Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20030230410 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/173,501
Publication dateDec 18, 2003
Filing dateJun 17, 2002
Priority dateJun 17, 2002
Publication number10173501, 173501, US 2003/0230410 A1, US 2003/230410 A1, US 20030230410 A1, US 20030230410A1, US 2003230410 A1, US 2003230410A1, US-A1-20030230410, US-A1-2003230410, US2003/0230410A1, US2003/230410A1, US20030230410 A1, US20030230410A1, US2003230410 A1, US2003230410A1
InventorsJasper Underhill
Original AssigneeJasper Underhill
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for installing tubing in a wellbore
US 20030230410 A1
Abstract
Disclosed is an improved apparatus and method for completing a wellbore using radially expandable tubing. An expanding tool is used with sets of rollers positioned to progressively expand the tubing by rolling along the interior of the tubing.
Images(13)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(23)
What is claimed:
1. A method of installing tubing in subterranean portion of a well, comprising the steps of:
a. providing a radially expandable tubing assembly;
b. moving the expandable tubing assembly to a predetermined subterranean location in the well; and
c. expanding the tubing assembly by moving a tubing expander axially through the tubing assembly while contacting the interior wall of the tubing assembly with rollers carried on the expander and wherein the rollers are mounted to rotate about an axis transverse to the axis of the tubing assembly.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the expander comprises a plurality of sets of rollers movable between a radially retracted position and a radially extended position and wherein said method additionally comprises the step of extending the roller sets before expanding the tubing assembly.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of expanding the tubing assembly is performed by progressively larger sets of rollers engaging the tubing assembly and rolling along the interior surface thereof.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of a well screen.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of solid wall tubing
6. A method of installing tubing in subterranean portion of a well, comprising the steps of
a. providing a radially expandable tubing assembly;
b. moving the expandable tubing assembly to a predetermined subterranean location in the well; and
c. expanding the tubing by moving a tubing expander axially through the tubing assembly while contacting the interior wall of the tubing assembly with rollers carried on the expander and wherein the rollers are arranged in a plurality of sets and wherein the roller sets do not all have the same effective cross section.
7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the expander comprises a plurality of sets of rollers movable between a radially retracted position and a radially extended position and wherein said method additionally comprises the step of extending the roller sets before expanding the tubing assembly.
8. The method according to claim 6, wherein the step of expanding the tubing assembly is performed by progressively larger sets of rollers engaging the tubing assembly and rolling along the interior surface thereof.
9. The method according to claim 6 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of a well screen.
10. The method according to claim 6 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of solid wall tubing.
11. A method of installing tubing in subterranean portion of a well, comprising the steps of
a. providing a radially expandable tubing assembly;
b. moving the expandable tubing assembly to a predetermined subterranean location in the well; and
c. expanding the tubing by moving a tubing expander axially through the tubing assembly and radially expanding the tubing assembly by successively contacting the interior wall of the tubing assembly with roller sets with progressively larger effective cross sections.
12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the expander comprises a plurality of sets of rollers movable between a radially retracted position and a radially extended position and wherein said method additionally comprises the step of extending the roller sets before expanding the tubing assembly.
13. The method according to claim 11, wherein the step of expanding the tubing assembly is performed by progressively larger sets of rollers engaging the tubing assembly and rolling along the interior surface thereof.
14. The method according to claim 6 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of a well screen.
15. The method according to claim 6 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of solid wall tubing.
16. A method of installing tubing in subterranean portion of a well, comprising the steps of
a. providing a radially expandable tubing assembly,
b. moving the expandable tubing assembly to a predetermined subterranean location in the well; and
c. moving a tubing expander axially through the tubing assembly and radially expanding the tubing assembly by contacting the interior wall of the tubing with rollers which rollers are mounted to roll axially along the interior wall.
17. The method according to claim 16, wherein the expander comprises a plurality of sets of rollers movable between a radially retracted position and a radially extended position and wherein said method additionally comprises the step of extending the roller sets before expanding the tubing assembly.
18. The method according to claim 16, wherein the step of expanding the tubing assembly is performed by progressively larger sets of rollers engaging the tubing assembly and rolling along the interior surface thereof.
19. The method according to claim 16 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of a well screen.
20. The method according to claim 16 wherein the step of providing a radially expandable tubing assembly comprises providing a radially expandable tubular member in the form of solid wall tubing
21. A well tubular member expander comprising:
a. an elongated body;
b. a plurality of set of roller assemblies carried on the body in longitudinally spaced relationship of a size to contact the interior of the tubing member, at least two of the roller assemblies having the rollers mounted at different radially outward positions; and
c. brackets supporting the roller assemblies to rotate about a transverse axis.
22. The expander of claim 21 wherein the rollers are mounted in pairs.
23. The expander of claim 21 wherein the brackets are radially movable on the body to move between a radially extended position and a radially retracted position.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present inventions relate to improvements in methods and apparatus used to install tubing in a wellbore. More particularly the present inventions relate to methods and apparatus for using and installing radially expandable tubular members including production liners and screens in subterranean well locations.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONS

