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Publication numberUS20040029511 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/812,174
Publication dateFeb 12, 2004
Filing dateMar 20, 2001
Priority dateMar 20, 2001
Also published asEP1373355A2, WO2002074839A2, WO2002074839A3
Publication number09812174, 812174, US 2004/0029511 A1, US 2004/029511 A1, US 20040029511 A1, US 20040029511A1, US 2004029511 A1, US 2004029511A1, US-A1-20040029511, US-A1-2004029511, US2004/0029511A1, US2004/029511A1, US20040029511 A1, US20040029511A1, US2004029511 A1, US2004029511A1
InventorsDon Kincaid, Ernest Thurber, Eric Larson, Gregg Dahlke, Chad Wold
Original AssigneeKincaid Don H., Thurber Ernest L., Larson Eric G., Dahlke Gregg D., Wold Chad R.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Abrasive articles having a polymeric material
US 20040029511 A1
Abstract
The present invention provides abrasive articles and methods of making abrasive articles. The abrasive articles have a polymeric material that includes (1) a reaction product of components that include (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; and/or (2) a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.
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Claims(52)
What is claimed is:
1. An abrasive article comprising a polymeric material that comprises a reaction product of components comprising (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.
2. The article of claim 1 wherein the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate is a monomer, an oligomer, or a polymer.
3. The article of claim 1 wherein the components further comprise (d) a curing agent.
4. The article of claim 1 wherein the components further comprise (d) a free radical initiator.
5. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a make coat.
6. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a size coat.
7. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a slurry coat.
8. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a presize coat.
9. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a saturant coat.
10. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a backsize coat.
11. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a subsize coat.
12. The article of claim 1 wherein the polymeric material provides a supersize coat.
13. The article of claim 1 further comprising:
a backing having a major surface; and
an abrasive layer secured to the major surface, wherein the abrasive layer comprises a plurality of abrasive grits and a polymeric material that comprises a reaction product of components comprising (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.
14. An abrasive article comprising a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.
15. The article of claim 14 wherein the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate is a monomer, an oligomer, or a polymer.
16. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyffunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a curing agent.
17. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a free radical initiator.
18. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a make coat.
19. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a size coat.
20. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a slurry coat.
21. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a presize coat.
22. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a saturant coat.
23. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a backsize coat.
24. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a subsize coat.
25. The article of claim 14 wherein the polymeric material provides a supersize coat.
26. The article of claim 14 further comprising:
a backing having a major surface; and
an abrasive layer secured to the major surface, wherein the abrasive layer comprises a plurality of abrasive grits and a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.
27. A method of making an abrasive article comprising:
providing a backing having a major surface, the major surface having thereon a composition preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate;
irradiating at least a portion of the composition to provide an irradiated composition; and
thermally curing at least a portion of the irradiated composition to provide a coated abrasive article.
28. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a curing agent.
29. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a free radical initiator.
30. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a make coat.
31. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a size coat.
32. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a slurry coat.
33. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a presize coat.
34. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a saturant coat.
35. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a backsize coat.
36. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a subsize coat.
37. The method of claim 27 wherein the composition provides a supersize coat.
38. A nonwoven abrasive article comprising a polymeric material that comprises a reaction product of components comprising (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.
39. The article of claim 38 wherein the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate is a monomer, an oligomer, or a polymer.
40. The article of claim 38 wherein the components further comprise (d) a curing agent.
41. The article of claim 38 wherein the components further comprise (d) a free radical initiator.
42. The article of claim 38 further comprising a nonwoven web having thereon the polymeric material and a plurality of abrasive grits.
43. A nonwoven abrasive article comprising a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyifunctional (meth)acrylate.
44. The article of claim 43 wherein the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate is a monomer, an oligomer, or a polymer.
45. The article of claim 43 wherein the polymeric material is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a curing agent.
46. The article of claim 43 wherein the polymeric material is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a free radical initiator.
47. The article of claim 43 further comprising a nonwoven web having thereon the polymeric material and a plurality of abrasive grits.
48. A method of making a nonwoven abrasive article comprising:
providing a nonwoven web having thereon a plurality of abrasive grits and a composition preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; and
at least partially curing at least a portion of the composition to provide a nonwoven abrasive article.
49. The method of claim 48 wherein the composition is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a curing agent.
50. The method of claim 48 wherein the composition is preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and (d) a free radical initiator.
51. The method of claim 48 wherein at least partially curing at least a portion of the composition comprises irradiating at least a portion of the composition.
52. The method of claim 48 wherein at least partially curing at least a portion of the composition comprises thermally curing at least a portion of the composition.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates to abrasive articles and methods of making abrasive articles having a polymeric material that includes (1) a reaction product of components that include (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; and/or (2) a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.

BACKGROUND

[0002] A variety of abrasive product are known in the art, including coated abrasive articles, lapping abrasive articles (is a “lapping abrasive article” a type of “coated abrasive article”) and non-woven articles. Coated abrasives generally include a backing having a plurality of abrasive particles bonded to at least one major surface thereof by one or more binders (e.g., make, size, and supersize coats). In one common version of a coated abrasive article, the abrasive particles are secured to the backing by a first binder, commonly referred to as a make coat. A second binder, commonly referred to as a size coat, is then generally applied over the make coat and the abrasive particles to anchor the particles to the backing. Optionally, a third layer commonly referred to as supersize layer is applied over the size coat to provide a functional coating. The abrasive particles are generally oriented with their longest dimension perpendicular to the backing to provide an optimum cut rate.

[0003] Common make and size layers include those made from thermally curable binders include phenolic resins (e.g., resol phenolic resin), urea-formaldehyde resins, urethane resins, melamine-formaldehyde resins, epoxy resins, and alkyd resins.

[0004] Porous backings such as woven cloth, non-woven materials, stitch bonded cloth, felt, and paper are frequently used in coated abrasive articles. The make coat precursor is generally applied to the backing as a low viscosity material. In this condition, the make coat precursor can infiltrate into the interstices of the porous backing leaving an insufficient coating thickness making it difficult to bond the subsequently applied abrasive particles to the backing and, on curing, resulting in the backing becoming hard and brittle. As a result, it has become conventional to employ one or more backing treatment coats, such as a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, or a subsize coat to seal the porous backing.

[0005] The presize coat, saturant coat, backsize coat, and subsize coat generally include thermally curable resinous adhesives, including, for example, phenolic resins, epoxy-functional materials, (meth)acrylate resins, latices (e.g., acrylic latices), urethane resins, glue, and starch. A saturant coat saturates the porous backing and fills pores, resulting in a less porous, stiffer backing with more body. An increase in body provides an increase in strength and durability of the article. A presize coat, which is applied to the front side of the backing, i.e., the side to which the abrasive grits are applied, may add bulk to the backing and/or may improve adhesion of subsequent coatings. A backsize coat, which is applied to the back side of the backing, i.e., the side opposite that to which the abrasive grits are applied, may add body to the backing and protect the backing from wear. A subsize coat is similar to a saturant coat except that it is applied to a backing that already has saturant coat thereon to fill or smooth out the coating.

[0006] Nonwoven abrasive products preferably include an open porous lofty polymer filament structure having abrasive particles distributed throughout the structure and adherently bonded therein by an organic binder. Examples of filaments include polyester fibers, polyamide fibers, and polyaramid fibers.

[0007] There remains a need in the abrasive industry for thermosetting polymeric materials that provide abrasive articles with improved properties.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] In one aspect, the present invention provides an abrasive article including a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of components including (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the article further includes a backing having a major surface and an abrasive layer secured to the major surface, wherein the abrasive layer includes a plurality of abrasive grits and a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of components including (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the polymeric material provides at least one of a make coat, a size coat, a slurry coat, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat, and a supersize coat.

[0009] In another aspect, the present invention provides an abrasive article including a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the article further includes a backing having a major surface and an abrasive layer secured to the major surface, wherein the abrasive layer includes a plurality of abrasive grits and a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy- functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the polymeric material provides at least one of a make coat, a size coat, a slurry coat, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat, and a supersize coat.

[0010] In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of making an abrasive article including providing a backing having a major surface, the major surface having thereon a composition preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; irradiating at least a portion of the composition to provide an irradiated composition; and thermally curing at least a portion of the irradiated composition to provide a coated abrasive article.

[0011] In another aspect, the present invention provides a nonwoven abrasive article including a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of components including (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the article further includes a nonwoven web having thereon the polymeric material and a plurality of abrasive grits.

[0012] In another aspect, the present invention provides a nonwoven abrasive article including a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the article further includes a nonwoven web having thereon the polymeric material and a plurality of abrasive grits.

[0013] In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of making a nonwoven abrasive article including providing a nonwoven web having thereon a plurality of abrasive grits and a composition preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; and at least partially curing at least a portion of the composition to provide a nonwoven abrasive article. Preferably, the method includes irradiating at least a portion of the composition. Preferably, the method includes thermally curing at least a portion of the composition.

[0014] Epoxy-functional materials and polyfunctional (meth)acrylates are more hydrophobic than standard phenolic-formaldehyde resins, which are useful for providing coatings for coated abrasive articles. Thus, for example, compositions according to the present invention may provide a make coat, a size coat, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat, or a supersize coat with improved grinding performance in comparison to conventional phenol-formaldehyde compositions as described herein. The epoxy-functional material contributes, in certain embodiments of the invention, to improved wetting properties. The cyclic anhydride component in certain embodiments of the invention may contribute to improved adhesion between the backing having at least one coating thereon and the abrasive layer as measured according to the 90° Peel Adhesion test described later herein. Furthermore in some embodiments of the invention, a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate serves as a Theological modifier to the composition, which preferably allows for better control of the penetration of the composition into the backing and orientation of abrasive grits in the make coat.

