US 2003996 A
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June 4, 1935. c 5 FlNZER ET AL 2,003,996
VENEER WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 12, 1934 2- Sheets-Sheet 1 Wil i; 17 15/ g 1 June 4, 1935.
c. s. FINZER El AL VENEER WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 12, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented June 4, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE VENEER 'WALL CONSTRUCTION tion of Ohio Application October 12, 1934, Serial No. 748,052
The invention relates generally to the application of a veneer to walls, and more particularly to means and methods for economically and advantageously applying relatively thin blocks, tiles, or bricks and the like, to building walls as a veneer covering therefor; and this application is a continuation of common subject matter in our pending application Serial No. 725,720, filed May 15, 1934, entitled Veneer wall construction.
Certain prior veneer wall constructions have provided metal plates or sheets adapted to accommodate a large number of the bricks or veneering units, and having spaced projections for securing the bricks in position.
With these constructions, a very large quantity of material is required, and great difliculty is had in fitting the plates to corners and oiisets, and around windows and the like; because in order for the plates to secure the veneering units in proper arrangement as to courses and whole and half or fractional units, accurate and skillful cutting or overlapping of the plates is required.
Other prior constructions have provided individual clips or horizontally disposed strips for securing the bricks or veneering units in position, but this necessitates locating the clips one by one or the strips in spaced relation vertically on the wall, so as to secure the bricks in horizontal courses, and requires excessive time and trouble.
Moreover, where the wall surface is irregular, as for instance in the case of lapped or cove siding, the individual clips or horizontally disposed strips cannot be used satisfactorily, because the projections for securing the bricks in place would be located in different vertical planes on the same wall.
Many of these prior constructions require that the projections be bent in such a way as to tend to cause breaking or chipping of adjacent edges of the bricks, in order to hold the bricks in position.
Accordingly, it is. an object of the present invention to provide improved means for securing veneer bricks or veneering units to a wall and the like, which means requires a relatively small amount of material and is easily attached to the wall.
Another object is to provide improved veneer brick securing means which can be attached in position to a whole section of wall before the bricks are applied.
A further object is to provide means for attaching the improved brick securing meansv to the Wall, the attaching means being adapted to anchor the mortar between the bricks to the wall when the'bricks are cemented in position.
Another object is to provide improved veneer 5 brick securing means which can be used, equally well upon walls having smooth orirregular. surfaces such as are provided by lapped or cove siding.
A further'object is to provide improvedveneer l0 brick securing means which does not require the locating of clips or projections in vertical spaced relation for each horizontal course of bricks.
Another object is to provide improved veneer brick securing means whichis easily fitted to 15 corners, offsets, windows and the like, and which providesfor horizontal adjustment of the bricks therein; in order to readily accommodate and secure all of the bricks throughout a wall in proper arrangement. I
A still further object is to provide improved veneer brick securing means to which each brick is easily applied and then individually clamped and interlocked without danger of chipping or breaking adjacent edges of the bricks.
And finally, it is an object of the present invention'to incorporate all of the foregoing advantageous features in a simple and economical construction which is easily applied to the wall, and which provides'the same flexibility in constructing a veneer wall as is present in the laying up of a brick wall by a mason. v
These and other objects are attained by the improvements comprising the present invention, which may be stated in general terms as including strips adapted for attachment to a wall in horizontally spaced relation, each strip having a series of projections thereon-arranged to secure a plurality of vertically spaced veneering units, the units having grooved opposite-side surfaces 40 into which the projections are adapted to be pressed for clamping and interlocking the units in position, and preferably double headed attaching means for attaching the strips to the'wall and extending outwardly between adjacent units for anchoring mortar therebetween. v Referring to the drawings forming part hereof,
Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a corner of a wall having a veneer applied thereto in accordance with the present invention, parts of the veneer being removed and broken away to showthe construction of one form of the im-' proved veneer securing means.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view as on line 22, Fig. l,
showing the method of clamping the improved securing means to the veneer bricks;
Fig. 3 is a detached perspective view of one of the veneer bricks used in connection with the improved securing means;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a modified form of securing strip secured to a wall and clamping a veneer brick thereon;
Fig, 5 is a fragmentary side elevation of another modified form of the improved securing strip;
Fig. 6 is a detached perspective view of a preferred form of the improved securing strip especially adapted for use with lapped or cove siding or the like;
Fig. 7 is a similar view of another preferred form adapted for the same purpose;
Fig. 8 is a sectional view showing the application of the strip of Fig. '7 to lapped siding;
Fig. 9 is a sectional view showing the application of the strip of Fig. 6 to double cove siding;
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on line i6l6, Fig. 8;
' Fig. 11 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on line l l'-l I, Fig. 9;
Fig. 12 is a sectional View of a modification of the strip of Fig. 6 applied to a wall coated with plastic material; and
Fig. 13 is a sectional view of a modification of the strip of Fig. 7 applied to a wall coated with plastic material.