[0002] Radially expandable tubular members are typically moved into the well through the existing well tubing and then expanded radially to a larger diameter. Radial enlargement is accomplished by forcing an expanding die axially through the length of tubing. An example of this prior art procedure is described in the United States Patent to Lohbeck U.S. Pat. No. 5,366,012 issued Nov. 22, 1994 entitled Method of Completing an Uncased Section of a Borehole. According to the Lohbeck patent, a tapered expansion mandrel 15 connected to drill string 16 is forced through the tubular member to deform it into larger diameter. The mandrel had a largest diameter greater than the internal diameter of the tubular member. In the United States Patent to Kinley U.S. Pat. No. 3,191,677 entitled Method and Apparatus For Setting Liners in Tubing a pall shaped expander is used. In the United States Patent to Kinlay et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,785,193 issued Jan. 15, 1974 entitled Liner Expanding Apparatus, a tubing expander device is disclosed which is positioned in the well in a retracted condition and once in position is expanded to engage the tubing. Using expansion mandrels and dies requires large axial forces and creates large friction forces, which can cause damage to the tubular member. Rotating mandrels with off set rollers thereon have been attempted but require rotational power sources.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIONS

[0003] The present inventions contemplate an improved apparatus and methods of expanding tubular members in wellbores that overcome the problems associated with forcing expanding dies through lengths of tubing and failures caused by the large frictional forces encountered during expansion.

[0004] According to the present invention a plurality of sets of rollers carried on a tool body are moved axially through the tubular member. The roller sets define an effective cross section that is larger than the cross section of the internal diameter of the tubular member. The rollers rotate during the expansion process by engaging and rolling along the interior wall of the tubular member. The rolling action reduces friction and damage to the tubular member caused thereby.

[0005] In one embodiment, the roller sets are arranged with increasingly larger effective cross sections to progressively expand the tubular member. In one embodiment the rollers are retracted when the tool is moved into the well and extended to engage and expand the tubular member.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0006] The accompanying drawings are incorporated into and form a part of the specification to illustrate several examples of the present inventions. These drawings together with the description serve to explain the principals of the inventions. The drawings are only for the purpose of illustrating preferred and alternative examples of how the inventions can be made and used and are not to be construed as limiting the inventions to only the illustrated and described examples. The various advantages and features of the present inventions will be apparent from a consideration of the drawings in which:

[0007]FIG. 1 is a horizontal sectional view illustrating a subterranean location in a wellbore, illustrating an expandable tubular member being lowered into position;

[0008]FIG. 2 is a horizontal sectional view similar to FIG. 1 illustrating the tubing installed and after it is expanded in the wellbore using the apparatus and methods of the present inventions;

[0009]FIG. 3 is a side elevation view partially in section illustrating an embodiment of the tubing expander apparatus of the present inventions expanding a section of tubing;

