FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to film adhesives, and particularly film adhesives for use in semiconductor packaging
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
A common mode of electronics packaging involves affixing semiconductor devices onto substrates by means of an adhesive tape. Epoxy compounds and resins currently are among the most commonly used materials for current film based adhesive applications, such as die attach, in which a semiconductor die is attached to a substrate. In a typical embodiment, a film-forming rubber polymer is blended with epoxy resins and a hardening agent. These compositions can then be cured upon application of heat, which results in the development of a thermoset network. One drawback to epoxy adhesives is their ultimate latency. Typically, these materials must be stored at low temperature to avoid premature advancement of the adhesive. Moreover, the speed of cure for these compositions is relatively slow making the die-attach operation the least efficient step in the total assembly manufacturing process for wirebonded integrated circuit packages. This creates a need for a film adhesive that can be rapidly cured compared to the conventional thermoset film adhesives, and particularly to films containing no epoxy.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
This invention is a film adhesive prepared from an adhesive composition comprising a polymer system, a film forming rubber compound, and curing agents for the polymeric system. In a preferred embodiment the polymer system contains no epoxy functionality. The polymer system comprises a base polymer and electron donor and electron acceptor functionality. The electron donor and electron acceptor functionality can be pendant from the base polymer, or can be interdispersed with the base polymer as independent compounds. In some cases, the base polymer can function as a film-forming rubber compound. The film can be prepared directly as a monolayer from the adhesive composition, or from coating the adhesive composition onto both sides of a thermal resistant tape substrate.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The polymer system for preparing the film adhesives will contain a base polymer (hereinafter “polymer” or “base polymer”) and electron donor and electron acceptor functionality. The system can be segregated into several classes: (1) an unsubstituted base polymer blended with an independent electron donor compound and an independent electron acceptor compound; (2) a base polymer substituted with pendant electron acceptor functionality, blended with an independent electron donor compound, and optionally an independent electron acceptor compound; (3) a base polymer substituted with pendant electron donor functionality, blended with an independent electron acceptor compound and optionally an independent electron donor compound; (4) a base polymer substituted with pendant electron donor and electron acceptor functionality, or a combination of a base polymer substituted with pendant electron donor functionality and a base polymer substituted with pendant electron acceptor functionality, optionally blended with an independent electron donor compound, or an independent electron acceptor compound, or both.
Preferably, there will be a 1:1 molar ratio of electron donor to electron acceptor; however, the molar ratio can range from 0.01-1.0:1.0-0.01.
A suitable base polymer in the polymer system of the inventive film adhesive is prepared from acrylic and/or vinyl monomers using standard polymerization techniques. The acrylic monomers that may be used to form the base polymer include α,β-unsaturated mono and dicarboxylic acids having three to five carbon atoms and acrylate ester monomers (alkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid in which the alkyl groups contain one to fourteen carbon atoms). Examples are methyl acryate, methyl methacrylate, n-octyl acrylate, n-nonyl methacrylate, and their corresponding branched isomers, such as, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. The vinyl monomers that may be used to form the base polymer include vinyl esters, vinyl ethers, vinyl halides, vinylidene halides, and nitriles of ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbons. Examples are vinyl acetate, acrylamide, 1-octyl acrylamide, acrylic acid, vinyl ethyl ether, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride, and styrene.
Another suitable base polymer in the polymer system of the inventive film adhesive is prepared from conjugated diene and/or vinyl monomers using standard polymerization techniques. The conjugated diene monomers that may be used to form the polymer base include butadiene-1,3, 2-chlorobutadiene-1,3, isoprene, piperylene and conjugated hexadienes. The vinyl monomers that may be used to form the base polymer include styrene, α-methylstyrene, divinylbenzene, vinyl chloride, vinyl acetate, vinylidene chloride, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, vinylpyridine, acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid and acrylic acid.
Alternatively, the base polymer can be purchased commercially. Suitable commercially available polymers include acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers from Zeon Chemicals and styrene-acrylic copolymers from Johnson Polymer.
In those systems in which the base polymer is substituted with electron donor and/or electron acceptor functionality, the degree of substitution can be varied to suit the specific requirements for cross-link density in the final applications. Suitable substitution levels range from 6 to 500, preferably from 10 to 200.
The base polymer, whether substituted or unsubstituted will have a molecular weight range of 2,000 to 1,000,000. The glass transition temperature (Tg) will vary depending on the specific base polymer. For example, the Tg for butadiene polymers ranges from −100° C. to 25° C., and for modified acrylic polymers, from 15° C. to 50° C.
Suitable electron donor functionality includes vinyl ether groups, vinyl silane groups, and carbon to carbon double bonds external to an aromatic ring and conjugated with the unsaturation in the aromatic ring. Suitable electron acceptor groups include maleimides, acrylates, fumarates and maleates.
Examples of suitable starting materials for reacting with complementary functionality on the base polymer in order to add the electron donor or electron acceptor functionality pendant to the base polymer include: for electron donor functionality, hydroxybutyl vinyl ether, cinnamyl alcohol, 1,4-cyclohexane-dimethanol monovinyl eether, 3-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate, isoeugenol, and the derivatives of the aforementioned compounds; for electron acceptor functionality, dioctyl maleate, dibutyl maleate, dioctyl fumarate, dibutyl fumarate, N-(6-hydroxyhexyl) maleimide, 6-maleimidocaproic acid, and 3-maleimidopropionic acid.