Similar numerals refer to similar parts throughout the drawings. a
In Fig. l is shown a portion of the corner of a building wall, including the intersecting walls S and I, which may be of wood, and as shown in Fig. 2, may be constructed of tongue andgroove siding. The walls 8 and l are secured to studding 8, to which are secured lath .9. covered with plaster it forming the'inside building walls, all in a usual manner.. Preferably, the outer surface of the walls 6 and 1 are first covered with a heavy paper covering indicatedat i i for insulation purposes. r
The veneer wall shown in the drawings and described herein is formed of veneer bricks, but other veneering units can be substituted therefor, without departing from thescope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
The improved veneer brick securing means may include the strips i2, preferably of galvanized sheet steel, and these strips are placed upon the walls in vertically extending rows as shown in Fig. 1 the rows being preferably horizontally spaced apart a distance less, than the length of one of the veneer bricks to be applied.
The strips I2 are provided with longitudinally spaced projections l3, which may be stamped or punched out of the strip and are bent outwardly therefrom substantially at right angles. The gauge of the strips is such that the projections i3 are substantially rigid and yet have suflicient ductility that they may be bent by means of a special tool in a manner to be hereinafter described.
" The projections l3 are preferably formed fiat and are vertically spaced in such manner that a veneer brick l4 will'fit between each pair of projections, and so that the bricks after being fitted in the projections will be spaced vertically so as r to allow for horizontal mortar joints, as indicated at 15.
At the bottom of the wall, relatively short securing strips l2 are provided for being aligned and preferably abutted with the strips I 2. These bottomstrips l2 are preferably of substantially non-corrosive material such as copper, for the purpose of better resisting the tendency to rust prevalent at the lower portion of the wall. An outwardly projecting substantially rigid securing flange It may be provided at the bottom of each of strips I2 for the purpose of securing the underside of the first course of bricks, and substantially rigid projections l3 similar to projections 13, are provided for securing and interlocking the top faces of the first course of bricks and the bottom faces of the next course above.
In applying the improved veneer wall construction to a wall, the improved securing strips 52 and i2 are first attached to the wall in vertical rows horizontally spaced apart less than the length of a brick, preferably by means of double headed nails H which are driven through nail holesin the strips into the wall, the nail holes being preferably located one at the side of each two adjacent projections. Ihe double headed nails i? may be staggered, that is, placed surface has had the securing strips attached thereto in this manner, the veneer bricks M are applied. These bricks are adapted to be inserted one between each pair of projections l3, as best indicated in dot-dash lines in Fig. 2. The bricks i may be inserted in a direction perpendicular to the wall, and may he slid horizontally in the projections in order to vary the vertical mortar joints is therebetween so as to accommodate the bricks to offsets, windows or other irregularities in the wall. As shown in Fig. l, the horizontal spacing of the improved strips 12 and I2 is easily adjusted to fit a corner or irregularity in the wall, and corner bricks I4 may be provided for fitting around the corner of the wall.
Preferably, the bricks l4 and the corner bricks M are provided on their upper and lower surfaces with longitudinal grooves indicated at !9, and the l projections l3 and 13 are made just long enough to slightly overlap or extend over the grooves when the bricks arein place. After a number of the bricks have been inserted in between the substantially rigid projections l3, l3 and it, the
projections may be bent or pressed into the grooves adjacent thereto as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, in order to clampingly engage the grooves and rigidly interlock the bricks in position, the projections being pliable enough to be bent but not resilient. A special tool may be provided for this purpose, such as the pliers indicated at 25 in Fig. 2. The upper and lower jaws 2| of the pliers are adapted to simultaneously press a projection at the upper surface and a projection at the lower surface of each brick, so as to clamp and securely interlock the brick in placewithout any danger of chipping or breaking edges of the brick.
As indicated, the doubleheaded nails I] are located between adjacent projection 13 or l3 and to one side thereof so as to permit insertion of the jaws of the pliers 20.
After the bricks have been clamped by the projections in the above manner, the mortar joints may be filled in to give the walla-finished appearance and to cement the bricks in place. The double headed nails ll project into the mortar joints between the bricks and provide a means of anchoring the-mortar tothe wall.
' The improved strips requirea relatively small amount of material and are easily applied. Moreover, no accurate measuring is required for locating the strips on the wall, because the projections are already properly spaced for securing the veneer bricks in horizontal courses.