[0010]FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the tool of FIG. 3;

[0011]FIG. 5 is a section view taken on line 5-5 of FIG. 3 looking in the direction of the arrows;

[0012]FIG. 6 is a detail view illustrating an embodiment of roller assembly configuration in the tool according to the present inventions;

[0013]FIG. 7 is a schematic section view of the tool illustrating the effective cross section formed by a set of rollers;

[0014]FIG. 8 is a schematic view similar to FIG. 7 illustrating another roller configuration according to the present inventions;

[0015]FIG. 9 is a schematic view similar to FIG. 7 illustrating yet another roller configuration according to the present inventions;

[0016]FIG. 10 is a schematic view similar to FIG. 7 illustrating a further roller configuration according to the present inventions;

[0017]FIG. 11 is a schematic elevation view of one configuration for a set of rollers according to the present inventions;

[0018]FIG. 12 is a schematic elevation view of another configuration for a set of rollers according to the present inventions;

[0019]FIG. 13 is a partial cross sectional view illustrating a tool embodiment according to the present inventions for retracting and expanding the rollers with the rollers illustrated in the expanded position;

[0020]FIG. 14 is a partial enlarged cross sectional view illustrating the a roller assembly in the retracted position according to the present inventions;

[0021]FIG. 15 is a cross sectional view similar to FIG. 13 illustrating the rollers in the expanded position;

[0022]FIG. 16 is a sectional view taken on line 16-16 of FIG. 15 looking in the direction of the arrows;

[0023]FIG. 17 is a partial cross sectional view illustrating another tool embodiment according to the present inventions for retracting and expanding the rollers with the rollers illustrated in the expanded position; and

[0024]FIG. 18 is a partial cross sectional view illustrating a further tool embodiment according to the present inventions for retracting and expanding the rollers with the rollers illustrated in the expanded position.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0025] The present inventions are described by reference to drawings showing one or more examples of how the inventions can be made and used. In these drawings, reference characters are used throughout the several views to indicate like or corresponding parts.

[0026] In FIGS. 1 and 2, a subterranean portion of a well 10, illustrated in section, has a cemented casing 12 terminating above an open hole 14. Tubing connector 16 is illustrated at the casing end for supporting a tubing assembly 20. A suitable collar 22 on the assembly 20 is designed to mate with the connector 16. Although one system is illustrated for supporting the tubing assembly there are many other systems well known in the industry suitable for use with these inventions such as tubing hangers and the like. In the illustrated embodiment, the tubing assembly 20 comprises a tubular member 24 coupled at 26 to a tubular screen or perforated liner section. 28. The illustrated tubing assembly is merely illustrative of many configurations of tubular members and the terms tubing assembly when used herein are generic an not intended to be limited to any particular assembly or types of tubular members and include combinations or pipe, screen, liners and the like with cylindrical, corrugated and other wall shapes.

[0027] In FIG. 1, tubing assembly 20 is illustrated being lowered through the casing 12 into the well 10 on a drill string (not shown). In FIG. 2 the tubing assembly is expanded to a full bore diameter using an expander tool constructed in accordance with the teachings of the present inventions.

[0028] In FIGS. 3-6 an embodiment of the expander tool 40 of the present invention is illustrated. In FIG. 3, the tool 40 is illustrated expanding a portion of tubing assembly 20. Tool 40 has an elongated central body 42 connected to a drill string 44 by threads or the like. A plurality of tubing expander elements are longitudinally spaced on the body 42. These expander elements include a guide head 50 and four sets of rollers 60, 70, 80, and 90. The tool 40 is designed to be forced down hole (in the direction of arrow d) by the weight of the drill string 44. Alternatively, the expander could be pulled through the tubing assembly in the uphole direction.