Definitions

[0015] As used herein, “binder precursor” means any material that is conformable or can be made to be conformable by heat or pressure or both and that can be rendered non-conformable by means of radiation energy or thermal energy or both. A binder precursor may include the polymeric material according to the present invention and optional materials including abrasive grits, fillers, and grinding aids.

[0016] As used herein, “binder” refers to a solidified, handleable material. Preferably, the binder is formed from reaction of a binder precursor to provide a material (e.g., particles) that will not substantially flow or experience a substantial change in shape. The expression “binder” does not require that the binder precursor is fully reacted (e.g., polymerized or cured), only that it is sufficiently reacted, for example, to allow removal thereof from the production tool while the production tool continues to move, without leading to substantial change in shape of the binder.

[0017] It should be understood that where incorporation of an ingredient is specified, either a single ingredient or a combination or mixture of materials may be used as desired. Similarly, articles including “a,” “an,” and, “the” are meant to be interpreted as referring to the singular as well as the plural. It should also be understood that the specification of a value that includes the term “about” is meant to include both higher and lower values reasonably close to the specified value. For example, for some properties values either 10% above or 10% below the specified value are intended to be included by use of the term “about”.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0018]FIG. 1 illustrates a side view of an embodiment of a coated abrasive article according to the present invention.

[0019]FIG. 2 illustrates a side view of another embodiment of a coated abrasive article according to the present invention.

[0020]FIG. 3 illustrates a cross section of an embodiment of a nonwoven abrasive article according to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

[0021] As illustrated in FIG. 1, flexible abrasive article according to the present invention 10, which is a coated flexible abrasive article, has a cloth substrate 12. The cloth substrate 12 has been saturated with a saturant coat 11. A subsize coat may be applied to either side of a backing that already has a saturant coat thereon, one embodiment of which is illustrated as subsize coat 20. Additionally, the cloth substrate 12 has been treated with an optional first backsize coat 13 on one side and an optional presize coat 15 on the opposite side. There is no clear line of demarcation between the backsize coat 13 and the presize coat 15 which preferably meet in the interior of the cloth backing. In some instances it may be desirable that a second backsize coat 14 be applied over the first backsize coat 13. Overlaying the presize coat 15 is a make coat 16 in which are embedded abrasive grits 18. A size coat 17 has been placed over the make coat 16 and the abrasive grits 18. In some instances it may be desirable that there be a second size coat, commonly referred to as a supersize coat 19, applied over the size coat 17. In metal grinding, the supersize coat may include a resinous adhesive and a grinding aid. In paint sanding, the supersize coat may include a loading resistant coating such as zinc stearate which prevents the coated abrasive from filling with the paint that has been abraded.

[0022]FIG. 2 illustrates a side view of another embodiment of a slurry coated abrasive article according to the present invention. The coated abrasive article is illustrated as a lapping flexible abrasive article generally indicated as 30 which is formed on a paper substrate 37. On the front side of the substrate is an abrasive coating 36 including a plurality of abrasive grits 38 distributed throughout slurry coat 39.

[0023]FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment of a nonwoven flexible abrasive article according to the present invention generally indicated as 40. There are a plurality of abrasive grits 42 distributed throughout an open, porous, polymer filament substrate 41. The abrasive grits 42 are secured to the nonwoven substrate by means of a make coat.

[0024] Polymeric materials useful for making abrasive articles according to the present invention include (1) a reaction product of components that include (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; and/or (2) a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. One or more polymeric materials may be used to make abrasive articles according to the present invention. Abrasive articles having polymeric materials therein are also disclosed in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No.______, filed on Mar. 20, 2001 as Attorney Docket No. 55576-USA-2A.002 and entitled “AN ABRASIVE ARTICLE HAVING PROJECTIONS ATTACHED TO A MAJOR SURFACE THEREOF” and U.S. patent application Ser. No.______, filed on Mar. 20, 2001 as Attorney Docket No. 55854-USA-1A.002 and entitled “DISCRETE PARTICLES THAT INCLUDE A POLYMERIC MATERIAL AND ARTICLES FORMED THEREFROM,” both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[0025] Preferably, the components include at least about 1% by weight epoxy-functional material, more preferably at least about 30% by weight epoxy-functional material, and most preferably at least about 40% by weight epoxy-functional material, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the components include at most about 90% by weight epoxy-functional material and more preferably at most about 85% by weight epoxy-functional material, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.

[0026] Preferably, the components include at least about 0.1 mole of cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, more preferably at least about 0.2 mole cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and most preferably at least about 0.3 mole cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, per equivalent of epoxy functionality in the epoxy-functional material. Preferably, the components include at most about 1.3 moles of cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, more preferably at most about 1.0 mole cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and most preferably at most about 0.8 mole cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, per equivalent of epoxy functionality in the epoxy-functional material.

[0027] Preferably, the components include at least about 0.1% by weight polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, more preferably at least about 1% by weight polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and most preferably at least about 3% by weight polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the components include at most about 40% by weight polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, more preferably at most about 15% by weight polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, and most preferably at most about 10% by weight polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.

Epoxy-Functional Materials

[0028] Examples of epoxy-functional materials useful for making polymeric materials useful for making abrasive articles according to the present invention include octadecylene oxide, epichlorohydrin, styrene oxide, vinylcyclohexene dioxide (e.g., having the trade designation ERL-4206 from Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn.), 3,4-epoxycyclohexyl-methyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexene carboxylate (e.g., having the trade designation ERL-4221 from Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn.), 2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl-5,5-spiro-3,4-epoxy) cyclohexane-metadioxane (e.g., having the trade designation ERL-4234 from Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn.), bis(3,4-epoxy-cyclohexyl) adipate (e.g., having the trade designation ERL-4299 from Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn.), dipentene dioxide (e.g., having the trade designation ERL-4269 from Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn.), epoxidized polybutadiene (e.g., having the trade designation OXIRON 2001 from FMC Corp., Pasanda, Tex.), silicone resin containing epoxy functionality, epoxy silanes (e.g., beta-3,4- epoxycyclohexylethyltrimethoxy silane and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane, available from Union Carbide, Danbury, Conn.), glycidol, glycidyl-methacrylate, diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (e.g., those available under the trade designations EPON 825, EPON 828, EPON 1004, and EPON 1001F from Resolution Performance Products, Houston, Tex., and DER-332 and DER-334 from Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich.), diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol F (e.g., having the trade designation ARALDITE GY281 from Vanitico, Inc., Brewster, N.Y.), flame retardant epoxy-functional materials (e.g., a brominated bisphenol type epoxy-functional material having the trade designation DER-542, available from Dow Chemical Co, Midland, Mich.), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (e.g., having the trade designation ARALDITE RD-2 from Vanitico, Inc., Brewster, N.Y.), hydrogenated bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin based epoxy-functional materials (e.g., having the trade designation EPONEX 1510 from Resolution Performance Products, Houston, Tex.), and polyglycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde novolak (e.g., having the trade designation DEN-431 and DEN-438 from Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich.), and triphenolmethane-epichlorohydrin based epoxy-functional material (e.g., having the trade designation TACTIX 742 from Vanitico, Inc., Brewster, N.Y.).

[0029] In certain embodiments according to the present invention 3,4-epoxycyclohexyl-methyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexene carboxylate (e.g., having the trade designation ERL-4221 from Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn.) and epoxy-functional materials which are diglycidyl ethers of Bisphenol A (e.g., having the trade designations EPON 825, EPON 828, EPON 1001F, and EPON 1004 from Resolution Performance Products, Houston, Tex.) are particularly useful.

Cyclic Anhydrides and/or Diacids Derived therefrom

[0030] Examples of cyclic anhydrides useful for making polymeric materials useful for making abrasive articles according to the present invention include maleic anhydride, succinic anhydride, hexahydrophthalic anhydride, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, dodecylsuccinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, nadic anhydride, pyromellitic anhydride, and mixtures thereof. A cyclic anhydride, which is particularly useful in certain embodiments of the invention, is hexahydrophthalic anhydride, which is available, for example, from Buffalo Chemical Color Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y.

[0031] Cyclic anhydrides may also be hydrolyzed to yield diacids derived therefrom. The diacids, although not preferred, are also useful for making polymeric materials useful for making abrasive articles according to the present invention.

Polyfunctional (Meth)acrylates

[0032] The term “(meth)acrylate”, as used herein, encompasses acrylates and methacrylates. “Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate” means that, on average, the (meth)acrylate moiety has greater than about 1.0 equivalent of (meth)acrylate functionality per molecule.

[0033] Examples of polyfunctional (meth)acrylates useful for making polymeric materials useful for making abrasive articles according to the present invention include ester compounds that are reaction products of aliphatic or aromatic polyhydroxy compounds and (meth)acrylic acids. (Meth)acrylic acids are unsaturated carboxylic acids which include, for example, those represented by the following formula: CH2=C(R)C(O)OH where R is a hydrogen atom or a methyl group.

[0034] Polyfunctional (meth)acrylates can be monomers, oligomers, or polymers. For purposes of this invention, the term “monomer” means a molecule having a molecular weight less than about 400 Daltons and an inherent capability of forming chemical bonds with the same or other monomers in such manner that long chains (polymeric chains or macromolecules) are formed. For this application, the term “oligomer” means a molecule having 2 to 20 repeating units (e.g., dimer, trimer, tetramer, and so forth) having an inherent capability of forming chemical bonds with the same or other oligomers in such manner that longer polymeric chains can be formed therefrom. For this application, the term “polymer” means a molecule having greater than 20 repeating units having an inherent capability of forming chemical bonds with the same or other polymers in such manner that longer polymeric chains can be formed therefrom. The polyfunctional (meth)acrylate utilized according to the present invention may include, for example, polyfunctional (meth)acrylate monomers, polyfunctional (meth)acrylate oligomers, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate polymers.

