8400 ccagcggtgt gtttttgcta tatcaaagcc ttttctgcta ggttttctgc ccgttttttt 8460 caaagcacct actgaattta atattacagc tgtgtgtttg tcgggtttat tcaatagggg 8520 ccttgtaatc cgatctgaat gtttcctagc ggatgtttct tttccaaagt aaatctgagt 8580 tattaatcca ccagcatcat tactgtgttg gaatttattt tcccctctgt aacatgatca 8640 acaaggcatg ctctgtgttt ccaagatcgc tggggaaatg tttagtaaca tactcaatag 8700 tggaagaggg agagggtggt tgtctccatg tttcctcctg cctgtgctct gttggcccct 8760 ctttttcttt acaaccactt gtaaagaaaa ctgtggacac aaagccaagg tggggggttt 8820 aaaagaggag tctgattgtg gtgccataga ggagttgaca catagaaatt attagacata 8880 tcaaggaggc tggatatagt ttctgtcttt ggtgcttgag aaatgctagc tacattttgc 8940 tggtttgtta gctgccccac ttatctgctc cttcaaatta aggggtatgc ttattttccc 9000 ccagtaggtt tcccctgcat aagcagaatt caccattcat tgcccaaccc tgagctatct 9060 cttgactctt ccatctttga aaaaagttca tatgcttttt cttttcccct tccttcctaa 9120 ctgtgcctag aacatctgga gaacatccca gggaccagtg aaaactctgc ttttcgtttc 9180 ctctttaacc tcagcagcat ccctgagaac gaggcgatct cctctgcaga gcttcggctc 9240 ttccgggagc aggtggacca gggccctgat tgggaaaggg gcttccaccg tataaacatt 9300 tatgaggtta tgaagccccc agcagaagtg gtgcctgggc acctcatcac acgactactg 9360 gacacgagac tggtccacca caatgtgaca cggtgggaaa cttttgatgt gagccctgcg 9420 gtccttcgct ggacccggga gaagcagcca aactatgggc tagccattga ggtgactcac 9480 ctccatcaga ctcggaccca ccagggccag catgtcagga ttagccgatc gttacctcaa 9540 gggagtggga attgggccca gctccggccc ctcctggtca cctttggcca tgatggccgg 9600 ggccatgcct tgacccgacg ccggagggcc aagcgtagcc ctaagcatca ctcacagcgg 9660 gccaggaaga agaataagaa ctgccggcgc cactcgctct atgtggactt cagcgatgtg 9720 ggctggaatg actggattgt ggccccacca ggctaccagg ccttctactg ccatggggac 9780 tgcccctttc cactggctga ccacctcaac tcaaccaacc atgccattgt gcagaccctg 9840 gtcaattctg tcaattccag tatccccaaa gcctgttgtg tgcccactga actgagtgcc 9900 atctccatgc tgtacctgga tgagtatgat aaggtggtac tgaaaaatta tcaggagatg 9960 gtagtagagg gatgtgggtg ccgctgagat caggcagtcc ttgaggatag acagatatac 10020 acaccacaca cacacaccac atacaccaca cacacacgtt cccatccact cacccacaca 10080 ctacacagac tgcttcctta tagctggact tttatttaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaatgga 10140 aaaaatccct aaacattcac cttgacctta tttatgactt tacgtgcaaa tgttttgacc 10200 atattgatca tatattttga caaaatatat ttataactac gtattaaaag aaaaaaataa 10260 aatgagtcat tattttaaag gtaaatcatg attttttttt ctccttaatc ctttctcttt 10320 tccttcgggc tcatctcttt tgaatgaggc ttttttctgt tcaggtgagt tggaggctgg 10380 atggaagtca aaaggtggta cctggaggtg gttaagttgt agggacagga agtaaactgt 10440 tggcagagag agatggtaat tgccagcatg aattgttttc tatttctatt taatgttaac 10500 aaggatgcag tatcctctcc catctggatg acacatgcct tggagaaaca ctgggatgaa 10560 aggagtgtag gtcagattaa agacttcatt tcaggcccct tgtacatctt ctgtttcact 10620 cacctgttga ggtgtatcac agctgagcgt gatgaggtct caaccctaga aaaatgatac 10680 ccacctctgc tttcatgata cctcagggta tctccagtta ttacaggtac caatgtgata 10740 tttccaaatc aaaactaatt tgtacactaa catcataatg tgtgtgtgaa ggcatgtttt 10800 taaacttatt ttttttttct ccaggtagga ctcttttgtt ttttcttttg tctttttttt 10860 tttgaaacaa gttctctctt tgttgcccca ggctggtctt gaactcctgg gctcaagcaa 10920 tcttctcatt tcggcctctt tgggattaca ggcatgcact gctattttgt cttttttttt 10980 tttttgtaac aaataatgta ccctaccttc aaaaagtttg atgactactg ttttaatatg 11040 ccacttgata gaatttccca ttgtttcttg actttttccc ttgtcctctt ttcccaatgt 11100 gaaggccttc atcaagttta ggatcccaac agattgggct gggtgggggt tgacaatggg 11160 gtcagatact aaagggtcag aatttctaag caggcactgt gaaggtgtcc cactattata 11220 cagaaatctc gag 11233 13 2153 DNA Homo sapiens 13 ctggtatatt tgtgcctgct ggaggtggaa ttaacagtaa gaaggagaaa gggattgaat 60 ggacttacag gaaggatttc aagtaaattc agggaaacac atttacttga atagtacaac 120 ctagagtatt attttacact aagacgacac aaaagatgtt aaagttatca ccaagctgcc 180 ggacagatat atattccaac accaaggtgc agatcagcat agatctgtga ttcagaaatc 240 aggatttgtt ttggaaagag ctcaagggtt gagaagaact caaaagcaag tgaagattac 300 tttgggaact acagtttatc agaagatcaa cttttgctaa ttcaaatacc aaaggcctga 360 ttatcataaa ttcatatagg aatgcatagg tcatctgatc aaataatatt agccgtcttc 420 tgctacatca atgcagcaaa aactcttaac aactgtggat aattggaaat ctgagtttca 480 gctttcttag aaataactac tcttgacata ttccaaaata tttaaaatag gacaggaaaa 540 tcggtgagga tgttgtgctc agaaatgtca ctgtcatgaa aaataggtaa atttgttttt 600 tcagctactg ggaaactgta cctcctagaa ccttaggttt tttttttttt aagaggacaa 660 gaaggactaa aaatatcaac ttttgctttt ggacaaaaat gcatctgact gtatttttac 720 ttaagggtat tgtgggtttc ctctggagct gctgggttct agtgggttat gcaaaaggag 780 gtttgggaga caatcatgtt cactccagtt ttatttatag aagactacgg aaccacgaaa 840 gacgggaaat acaaagggaa attctctcta tcttgggttt gcctcacaga cccagaccat 900 tttcacctgg aaaacaagcg tcctctgcac ctctctttat gctggatctc tacaatgcca 960 tgaccaatga agaaaatcct gaagagtcgg agtactcagt aagggcatcc ttggcagaag 1020 agaccagagg ggcaagaaag ggatacccag cctctcccaa tgggtatcct cgtcgcatac 1080 agttatctcg gacgactcct ctgaccaccc agagtcctcc tctagccagc ctccatgata 1140 ccaactttct gaatgatgct gacatggtca tgagctttgt caacttagtt gaaagagaca 1200 aggatttttc tcaccagcga aggcattaca aagaatttcg atttgatctt acccaaattc 1260 ctcatggaga ggcagtgaca gcagctgaat tccggatata caaggaccgg agcaacaacc 1320 gatttgaaaa tgaaacaatt aagattagca tatatcaaat catcaaggaa tacacaaata 1380 gggatgcaga tctgttcttg ttagacacaa gaaaggccca agctttagat gtgggttggc 1440 ttgtctttga tatcactgtg accagcaatc attgggtgat taatccccag aataatttgg 1500 gcttacagct ctgtgcagaa acaggggatg gacgcagtat caacgtaaaa tctgctggtc 1560 ttgtgggaag acagggacct cagtcaaaac aaccattcat ggtggccttc ttcaaggcga 1620 gtgaggtact tcttcgatcc gtgagagcag ccaacaaacg aaaaaatcaa aaccgcaata 1680 aatccagctc tcatcaggac tcctccagaa tgtccagtgt tggagattat aacacaagtg 1740 agcaaaaaca agcctgtaag aagcacgaac tctatgtgag cttccgggat ctgggatggc 1800 aggactggat tatagcacca gaaggatacg ctgcatttta ttgtgatgga gaatgttctt 