[0029] Guide head 50 is sized to fit in the tubing assembly 20. A plurality of axially extending ribs 52 engages the internal surface of the tubing assembly and centrally align the tool body 40 in the tubing. The downhole facing ends 54 of these ribs 52 are tapered to guide the head into the open end of the tubing. Since the roller sets perform the expansion steps, head 50 is preferably sized to act only as a guide with a small clearance with the internal surface of the tubing assembly. However, an interference fit is acceptable with some tubing deformation occurring before roller engagement. Although one guide head is shown in front of a roller set, it is envisioned that one or more guide heads could be used behind one or more roller sets to shape the tubing cross section. In addition, it is anticipated that a large number of smaller closely spaced roller assemblies could be used shape the tubing cross section after or during expansion.

[0030] Each of the roller sets 60, 70, 80 and 90 are typical in construction. Each has a plurality of roller assemblies 100 mounted to pivot about axis transverse to the length of the tubing assembly 20. In the illustrated embodiment, each roller assembly comprises a shaft portion 102 and at least one endless tubing member contact surface 104. In FIG. 6 the details of an embodiment of the roller assembly 100 are shown. Roller assembly 100 has a central shaft portion 102 and two spaced endless tubing contact surfaces 104. Assembly 100 is symmetrical and designed to rotate about axis 106. Axis 106 is aligned to be transverse to the tool and in a plane perpendicular to the center line 112 of the tubing assembly 20. A lubrication fitting 108 connected to internal lubrication passageways 110 can be provided to supply lubrication to the surface of shaft 102.

[0031] Contact surfaces 104 are profiled to match the expanded internal surface of tubing assembly 20. This relationship is illustrated with surface 104 conforming to a cylindrical surface with a radius R measured from the tubing center line 112, with the value of R being selected to match the expanded tubing member internal diameter. Alternatively, the roller assembly could be made with a single contact surface with a shaft on each side.

[0032] As can be seen in FIGS. 2, 3 and 5 each roller set contains a plurality of roller assemblies 100 spaced circumferentially about the tool body 42 with their out most surfaces arranged in a circle with a radius R larger than the unexpanded tubing assembly. For example, the roller set 60 could have a radius R an incremental amount larger than the internal diameter of the tubing assembly to be expanded. Roller sets 70, 80 and 90 could each have a radius R slightly larger than the adjacent downhole roller set (to the left in the drawings) and would progressively expand the tubing as the tool 40 is forced through it by the string 44. The endless contact surfaces 104 roll along the interior of the tubing preventing damage caused by friction forces generated using conventional expansion mandrels.

[0033] In FIG. 3, the typical mounting of one of the roller assemblies 100 of roller set 90 is shown. Shaft portion 102 engages a bearing portion 120 of a bracket 122. Lifting tool 40 causes shaft 102 to retract out of contact with the tubing section and down ramp 124 of bracket 122. Although, in this illustrated embodiment all roller assemblies utilize the ramp mounting to allow the roller to retract when the tool is lifted out of the well, it is envisioned that in some well configurations only the largest roller assembles would have the ability to retract.

[0034] In FIG. 7, a roller set is shown expanding a section of tubing 20. As can be seen the expanded tubing 20 does not exactly conform to a circle, in that, the roller surfaces 104 contacting the interior of the tubing are spaced apart and are not a continuous circle. Effective cross section refers to the cross section shape of the interior of the tubing. The effective cross section has an effective radius R, effective cross sectional area A and effective circumference C. Unexpanded cylindrical tubing's effective cross section is circular. The effective cross section of expanded tubing is not necessarily completely circular.

[0035] As is illustrated in FIGS. 8-10, the number of roller surfaces and their spacing has an effect on the shape of the effective cross section of the tubing 20. In addition, the tubing material, thickness and amount of expansion would change the cross section shape. Preferably, the rollers are positioned so that their highest contact point is in a circle in the plane P-P as shown in FIG. 11. Plane P-P is transverse to the tool length and perpendicular to the tubing axis. In FIG. 12 another configuration is illustrated with the adjacent rollers 100 axially offset. In this configuration the roller contact points do not conform to a circle.