[0035] Useful polyfunctional (meth)acrylate monomers include, for example, ethylene glycol diacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, hexanediol diacrylate, triethylene glycol diacrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate, ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate, glycerol triacrylate, pentaerthyitol triacrylate, pentaerythritol trimethacrylate, pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, pentaerythritol tetramethacrylate, and neopentylglycol diacrylate. For some embodiments, the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate monomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate can be particularly useful.

[0036] Useful polyfunctional (meth)acrylate monomers include, for example, trimethylolpropane triacrylate available, for example, under the trade designation SR351; ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate available, for example, under the trade designation SR454; pentaerythritol tetraacrylate available, for example, under the trade designation SR295; and neopentylglycol diacrylate available, for example, under the trade designation SR247; all available from Sartomer Co., Exton, Pa.

[0037] Useful polyfunctional (meth)acrylate oligomers include (meth)acrylated polyether and polyester oligomers. Examples of useful (meth)acrylated polyether oligomers include polyethylene glycol diacrylates available, for example, under the trade designations SR259 and SR344 from Sartomer Co., Exton, Pa. (meth)acrylated polyester oligomers are available, for example, under the trade designations EBECRYL 657 and EBECRYL 830 from UCB Specialty Chemicals, Smyrna, Ga.

[0038] Other useful polyfunctional (meth)acrylate oligomers include (meth)acrylated epoxies, such as diacrylated esters of epoxy-functional materials (e.g., diacrylated esters of bisphenol A epoxy-functional material) and (meth)acrylated urethanes. Useful (meth)acrylated epoxies include, for example, acrylated epoxies available under the trade designations EBECRYL 3500, EBECRYL 3600, EBECRYL 3700, and EBECRYL 3720 from UCB Specialty Chemicals, Smyrna, Ga. Useful (meth)acrylated urethanes include, for example, acrylated urethanes available under the trade designations EBECRYL 270, EBECRYL 1290, EBECRYL 8301, and EBECRYL 8804 from UCB Specialty Chemicals, Smyrna, Ga.

[0039] Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate monomers, oligomers, and polymers each generally react to form a network due to multiple functionalities available on each monomer, oligomer or polymer.

Optional Additives

[0040] Free Radical Initiators. The term “free radical initiator” as used herein refers to a material that is capable of generating a free radical species that may cause at least partial reaction of polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Examples of useful free radical initiators include free radical photoinitiators and free radical thermal initiators.

[0041] A free radical initiator may be included as a component to aid in reacting of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate, although it should be understood that an electron beam source also could be used to generate free radicals. A free radical initiator is preferably included when it is desired to react the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate prior to reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom.

[0042] Actinic radiation (e.g., ultraviolet light and visible light), unlike radiative and non-radiative thermal energy sources, generally does not cause the epoxy-functional material to react with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. In addition, the use of actinic radiation generally causes more rapid reacting of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate than thermal energy sources. Radiative thermal sources include infrared and microwave sources. Non-radiative thermal sources include air impingement ovens. The temperature at which both reacting of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate and reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom occurs can vary but for some embodiments they both may occur, for example, at a temperature greater than about 50° C., or greater than about 60° C.

[0043] Increasing amounts of the free radical initiator generally results in an accelerated reaction rate of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Increased amounts of free radical initiator can also, for some embodiments, result in reduced energy exposure requirements for reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate to occur. The amount of the free radical initiator is generally determined by the rate at which it is desired for the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate to react, the intensity of the energy source, and the thickness of the composition.

[0044] Preferably, the components include at least about 0.1% by weight free radical initiator and more preferably at least about 0.4% by weight free radical initiator, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the components include at most about 5% by weight free radical initiator, more preferably at most about 4% by weight free radical initiator, and most preferably at most about 2% by weight free radical initiator, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.

[0045] Free Radical Photoinitiators. Examples of useful photoinitiators, which generate free radicals when exposed to ultraviolet light, include organic peroxides, azo compounds, quinones, benzophenones, nitroso compounds, acyl halides, hydrazones, mercapto compounds, pyrylium compounds, triacylimidazoles, acylphosphine oxides, bisimidazoles, chloroalkyltriazines, benzoin ethers, benzil ketals, thioxanthones, acetophenone derivatives, and mixtures thereof. An example of a useful free radical-generating initiator for use with ultraviolet light is 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone initiator available, for example, under the trade designation IRGACURE 651 from Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Tarrytown, N.Y. Examples of photoinitiators that generate free radicals when exposed to visible radiation, are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,735,632 (Oxman et al.).

[0046] Free Radical Thermal Initiators. Free radical thermal initiators useful for the present invention include azo, peroxide, persulfate, and redox initiators.

[0047] Suitable azo initiators include 2,2′-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (available under the trade designation VAZO 33); 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (available under the trade designation VAZO 50); 2,2′-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (available under the trade designation VAZO 52); 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (available under the trade designation VAZO 64); 2,2′-azobis-2-methylbutyronitrile (available under the trade designation VAZO 67); 1,1′-azobis(1-cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (available under the trade designation VAZO 88), all of which are available from E.I. Dupont deNemours and Company, Wilmington, De., and 2,240 -azobis(methyl isobutyrate) (available under the trade designation V-601 from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan).

[0048] Suitable peroxide initiators include benzoyl peroxide, acetyl peroxide, lauroyl peroxide, decanoyl peroxide, dicetyl peroxydicarbonate, di(4-t-butylcyclohexyl) peroxydicarbonate (available under the trade designation PERKADOX 16, from Akzo Chemicals, Inc., Chicago, Ill.), di(2-ethylhexyl) peroxydicarbonate, t-butylperoxypivalate (available under the trade designation LUPERSOL 11, from Lucidol Division., Atochem North America, Buffalo, N.Y.) t-butylperoxy-2-ethylhexanoate (available under the trade designation TRIGONOX 21-C50, from Akzo Chemicals, Inc., Chicago, Ill.), and dicumyl peroxide.

[0049] Suitable persulfate initiators include potassium persulfate, sodium persulfate, and ammonium persulfate.

[0050] Suitable redox (oxidation-reduction) initiators include combinations of persulfate initiators with reducing agents such as sodium metabisulfite and sodium bisulfite; systems based on organic peroxides and tertiary amines (e.g., benzoyl peroxide plus dimethylaniline); and systems based on organic hydroperoxides and transition metals (e.g., cumene hydroperoxide plus cobalt naphthenate).

[0051] Curing Agents. The components used in the present invention may further include a curing agent that promotes reaction of the epoxy-functional material with the cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. The term “curing agent” as used herein refers to a material that increases the rate of reaction of the cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom with the epoxy-functional material. The cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom are excluded from the definition of “curing agent.” Examples of suitable curing agents include, for example, catalysts and curatives. A “catalyst” is a curing agent that increases the rate of such a reaction but is not incorporated into the reaction product of the epoxy-functional material and cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. A “curative” is a curing agent that increases the rate of such a reaction and is incorporated into the reaction product of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom.

[0052] The reaction of the cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom with epoxy-functional material generally results in ester linkages. The curing agent may be activated, for example, by exposure to ultraviolet or visible light radiation, by accelerated particles (e.g., electron beam radiation), or thermally (e.g., radiative and non-radiative sources).

[0053] If desired, the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate may be reacted prior to reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. A type of energy source and curing agent is preferably selected that would not cause the epoxy-functional material to react with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom simultaneously with the reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. It is advantageous for certain embodiments to react the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate using ultraviolet or visible light radiation and a free radical photoinitiator followed by reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom via a thermal energy source using a thermal curing agent. Epoxy-functional materials and cyclic anhydrides and/or diacids derived therefrom are not free radically curable and thus would not generally be affected by the reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate via ultraviolet light radiation unless the light generates a significant amount of heat. Preferably, the components include at least about 0.1% by weight curing agent and more preferably at least about 0.4% by weight curing agent, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the components include at most about 20% by weight curing agent, more preferably at most about 4% by weight curing agent, and most preferably at most about 3% by weight curing agent, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. For some embodiments it may not be desired to react the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate prior to reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. A thermal curing agent, a thermal free radical nitiator, and a thermal energy source may be used, for example, in such an embodiment.

[0054] Increasing amounts of the curing agent generally results in an accelerated reaction rate of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. Increased amounts of curing agent generally also result in reduced energy exposure requirements for reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom to occur and a shortened pot life at application temperatures. The amount of the curing agent is generally determined by the rate at which it is desired for the composition to cure, the intensity of the energy source, and the thickness of the composition.

[0055] Examples of useful curing agent catalysts include thermal catalysts and photocatalysts.

[0056] Thermal Catalyst Curing Agents. Examples of useful thermal catalyst curing agents include those selected from the group consisting of Lewis acids and Lewis acid complexes inluding aluminum trichloride; aluminum tribromide; boron trifluoride; boron trichloride; antimony pentafluoride; titanium tetrafluoride; and boron trifluoride and boron trichloride complexes including, for example, BF3-diethylamine and a BCl3-amine complex available under the trade designation OMICURE BC-120 from CVC Specialty Chemicals, Inc., Maple Shade, N.J.

[0057] Additional useful thermal catalyst curing agents include aliphatic and aromatic tertiary amines including, for example, dimethylpropylamine, pyridine, dimethylaminopyridine, and dimethylbenzylamine; imidazoles including, for example, 2-ethylimidazole, and 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (available under the trade designation IMICURE EMI-2,4 from Air Products, Allentown, Pa), hydrazides including, for example, aminodihydrazide; guanidines including, for example, tetramethyl guanidine; and dicyandiamide.