1860 ttccacttaa cgcccatatg aatgccacca accacgctat agttcagact ctggttcatc 1920 tgatgtttcc tgaccacgta ccaaagcctt gttgtgctcc aaccaaatta aatgccatct 1980 ctgttctgta ctttgatgac agctccaatg tcattttgaa aaaatataga aatatggtag 2040 tacgctcatg tggctgccac taatattaaa taatattgat aataacaaaa agatctgtat 2100 taaggtttat ggctgcaata aaaagcatac tttcagacaa acagaaaaaa aaa 2153 14 2923 DNA Homo sapiens 14 cgaccatgag agataaggac tgagggccag gaaggggaag cgagcccgcc gagaggtggc 60 ggggactgct cacgccaagg gccacagcgg ccgcgctccg gcctcgctcc gccgctccac 120 gcctcgcggg atccgcgggg gcagcccggc cgggcgggga tgccggggct ggggcggagg 180 gcgcagtggc tgtgctggtg gtgggggctg ctgtgcagct gctgcgggcc cccgccgctg 240 cggccgccct tgcccgctgc cgcggccgcc gccgccgggg ggcagctgct gggggacggc 300 gggagccccg gccgcacgga gcagccgccg ccgtcgccgc agtcctcctc gggcttcctg 360 taccggcggc tcaagacgca ggagaagcgg gagatgcaga aggagatctt gtcggtgctg 420 gggctcccgc accggccccg gcccctgcac ggcctccaac agccgcagcc cccggcgctc 480 cggcagcagg aggagcagca gcagcagcag cagctgcctc gcggagagcc ccctcccggg 540 cgactgaagt ccgcgcccct cttcatgctg gatctgtaca acgccctgtc cgccgacaac 600 gacgaggacg gggcgtcgga gggggagagg cagcagtcct ggccccacga agcagccagc 660 tcgtcccagc gtcggcagcc gcccccgggc gccgcgcacc cgctcaaccg caagagcctt 720 ctggcccccg gatctggcag cggcggcgcg tccccactga ccagcgcgca ggacagcgcc 780 ttcctcaacg acgcggacat ggtcatgagc tttgtgaacc tggtggagta cgacaaggag 840 ttctcccctc gtcagcgaca ccacaaagag ttcaagttca acttatccca gattcctgag 900 ggtgaggtgg tgacggctgc agaattccgc atctacaagg actgtgttat ggggagtttt 960 aaaaaccaaa cttttcttat cagcatttat caagtcttac aggagcatca gcacagagac 1020 tctgacctgt ttttgttgga cacccgtgta gtatgggcct cagaagaagg ctggctggaa 1080 tttgacatca cggccactag caatctgtgg gttgtgactc cacagcataa catggggctt 1140 cagctgagcg tggtgacaag ggatggagtc cacgtccacc cccgagccgc aggcctggtg 1200 ggcagagacg gcccttacga taagcagccc ttcatggtgg ctttcttcaa agtgagtgag 1260 gtccacgtgc gcaccaccag gtcagcctcc agccggcgcc gacaacagag tcgtaatcgc 1320 tctacccagt cccaggacgt ggcgcgggtc tccagtgctt cagattacaa cagcagtgaa 1380 ttgaaaacag cctgcaggaa gcatgagctg tatgtgagtt tccaagacct gggatggcag 1440 gactggatca ttgcacccaa gggctatgct gccaattact gtgatggaga atgctccttc 1500 ccactcaacg cacacatgaa tgcaaccaac cacgcgattg tgcagacctt ggttcacctt 1560 atgaaccccg agtatgtccc caaaccgtgc tgtgcgccaa ctaagctaaa tgccatctcg 1620 gttctttact ttgatgacaa ctccaatgtc attctgaaaa aatacaggaa tatggttgta 1680 agagcttgtg gatgccacta actcgaaacc agatgctggg gacacacatt ctgccttgga 1740 ttcctagatt acatctgcct taaaaaaaca cggaagcaca gttggaggtg ggacgatgag 1800 actttgaaac tatctcatgc cagtgcctta ttacccagga agattttaaa ggacctcatt 1860 aataatttgc tcacttggta aatgacgtga gtagttgttg gtctgtagca agctgagttt 1920 ggatgtctgt agcataaggt ctggtaactg cagaaacata accgtgaagc tcttcctacc 1980 ctcctccccc aaaaacccac caaaattagt tttagctgta gatcaagcta tttggggtgt 2040 ttgttagtaa atagggaaaa taatctcaaa ggagttaaat gtattcttgg ctaaaggatc 2100 agctggttca gtactgtcta tcaaaggtag attttacaga gaacagaaat cggggaagtg 2160 gggggaacgc ctctgttcag ttcattccca gaagtccaca ggacgcacag cccaggccac 2220 agccagggct ccacggggcg cccttgtctc agtcattgct gttgtatgtt cgtgctggag 2280 ttttgttggt gtgaaaatac acttatttca gccaaaacat accatttcta cacctcaatc 2340 ctccatttgc tgtactcttt gctagtacca aaagtagact gattacactg aggtgaggct 2400 acaaggggtg tgtaaccgtg taacacgtga aggcagtgct cacctcttct ttaccagaac 2460 ggttctttga ccagcacatt aacttctgga ctgccggctc tagtaccttt tcagtaaagt 2520 ggttctctgc ctttttacta tacagcatac cacgccacag ggttagaacc aacgaagaaa 2580 ataaaatgag ggtgcccagc ttataagaat ggtgttaggg ggatgagcat gctgtttatg 2640 aacggaaatc atgatttccc tgtagaaagt gaggctcaga ttaaatttta gaatattttc 2700 taaatgtctt tttcacaatc atgtgactgg gaaggcaatt tcatactaaa ctgattaaat 2760 aatacattta taatctacaa ctgtttgcac ttacagcttt ttttgtaaat ataaactata 2820 atttattgtc tattttatat ctgttttgct gtggcgttgg ggggggggcc gggcttttgg 2880 gggggggggt ttgtttgggg ggtgtcgtgg tgtgggcggg cgg 2923 15 1878 DNA Homo sapiens 15 gggcgcagcg gggcccgtct gcagcaagtg accgacggcc gggacggccg cctgccccct 60 ctgccacctg gggcggtgcg ggcccggagc ccggagcccg ggtagcgcgt agagccggcg 120 cgatgcacgt gcgctcactg cgagctgcgg cgccgcacag cttcgtggcg ctctgggcac 180 ccctgttcct gctgcgctcc gccctggccg acttcagcct ggacaacgag gtgcactcga 240 gcttcatcca ccggcgcctc cgcagccagg agcggcggga gatgcagcgc gagatcctct 300 ccattttggg cttgccccac cgcccgcgcc cgcacctcca gggcaagcac aactcggcac 360 ccatgttcat gctggacctg tacaacgcca tggcggtgga ggagggcggc gggcccggcg 420 gccagggctt ctcctacccc tacaaggccg tcttcagtac ccagggcccc cctctggcca 480 gcctgcaaga tagccatttc ctcaccgacg ccgacatggt catgagcttc gtcaacctcg 540 tggaacatga caaggaattc ttccacccac gctaccacca tcgagagttc cggtttgatc 600 tttccaagat cccagaaggg gaagctgtca cggcagccga attccggatc tacaaggact 660 acatccggga acgcttcgac aatgagacgt tccggatcag cgtttatcag gtgctccagg 720 agcacttggg cagggaatcg gatctcttcc tgctcgacag ccgtaccctc tgggcctcgg 780 aggagggctg gctggtgttt gacatcacag ccaccagcaa ccactgggtg gtcaatccgc 840 ggcacaacct gggcctgcag ctctcggtgg agacgctgga tgggcagagc atcaacccca 900 agttggcggg cctgattggg cggcacgggc cccagaacaa gcagcccttc atggtggctt 960 tcttcaaggc cacggaggtc cacttccgca gcatccggtc cacggggagc aaacagcgca 1020 gccagaaccg ctccaagacg cccaagaacc aggaagccct gcggatggcc aacgtggcag 1080 agaacagcag cagcgaccag aggcaggcct gtaagaagca cgagctgtat gtcagcttcc 1140 gagacctggg ctggcaggac tggatcatcg cgcctgaagg ctacgccgcc tactactgtg 1200 agggggagtg tgccttccct ctgaactcct acatgaacgc caccaaccac gccatcgtgc 1260 agacgctggt ccacttcatc aacccggaaa cggtgcccaa gccctgctgt gcgcccacgc 1320 agctcaatgc catctccgtc ctctacttcg atgacagctc caacgtcatc ctgaagaaat 1380 acagaaacat ggtggtccgg gcctgtggct gccactagct cctccgagaa ttcagaccct 1440 ttggggccaa gtttttctgg atcctccatt gctcgccttg gccaggaacc agcagaccaa 1500 ctgccttttg