Due to the fact that the horizontal spacing of the strips may be varied slightly to fit adjacent to corners and irregularities in the wall, and that the bricks 34 may be moved horizontally after being inserted in the'projections I3 to fit the bricks to corners, windows and the like; the present improved veneer wall provides the same flexibility during construction as is present during the laying up of an ordinary brick wall by a mason.
The modified form of improved strip indicated at H2 in Fig. 4 is channel-shaped in cross section, and may have veneer securing projections H3 and side flanges I22. The strip H2 is preferably attached to the wall ID! by means of double headed nails III passing through the flanges I22 and the wall covering III into the wall.
The channel shape of strips II2 provides for spacing the veneer bricks I14 from the wall I31, which may have a continuous or unbroken surface, so as to provide an air space therebetween, where the same is desired for insulation purposes. v
The modified form of improved strip indicated at H2 in Fig. 5 has the veneer securing projections 2E3 extending forwardly from the front surface of the strip, and is provided between pairs of projections 2I3 with angular tangs or projections 225 extending rearwardly. The tangs 225 are preferably oppositely disposed to the strip at acute angles.
The strips 2I2 are adapted to be used where it is desired to apply veneer over walls which are first coated with cement, grout or other plastic material. The strips are applied to the wall when the grout is in plastic condition, and the angular tangs provide means for securely anchoring the strips thereto after the grout has set.
The modified forms of improved strip indicated at I20. and I2?) in Figs. 6 to 11 inclusive, are particularly adapted for use on walls having continuous or unbroken, but uneven surfaces, such as provided. by lapped or cove siding. As'shown in Fig. 6, the strip I2a is channel-shaped in cross section having the web a and inturned flanges 3 la. As shown in Fig. 7 the strip I2b is channelshaped in cross section having the web'30b and outturned flanges 3 lb.
Projections I3a are stamped 0r punched in the web 36a. and bent outwardly therefrom substantially at right angles in the same manner as the projections I3 in strips I2. The projections I3a. are longitudinally spaced so that a veneer brick I4 will fit against the web 30a; between each pair of projections, and so that the bricks after being fitted in the projections will be spaced vertically to allow for horizontal mortar joints.
Similarly, projections I3b are stamped or punched in the web 301) and bent outwardly therefrom substantially at right angles. The projections I3b are longitudinally spaced so that a veneer brick I4 will fit between each pair of projections. However since the flanges 3Ib are outturned, the bricks I4 will fit against the outer edges thereof. This requires increasing the length of the projections I3b so that they project beyond the plane of the outer edges of flanges 3Ib a distanceequal to the distance flanges 3 la project beyond web 30a. 7
The projections I30. and I3b are pliable or bendable but not resilient, so that they may be bent into engagement with the grooves of veneering units to rigidly interlock the-same, in the same manner as the projections I3'in the form shown in'Figs. 1 and 2.
The form of strip 121) facilitates manufacturing since the flanges 3Ib and projections ISb extend in the same direction from the web 30b and may be formed in the same operation. Also the strip I21) has an additional advantage in that the. bricks do not abut the web 3% and therefore inaccuracies at the baselof the projections I3b do not cause undue distortion of the projections when the bricks are forced therebetween.
The improved strips I20. and I2!) are provided with nail holes 32 located at intervals in the webs Silaand 3%, respectively. Some of the nail holes may be located one midway between each pair of adjacent projections, and others may be located one midway between pairs of adjacent projections, as best shown in Figs. 6 and 7. Thus, when 1 the strips are applied to lapped siding, 33, as shown in Fig. 8, or to double cove siding 34, as shown in Fig. 9, ordinary nails 35 can be driven through any of the holes 32, depending upon which holes come over spaces between the laps or over coves."
In this way,'the strips I2a and. IZb may be applied without bending. them inwardly by hammering over spaces or coves in the surface of the siding, by selecting the nail holes at points where the strips substantially abut the siding, as shown in-Figsr8 and 9. Such bending would prevent the projections from securing the veneering units in proper location. 7
If desired, double headed nails may be used between adjacent projections,'as shown in Fig. 2.
The projections I 311 and I3b are located on strips [2a and IZb, respectively, with respect to the ends thereof, so that the adjacent ends of the strips may be spaced apart on the wall a sufficient distanceto allow for expansion, as indicated at 38 in Fig. 9. i
The channel form of the strip I2a or I2b strengthens the same so as to prevent accidental bend ng thereof during handling or installation. Moreover, the flanges 3m and 3Ib of the strips provide for spacing the veneering units from the wall, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11 for insulation purposes.
7 'Furthermore, the channel forms provide a strong rigid bridge over the spaces or coves in the siding, so as to form a more rigid support for the veneering units, than is provided by fiat strips.