[0058] Photocatalyst Curing Agents. The curing agent can, for example, be a cationic photocatalyst activated by actinic radiation (e.g., ultraviolet light and visible light).

[0059] Useful cationic photocatalysts are generally either protic or Lewis acids. Useful cationic photocatalysts include salts having onium cations and halogen-containing complex anions of a metal or metalloid (e.g., aryl sulfonium salts available under the trade designations CYRACURE UVI-6974 and CYRACURE UVI-6976 from Union Carbide Corporation, Danbury, Conn.). Other useful cationic photocatalysts include metallocene salts having organometallic complex cations and halogen-containing complex anions of a metal or metalloid which are further described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,751,138 (Tumey et al.). Another useful cationic catalyst is the combination of an organometallic salt and an onium salt described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,985,340 (Palazotto et al.), and European Pat. Publ. Nos. 306,161 (Palazotto et al.), published Mar. 8, 1989; and 306,162 (Palazotto et al.); published Mar. 8, 1989. Still other useful cationic photocatalysts include ionic salts of organometallic complexes in which the metals are selected from the elements of Periodic Groups, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, and VIII which are described in European Pat. Publ. No. 109,851 (Palazotto et al.), published May 30, 1984.

[0060] Curatives. Other useful curing agents, for certain embodiments, include aliphatic and aromatic amine curatives. Examples of aliphatic amine curatives include ethanolamine; 1,2-diamino-2-methyl-propane; 2,3-diamino-2-methyl-butane; 2,3-diamino-2-methyl-pentane; 2,4-diamino-2,6-dimethyloctane; and dibutylamine dioctylamine. Examples of aromatic amine curatives include o-phenylene diamine; 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone; 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone; 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfide; 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ketone; 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether; 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane; and 1,3-propanediol-bis(4-aminobenzoate). Aromatic amine curatives are advantageous in certain embodiments as they generally provide improved properties for the resulting polymeric material.

[0061] Increasing amounts of curing agent generally results in an accelerated reaction rate of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. Increased amounts of curing agent generally also result in reduced energy exposure requirements for reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom to occur and a shortened pot life at application temperatures. The amount of the curing agent is generally determined by the rate at which it is desired for the composition to cure, the intensity of the energy source, and the thickness of the composition.

[0062] As mentioned previously, a curing agent is an optional component. Preferably, the components include at least about 0.1% by weight curing agent and more preferably at least about 0.4% by weight curing agent, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Preferably, the components include at most about 20% by weight curing agent and more preferably at most about 10% by weight curing agent, based on the total weight of the combination of epoxy-functional material, cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom, and polyfunctional (meth)acrylate.

[0063] Other Functional Additives. The polymeric material according to the present invention may optionally include one or more additives in addition to the (1) reaction product of components that include (a) an epoxy-flnctional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate; and/or (2) polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Useful additives include fillers (including grinding aids, for example), fibers, lubricants, wetting agents, surfactants, pigments, dyes, coupling agents, plasticizers, antistatic agents, and suspending agents. The use of additives in backing treatment make coat, size coat, and supersize coat compositions is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,580,647 (Larson et al.). Compositions according to the present invention may also optionally include water or an organic solvent.

[0064] A filler, if included, preferably should not adversely affect the bonding characteristics of the polymeric material. Examples of fillers suitable for this invention include metal carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (e.g., chalk, calcite, marl, travertine, marble, and limestone), calcium magnesium carbonate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium carbonate; silica, such as amorphous silica, quartz, glass beads, glass bubbles, and glass fibers; silicates, such as talc, clays (e.g., montmorillonite), feldspar, mica, calcium silicate, calcium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate, and sodium silicate; metal sulfates, such as calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, sodium sulfate, aluminum sodium sulfate, aluminum sulfate; gypsum; vermiculite; wood pulp; aluminum trihydrate; metal oxides, such as calcium oxide (lime), aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide; and metal sulfites (e.g., calcium sulfite). If filler is present, the polymeric material preferably includes at least about 20% by weight filler based on the total weight of the polymeric material. If filler is present, the polymeric material preferably includes at most about 80% by weight filler based on the total weight of the polymeric material. For some embodiments at these filler loadings, the presize, saturant, backsize or subsize will exhibit good flexibility and/or toughness. Adequate flexibility is related to the stiffness of the total backing construction, and is dependent on the end use.

[0065] A grinding aid is generally a particulate material that has a significant effect on the chemical and physical processes of abrading, thereby resulting in improved performance. In particular, although not wanting to be bound by theory, it is believed that the grinding aid may (1) decrease the friction between the abrasive grits and the workpiece being abraded, (2) prevent the abrasive grits from “capping,” i.e., prevent metal particles from becoming welded to the tops of the abrasive grits when the abrasive article is used on a metal workpiece, (3) decrease the interface temperature between the abrasive grits and the workpiece, or (4) decrease the grinding forces. In general, the addition of a grinding aid generally increases the useful life of the coated abrasive article. Grinding aids encompass a wide variety of different materials and can be inorganic or organic. Examples of useful grinding aids include waxes, organic halide compounds, halide salts, and metals and their alloys. The organic halide compounds will generally break down during abrading and release a halogen acid or a gaseous halide compound. Examples of such materials include chlorinated waxes, such as tetrachloronaphthalene, pentachloronaphthalene, and polyvinyl chloride. Examples of halide salts include sodium chloride, potassium cryolite, sodium cryolite, ammonium cryolite, potassium tetrafluoroborate, sodium tetrafluoroborate, silicon fluorides, potassium chloride, and magnesium chloride. Examples of metals include tin, lead, bismuth, cobalt, antimony, cadmium, iron, and titanium. Other grinding aids include sulfur, organic sulfur compounds, graphite, and metallic sulfides. It is also within the scope of this invention to use a combination of different grinding aids and, in some instances, this may produce a synergistic effect. The above-mentioned examples of grinding aids is meant to be a representative showing of grinding aids, and it is not meant to encompass all grinding aids.

[0066] Examples of useful antistatic agents include graphite, carbon black, vanadium oxide, humectants, conductive polymers, and the like. These antistatic agents are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,061,294 (Harmer et al.); 5,137,542 (Buchanan et al.); and 5,203,884 (Buchanan et al.).

[0067] Examples of useful coupling agents include silanes, titanates, and zircoaluminates. A useful silane coupling agent is 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, available, for example, under the trade designation A-174 from OSI Specialties, Inc. (Friendly, W.Va.). U.S. Pat. No. 4,871,376 (DeWald) describes reducing viscosity of resin/filler dispersions by utilizing a silane coupling agent.

Combined Components

[0068] Compositions useful for making polymeric materials useful for making abrasive articles according to the present invention may be prepared by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom, and (c) a polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. The viscosity of the composition can vary. For example, if a backing has a tight weave and the composition is to be used as a saturant coat, a lower viscosity may be desirable. Conversely, if a backing has a more open weave and the composition is to be used as a saturant coat, a higher viscosity may be desirable.

[0069] In certain embodiments of the invention, the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate serves as a viscosity modifier to the composition after the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate has been at least partially reacted, which allows, for example, better control of the penetration of the composition into the backing when the composition is used as a saturant coat. For example, for certain embodiments, even an extremely porous backing (e.g., subcount woven cloth) can be treated and sealed with only one layer of polymeric material (i.e., only a saturant coat, rather than a saturant coat plus a presize coat) by at least partially reacting the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate component prior to at least partially reacting the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. This at least partial reacting generally causes a large increase in viscosity of the composition. This generally limits the movement of the composition prior to at least partial reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. For certain embodiments, this is accomplished by subjecting the composition, after applying to a backing, to an energy source that causes the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate to at least partially react, prior to at least partially reacting the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. Various energy sources and initiator combinations, discussed in more detail later herein, such as, for example, ultraviolet light and e-beam radiation, can be selected to provide for certain embodiments at least partial reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate of the backing treatment composition prior to at least partial reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. The method according to the present invention in certain embodiments allows for fewer composition applications, less energy for curing and lower raw material costs than conventional methods.

[0070] In another embodiment, the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate may serve as a viscosity modifier to the composition after the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate has been at least partially reacted, allowing, for example, for increased make coat viscosity prior to at least partially curing the epoxy-functional material and cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom when the composition is used as a make coat. The increased viscosity may result in improved retention of orientation of abrasive grits as originally applied to the make coat. The method according to the present invention in certain embodiments allows for fewer composition applications, less energy for curing and lower raw material costs than conventional methods.

[0071] In another embodiment, the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate may serve as a viscosity modifier to the composition after the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate has been at least partially reacted, allowing, for example, for a handleable resin coating prior to at least partially curing the epoxy-functional material and cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom when the composition is used as a size coat. The increased viscosity may result in improved processing flexibility. The method according to the present invention in certain embodiments allows for fewer composition applications, less energy for curing and lower raw material costs than conventional methods.

[0072] The percent solids of the composition utilized according to the present invention can vary. The percent solids of the composition is preferably at least about 50%, more preferably at least about 60%, even more preferably at least about 70%, even more preferably at least about 80%, even more preferably at least about 90%, and even more preferably at least about 95%. The percent solids of the composition is most preferably about 100%. A higher percent solids generally results in a faster curing composition. The term “percent solids” is readily understood and is capable of being determined by one skilled in the art.

Backing

[0073] Examples of suitable backings include polymeric film, vulcanize fibre, woven cloth, nonwoven material (e.g., nonwoven cloth), stitch bonded cloth, felt, paper, and treated versions thereof. Preferably, the backing includes yams including natural fibers and/or synthetic fibers. The backing may, for example, include cotton, polyester, rayon, silk, nylon, or blends thereof. The backing may, for example, have different yams in the warp and fill directions. Examples of useful backing materials include woven polyester with either spun yams or continuous filament yams, available, for example, from Milliken & Company, Spartansburg, S.C., under the trade designation POWERSTRAIT.