tgagaccttc ccctccctat ccccaacttt aaaggtgtga gagtattagg 1560 aaacatgagc agcatatggc ttttgatcag tttttcagtg gcagcatcca atgaacaaga 1620 tcctacaagc tgtgcaggca aaacctagca ggaaaaaaaa acaacgcata aagaaaaatg 1680 gccgggccag gtcattggct gggaagtctc agccatgcac ggactcgttt ccagaggtaa 1740 ttatgagcgc ctaccagcca ggccacccag ccgtgggagg aagggggcgt ggcaaggggt 1800 gggcacattg gtgtctgtgc gaaaggaaaa ttgacccgga agttcctgta ataaatgtca 1860 caataaaacg aatgaatg 1878 16 1842 DNA Homo sapiens 16 ccacagtggc gccggcagag caggagtggc tggaggagct gtggttggag caggaggtgg 60 cacggcaggg ctggagggct ccctatgagt ggcggagacg gcccaggagg cgctggagca 120 acagctccca caccgcacca agcggtggct gcaggagctc gcccatcgcc cctgcgctgc 180 tcggaccgcg gccacagccg gactggcggg tacggcggcg acagacggat tggccgagag 240 tcccagtccg cagagtagcc ccggcctcga ggcggtggcg tcccggtcct ctccgtccag 300 gagccaggac aggtgtcgcg cggcggggct ccagggaccg cgcctgaggc cggctgcccg 360 cccgtcccgc cccgccccgc cgcccgccgc ccgccgagcc cagcctcctt gccgtcgggg 420 cgtccccagg ccctgggtcg gccgcggagc cgatgcgcgc ccgctgagcg ccccagctga 480 gcgcccccgg cctgccatga ccgcgctccc cggcccgctc tggctcctgg gcctggcgct 540 atgcgcgctg ggcgggggcg gccccggcct gcgacccccg cccggctgtc cccagcgacg 600 tctgggcgcg cgcgagcgcc gggacgtgca gcgcgagatc ctggcggtgc tcgggctgcc 660 tgggcggccc cggccccgcg cgccacccgc cgcctcccgg ctgcccgcgt ccgcgccgct 720 cttcatgctg gacctgtacc acgccatggc cggcgacgac gacgaggacg gcgcgcccgc 780 ggagcggcgc ctgggccgcg ccgacctggt catgagcttc gttaacatgg tggagcgaga 840 ccgtgccctg ggccaccagg agccccattg gaaggagttc cgctttgacc tgacccagat 900 cccggctggg gaggcggtca cagctgcgga gttccggatt tacaaggtgc ccagcatcca 960 cctgctcaac aggaccctcc acgtcagcat gttccaggtg gtccaggagc agtccaacag 1020 ggagtctgac ttgttctttt tggatcttca gacgctccga gctggagacg agggctggct 1080 ggtgctggat gtcacagcag ccagtgactg ctggttgctg aagcgtcaca aggacctggg 1140 actccgcctc tatgtggaga ctgaggacgg gcacagcgtg gatcctggcc tggccggcct 1200 gctgggtcaa cgggccccac gctcccaaca gcctttcgtg gtcactttct tcagggccag 1260 tccgagtccc atccgcaccc ctcgggcagt gaggccactg aggaggaggc agccgaagaa 1320 aagcaacgag ctgccgcagg ccaaccgact cccagggatc tttgatgacg tccacggctc 1380 ccacggccgg caggtctgcc gtcggcacga gctctacgtc agcttccagg acctcggctg 1440 gctggactgg gtcatcgctc cccaaggcta ctcggcctat tactgtgagg gggagtgctc 1500 cttcccactg gactcctgca tgaatgccac caaccacgcc atcctgcagt ccctggtgca 1560 cctgatgaag ccaaacgcag tccccaaggc gtgctgtgca cccaccaagc tgagcgccac 1620 ctctgtgctc tactatgaca gcagcaacaa cgtcatcctg cgcaagcacc gcaacatggt 1680 ggtcaaggcc tgcggctgcc actgagtcag cccgcccagc cctactgcag ccacccttct 1740 catctggatc gggccctgca gaggcagaaa acccttaaat gctgtcacag ctcaagcagg 1800 agtgtcaggg gccctcactc tctgtgccta cttcctgtca gg 1842 17 1942 DNA Homo sapiens 17 cggtccagcc cggcagcggg tgagagtggg tgctggccag gacggttcct tcagagcaaa 60 cagcagggag atgccggccc gctccttccc agctcctccc cgtgcccgct aacacagcac 120 ggccgcctgc agtctcctct ctgggtgatt gcgcgggcct aagatgtgtc ctggggcact 180 gtgggtggcc ctgcccctgc tgtccctgct ggctggctcc ctacagggga agccactgca 240 gagctgggga cgagggtctg ctgggggaaa cgcccacagc ccactggggg tgcctggagg 300 tgggctgcct gagcacacct tcaacctgaa gatgtttctg gagaacgtga aggtggattt 360 cctgcgcagc cttaacctga gtggggtccc ttcgcaggac aaaaccaggg tggagccgcc 420 gcagtacatg attgacctgt acaacaggta cacgtccgat aagtcgacta cgccagcgtc 480 caacattgtg cggagcttca gcatggaaga tgccatctcc ataactgcca cagaggactt 540 ccccttccag aagcacatct tgctcttcaa catctccatt cctaggcatg agcagatcac 600 cagagctgag ctccgactct atgtctcctg tcaaaatcac gtggacccct ctcatgacct 660 gaaaggaagc gtggtcattt atgatgttct ggatggaaca gatgcctggg atagtgctac 720 agagaccaag accttcctgg tgtcccagga cattcaggat gagggctggg agaccttgga 780 agtgtccagc gccgtgaagc gctgggtccg gtccgactcc accaagagca aaaataagct 840 ggaagtgact gtggagagcc acaggaaggg ctgcgacacg ctggacatca gtgtcccccc 900 aggttccaga aacctgccct tctttgttgt cttctccaat gaccacagca gtgggaccaa 960 ggagaccagg ctggagctga gggagatgat cagccatgaa caagagagcg tgctcaagaa 1020 gctgtccaag gacggctcca cagaggcagg tgagagcagt cacgaggagg acacggatgg 1080 ccacgtggct gcggggtcga ctttagccag gcggaaaagg agcgccgggg ctggcagcca 1140 ctgtcaaaag acctccctgc gggtaaactt cgaggacatc ggctgggaca gctggatcat 1200 tgcacccaag gagtatgaag cctacgagtg taagggcggc tgcttcttcc ccttggctga 1260 cgatgtgacg ccgacgaaac acgctatcgt gcagaccctg gtgcatctca agttccccac 1320 aaaggtgggc aaggcctgct gtgtgcccac caaactgagc cccatctccg tcctctacaa 1380 ggatgacatg ggggtgccca ccctcaagta ccattacgag ggcatgagcg tggcagagtg 1440 tgggtgcagg tagtatctgc ctgcggggct ggggaggcag gccaaagggg ctccacatga 1500 gaggtcctgc atgcccctgg gcacaacaag gactgattca atctgcatgc cagcctggag 1560 gaggaaaggg agcctgctct ccctccccac accccaccca aagcatacac cgctgagctc 1620 aactgccagg gaaggctaag gaaatgggga tttgagcaca acaggaaagc ctgggagggt 1680 tgttgggatg caaggaggtg atgaaaagga gacaggggga aaaataatcc atagtcagca 1740 gaaaacaaca gcagtgagcc agaggagcac aggcgggcag gtcactgcag agactgatgg 1800 aagttagaga ggtggaggag gccagctcgc tccaaaaccc ttggggagta gagggaagga 1860 gcaggccgcg tgtcacaccc atcattgtat gttatttccc acaacccagt tggaggggca 1920 tggcttccaa tttagagacc cg 1942 18 1443 DNA Homo sapiens 18 tctccgcccc ccagtacctc cctcccctcc cctccagcat ggtgctcgcg gccccgctgc 60 tgctgggctt cctgctcctc gccctggagc tgcggccccg gggggaggcg gccgagggcc 120 ccgcggcggc ggcggcggcg gcggcggcgg cggcagcggc gggggtcggg ggggagcgct 180 ccagccggcc agccccgtcc gtggcgcccg agccggacgg ctgccccgtg tgcgtttggc 240 ggcagcacag ccgcgagctg cgcctagaga gcatcaagtc gcagatcttg agcaaactgc 300 ggctcaagga ggcgcccaac atcagccgcg aggtggtgaa gcagctgctg cccaaggcgc 360 cgccgctgca gcagatcctg gacctacacg acttccaggg cgacgcgctg cagcccgagg 420 acttcctgga ggaggacgag taccacgcca ccaccgagac cgtcattagc atggcccagg 480 agacggaccc agcagtacag acagatggca gccctctctg ctgccatttt cacttcagcc 540 ccaaggtgat