[0036] In the tool embodiment 140 illustrated in FIGS. 13-16, the roller, assemblies can be retracted during run in and extended for the expansion step. In FIG. 13 tubing, assembly 20 is being expanded by tool assembly 140 as it is forced (pushed in downhole direction of arrow d by drill string 44) through the tubing from right to left in the figure. When using the retractable tool assembly 140 the drill string could also be connected to the tool 140 at the guide head 150 to force or pull the tool through the tubing assembly 20 in an up hole direction.

[0037] Tool assembly 140 (like tool 40) has a body 142 with a guide head 150, and a plurality of roller sets 160, 170 (not shown), 180, and 190 carried thereon. The guide head and roller sets on tool assembly 140 function in the same manner as described with regard to tool 40.

[0038] Tool 140 has cylindrical outer portion 146 defining a chamber 148 in which is mounted the means for extending and retracting the roller assemblies. Cylindrical portion 146 is illustrated as a single piece but it is fabricated (as is well known in the industry) in multiple pieces connected together by threads, pins, welding and the like. These connections are not shown for simplicity purposes.

[0039] A chamber 156 and piston 158 in portion 146 define a variable volume in fluid communication with the drill string through port 162. By varying the fluid pressure in drill string 44, piston 158 can be reciprocated axially in chamber 156. In FIG. 13 pressure has been raised in chamber 156 causing piston 158 to move axially in the direction of arrow d against stop 164.

[0040] An actuating rod 172 is mounted to axially reciprocate in a second chamber 174 in portion 146. Rod 172 is connected to and is moved axially by piston 158. When fluid pressure in chamber 156 moves piston 158 against stop 164, coil spring 174 is compressed against wall 176 and rod 172 is moved into the chamber 156. When pressure in chamber 156 is reduced spring 174 moves piston 158 toward the drill string 44 while moving rod 172 in the same direction. Rod 172 has a plurality of cam surfaces 178 which engage and move the roller assemblies into and out of the retracted and extended positions.

[0041] In FIGS. 13-16, the interaction between the cam surface 178 on rod 172 and roller assemblies will be described. Roller assembly 200 is mounted on a bracket 222 similar to the non-retractable embodiment but with the roller shaft portion supported from a surface 224 which may be without the ramp, as illustrated, or may be ramped (see ramp surface 124 in FIG. 3). Cylindrical portion 146 has a plurality of axially extending slots 182 in its wall for receiving roller brackets 222. Brackets 222 are designed to be movable with respect to portion 146 in and out of the slots 182. A flange 184 (See FIG. 16) is larger in cross section than slot 182 and is connected to bracket 222 to restrict outward movement of the bracket 222.

[0042] In FIG. 14 the roller assembly 200 is shown in the retracted position with the cam surface 178 is axially spaced from the flange 184. When piston 158 moves the rod 178 from the FIG. 14 retracted position to the FIG. 15 extended position, cam surface 178 engages the flange 184 forcing the roller assembly 200 outward to the extended position. A leaf spring 186 urges the bracket 222 toward the retracted position and when the rod 172 is moved out of contact with the flange 184, the roller assembly will retract.

[0043] In FIG. 17 another roller assembly 300 embodiment is illustrated in solid line extended and in dotted lines retracted. Roller bracket 322 is pivoted from tool body 342 on shaft 344. The roller assembly rotates in the directions of arrow E about axis 344 from the retracted position shown in dotted lines to the extended position shown in solid lines. A slot 346 can be formed in body 342 to allow the bracket to pivot into the body 342. A stop similar to stop 164 can be provided to limit outward rotation. An actuating rod 372 is moved axially in the direction of arrow d in body 342 by the previously described piston chamber assembly to engage the bracket with cam surface 378 to extend the bracket 322. When the rod 372 is retracted a suitable spring 348 causes the bracket to rotate to the retracted position.