Abrasive Grits

[0074] The term “abrasive grits” as used herein includes, for example, individual abrasive grits as well as multiple individual abrasive grits bonded together to form an abrasive agglomerate. Abrasive agglomerates are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,311,489 (Kressner); 4,652,275 (Bloecher et al.); and 4,799,939 (Bloecher et al.).

[0075] In one particularly useful embodiment, compositions useful for making polymeric materials for making binders for making abrasive articles may contain abrasive grits. The abrasive grits preferably have an average particle size of at least about 0.1 micrometer and more preferably at least about 1 micrometer. The abrasive grits preferably have an average particle size of at most about 5000 micrometers, more preferably at most about 1500 micrometers, and most preferably at most about 1200 micrometers. The Moh's hardness of the abrasive grits can vary. The Moh's hardness of the abrasive grits is preferably at least about 5, more preferably at least about 6, even more preferably at least about 7, even more preferably at least about 8, a nd most preferably at least about 9. Examples of materials of such abrasive grits include aluminum oxide (e.g., fused aluminum oxide, ceramic aluminum oxide, white fused aluminum oxide, and heat treated aluminum oxide), silica, silicon carbide (e.g., green silicon carbide), alumina zirconia, zirconium oxide, diamond, ceria, cubic boron nitride, garnet, and tripoli. The ceramic aluminum oxide can be made, for example, according to a sol gel process, such as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,314,827 (Leitheiser et al.); 4,744,802 (Schwabel); 4,623,364 (Cottringer et al.); 4,770,671 (Monroe et al.); 4,881,951 (Monroe et al.); 5,011,508 (Wald et al.); and 5,213,591 (Celikkaya et al.). Ceramic aluminum oxides include, for example, alpha alumina and, optionally, a metal oxide modifier, including, for example, magnesia, zirconia, zinc oxide, nickel oxide, hafnia, yttria, silica, iron oxide, titania, lanthanum oxide, ceria, and neodynium oxide. The ceramic aluminum oxide may also optionally include a nucleating agent, including, for example, alpha alumina, iron oxide, iron oxide precursor, titania, and chromia. The ceramic aluminum oxide may also have a shape, such as that described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,201,916 (Berg et al.) and 5,090,968 (Pellow).

[0076] The abrasive grit may also have a surface coating. A surface coating can improve the adhesion between the abrasive grit and the polymeric material and/or can alter the abrading characteristics of the abrasive grit. Such surface coatings are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,011,508 (Wald et al.); 1,910,444 (Nicholson); 3,041,156 (Rowse et al.); 5,009,675 (Kunz et al.); 4,997,461 (Markhoff-Matheny et al.); 5,213,591 (Celikkaya et al.); and 5,042,991 (Kunz et al.). An abrasive grit may also contain a coupling agent on its surface, such as a silane coupling agent.

[0077] Compositions useful for making polymeric materials for making binders for making abrasive articles according to the present invention may, for example, contain a single type of abrasive grit, two or more types of different abrasive grits, or at least one type of abrasive grit with at least one type of diluent material. Examples of materials for diluents include calcium carbonate, glass bubbles, glass beads, greystone, marble, gypsum, clay, SiO2, KBF4, Na2SiF6, cryolite, organic bubbles, organic beads, and the like.

[0078] The weight percentages of the abrasive grits and the polymeric material according to the present invention will depend on several factors, such as the intended use of the abrasive article and the particle size and distribution of the abrasive grit. Preferably, the abrasive grits, if included, will be at least about 5% by weight and more preferably at least about 20% by weight, based on the total weight of the abrasive layer. Preferably, the abrasive grits, if included, will be at most about 95% by weight and more preferably at most about 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the abrasive layer. Preferably, the polymeric material will be at least about 5% by weight, based on the total weight of the abrasive layer. Preferably, the polymeric material will be at most about 95% by weight and more preferably at most about 80% by weight, based on the total weight of the abrasive layer.

Coating Materials for Abrasive Articles

[0079] In the manufacture of coated abrasive articles, compositions useful for making polymeric materials for making binders for making abrasive articles according to the present invention may be used to provide one or more of a make coat, a size coat, a slurry coat, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat, and a supersize coat. Conventional compositions can be employed by for one or more of a make coat, a size coat, a slurry coat, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat, or a supersize coat if they are not provided by compositions according to the present invention.

[0080] In addition to the compositions according to the present invention, compositions suitable for making abrasive products include thermosetting or thermoplastic polymeric materials in one or more of a make coat, a size coat, a slurry coat, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat, and a supersize coat. The components utilized according to the present invention can optionally be blended with conventional resins. Examples of suitable thermosetting polymeric materials include phenolic resins, urea-formaldehyde resins, melamine-formaldehyde resins, urethane resins, (meth)acrylate resins, polyester resins, aminoplast resins having pendant α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups, epoxy-functional materials, (meth)acrylated urethane, and (meth)acrylated epoxies. The binder and/or abrasive product may also include additives such as fibers, lubricants, wetting agents, thixotropic materials, surfactants, pigments, dyes, antistatic agents (e.g., carbon black, vanadium oxide, graphite, etc.), coupling agents (e.g., silanes, titanates, zircoaluminates, etc.), plasticizers, suspending agents, and the like. The amounts of these optional additives are selected to provide the desired properties. The coupling agents can improve adhesion to the abrasive particles and/or filler. The binder chemistry may be thermally cured and/or radiation cured. Additional details on binder chemistry may be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,588,419 (Caul et al.), 4,751,137 (Tumey et al.), and 5,436,063 (Follett et al.).

Backing Treatment

[0081] The coated abrasive article, according to the present invention, may include a backing having thereon a coat including, for example, a presize coat, a saturant coat, a backsize coat, a subsize coat. A coating provided by compositions according to the present invention can serve multiple finctions. For example, a single coating can serve as both a presize coating and a saturant coating. The backing may be porous or nonporous. The backing treatment composition may be applied to the backing by a variety of techniques such as, for example, roll coating, spray coating, gravure coating, die coating, knife coating, or curtain coating.

[0082] During the manufacture of an article of the invention, the backing having the composition thereon in a form including, for example, a backsize coat, a saturant coat, a presize coat, and a subsize coat, is generally exposed to at least one energy source to initiate reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate and/or reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. Examples of useful energy sources include actinic radiation (e.g., ultraviolet light and visible light), accelerated particles (e.g., electron beam radiation), and thermal sources (e.g., radiative and non-radiative sources). It is advantageous in some embodiments for the energy source to be ultraviolet light, visible light or accelerated particles when one desires to facilitate reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate component, prior to reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. The energy source is generally selected to be thermal when one desires to facilitate reaction of the epoxy-functional material with the cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom subsequent to the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate reaction. The curing temperature is generally limited to the temperature that the backing can withstand without being damaged. For example, if the backing includes polyester fibers, the temperature the backing is subjected to is preferably less than about 200° C. If the backing includes aramid fibers the temperature the backing is subjected to is preferably less than about 300° C. The rate of curing with any energy source generally varies with the nature of backing treatment composition.

[0083] The dry weight of each presize coat, saturant coat, backsize coat, or subsize coat according to the present invention is preferably at least about 1 gram per square meter (g/m2) and preferably at least about 25 g/m2. The dry weight of each presize coat, saturant coat, backsize coat, or subsize coat according to the present invention is preferably at most about 600 g/m2 and preferably at most about 400 g/m2.

Make Coat, Size Coat, and Supersize Coat

[0084] Coated abrasive articles according to the present invention may include at least a make coat, a size coat, and/or a supersize coat on a porous on non-porous backing. These coating may be applied by a variety of techniques such as, for example, roll coating, spray coating, gravure coating, die coating, knife coating, curtain coating, and powder coating.

[0085] During the manufacture of an article of the invention using compositions according to the present invention to provide, for example, make coatings, size coatings, and supersize coatings, are generally exposed to at least one energy source to initiate reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate. Examples of useful energy sources include actinic radiation (e.g., ultraviolet light and visible light), accelerated particles (e.g., electron beam radiation), and thermal sources (e.g., radiative and non-radiative sources). It is advantageous in some embodiments, for example the make coat, for the energy source to be ultraviolet light, visible light or accelerated particles which facilitate reaction of the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate component, prior to reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom. Abrasive grits may be included in the make coat using conventional methods including drop coating and electrostatic coating. The energy source is generally selected to be thermal when one desires to facilitate reaction of the epoxy-functional material with cyclic anhydride and/or diacid derived therefrom subsequent to the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate reaction. The curing temperature is generally limited to the temperature that the backing can withstand without being damaged. For example, if the backing includes polyester fibers, the temperature the backing is subjected to is preferably less than about 200° C. If the backing includes aramid fibers the temperature the backing is subjected to is preferably less than about 300° C. The rate of curing with any energy source generally varies with the nature of backing treatment composition.

[0086] The dry weight of each make coat, size coat, or supersize coat preferably is about 1 to about 1500 grams per square meter, more preferably about 25 to about 700 grams per square meter.

Slurry Coat

[0087] Another aspect of the invention is a coated abrasive article in which a slurry coat is applied to a backing. The slurry coat is an abrasive coating that includes a plurality of abrasive grits and (1) a reaction product of components that include (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom; and/or (2) a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, and (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom.