gttcacaaag gtactgaagg cccagctgtg ggtgtaccta cggcctgtac 600 cccgcccagc cacagtctac ctgcagatct tgcgactaaa acccctaact ggggaaggga 660 ccgcaggggg agggggcgga ggccggcgtc acatccgtat ccgctcactg aagattgagc 720 tgcactcacg ctcaggccat tggcagagca tcgacttcaa gcaagtgcta cacagctggt 780 tccgccagcc acagagcaac tggggcatcg agatcaacgc ctttgatccc agtggcacag 840 acctggctgt cacctccctg gggccgggag ccgaggggct gcatccattc atggagcttc 900 gagtcctaga gaacacaaaa cgttcccggc ggaacctggg tctggactgc gacgagcact 960 caagcgagtc ccgctgctgc cgatatcccc tcacagtgga ctttgaggct ttcggctggg 1020 actggatcat cgcacctaag cgctacaagg ccaactactg ctccggccag tgcgagtaca 1080 tgttcatgca aaaatatccg catacccatt tggtgcagca ggccaatcca agaggctctg 1140 ctgggccctg ttgtaccccc accaagatgt ccccaatcaa catgctctac ttcaatgaca 1200 agcagcagat tatctacggc aagatccctg gcatggtggt ggatcgctgt ggctgctctt 1260 aaggtggggg atagaggatg cctcccccac agaccctacc ccaagacccc tagccctgcc 1320 cccatccccc caagccctag agctccctcc actcttcccg cgaacatcac accgttcccc 1380 gaccaagccg tgtgcaatac aacagaggga ggcaggtggg aattgagggt gaggggtttg 1440 ggg 1443 19 0 DNA Homo sapiens 19 000 20 0 DNA Homo sapiens 20 000 21 0 DNA Homo sapiens 21 000 22 2381 DNA Homo sapiens 22 ctgcaggctg gccccggctc catttccagg tgtggtccca ggacagcttt ggccgctgcc 60 agcttgcagg ctatggattt tgccatgtgc ccagtagccc gggcacccac cagctggcct 120 gccccacgtg gcggcccctg ggcagttggc gagaacagtt ggcacgggct ttcgtgggtg 180 gtgggccgca gctgctgcat ggggacacca tctacagtgg ggccgaccgc tatcgcctgc 240 acacagctgc tggtggcacc gtgcacctgg agatcggcct gctgctccgc aacttcgacc 300 gctacggcgt ggagtgctga gggactctgc ctccaacgtc accaccatcc acaccccgga 360 cacccagtga tgggggagga tggcacagtg gtcaagagca cagactctag agactgtcag 420 agctgacccc agctaaggca tggcaccgct tctgtccttt ctaggacctc ggggtccctc 480 tgggcccagt ttccctatct gtaaattggg gacagtaaat gtatggggtc gcagggtgtt 540 gagtgacagg aggctgctta gccacatggg aggtgctcag taaaggagag caattcttac 600 aggtgtctgc ctcctgaccc ttccatccct caggtgtcct gttgccccct cctcccactg 660 acaccctccg gaggccccca tgttgacaga ccctccttct gtcctctttc tctggtgacc 720 cacaccgccc gcaaagccac agcgcatctg gatcacccgc tttggtggcg cttggccgcc 780 aggaggcagc accctgtttg gtcctctttc tctggtgacc cacaccgccc gcaaagccac 840 agcgcatctg gatcacccgc tttggtggcg cttggccgcc aggaggcagc accctgtttg 900 cggggcggag ccggggagcc cgcccccttt cccccagggc tgaagggacc cccctcggag 960 cccgcccacg cgagatgagg acggtggccc agccccccca tgccctcccc ctgggggccg 1020 cccccgctcc cgccccgtgc gcttcctggg tggggccggg ggcggcttca aaaccccctg 1080 ccgacccagc cggtccccgc cgccgccgcc cttcgcgccc tgggccatct ccctcccacc 1140 tccctccgcg gagcagccag acagcgaggg ccccggccgg gggcaggggg gacgccccgt 1200 ccggggcacc cccccggctc tgagccgccc gcggggccgg cctcggcccg gagcggagga 1260 aggagtcgcc gaggagcagc ctgaggcccc agagtctgag acgagccgcc gccgcccccg 1320 ccactgcggg gaggaggggg aggaggagcg ggaggaggga cgagctggtc gggagaagag 1380 gaaaaaaact tttgagactt ttccgttgcc gctgggagcc ggaggcgcgg ggacctcttg 1440 gcgcgacgct gccccgcgag gaggcaggac ttggggaccc cagaccgcct ccctttgccg 1500 ccggggacgc ttgctccctc cctgccccct acacggcgtc cctcaggcgc ccccattccg 1560 gaccagccct cgggagtcgc cgacccggcc tcccgcaaag acttttcccc agacctcggg 1620 cgcaccccct gcacgccgcc ttcatccccg gcctgtctcc tgagcccccg cgcatcctag 1680 accctttctc ctccaggaga cggatctctc tccgacctgc cacagatccc ctattcaaga 1740 ccacccacct tctggtacca gatcgcgccc atctaggtta tttccgtggg atactgagac 1800 acccccggtc caagcctccc ctccaccact gcgcccttct ccctgaggac ctcagctttc 1860 cctcgaggcc ctcctacctt ttgccgggag acccccagcc cctgcagggg cggggcctcc 1920 ccaccacacc agccctgttc gcgctctcgg cagtgccggg gggcgccgcc tcccccatgc 1980 cgccctccgg gctgcggctg ctgctgctgc tgctaccgct gctgtggcta ctggtgctga 2040 cgcctggccg gccggccgcg ggactatcca cctgcaagac tatcgacatg gagctggtga 2100 agcggaagcg catcgaggcc atccgcggcc agatcctgtc caagctgcgg ctcgccagcc 2160 ccccgagcca gggggaggtg ccgcccggcc cgctgcccga ggccgtgctc gccctgtaca 2220 acagcacccg cgaccgggtg gccggggaga gtgcagaacc ggagcccgag cctgaggccg 2280 actactacgc caaggaggtc acccgcgtgc taatggtgga aacccacaac ggtgagctcg 2340 gaggggcagg ggagccggga ggggggcccc cagggggcgc c 2381 23 1695 DNA Homo sapiens 23 caagcaggat acgtttttct gttgggcatt gactagattg tttgcaaaag tttcgcatca 60 aaaacaaaca acaacaacaa aaaaccaaac aactctcctt gatctatact ttgagaattg 120 ttgatttctt tttttttatt ctgactttta aaaacaactt ttttttccac ttttttaaaa 180 aatgcactac tgtgtgctga gcgcttttct gatcctgcat ctggtcacgg tcgcgctcag 240 cctgtctacc tgcagcacac tcgatatgga ccagttcatg cgcaagagga tcgaggcgat 300 ccgcgggcag atcctgagca agctgaagct caccagtccc ccagaagact atcctgagcc 360 cgaggaagtc cccccggagg tgatttccat ctacaacagc accagggact tgctccagga 420 gaaggcgagc cggagggcgg ccgcctgcga gcgcgagagg agcgacgaag agtactacgc 480 caaggaggtt tacaaaatag acatgccgcc cttcttcccc tccgaaaatg ccatcccgcc 540 cactttctac agaccctact tcagaattgt tcgatttgac gtctcagcaa tggagaagaa 600 tgcttccaat ttggtgaaag cagagttcag agtctttcgt ttgcagaacc caaaagccag 660 agtgcctgaa caacggattg agctatatca gattctcaag tccaaagatt taacatctcc 720 aacccagcgc tacatcgaca gcaaagttgt gaaaacaaga gcagaaggcg aatggctctc 780 cttcgatgta actgatgctg ttcatgaatg gcttcaccat aaagacagga acctgggatt 840 taaaataagc ttacactgtc cctgctgcac ttttgtacca tctaataatt acatcatccc 900 aaataaaagt gaagaactag aagcaagatt tgcaggtatt gatggcacct ccacatatac 960 cagtggtgat cagaaaacta taaagtccac taggaaaaaa aacagtggga agaccccaca 1020 tctcctgcta atgttattgc cctcctacag acttgagtca caacagacca accggcggaa 1080 gaagcgtgct ttggatgcgg cctattgctt tagaaatgtg caggataatt gctgcctacg 1140 tccactttac attgatttca agagggatct agggtggaaa tggatacacg aacccaaagg 1200 gtacaatgcc aacttctgtg ctggagcatg cccgtattta tggagttcag acactcagca 1260 cagcagggtc ctgagcttat ataataccat aaatccagaa gcatctgctt ctccttgctg 1320 cgtgtcccaa gatttagaac ctctaaccat tctctactac attggcaaaa cacccaagat 1380 tgaacagctt