Independent electron donor compounds for blending with the base polymer include compounds having at least two vinyl ether groups, or having at least two carbon to carbon double bonds external to aromatic rings and conjugated with the unsaturation in the aromatic ring. Suitable divinyl ether examples include compounds such as bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl]terephthalate, bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] (4-methyl-1,3-phenylene)biscarbamate, bis[4-(vinyloxy) butyl] 1,6-hexanediylbiscarbamate, 4-(vinyloxy)butyl stearate, and bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] (methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)biscarbamate (sold under the trade name Vectomer from Morflex, Inc). Exemplary compounds having at least two carbon to carbon double bonds external to aromatic rings and conjugated with the unsaturation in the aromatic ring include:
the adduct of tricyclodecane-dimethanol and 3-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (m-TMI) having the structure
the adduct of 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide and m-TMI having the structure
the adduct of cyanurate/trifunctional isocyanate and cinnamyl alcohol having the structure
the adduct of 1,3-propanediol and M-TMI having the structure
the adduct of 1,4-butanediol and M-TMI having the structure
and the adduct of cinnamyl alcohol and 1,6-diisocyanatohexane having the structure
These compounds can be prepared by standard synthetic methods known to those skilled in the art without undue experimentation.
Independent electron acceptor compounds for blending with the base polymer include resins having at least two intramolecular maleimide, acrylate, fumarate or maleate groups. Examples of bismaleimides include: N,N′-ethylene-bis-maleimide, N,N′-butylene-bis-maleimide, N,N′-phenylene-bis-maleimide, N,N′-hexamethylene-bis-maleimide, N,N′-4,4′-diphenyl methane-bis-maleimide, N,N′-4,4′-diphenyl ether-bis-maleimide, N,N′-4,4′-diphenyl sulfone-bis-maleimide, N,N′-4,4′-dicyclohexyl methane-bis-maleimide, N,N′-xylylene-bis-maleimide, N,N′-diphenyl cyclohexane-bis-maleimide and the like.
Suitable film forming resins or compounds include acrylic polymers (sold under the trade name TEISAN RESIN from Nagase ChemteX Corporation) and acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomers (sold under the trade name NIPOL from Zeon Chemicals). These materials, in general, will be present in the adhesive composition from which the film will be prepared, in an amount ranging from 10% to 70%, preferably 15% to 50%, by weight of the adhesive formulation. Other levels may be suitable depending on the end use application, and optimal levels can be determined without undue experimentation on the part of the formulator.
Suitable curing agents for the polymer system are thermal initiators and photoinitiators, present in an amount of 0.1% to 10%, preferably 0.1% to 5.0%, by weight of the polymer system. Preferred thermal initiators include peroxides, such as butyl peroctoates and dicumyl peroxide, and azo compounds, such as 2,2′-azobis(2-methyl-propanenitrile) and 2,2′-azobis(2-methyl-butanenitrile). A preferred series of photoinitiators is one sold under the trademark Irgacure by Ciba Specialty Chemicals. In some formulations, both thermal initiation and photoinitiation may be desirable; for example, the curing process can be started by irradiation, and in a later processing step curing can be completed by the application of heat to accomplish the thermal cure. In general, these compositions will cure within a temperature range of 70° C. to 250° C., and curing will be effected at a temperature within the range of ten seconds to three hours. The time and temperature curing profile of each formulation will vary with the specific electron donor compound and the other components of the formulation, but the parameters of a curing profile can be determined by a practitioner skilled in the art without undue experimentation.
In some cases, it may be an advantage to add an epoxy compound or resin to the adhesive composition. Suitable epoxy compounds or resins include bifunctional and polyfunctional epoxy resins such as bisphenol A-type epoxy, cresol novolak epoxy, or phenol novolak epoxy. Another suitable epoxy resin is a multifunctional epoxy resin from Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc. (sold under the product number HP-7200). When added to the formulation, the epoxy will be present in an amount up to 80% by weight.
If an epoxy compound is added, the formulation will need to contain a curing or hardening agent for the epoxy. Suitable curing agents include amines, polyamides, acid anhydrides, polysulfides, trifluoroboron, and bisphenol A, bisphenol F and bisphenol S, which are compounds having at least two phenolic hydroxyl groups in one molecule. A curing accelerator may also be used in combination with the curing agent. Suitable curing accelerators include imidazoles, such as 2-methylimidazole, 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole, 4-methyl-2-phenylimidazole, and 1-cyanoethyl-2-phenylimidazolium trimellitate. The curing agents and accelerators are used in standard amounts known to those skilled in the art.
Other materials, such as adhesion promoters (epoxides, silanes), dyes, pigments, and rheology modifiers, may be added as desired for modification of final properties. Such materials and the amounts needed are within the expertise of those skilled in the art.
Filler particles that enhance the mechanical, electrical conductivity, or thermal conductivity may also be added. Suitable conductive fillers are carbon black, graphite, gold, silver, copper, platinum, palladium, nickel, aluminum, silicon carbide, boron nitride, diamond, and alumina. Suitable nonconductive fillers are particles of vermiculite, mica, wollastonite, calcium carbonate, titania, sand, glass, fused silica, fumed silica, barium sulfate, and halogenated ethylene polymers, such as tetrafluoroethylene, trifluoroethylene, vinylidene fluoride, vinyl fluoride, vinylidene chloride, and vinyl chloride. When present, fillers will be in amounts of 0.1% to 90%, preferably from 5% to 90%, by weight of the formulation.