Nonwoven Abrasive Articles

[0088] Another aspect of the invention is a nonwoven article of the type in which a polymeric material is applied to a lofty, open, fibrous mat of fibers, at least some of which are bonded together at points at which they contact. An open mat means that the mat is sufficiently open for at least a portion of the grit to penetrate to the interior of the mat. The polymeric material may be (1) a reaction product of components that include (a) an epoxy-functional material, (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom; and/or (2) a polymeric material preparable by combining at least (a) an epoxy-functional material, and (b) at least one of a cyclic anhydride or a diacid derived therefrom. Nonwoven articles within the invention optionally have a plurality of abrasive grits adhered to the fibers by the polymeric material.

[0089] Nonwoven webs including open, lofty, three dimensional structures of fibers bonded to one another at their mutual contact points are used extensively in the manufacture of abrasive articles for cleaning, abrading, finishing and polishing applications on any of a variety of surfaces. Exemplary of such nonwoven articles are those described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,958,593 (Hoover et al.). Such nonwoven webs include a suitable fiber such as nylon, polyester, blends thereof, and the like, and are capable of withstanding temperatures at which impregnating resins and adhesive binders are generally cured. The fibers of the web are often tensilized and crimped but may also be continuous filaments formed by an extrusion process such as that described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,227,350 (Fitzer), for example. Nonwoven webs are readily formed on conventional equipment such as a Rando Webber machine.

[0090] Fine abrasive particles (defined herein as particles having a distribution of sizes wherein the median particle diameter in the distribution is about 60 micrometers or less) may be bonded to the fibers of a nonwoven web to provide abrasive articles suitable for use in any of a variety of abrasive applications, and such articles may be provided in the form of endless belts, discs, hand pads, densified or compressed wheels, floor polishing pads, and the like. A particularly appropriate use for articles including the aforementioned fine particles is in the automotive aftermarket industry, where the abrasive particles are employed to “scuff” or lightly abrade automobile body panels in preparation for painting. In these applications, the abrasive article is applied to a previously painted surface. During the application, the abrasive particles in the article scratch the surface to reduce the surface gloss to a “haze.” Although the commercial success of available abrasive articles has been impressive, it is desirable to further improve the performance of certain abrasive articles especially in applications in the automotive aftermarket, for example.

[0091] In the manufacture of these articles, a nonwoven web is prepared, as mentioned. The web is reinforced, for example, by the application of a prebond resin to bond the fibers at their mutual contact points. Additional resin layers may subsequently be applied to the prebonded web. A make coat precursor is applied over the fibers of the prebonded web and the make coat precursor is at least partially cured. A size coat precursor may be applied over the make coat precursor and both the make coat precursor and the size coat precursor are sufficiently hardened in a known manner (e.g., by heat curing). Fine abrasive particles, when included in the construction of the article, are conventionally applied to the fibers in a slurry with the make coat precursor.

Characteristics and Uses of Abrasive Articles

[0092] The abrasive articles according to the present invention can take the form, for example, of belts, rolls, cones, and discs. The abrasive articles according to the present invention are useful, for example, for wet grinding, dry grinding, and/or sanding applications. Methods for abrading with abrasive articles according to the present invention range from snagging (i.e., high pressure high stock removal) to polishing (e.g., polishing medical implants with coated abrasive belts), wherein the latter is generally done articles having finer grades (e.g., less ANSI 220 and finer) of abrasive particles. The abrasive articles may also be used in precision abrading applications, such as grinding camshafts with vitrified bonded wheels. The size of the abrasive particles in articles used for particular abrading applications will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

[0093] Abrading with abrasive articles according to the present invention may be done dry or wet. For wet abrading, the liquid may be introduced supplied in the form of a light mist to complete flood. Examples of commonly used liquids include water, water-soluble oil, organic lubricant, and emulsions. The liquid may serve to reduce the heat associated with abrading and/or act as a lubricant. The liquid may contain minor amounts of additives such as bactericide, antifoaming agents, and the like.

[0094] Abrasive articles according to the present invention may be used to abrade workpieces such as aluminum metal, carbon steels, mild steels, tool steels, stainless steel, hardened steel, titanium, glass, ceramics, wood, wood-like materials, paint, painted surfaces, organic coated surfaces, and the like. The applied force during abrading generally ranges from about 1 to about 100 kilograms.

[0095] The present invention is illustrated by the following examples. It is to be understood that the particular examples, materials, amounts, and procedures are to be interpreted broadly in accordance with the scope and spirit of the invention as set forth herein.

EXAMPLES Presize Treatment Compositions

[0096] The following presize compositions were used in abrasive articles, the preparation of which is described later herein.

[0097] Epoxy-functional material/Anhydride/Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Presize (EAAP-1). A 237 ml jar was charged with 70 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (available under the trade designation EPON 828 from Resolution Performance Products, Houston, Tex.), 30 grams of melted hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA, available from Buffalo Chemical Color Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y.) and 1 gram of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone initiator obtained under the trade designation IRGACURE 651 from Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Hawthorne, N.Y. The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven and 5.4 grams of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) obtained under the trade designation SR351 from Sartomer Co., Exton, Pa., was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. Next, the jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. The jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 gram of 2-ethyl-4- methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4, available under the trade designation IMICURE EMI-2,4 from Air Products, Allentown, Pa.) was added thereto and mixed with a wooden rod, immediately after which the composition was coated as described later herein.

[0098] Epoxy-functional material/Anhydride/Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Presize (EAAP-2). A 237 ml jar was charged with 70 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 30 grams of melted HHPA and 1 gram of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone initiator (IRGACURE 651). The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven and 5.4 g of TMPTA (SR351) was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. Next, the jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. The jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 3 grams of aryl sulfonium S6F6 salt photocatalyst obtained under the trade designation CYRACURE UVI 6974 from Union Carbide Corporation, Danbury, Conn. was added thereto and mixed with a wooden rod, immediately after which the composition was coated as described later herein.

[0099] Epoxy-functional material/Anhydride/Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Presize (EAAP-3). A 237 ml jar was charged with 70 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material EPON 828, 30 grams of melted HHPA and 1 gram of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone initiator obtained under the trade designation IRGACURE 651 from Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Hawthorne, N.Y. The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven and 5 grams of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) obtained under the trade designation SR351 from Sartomer Co., Exton, Pa and 5 grams of acrylated polyester oligomer (Ebecryl 657) obtained under the trade designation Ebecryl 657 from UCB UCB Chemicals Corp., Smyrna, Ga., was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. Next, the jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. The jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 gram of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added thereto and mixed with a wooden rod, immediately after which the composition was coated as described later herein.

Backsize Treatment Compositions

[0100] The following backsize treatment compositions were used in abrasive articles, the preparation of which is described later herein.

[0101] Epoxy-functional material/Cyclic Anhydride Backsize (EAB). A 237 ml jar was charged with 70 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 30 grams of melted HHPA. The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven, following which 67 grams of feldspar obtained under the trade designation MINSPAR 3 from K-T Feldspar Corporation, Spruce Pine, N.C., was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. Next, the jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. The jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 gram of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added thereto and mixed with a wooden rod, immediately after which the composition was coated as described later herein.

[0102] Conventional Backsize Composition PF1. A composition including a phenol-formaldehyde resin, having a phenol to formaldehyde mole ratio of 1.5-2/1, catalyzed with 1 to 5 weight % metal hydroxide based on the total weight of the composition, and filled with about 60% by weight of calcium carbonate (Q325), based on the total weight of the composition. In addition, about 2 weight % of red iron oxide pigment obtained from Harcos Pigment, Inc. under the trade designation KROMA based on total weight of the composition was included in the composition. The aforementioned composition was diluted to 75% by weight with water to provide conventional backsize composition PF1.

Make Coat Compositions

[0103] The following make coat compositions were used in abrasive articles, the preparation of which is described later herein.

[0104] Conventional Make Coat Composition PF2. A composition including a phenol-formaldehyde resin, having a phenol to formaldehyde mole ratio of 1.5-2/1, catalyzed with 1 to 5 weight % metal hydroxide based on the total weight of the composition, and filled with about 50% by weight of calcium carbonate (obtained from J.M. Huber Corporation, Atlanta, Ga. under the trade designation Q325), based on the total weight of the composition was provided. The aforementioned composition was diluted to 83% by weight with water to provide PF2 make coat composition.

[0105] Epoxy-functional material/Anhydride/Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate (EAAM). A 237 ml jar was charged with 69.5 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 24.4 grams of melted IHPA, 4.2 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material obtained under the trade designation EBECRYL 3720 from UCB Chemicals Corp., Smyrna, Ga., and 1 gram of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phylacetophenone initiator (IRGACURE 651). The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes and removed from the oven. Next, 108 grams of feldspar (MINSPAR 3) was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. The jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. Next, the jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 gram of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added thereto and mixed with a wooden rod, immediately after which the composition was coated.

Laminating Adhesives

[0106] The following laminating adhesives were used in abrasive articles, the preparation of which is described later herein.

[0107] Laminating adhesive LA1. A 237 ml jar was charged with 70 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828) and 40 grams of a polyamide amine obtained under the trade designation VERSAMID 125 from Henkel Adhesive Corporation, Elgin, Ill., and mixed with a low shear mixer.

[0108] Laminating adhesive LA2. A 237 ml jar was charged with 100 grams of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 28 grams of a cycloaliphatic diamine obtained under the trade designation PACM from Air Products, Allentown, Pa., and 5 grams of an aliphatic diamine obtained under the trade designation ANCAMINE AD from Air Products, Allentown, Pa., and then mixed with a low shear mixer.

Preparation of Treated Backings CT-1 to CT-5 Coated Abrasive Articles therefrom, and 90° Peel Adhesion Test Results

[0109] Backing Treatment. Five greige (untreated) woven polyester cloth backings were provided with presizes and backsizes according to the general descriptions immediately below and in Table 1. These five treated cloth backings were identified as CT-1 to CT-5.