tctaatatga ttgtaaagtc ttgcaaatgc agctaaaatt cttggaaaag 1440 tggcaagacc aaaatgacaa tgatgatgat aatgatgatg acgacgacaa cgatgatgct 1500 tgtaacaaga aaacataaga gagccttggt tcatcagtgt taaaaaattt ttgaaaaggc 1560 ggtactagtt cagacacttt ggaagtttgt gttctgtttg ttaaaactgg catctgacac 1620 aaaaaaagtt gaaggcctta ttctacattt cacctacttt gtaagtgaga gagacaagaa 1680 gcaaattttt ttaaa 1695 24 2529 DNA Homo sapiens 24 ccagcaaaac ctgtttagac acatggacaa gaatcccagc gctacaaggc acacagtccg 60 cttcttcgtc ctcagggttg ccagcgcttc ctggaagtcc tgaagctctc gcagtgcagt 120 gagttcatgc accttcttgc caagcctcag tctttgggat ctggggaggc cgcctggttt 180 tcctccctcc ttctgcacgt ctgctggggt ctcttcctct ccaggccttg ccgtccccct 240 ggcctctctt cccagctcac acatgaagat gcacttgcaa agggctctgg tggtcctggc 300 cctgctgaac tttgccacgg tcagcctctc tctgtccact tgcaccacct tggacttcgg 360 ccacatcaag aagaagaggg tggaagccat taggggacag atcttgagca agctcaggct 420 caccagcccc cctgagccaa cggtgatgac ccacgtcccc tatcaggtcc tggcccttta 480 caacagcacc cgggagctgc tggaggagat gcatggggag agggaggaag gctgcaccca 540 ggaaaacacc gagtcggaat actatgccaa agaaatccat aaattcgaca tgatccaggg 600 gctggcggag cacaacgaac tggctgtctg ccctaaagga attacctcca aggttttccg 660 cttcaatgtg tcctcagtgg agaaaaatag aaccaaccta ttccgagcag aattccgggt 720 cttgcgggtg cccaacccca gctctaagcg gaatgagcag aggatcgagc tcttccagat 780 ccttcggcca gatgagcaca ttgccaaaca gcgctatatc ggtggcaaga atctgcccac 840 acggggcact gccgagtggc tgtcctttga tgtcactgac actgtgcgtg agtggctgtt 900 gagaagagag tccaacttag gtctagaaat cagcattcac tgtccatgtc acacctttca 960 gcccaatgga gatatcctgg aaaacattca cgaggtgatg gaaatcaaat tcaaaggcgt 1020 ggacaatgag gatgaccatg gccgtggaga tctggggcgc ctcaagaagc agaaggatca 1080 ccacaaccct catctaatcc tcatgatgat tcccccacac cggctcgaca acccgggcca 1140 ggggggtcag aggaagaagc gggctttgga caccaattac tgcttccgca acttggagga 1200 gaactgctgt gtgcgccccc tctacattga cttccgacag gatctgggct ggaagtgggt 1260 ccatgaacct aagggctact atgccaactt ctgctcaggc ccttgcccat acctccgcag 1320 tgcagacaca acccacagca cggtgctggg actgtacaac actctgaacc ctgaagcatc 1380 tgcctcgcct tgctgcgtgc cccaggacct ggagcccctg accatcctgt actatgttgg 1440 gaggaccccc aaagtggagc agctctccaa catggtggtg aagtcttgta aatgtagctg 1500 agaccccacg tgcgacagag agaggggaga gagaaccacc actgcctgac tgcccgctcc 1560 tcgggaaaca cacaagcaac aaacctcact gagaggcctg gagcccacaa ccttcggctc 1620 cgggcaaatg gctgagatgg aggtttcctt ttggaacatt tctttcttgc tggctctgag 1680 aatcacggtg gtaaagaaag tgtgggtttg gttagaggaa ggctgaactc ttcagaacac 1740 acagactttc tgtgacgcag acagagggga tggggataga ggaaagggat ggtaagttga 1800 gatgttgtgt ggcaatggga tttgggctac cctaaaggga gaaggaaggg cagagaatgg 1860 ctgggtcagg gccagactgg aagacacttc agatctgagg ttggatttgc tcattgctgt 1920 accacatctg ctctagggaa tctggattat gttatacaag gcaagcattt tttttttttt 1980 ttaaagacag gttacgaaga caaagtccca gaattgtatc tcatactgtc tgggattaag 2040 ggcaaatcta ttacttttgc aaactgtcct ctacatcaat taacatcgtg ggtcactaca 2100 gggagaaaat ccaggtcatg cagttcctgg cccatcaact gtattgggcc ttttggatat 2160 gctgaacgca gaagaaaggg tggaaatcaa ccctctcctg tctgcctctg ggtccctcct 2220 ctcacctctc cctcgatcat atttcccctt ggacacttgg ttagacgcct tccaggtcag 2280 gatgcacatt tctggattgt ggttccatgc agggttgggg cattatgggt tcttccccca 2340 cttcccctcc aagaccctgt gttcatttgg tgttcctgga agcaggtgcg acaacatgtg 2400 aggcattcgg ggaagctcga catgtgccac acagtgactt ggccccagac gcatagactg 2460 aggtataaag acaagtatga atattactct caaaatcttt gtataaataa atatttttgg 2520 ggcatcctg 2529 25 2510 DNA Homo sapiens 25 ggacacggcg ggcgagcggg cggtatggcg gcggcggggc ccgcggcggg gccgacgggg 60 cccgagccca tgccgagcta cgcgcagcta gtgcagcgcg gctggggcag cgcgctggcg 120 gcggcgcggg gctgcacgga ctgcggctgg gggctggcgc gtcgcggcct ggctgagcac 180 gcgcacctgg cgccgcccga gctgctgctg ctggcgctcg gcgcgctggg ctggaccgcg 240 ctgcgctccg cggccactgc gcgcctcttt cggcccctgg cgaagcggtg ctgcctccag 300 cccagagatg ccgccaagat gcccgagagc gcttggaagt ttctcttcta cctgggcagc 360 tggagctaca gtgcctacct gctgtttggc accgactacc ccttcttcca tgacccacca 420 tctgtcttct acgactggac gccgggcatg gcagtgccac gggacattgc agccgcctac 480 ctgctccagg gaagcttcta tggccactcc atctacgcta cgctatacat ggacacctgg 540 cgcaaggact cggtggtcat gctgctccac cacgtggtca ctctcatcct catcgtctcc 600 tcctacgcct tccggtacca caatgtgggc atccttgtgc tcttcctgca cgatatcagt 660 gacgtgcagc ttgagttcac caagctcaac atttacttca agtcccgcgg cggctcctac 720 catcggctgc atgccttggc agcagacttg ggctgcctca gcttcggctt cagctggttc 780 tggttccgcc tctactggtt cccgctcaag gtcctgtatg ccaccagtca ctgcagtctg 840 cgcacggtgc ctgacatccc cttctacttc ttcttcaatg cgctcctgct gctgctcacc 900 cttatgaacc tctactggtt cctgtacatc gtggcgtttg cagccaaggt gttgacaggc 960 caggtgcacg agctgaagga cctgcgggag tatgacacag ccgaggccca gagcctgaag 1020 cccagcaaag ccgagaagcc actgaggaac ggcctggtga aggacaagcg cttctgaacc 1080 cctcggcccc gcccccgtgg acccggcccc accccgaata ccccggccac gctccccgtc 1140 cttggccgcc cctccacccc ctccaactct gctcctctag ggccgccgcc acctcccctg 1200 ggaccccgcc ccctcatcct gcctccattt cccggccacg ccccccagga cccctgcccc 1260 tccggggaca ccggccccgc cctcagccca ctggtcccgg gccgccgcgg accctgcgca 1320 ctctctggtc atcgcctggg aggaagatgc caccgccgca gcaaggtccc tgcggccacc 1380 acctcctcct cctcctggcc ctgctgctgc cctcgctgcc cctgacccgc gcccccgtgc 1440 ccccaggccc agccgccgcc ctgctccagg ctctaggact gcgcgatgag ccccagggtg 1500 cccccaggct ccggccggtt cccccggtca tgtggcgcct gtttcgacgc cgggaccccc 1560 aggagaccag gtctggctcg cggcggacgt ccccaggggt caccctgcaa ccgtgccacg 1620 tggaggagct gggggtcgcc ggaaacatcg tgcgccacat cccggaccgc ggtgcgccca 1680 cccgggcctc ggagcctgtc tcggccgcgg ggcattgccc tgagtggaca gtcgtcttcg 1740 acctgtcggc tgtggaaccc gctgagcgcc cgagccgggc ccgcctggag ctgcgtttcg 1800 cggcggcggc ggcggcagcc ccggagggcg gctgggagct gagcgtggcg caagcgggcc 1860 agggcgcggg cgcggacccc gggccggtgc