[0044] In FIG. 18 a further embodiment of a retractable roller assembly 400 is illustrated in solid lines in the retracted position and in dotted lines in the extended position. In this embodiment the bracket 422 is fixed to the exterior of the body 442. Bracket 422 has an outwardly inclined ramp surface 424 supporting roller shaft 402. As the tool body 442 is moved down holed (arrow d) contact between the roller and the tubing assembly will tend to cause the roller shaft 402 to climb the ramp 424 and move to the extended position shown in dotted lines. However, during movement of the tool into position, a releasable latch shown here in the form of a pin 444 holding the shaft 402 in the retracted position (solid lines) at the bottom of the ramp 424. Pin 444 is biased by compression spring 446 to move in the direction of arrow X out of the path of shaft 402. Once tool body 442 is in position in the well, the actuating rod 472 is moved axially from under pin 444 allowing spring 446 to retract the pin down out of contact with the shaft 402. With pin 444 retracted, downward movement (direction of arrow d) of the tool will allow shaft 402 to climb ramp 424 to the extended position to perform the tubing assembly expanding step. Once expansion is completed lifting up on the tool body 442 will cause the roller to move down ramp 424 to the retracted position. In addition, the actuating shaft 472 can be moved downward by a cylinder-piston assembly (not shown) until cam surface 478 engages pin 444 and returns it to the locking position shown in FIG. 18.

[0045] According to the present inventions the wellbore is completed through a series of steps. First, a tubing assembly is provided comprising at least in part an expandable tubular member. The tubular assembly can be a continuous tubular member, or a liner with drainage openings and/or screen. Either before or after any required perforation steps, the tubing assembly is positioned in the well where it is to be expanded. Once in the desired position, the tubing assembly is radially expanded by engaging it with an expander tool having sets of rollers positioned on the tool to progressively expand the tubing assembly as the tool is moved through the tubular assembly. In the extendable tool embodiment, the tool is moved to a position adjacent the tubular member in the retracted condition and expands the tubular member while in the radially extended condition. Thereafter the tool can be retracted and moved out of the well.

[0046] The embodiments shown and described above are only exemplary. Many details are often found in the art such as: actuator pistons and cylinders, expandable tubing, expandable liners, and expandable screens and the like. Therefore, many such details are neither shown nor described. It is not claimed that all of the detail parts, elements, or steps described and shown were invented herein. It is also envisioned that a conventional chemical powered setting tool or the like could operate the extendable tool. Even though numerous characteristics and advantages of the present inventions have been set forth in the foregoing description, together with details of the structure and function of the inventions, the disclosure is illustrative only, and changes may be made in the detail, especially in matters of shape, size and arrangement of the parts within the principles of the inventions to the full extent indicated by the broad general meaning of the terms used the attached claims.

[0047] The restrictive description and drawings of the specific examples above do not point out what an infringement of this patent would be, but are to provide at least one explanation of how to make and use the inventions. The limits of the inventions and the bounds of the patent protection are measured by and defined in the following claims:

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7086477 *Sep 10, 2003Aug 8, 2006Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Tubing expansion tool
US7090025Dec 1, 2003Aug 15, 2006Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Methods and apparatus for reforming and expanding tubulars in a wellbore
US7121351Mar 24, 2004Oct 17, 2006Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Apparatus and method for completing a wellbore
US7195085Jun 27, 2001Mar 27, 2007Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Drill bit
US7757774 *Oct 12, 2005Jul 20, 2010Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Method of completing a well
US8393389Apr 20, 2007Mar 12, 2013Halliburton Evergy Services, Inc.Running tool for expandable liner hanger and associated methods
US8627884Mar 22, 2011Jan 14, 2014Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Setting tool for expandable liner hanger and associated methods
WO2012071208A2 *Nov 14, 2011May 31, 2012Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Entry guide formation on a well liner hanger
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/381, 166/207
International ClassificationE21B43/10
Cooperative ClassificationE21B43/105
European ClassificationE21B43/10F1
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 17, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:UNDERHILL, JASPER;REEL/FRAME:013023/0611
Effective date: 20020607