[0110] General Description for Providing Presize on Cloth Backings CT-1 to CT-5. A 30.5 cm wide coating knife obtained from Gardco, A Paul N. Gardner Company, Inc., Pompano Beach, Fla., and an about 30×30×2.5 cm machined stainless steel coating platform were heated to 66° C. The knife was set to a minimum gap of 225 micrometers to permit the 10.2 cm wide cloth backing to pass thereunder. CT-1 to CT-4 were untreated polyester cloth having a weight of 300-400 grams per square meter (g/m2), and CT-5 was polyester subcount XF having a weight of 150-300 g/m2. Both cloth backings were obtained from Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, S.C. Next, the polyester cloth was placed under the coating knife, the presize composition identified in Table 1 was poured onto the polyester cloth and was coated by pulling the polyester cloth by hand under the knife to form a presize coat on the polyester cloth. The presized cloth backings were irradiated with an ultraviolet (UV) Fusion System lamp (118 Watts/cm, D bulb, Gaithersburg, Md.), at about 5 meters per minute (mpm) to react the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate and then thermally cured at the time and temperature specified in Table 1. The presize weight (see Table 1) was determined by comparing the g/m2 of 5.1 cm×20.3 cm sections of the presized polyester cloth and untreated polyester cloth after curing. See Table 1 for more details.

[0111] General Description of Coating Backsize Composition on Cloth Backings CT-1 to CT-5. A 30.5 cm wide coating knife and platform identical to those in “General Description for Providing Presize Cloth Backings CT-1 to CT-5” were heated to 66° C. The knife was set to a minimum gap of 550 micrometers to permit 10.2 cm wide presized polyester cloth to pass under the knife. Next, the presized polyester cloth backing identified in Table 1 was placed under the coating knife, the backsize composition identified in Table 1 was poured onto the presized polyester cloth which was then pulled under the knife by hand to coat the backsize. Next, the backsized and presized polyester cloth was cured for a specified time and temperature (See Table 1). The backsize weight (see Table 1) was determined by comparing the g/m2 of 5.1 cm×20.3 cm sections of the backized and presized polyester cloth after curing and the presized polyester cloth after curing that had not been backsized.

TABLE 1
Treated Cloth Backings
Treated Presize Backsize
Cloth Weight Presize Cure Backsize Cure
Backing Presize (g/m2) Conditions Backsize Weight (g/m2) Conditions
CT-1 EAAP-1 106 @ UV 5 mpm, 6 min EAB 110 @ 100% 6 min @
100% @ 160° C. solids 160° C.
solids
CT-2 EAAP-1 106 @ UV 5 mpm, 6 min PF1 139 @ 75% 60 min @
100% @ 160° C. solids 90° C.
solids 60 min @
105° C.
CT-3 EAAP-2 106 @ UV 5 mpm, 20 min EAB 139 @ 100% 20 min @
100% @ 160° C. solids 160° C.
solids
CT-4 EAAP-1 148 @ UV 5 mpm, 20 min PF1 76 @ 75% 3 min @
100% @ 160° C. solids 100° C.
solids 3 min @
115° C.
3 min @
125° C.
CT-5 EAAP-3 110 @ UV 5 mpm, 20 min PF1 75 @ 75% 3 min @
100% @ 160° C. solids 100° C.
solids 3 min @
115° C.
3 min @
125° C.

Preparation of Coated Abrasive Articles of Examples 1-7 and Comparative Example A and the 25° C. and 121° C. 90° Peel Adhesion Tests to which They Were Subjected

[0112] In order to measure the degree of adhesion of the treated cloth backings to make coats, coated abrasive articles (Examples 1-7 and Comparative Example A) were prepared and subjected to 90° Peel Adhesion Tests.

[0113] Coated abrasive articles (Examples 1-7 and Comparative Example A) were prepared as follows using the treated cloth backings and make coat compositions indicated in Table 2. A 30.5 cm wide coating knife and platform identical to those in the “General Description for Providing Presize Composition on Cloth Backings CT-1 to CT-5” were heated to 66° C. The knife was set to a 25 micrometer gap. The treated cloth was coated with make coat composition EAAM or PF2 as indicated in Table 2 using the knife and platform. The cloth was mechanically pulled under the knife to form the make coat by hand. The treated cloth coated with EAAM make coat composition was irradiated to at least partially react the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate with a UV Fusion lamp at 118 Watts/cm (D-bulb) at about 5 meters per minute (mpm), followed by electrostatic coating of abrasive grit into the make coat composition. Comparative Example A and Examples 1-4, 6, and 7 used a grade 50 aluminum oxide/zirconium oxide abrasive grit combination obtained under the trade designation NORZON from Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., and Example 5 used a grade 60 aluminum oxide available from Treibacher, Treibach, Austria. The EAAM make coat composition was cured at 160° C. for 30 minutes in an air impingement oven for Examples 1-3 and 7. The EAAM coat composition was cured at 90° C. for 60 minutes, at 105° C. for 60 minutes, and at 160° C. for 30 minutes in an air impingement oven, for Example 6. The PF2 make coat composition was also electrostatically coated with the grade 50 aluminum oxide/zirconium oxide abrasive grit combination (NORZON). The PF2 make coat composition was cured at 90° C. for 60 minutes and at 105° C. for 60 minutes in an air impingement oven for Comparative Example A and Examples 4-5.

[0114] Each coated abrasive article to be tested was converted into an about 8 cm wide by 25 cm long piece. One-half the length of a wooden board (17.8 cm by 7.6 cm by 0.6 cm thick) was coated with laminating adhesive LA1 or LA2 depending on the test to be conducted. Laminating adhesive LA1 was used for 25° C. 90 degree peel adhesion testing and LA2 was used for 121° C. 90 degree peel adhesion testing. The entire width of, but only the first 15 cm of the length of, the coated abrasive article was coated with laminating adhesive LA1 or LA2 on the side bearing the abrasive particles. The side of the coated abrasive article bearing the abrasive particles was attached to the side of the board containing the laminating adhesive coating in such a manner that the 10 cm of the coated abrasive article not bearing the laminating adhesive overhung from the board. Pressure was applied such that the board and the coated abrasive article were intimately bonded. The board and coated abrasive article bonded with laminating adhesive LA1 were cured at room temperature (i.e., about 25° C.) for 4 hours and at 90° C. for 12 hours. The board and coated abrasive article bonded with LA2 were cured at room temperature (i.e., about 25° C.) for 60 minutes, 120° C. for 20 minutes, 130° C. for 15 minutes, and 140° C. for 15 minutes.

[0115] Next, the coated abrasive article to be tested was cut along a straight line on both sides of the article such that the width of the coated abrasive article was reduced to 5.1 cm. The resulting coated abrasive article/board composite was mounted horizontally in a fixture attached to the upper jaw of a tensile testing machine obtained under the trade designation SINTECH 6W from MTS Systems Corp., Eden Prairie, Minn., and approximately 1 cm of the overhanging portion of the coated abrasive article was mounted into the lower jaw of the machine such that the distance between the jaws was 12.7 cm. The machine separated the jaws at a rate of 0.05 cm/second, with the coated abrasive article being pulled at an angle of 90° away from the wooden board so that a portion of the coated abrasive article separated from the board. Separation occurred between layers of the coated abrasive article. The force required for separation of the coated abrasive article from the board was charted by the machine and is expressed in kg/cm. The higher the required force, the better the adhesion of the make coat to the presize coat and/or the presize coat to the backing. The 90° T peel adhesion results are displayed in Table 2.

[0116] Useful coated abrasive articles with cloth backings generally have 90° Peel Adhesion values at 25° C. of at least about 1.5 kg/cm. The data in Table 2 illustrates that Examples 1-7 all have 90° Peel Adhesion values at 25° C. of at least about 1.5 kg/cm.

TABLE 2
Coated Abrasive Articles of Comparative Example A,
Examples 1-7 and 90° Peel Adhesion
Tests Results
90° Peel
Treated Adhesion 90° Peel
Backing Make Coat kg/cm @ Adhesion kg/cm
Example Type Type 25° C. @ 121° C.
Comparative CTPL* PF2 5.7 4.5
Example A
Example 1 CT-1 EAAM 6.4 No data
Example 2 CT-2 EAAM 7.5 3.9
Example 3 CT-3 EAAM 4.8 No data
Example 4 CT-4 PF2 5.8 No data
Example 5 CT-5 PF2 4.1 1  
Example 6 CTPL* EAAM 5.4 3.8
Example 7 CTPL* EAAM 3.8 No data
# about 516 grams per square meter.

Make Coat Compositions

[0117] Conventional Make Coat Composition PF4. A composition including a phenol-formaldehyde resin, having a phenol to formaldehyde mole ratio of 1.5-2/1, catalyzed with 1 to 5 weight % metal hydroxide based on the total weight of the composition, and filled with about 50% by weight of calcium carbonate based on the total weight of the composition, wherein the calcium carbonate was obtained from J.M. Huber Corporation, Atlanta, Ga. under the trade designation Q325 was provided. The aforementioned composition was diluted to 83% solids by weight with water to provide make coat composition PF4.

[0118] Conventional Make Coat Composition PF5. A composition including a phenol-formaldehyde resin, having a phenol to formaldehyde mole ratio of 1.5-2/1, catalyzed with 1 to 5 weight % metal hydroxide based on the total weight of the composition, and filled with about 50% by weight of calcium carbonate (Q325), based on the total weight of the composition was provided. The aforementioned composition was diluted to 75% by weight with water to provide make coat composition PF5.