tgctccgcca gttggtgccc gccctggggc 1920 cgccagtgcg cgcggagctg ctgggcgccg cttgggctcg caacgcctca tggccgcgca 1980 gcctccgcct ggcgctggcg ctacgccccc gggcccctgc cgcctgcgcg cgcctggccg 2040 aggcctcgct gctgctggtg accctcgacc cgcgcctgtg ccaccccctg gcccggccgc 2100 ggcgcgacgc cgaacccgtg ttgggcggcg gccccggggg cgcttgtcgc gcgcggcggc 2160 tgtacgtgag cttccgcgag gtgggctggc accgctgggt catcgcgccg cgcggcttcc 2220 tggccaacta ctgccagggt cagtgcgcgc tgcccgtcgc gctgtcgggg tccggggggc 2280 cgccggcgct caaccacgct gtgctgcgcg cgctcatgca cgcggccgcc ccgggagccg 2340 ccgacctgcc ctgctgcgtg cccgcgcgcc tgtcgcccat ctccgtgctc ttctttgaca 2400 acagcgacaa cgtggtgctg cggcagtatg aggacatggt ggtggacgag tgcggctgcc 2460 gctaacccgg ggcgggcagg gacgcgggcc caacaataaa tgccgcgtgg 2510 26 1224 DNA Homo sapiens 26 ggagctctcc ccggtctgac agccactcca gaggccatgc ttcgtttctt gccagatttg 60 gctttcagct tcctgttaat tctggctttg ggccaggcag tccaatttca agaatatgtc 120 tttctccaat ttctgggctt agataaggcg ccttcacccc agaagttcca acctgtgcct 180 tatatcttga agaaaatttt ccaggatcgc gaggcagcag cgaccactgg ggtctcccga 240 gacttatgct acgtaaagga gctgggcgtc cgcgggaatg tacttcgctt tctcccagac 300 caaggtttct ttctttaccc aaagaaaatt tcccaagctt cctcctgcct gcagaagctc 360 ctctacttta acctgtctgc catcaaagaa agggaacagt tgacattggc ccagctgggc 420 ctggacttgg ggcccaattc ttactataac ctgggaccag agctggaact ggctctgttc 480 ctggttcagg agcctcatgt gtggggccag accaccccta agccaggtaa aatgtttgtg 540 ttgcggtcag tcccatggcc acaaggtgct gttcacttca acctgctgga tgtagctaag 600 gattggaatg acaacccccg gaaaaatttc gggttattcc tggagatact ggtcaaagaa 660 gatagagact caggggtgaa ttttcagcct gaagacacct gtgccagact aagatgctcc 720 cttcatgctt ccctgctggt ggtgactctc aaccctgatc agtgccaccc ttctcggaaa 780 aggagagcag ccatccctgt ccccaagctt tcttgtaaga acctctgcca ccgtcaccag 840 ctattcatta acttccggga cctgggttgg cacaagtgga tcattgcccc caaggggttc 900 atggcaaatt actgccatgg agagtgtccc ttctcactga ccatctctct caacagctcc 960 aattatgctt tcatgcaagc cctgatgcat gccgttgacc cagagatccc ccaggctgtg 1020 tgtatcccca ccaagctgtc tcccatttcc atgctctacc aggacaataa tgacaatgtc 1080 attctacgac attatgaaga catggtagtc gatgaatgtg ggtgtgggta ggatgtcaga 1140 aatgggaata gaaggagtgt tcttagggta aatcttttaa taaaactacc tatctggttt 1200 atgaccactt agatcgaaat gtca 1224 27 2823 DNA Homo sapiens 27 agattcactg gtgtggcaag ttgtctctca gactgtacat gcattaaaat tttgcttggc 60 attactcaaa agcaaaagaa aagtaaaagg aagaaacaag aacaagaaaa aagattatat 120 tgattttaaa atcatgcaaa aactgcaact ctgtgtttat atttacctgt ttatgctgat 180 tgttgctggt ccagtggatc taaatgagaa cagtgagcaa aaagaaaatg tggaaaaaga 240 ggggctgtgt aatgcatgta cttggagaca aaacactaaa tcttcaagaa tagaagccat 300 taagatacaa atcctcagta aacttcgtct ggaaacagct cctaacatca gcaaagatgt 360 tataagacaa cttttaccca aagctcctcc actccgggaa ctgattgatc agtatgatgt 420 ccagagggat gacagcagcg atggctcttt ggaagatgac gattatcacg ctacaacgga 480 aacaatcatt accatgccta cagagtctga ttttctaatg caagtggatg gaaaacccaa 540 atgttgcttc tttaaattta gctctaaaat acaatacaat aaagtagtaa aggcccaact 600 atggatatat ttgagacccg tcgagactcc tacaacagtg tttgtgcaaa tcctgagact 660 catcaaacct atgaaagacg gtacaaggta tactggaatc cgatctctga aacttgacat 720 gaacccaggc actggtattt ggcagagcat tgatgtgaag acagtgttgc aaaattggct 780 caaacaacct gaatccaact taggcattga aataaaagct ttagatgaga atggtcatga 840 tcttgctgta accttcccag gaccaggaga agatgggctg aatccgtttt tagaggtcaa 900 ggtaacagac acaccaaaaa gatccagaag ggattttggt cttgactgtg atgagcactc 960 aacagaatca cgatgctgtc gttaccctct aactgtggat tttgaagctt ttggatggga 1020 ttggattatc gctcctaaaa gatataaggc caattactgc tctggagagt gtgaatttgt 1080 atttttacaa aaatatcctc atactcatct ggtacaccaa gcaaacccca gaggttcagc 1140 aggcccttgc tgtactccca caaagatgtc tccaattaat atgctatatt ttaatggcaa 1200 agaacaaata atatatggga aaattccagc gatggtagta gaccgctgtg ggtgctcatg 1260 agatttatat taagcgttca taacttccta aaacatggaa ggttttcccc tcaacaattt 1320 tgaagctgtg aaattaagta ccacaggcta taggcctaga gtatgctaca gtcacttaag 1380 cataagctac agtatgtaaa ctaaaagggg gaatatatgc aatggttggc atttaaccat 1440 ccaaacaaat catacaagaa agttttatga tttccagagt ttttgagcta gaaggagatc 1500 aaattacatt tatgttccta tatattacaa catcggcgag gaaatgaaag cgattctcct 1560 tgagttctga tgaattaaag gagtatgctt taaagtctat ttctttaaag ttttgtttaa 1620 tatttacaga aaaatccaca tacagtattg gtaaaatgca ggattgttat ataccatcat 1680 tcgaatcatc cttaaacact tgaatttata ttgtatggta gtatacttgg taagataaaa 1740 ttccacaaaa atagggatgg tgcagcatat gcaatttcca ttcctattat aattgacaca 1800 gtacattaac aatccatgcc aacggtgcta atacgatagg ctgaatgtct gaggctacca 1860 ggtttatcac ataaaaaaca ttcagtaaaa tagtaagttt ctcttttctt caggggcatt 1920 ttcctacacc tccaaatgag gaatggattt tctttaatgt aagaagaatc atttttctag 1980 aggttggctt tcaattctgt agcatacttg gagaaactgc attatcttaa aaggcagtca 2040 aatggtgttt gtttttatca aaatgtcaaa ataacatact tggagaagta tgtaattttg 2100 tctttggaaa attacaacac tgcctttgca acactgcagt ttttatggta aaataataga 2160 aatgatcgac tctatcaata ttgtataaaa agactgaaac aatgcattta tataatatgt 2220 atacaatatt gttttgtaaa taagtgtctc cttttttatt tactttggta tatttttaca 2280 ctaaggacat ttcaaattaa gtactaaggc acaaagacat gtcatgcatc acagaaaagc 2340 aactacttat atttcagagc aaattagcag attaaatagt ggtcttaaaa ctccatatgt 2400 taatgattag atggttatat tacaatcatt ttatattttt ttacatgatt aacattcact 2460 tatggattca tgatggctgt ataaagtgaa tttgaaattt caatggttta ctgtcattgt 2520 gtttaaatct caacgttcca ttattttaat acttgcaaaa acattactaa gtataccaaa 2580 ataattgact ctattatctg aaatgaagaa taaactgatg ctatctcaac aataactgtt 2640 acttttattt tataatttga taatgaatat atttctgcat ttatttactt ctgttttgta 2700 aattgggatt ttgttaatca aatttattgt actatgacta aatgaaatta tttcttacat 2760 ctaatttgta gaaacagtat aagttatatt aaagtgtttt cacatttttt tgaaagacaa 2820 aaa 2823 28 1365 DNA Homo sapiens 28 atggcacgtc ccaacaaatt cctcctttgg