The strip IIZa shown in Fig. 12, is channelshaped in cross section similar to the strip [2a, and has side flanges I3 I a, but is provided between pairs of adjacent projections I I 3a with rearwardly extending tangs I25a, preferably oppositely disposed to the strip at acute angles.
The strip II2b shown in Fig. 13, is channelshaped in cross section similar to the strip I2b, and has side flanges I3 lb, but is provided between pairs of adjacent projections I B?) with rearwardly extending tangs I251), preferably oppositely disposed to the strip at acute angles.
The strips I I20. and I I2b are adapted to be used for applying veneer to walls which'are first coated with cement or other plastic material, the tangs being inserted in the plastic material I40 when soft, so that when the plastic material hardens the strips will be anchored therein.
The term wall as used herein, is intended to include side walls of building, top walls or ceilings or roofs and bottom walls or floors.
1. In veneer wall construction, a wall, spaced strips on the wall, means attaching the strips to the wall, each strip having longitudinally spaced pliable projections for securing adjacent veneering units, and a plurality of veneering units each having grooved opposite surfaces, the projections being rigidly engaged with the grooves for interlocking the veneering units in position on the wall.
2. In veneer wall construction, a wall, laterally spaced strips on the wall each having longitudinally spaced pliable projections, means attaching the strips to the wall, and a plurality of veneering units each having opposite surfaces provided with grooves and fitting between a pair of said projections, said projections being rigidly interlocked with said grooves. I
3. In veneer wall construction, a wall, laterally spaced strips on the wall each having longitudinally spaced pliable projections for securing adjacent veneering units, a plurality of veneering units each having opposite surfaces provided with grooves, and the projections being rigidly interlocked with said grooves.
4. In veneer wall construction, a wall, laterally spaced strips on the wall each having longitudinally spaced pliable projections for securing veneering units, a plurality of veneering units each having opposite surfaces provided with grooves and adapted to fit between a pair of said projections, and each pair of projections being adapted to be simultaneously tool pressed'into rigid interlocking engagement with the opposite surface grooves of a veneering unit.
5. In combination with a veneering unit having opposite surfaces provided with grooves, a strip having a pair of spaced pliable projections, the veneering unit being adapted to fit between said projections, and the projections being adapted to be simultaneously tool pressed into rigid engagement with the opposite surface grooves of the veneering unit for interlocking the unit to the strip.
6. The method of applying veneering units and the like to a wall, which includes attaching strips having longitudinally spaced pairs of pliable projections to the wall in laterally spaced relation, inserting veneering units having grooved opposite surfaces each between a pair of projections, and then simultaneously bending opposite projections into rigid interlocking engagement with the grooves adjacent thereto of a unit.
7. In veneer wall construction, an unbroken wall, a strip on the wall having a pair of longitudinally spaced projections securing a. veneer ing unit therebetween, and means attaching the strip to the wall, the strip being channel-shaped in cross section for spacing the veneering unit from the wall to provide an insulation space therebetween.
8. Veneer wall construction including a wall, spaced strips on the wall having spaced pliable projections rigidly securing the veneering units, the strips being channel-shaped in cross section for spacing the veneering units from the wall and having side flanges at their open sides, and means attaching the side flanges to the wall.
9. In veneer wall construction, a strip adapted for attachment to a wall, said strip having spaced forwardly extending pliable projections for rigidly securing veneering units, and said strip being provided with rearwardly extending oppositely angled projections for being imbedded in the wall.
10. In veneer wall construction, a strip adapted for attachment to a wall, said strip being channel-shaped in cross section and having a web and rearwardly extending flanges, spaced pliable projections for rigidly securing veneering units extending forwardly from the web, and oppositely angled projections extending rearwardly from the web for being imbedded in the wall.
11. In veneer wall construction, a wall, a strip on the wall, the strip being channel-shaped in cross section and having a web and flanges angular thereto, longitudinally spaced pliable projections extending forwardly from the web sub stantially'at right angles to the web and to the flanges for rigidly securing veneering units therebetween, and means attaching the strip to the wall.
12. In veneer wall construction, a wall, a strip on the wall, the strip being channel-shaped in cross section and having a web and rearwardly extendingflanges angular thereto, longitudinally spaced pliable projections extending forwardly from the web substantially at right angles to the web and to the flanges for rigidly securing veneering units therebetween, and means attaching the strip to the wall.
13. In veneer wall construction, a wall, a strip on the wall, the strip being channel-shaped in cross section and having a web and forwardly extending flanges angular thereto, longitudinally spaced pliable projections extending forwardly from the web substantially at right angles to the web and to the flanges for rigidly securing veneering units therebetween, and means attaching the strip to the wall.
CHARLES S. FINZER. EDWARD G. FINZER.