ttttgctgct ttgcctggct gtgttttcct 60 attagccttg gttctcaggc ttctggggga gaagctcaga ttgctgctag tgctgagttg 120 gaatctgggg ctatgccttg gtccttgctg cagcatatag atgagagaga cagagctggc 180 ctccttcccg cgcttttcaa agttctatct gttgggcgag gtgggtcacc taggctgcag 240 ccagactcca gagctttgca ctacatgaag aagctctata agacatatgc taccaaggaa 300 gggattccta aatccaatag aagtcacctc tacaacactg ttcggctctt caccccctgt 360 acccggcaca agcaggctcc tggagaccag gtaacaggaa tccttccatc agtggaactg 420 ctatttaacc tggatcgcat tactaccgtt gaacacttac tcaagtcagt cttgctgtac 480 aatatcaaca actcagtttc tttttcctct gctgtcaaat gtgtgtgcaa tctaatgata 540 aaggagccaa agtcttctag caggactctc ggcagagctc catactcatt tacctttaac 600 tcacagtttg aatttggaaa gaaacacaaa tggattcaga ttgatgtgac cagcctcctt 660 caacctttag tggcctccaa caagagaagt attcacatgt ctataaattt tacttgcatg 720 aaagaccagc tggagcatcc ttcagcacag aatggtttgt ttaacatgac tctggtgtcc 780 ccctcactga tcttatattt gaatgacaca agtgctcagg cttatcacag ctggtattcc 840 cttcactata aaaggaggcc ttcccagggt cctgaccagg agagaagtct gtctgcctat 900 cctgtgggag aagaggctgc tgaggatggg agatcttccc atcaccgtca ccgcagaggt 960 caggaaactg tcagttctga attgaagaag cccttgggcc cagcttcctt caatctgagt 1020 gaatacttca gacaatttct tcttccccaa aatgagtgtg agctccatga ctttagactt 1080 agctttagtc agctgaagtg ggacaactgg attgtggctc cgcacaggta caaccctcga 1140 tactgtaaag gggactgtcc aagggcagtt ggacatcggt atggctctcc agttcacacc 1200 atggtacaga acatcatcta tgagaagctg gactcctcag tgccaagacc gtcatgtgta 1260 cctgccaaat acagcccctt gagtgttttg accattgagc ccgatggctc aattgcctat 1320 aaagagtacg aagatatgat agctacaaag tgcacctgtc gttaa 1365 29 3100 DNA Homo sapiens 29 cacatcaggc ccagctctat cactggggag ggagataggc tgccagggac agaaagggct 60 ctttgagaag gccactctgc ctggagtggg ggcgccgggc actgtccccc aaggtcgcgg 120 cagaggagat aggggtctgt cctgcacaaa caccccacct tccactcggc tcacttaagg 180 caggcagccc agcccctggc agcacccacg atgcgggacc tgcctctcac cagcctggcc 240 ctagtgctgt ctgccctggg ggctctgctg gggactgagg ccctcagagc agaggagcca 300 gctgtgggca ccagtggcct catcttccga gaagacttgg actggcctcc aggcatccca 360 caagagcctc tgtgcctggt ggcactgggc ggggacagca atggcagcag ctcccccctg 420 cgggtggtgg gggctctaag cgcctatgag caggccttcc tgggggccgt gcagagggcc 480 cgctggggcc cccgagacct ggccaccttc ggggtctgca acaccggtga caggcaggct 540 gccttgccct ctctacggcg gctgggggcc tggctgcggg accctggggg gcagcgcctg 600 gtggtcctac acctggagga aggtatgtgg ggcccagccc caagcttggc accgccgtct 660 tccttcaggt gggccgggtc ctcctaggga agatcagggg ctggcagagc ccccaccctg 720 ggcagggagg ctgtggtctt gttcctagga ctgggttgcg ggtccgtggc ctggaaggtg 780 ggcaccacac tctgtcctgt ccccgaagcc cagctcttag acttgcccct gcctcggtgc 840 cagggagaga gctgctgcct tctccccacc cctgaagacg acgcagggct cggggccagt 900 ggaacccttc ttcccacagc cccagcctgt tctcagggcc gctggcctaa gatactccct 960 gcggggaagg ggcttcatcg ggcaccccaa cccagagacc ccagggcggc agccccaccc 1020 acagcctcag acgcagcccc tgcctgcccc tgccgtcacc gctccctggc tgcaggaagg 1080 cagctaagag gggcaccctt gtcccccgct tgaggtcccc tgcacagtgg ccagagcggc 1140 agggacagat cccaaagatt cccggggggt gtggccttca atggctcagg cgtcccctgc 1200 tgtcccggct gcagtgacct gggagccaac accctcgctg aggttccagg agcccccgcc 1260 tggaggagct ggccccccag agctggcgct gctggtgctg taccctgggc ctggccctga 1320 ggtcactgtg acgagggctg ggctgccggg tgcccaggta ccagggagtt gcatggggca 1380 gtgcccgggc cgtggcgggg ggcatgaatt tgttgcaggg tctgcagtac tgagaacagc 1440 gtagaaccag tggcgatggg aggaagggga ccggtagagc ggggctgggt aagcctccat 1500 ccagccgggc tgagccctgg tctccgcaga gcctctgccc ctcccgagac acccgctacc 1560 tggtgttagc ggtggaccgc cctgcggggg cctggcgcgg ctccgggctg gccttgaccc 1620 tgcagccccg cggagagggt aggtccgcgt ggagagggac ggggagccgg gtcgactgcc 1680 cccgggcccc cagcccctga gccagccgcg tgcccaccca ccgcagactc ccggctgagt 1740 accgcccggc tgcaggcact gctgttcggc gacgaccacc gctgcttcac acggatgacc 1800 ccggccctgc tcctgctgcc gcggtccgag cccgcgccgc tgcctgcgca cggccagctg 1860 gacaccgtgc ccttcccgcc gcccaggtgc gcgcaggcac cgggacacgg ggcaggagcg 1920 ggcgggggcg gcgtggcctc gtggccgctc tcaactcctc caattgcggg ttccaggcca 1980 tccgcggaac tcgaggagtc gccacccagc gcagacccct tcctggagac gctcacgcgc 2040 ctggtgcggg cgctgcgggt ccccccggcc cgggcctccg cgccgcgcct ggccctggat 2100 ccggacgcgc tggccggctt cccgcagggc ctagtcaacc tgtcggaccc cgcggcgctg 2160 gagcgcctac tcgacggcga ggagccgctg ctgctgctgc tgaggcccac tgcggccacc 2220 accggggatc ctgcgcccct gcacgacccc acgtcggcgc cgtgggccac ggccctggcg 2280 cgccgcgtgg ctgctgaact gcaagcggcg gctgccgagc tgcgaagcct cccgggtctg 2340 cctccggcca cagccccgct gctggcgcgc ctgctcgcgc tctgcccagg aggccccggc 2400 ggcctcggcg atcccctgcg agcgctgctg ctcctgaagg cgctgcaggg cctgcgcgtg 2460 gagtggcgcg ggcgggatcc gcgcgggccg ggtcgggcac agcgcagcgc gggggccacc 2520 gccgccgacg ggccgtgcgc gctgcgcgag ctcagcgtag acctccgcgc cgagcgctcc 2580 gtactcatcc ccgagaccta ccaggccaac aattgccagg gcgtgtgcgg ctggcctcag 2640 tccgaccgca acccgcgcta cggcaaccac gtggtgctgc tgctgaagat gcaggcccgt 2700 ggggccgccc tggcgcgccc accctgctgc gtgcccaccg cctacgcggg caagctgctc 2760 atcagcctgt cggaggaacg catcagcgcg caccacgtgc ccaacatggt ggccaccgag 2820 tgtggctgcc ggtgacccct gcgccgcgcg gactcctgcc ccgagggtcc ggacgcgccc 2880 cagctcgcgc cccttcccat atttattcgg accccaagca tcgccccaat aaagaccagc 2940 aagcaaccgg ctggggtgtc cgtgcgtgtt agggggcccg tgggacctcc cttgccgtct 3000 ctcctcgcgc acggcccggg tccgccctgt agcgctcgct gtctctcccc tgcctgaagc 3060 gccccaccac cgtctttcag gccccggact tggtgccggg 3100 30 424 PRT Homo sapiens 30 Met Gly Ser Leu Val Leu Thr Leu Cys Ala Leu Phe Cys Leu Ala Ala 1 5 10 15 Tyr Leu Val Ser Gly Ser Pro Ile Met Asn Leu Glu Gln Ser Pro Leu 20 25 30 Glu Glu Asp Met Ser Leu Phe Gly Asp Val Phe Ser Glu Gln Asp Gly 35 40 45 Val Asp Phe Asn Thr Leu Leu Gln Ser Met Lys Asp Glu Phe Leu Lys 50 55 60 Thr Leu Asn Leu Ser Asp Ile Pro Thr Gln Asp Ser Ala Lys Val Asp 65 70 75 80 Pro Pro Glu Tyr Met Leu Glu Leu Tyr Asn Lys Phe Ala Thr Asp Arg 85 90 95 Thr Ser Met Pro Ser Ala Asn Ile Ile Arg Ser Phe Lys Asn Glu Asp 100 105 110 Leu Phe Ser Gln Pro Val Ser Phe Asn Gly Leu Arg Lys Tyr Pro Leu 115 120 125 Leu Phe Asn Val Ser Ile Pro His His Glu Glu Val Ile Met Ala Glu 130 135 140 Leu Arg Leu Tyr Thr Leu Val Gln Arg Asp Arg Met Ile Tyr Asp Gly 145 150 155 160 Val Asp Arg Lys Ile Thr Ile Phe Glu Val Leu Glu Ser Lys Gly Asp 165 170 175 Asn Glu Gly Glu Arg Asn Met Leu Val Leu Val Ser Gly Glu Ile Tyr 180 185 190 Gly Thr Asn Ser Glu Trp Glu Thr Phe Asp Val Thr Asp Ala Ile Arg 195 200 205 Arg Trp Gln Lys Ser Gly Ser Ser Thr His Gln Leu Glu Val His Ile 210 215 220 Glu Ser Lys His Asp Glu Ala Glu Asp Ala Ser Ser Gly Arg Leu Glu 225 230 235 240 Ile Asp Thr Ser Ala Gln Asn Lys His Asn Pro Leu Leu Ile Val Phe 245 250 255 Ser Asp Asp Gln Ser Ser Asp Lys Glu Arg Lys Glu Glu Leu Asn Glu 260 265 270 Met Ile Ser His Glu Gln Leu Pro Glu Leu Asp Asn Leu Gly Leu Asp 275 280 285 Ser Phe Ser Ser Gly Pro Gly Glu Glu Ala Leu Leu Gln Met Arg Ser 290 295 300 Asn Ile Ile Tyr Asp Ser Thr Ala Arg Ile Arg Arg Asn Ala Lys Gly 305 310 315 320 Asn Tyr Cys Lys Arg Thr Pro Leu Tyr Ile Asp Phe Lys Glu Ile Gly 325 330 335 Trp Asp Ser Trp Ile Ile Ala Pro Pro Gly Tyr Glu Ala Tyr Glu Cys 340 345 350 Arg Gly Val Cys Asn Tyr Pro Leu Ala Glu His Leu Thr Pro Thr Lys 355 360 365 His Ala Ile Ile Gln Ala Leu Val His Leu Lys Asn Ser Gln Lys Ala 370 375 380 Ser Lys Ala Cys Cys Val Pro Thr Lys Leu Glu Pro Ile Ser Ile Leu 385 390 395 400 Tyr Leu Asp Lys Gly Val Val Thr Tyr Lys Phe Lys Tyr Glu Gly Met 405 410 415 Ala Val Ser Glu Cys Gly Cys Arg 420 31 392 PRT Homo sapiens 31 Met Val Leu Leu Ser Ile Leu Arg Ile Leu Phe Leu Cys Glu Leu Val 1 5 10 15 Leu Phe Met Glu His Arg Ala Gln Met Ala Glu Gly Gly Gln Ser Ser 20 25 30 Ile Ala Leu Leu Ala Glu Ala Pro Thr Leu Pro Leu Ile Glu Glu Leu 35 40 45 Leu Glu Glu Ser Pro Gly Glu Gln Pro Arg Lys Pro Arg Leu Leu Gly 50 55 60 His Ser Leu Arg Tyr Met Leu Glu Leu Tyr Arg Arg Ser Ala Asp Ser 65 70 75 80 His Gly His Pro Arg Glu Asn Arg Thr Ile Gly Ala Thr Met Val Arg 85 90 95 Leu Val Lys Pro Leu Thr Ser Val Ala Arg Pro His Arg Gly Thr Trp 100 105 110 His Ile Gln Ile Leu Gly Phe Pro Leu Arg Pro Asn Arg Gly Leu Tyr 115 120 125 Gln Leu Val Arg Ala Thr Val Val Tyr Arg His His Leu Gln Leu Thr 130 135 140 Arg Phe Asn Leu Ser Cys His Val Glu Pro Trp Val Gln Lys Asn Pro 145 150 155 160 Thr Asn His Phe Pro Ser Ser Glu Gly Asp Ser Ser Lys Pro Ser Leu 165 170 175 Met Ser Asn Ala Trp Lys Glu Met Asp Ile Thr Gln Leu Val Gln Gln 180 185 190 Arg Phe Trp Asn Asn Lys Gly His Arg Ile Leu Arg Leu Arg Phe Met 195 200 205 Cys Gln Gln Gln Lys Asp Ser Gly Gly Leu Glu Leu Trp His Gly Thr 210 215 220 Ser Ser Leu Asp Ile Ala Phe Leu Leu Leu Tyr Phe Asn Asp Thr His 225 230 235 240 Lys Ser Ile Arg Lys Ala Lys Phe Leu Pro Arg Gly Met Glu Glu Phe 245 250 255 Met Glu Arg Glu Ser Leu Leu Arg Arg Thr Arg Gln Ala Asp Gly Ile 260 265 270 Ser Ala Glu Val Thr Ala Ser Ser Ser Lys His Ser Gly Pro Glu Asn 275 280 285 Asn Gln Cys Ser Leu His Pro Phe Gln Ile Ser Phe Arg Gln Leu Gly 290 295 300 Trp Asp His Trp Ile Ile Ala Pro Pro Phe Tyr Thr Pro Asn Tyr Cys 305 310 315 320 Lys Gly Thr Cys Leu Arg Val Leu Arg Asp Gly Leu Asn Ser Pro Asn 325 330 335 His Ala Ile Ile Gln Asn Leu Ile Asn Gln Leu Val Asp Gln Ser Val 340 345 350 Pro Arg Pro Ser Cys Val Pro Tyr Lys Tyr Val Pro Ile Ser Val Leu 355 360 365 Met Ile Glu Ala Asn Gly Ser Ile Leu Tyr Lys Glu Tyr Glu Gly Met 370 375 380 Ile Ala Glu Ser Cys Thr Cys Arg 385 390 32 478 PRT Homo sapiens 32 Met Ala His Val Pro Ala Arg Thr Ser Pro Gly Pro Gly Pro Gln Leu 1 5 10 15 Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Pro Leu Phe Leu Leu Leu Leu Arg Asp Val Ala 20 25 30 Gly Ser His Arg Ala Pro Ala Trp Ser Ala Leu Pro Ala Ala Ala Asp 35 40 45 Gly Leu Gln Gly Asp Arg Asp Leu Gln Arg His Pro Gly Asp Ala Ala 50 55 60 Ala Thr Leu Gly Pro Ser Ala Gln Asp Met Val Ala Val His Met His 65 70 75 80 Arg Leu Tyr Glu Lys Tyr Ser Arg Gln Gly Ala Arg Pro Gly Gly Gly 85 90 95 Asn Thr Val Arg Ser Phe Arg Ala Arg Leu Glu Val Val Asp Gln Lys 100 105 110 Ala Val Tyr Phe Phe Asn Leu Thr Ser Met Gln Asp Ser Glu Met Ile 115 120 125 Leu Thr Ala Thr Phe His Phe Tyr Ser Glu Pro Pro Arg Trp Pro Arg 130 135 140 Ala Leu Glu Val Leu Cys Lys Pro Arg Ala Lys Asn Ala Ser Gly Arg 145 150 155 160 Pro Leu Pro Leu Gly Pro Pro Thr Arg Gln His Leu Leu Phe Arg Ser 165 170 175 Leu Ser Gln Asn Thr Ala Thr Gln Gly Leu Leu Arg Gly Ala Met Ala 180 185 190 Leu Ala Pro Pro Pro Arg Gly Leu Trp Gln Ala Lys Asp Ile Ser Pro 195 200 205 Ile Val Lys Ala Ala Arg Arg Asp Gly Glu Leu Leu Leu Ser Ala Gln 210 215 220 Leu Asp Ser Glu Glu Arg Asp Pro Gly Val Pro Arg Pro Ser Pro Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ala Pro Tyr Ile Leu Val Tyr Ala Asn Asp Leu Ala Ile Ser Glu Pro 245 250 255 Asn Ser Val Ala Val Thr Leu Gln Arg Tyr Asp Pro Phe Pro Ala Gly 260 265 270 Asp Pro Glu Pro Arg Ala Ala Pro Asn Asn Ser Ala Asp Pro Arg Val 275 280 285 Arg Arg Ala Ala Gln Ala Thr Gly Pro Leu Gln Asp Asn Glu Leu Pro 290 295 300 Gly Leu Asp Glu Arg Pro Pro Arg Ala His Ala Gln His Phe His Lys 305 310 315 320 His Gln Leu Trp Pro Ser Pro Phe Arg Ala Leu Lys Pro Arg Pro Gly 325 330 335 Arg Lys Asp Arg Arg Lys Lys Gly Gln Glu Val Phe Met Ala Ala Ser 340 345 350 Gln Val Leu Asp Phe Asp Glu Lys Thr Met Gln Lys Ala Arg Arg Lys 355 360 365 Gln Trp Asp Glu Pro Arg Val Cys Ser Arg Arg Tyr Leu Lys Val Asp 370 375 380 Phe Ala Asp Ile Gly Trp Asn Glu Trp Ile Ile Ser Pro Lys Ser Phe 385 390 395 400 Asp Ala Tyr Tyr Cys Ala Gly Ala Cys Glu Phe Pro Met Pro Lys Ile 405 410 41