[0119] Epoxy-functional material/HHPA Cyclic Anhydride /3.4% Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Make Coat Composition (EM-1). A 237 ml jar was charged with 68.2 g of Bisphenol A expoxy resin (EPON 828), 26.5 g of melted hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) obtained from Buffalo Color Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y., 3.3 g of Bisphenol A epoxy acrylate obtained under the trade designation EBECRYL 3720 from UCB Chemicals Corp. Smyrna, Ga. and 1 g of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone obtained under the trade designation IRGACURE 651 from Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Hawthorne, N.Y. The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven, and mixed with a wooden rod. Next, 108 g of feldspar obtained under the trade designation MINSPAR 3 from K-T Feldspar Corporation, Spruce Pine, N.C., was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. The jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. Next, the jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 g of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole obtained under the trade designation IMICURE EMI-2,4 from Air Products, Allentown, Pa., was added and mixed into the composition with a wooden rod just prior to coating.

[0120] Epoxy-functional material/ HHPA Cyclic Anhydride /4.3% Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Make Coat Composition (EM-2). A 237 ml jar was charged with 69.5 g of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 24.4 g of melted HHPA, 4.2 g of Bisphenol A epoxy acrylate (EBECRYL 3720) and 1 g 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (IRGACURE 651). The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven, and mixed with a wooden rod. Next, 108.0 g of feldspar (MINSPAR 3) was mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. The jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. Next, the jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 g of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added and mixed to the composition with a wooden rod just prior to coating.

[0121] Epoxy-functional material/ HHPA Cyclic Anhydride /4.8% Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Make Coat Composition (EM-3). A 237 ml jar was charged with 69.2 g of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 24.3 g of melted HHPA, 4.7 g of Bisphenol A epoxy acrylate (EBECRYL 3720) and 1 g of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (IRGACURE 651). The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes removed from the oven, and mixed with a wooden rod. Next, 108.0 g of feldspar (MINSPAR 3) was mixed into the composition with the wooden rod. The jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. Next, the composition was removed from the oven and 1 g of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added and mixed into the composition with a wooden rod just prior to coating.

[0122] Epoxy-functional material/ DSA Cyclic Anhydride /3.4% Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Make Coat Composition (EM-4). A 237 ml jar was charged with 55.8 g of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 38.8 g of dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DSA) obtained from Aldrich Chemical, Milwaukee, Wis., 3.3 g of Bisphenol A epoxy acrylate (EBECRYL 3720) and 1 g of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (IRGACURE 651). The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes removed from the oven, and mixed with a wooden rod. Next, 100.0 g of feldspar (MINSPAR 3) was mixed into the composition. The jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. Next, the jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 g of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added and mixed into the composition with a wooden rod just prior to coating.

[0123] Epoxy-functional material/ NADIC Cyclic Anhydride /4.3 % Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Make Coat Composition (EM-5). A 237 ml jar was charged with 63.8 g of Bisphenol A epoxy-functional material (EPON 828), 30.0 g of methyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride obtained under the trade designation NADIC from Aldrich Chemical, Milwaukee, Wis., 4.2 g of Bisphenol A epoxy acrylate (EBECRYL 3720) and 1 g 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (IRGACURE 651). The jar containing the composition was placed in an oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes, removed from the oven, and mixed with a wooden rod. Next, 108.0 g of feldspar (MINSPAR 3) was mixed into the composition with a low shear mixer. The jar containing the composition was returned to the oven heated to 50° C. for 15 minutes. Next, the jar containing the composition was removed from the oven and 1 g of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added and mixed into the composition with a wooden rod just prior to coating.

Size Coat Compositions

[0124] Epoxy-functional material/Cyclic Anhydride/Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Size Coat Composition (ES-2). A 237 ml jar was charged with 30.0 g of triphenolmethane-epichlorohydrin based epoxy-functional material (available under the trade designation Tactix 742 from Vanitico, Inc., Brewster, N.Y.), 14.5 g of melted HHPA, 1 g of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (IRGACURE 651) and placed in an oven heated to 80° C. The jar containing the composition was removed from the oven. The composition was mixed with a wooden rod following which 25 g of trimethylol propane triacrylate obtained under the trade designation SR351 from Sartomer Co., Exton, Pa. and 94 g of cryolite (available under the trade designation RTNC CRYOLITE from TR International Trading Company Inc., Houston, Tex.) were added and mixed into the composition with a wooden rod. Next, 1 g of 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (IMICURE EMI-2,4) was added and mixed into the composition with a wooden rod just prior to coating of composition.

[0125] Conventional Size Coat Composition PF6. A composition including a phenol-formaldehyde resin, having a phenol to formaldehyde mole ratio of 1.5-2/1, catalyzed with 1 to 5 weight % metal hydroxide based on the total weight of the size coat composition, and filled with about 50% by weight of calcium carbonate (Q325), based on the total weight of the composition was provided. In addition, about 2 weight % of iron oxide pigment obtained from Harcos Pigment, Inc. under the trade designation KROMA red iron oxide based on the total weight of the composition was included therein. The aforementioned composition was subsequently diluted to 75% by weight with water to provide size coat composition PF6.

[0126] Conventional Size Coat Composition PF7. A composition including a phenol-formaldehyde resin, having a phenol to formaldehyde mole ratio of 1.5-2/1, catalyzed with 1 to 5% weight metal hydroxide based on the total weight of the composition and filled with about 66% by weight, based on the cryolite by weight of the composition obtained under the trade designation RTNC CRYOLITE from TR International Trading Company Inc., Houston, Tex. In addition, about 2% by weight of iron oxide pigment obtained from Harcos Pigment, Inc. under the trade designation KROMA was included in the composition based on the total weight of the composition. The aforementioned composition was diluted to 75% by weight with water to provide size coat composition PF7.

Coated Abrasive Article Constructions Having Varying Make Coats

[0127] Various make coat compositions were evaluated in various abrasive article constructions. Examples 8-13 describe abrasive Articles having an Epoxy-functional material/Cyclic Anhydride/Polyfunctional (meth)acrylate Make Coat Made from Make Coat Composition EM-1, EM-2, EM-3, EM-4, or EM-5

EXAMPLE 8

[0128] A 10.2 cm wide coating knife and 15.2 cm by 20.3 cm coating platform were heated to 66° C. The coating knife and platform were both prepared from machined stainless steel. The coating knife was equipped with set screws to allow adjustment of the coating gap. The coating knife was set to a 25-50 micrometer gap. A backing material of 100% polyester 4/1 sateens fabric made from open end spun yams weighing about 326 grams per square meter commercially obtained from Milliken and Co., Spartanburg, S.C. was provided. The backing material was saturated with a 90% resole phenolic/10% nitrile latex resin bringing the weight to 416 grams per square meter. The backing material was subsequently backsized with a blend of 55% CaCO3; 43% resole phenolic; and a small amount of Fe2O3 for color, bringing the weight of the backing material to about 516 grams per square meter referred to herein as CPTL Cloth. The backing material was coated with the 100% solids epoxy-functional material/cyclic anhydride/polyfunctional (meth)acrylate make coat composition EM-1 on the side of the backing material opposite the backsize. The make coat thickness prior to the subsequently described exposure to radiation was 50 micrometers at 100% solids. The make coat was irradiated to react the polyfunctional (meth)acrylate (118 Watts/cm at about 5 mpm using a Fusion UV Systems (Gaithersburg, Md.) D bulb) followed by electrostatic coating of grade 50 aluminum oxide/zirconium oxide abrasive grit combination obtained under the trade designation NORZON from Norton Corporation, Worchester, Mass. at a weight of 615 g/m2 into the make coat. The make coat was cured for 60 minutes at 100° C. in an air impingement oven. Next, the abrasive grit coated material was spray sized with PF3 and cured for 90 minutes at 90° C., 14 hours at 105° C. and 30 minutes at 160° C. in an air impingement oven. The size coat weight was 356 g/m2 at 75% solids by comparing the weight of a uncured sized versus unsized 5.1×20.3 chop out sample. Finally, the coated abrasive article was converted into 2.5 cm×104 cm strips and a polyamide attachment piece was formed on each end of a strip by placing an end of the strip into a mold and injecting polyamide hot melt adhesive obtained under the trade designation JET MELT BRAND ADHESIVE PG3779 from 3M Industrial Specialties Division, 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn. with a hot melt gun. Each polyamide attachment piece had a cylindrical shape with a height of 2.5 cm and diameter of 1.0 cm.

EXAMPLE 9

[0129] The procedure of Example 9 was identical to that of Example 8 except that the make coat type was EM-4 and the make coat thickness was 50 micrometers at 100% solids.

EXAMPLE 10

[0130] The procedure of Example 10 was identical to that of Example 8 except that the make coat type was EM-2, the make coat weight was 176 g/m2 at 100% solids (thickness of 50 micrometers), the make coat cure conditions were 45 minutes at 90° C., 30 minutes at 100° C., and 30 minutes at 160° C., the abrasive grit coat weight was 595 g/m2, the size coat weight was 427 g/m2 at 75% solids and the size coat cure conditions were 90 minutes at 90° C. and 14 hours at 105° C.

EXAMPLE 11

[0131] The procedure of Example 11 was identical to that of Example 10 except that the make coat type was EM-3, the make coat weight was 201 g/m2 at 100% solids (thickness of 50 micrometers), the abrasive grit coat weight was 615 g/m2, and the size coat weight was 436 g/m2 at 75% solids.

EXAMPLE 12

[0132] The procedure of Example 12 was identical to that of Example 11 except that the make coat type was EM-3, the make coat weight was 189 g/m2 at 100% solids (thickness of 50 micrometers), the abrasive grit coat weight was 705 g/m2, and the size coat weight was 465 g/m2 at 75% solids.

EXAMPLE 13

[0133] The procedure of Example 13 was identical to that of Example 12 except that the make coat type was EM-5, the make coat weight was 201 g/m2 at 100% solids (thickness of 50 micrometers), the abrasive grit coat weight was 628 g/m2, and the size coat weight was 436 g/m2 at 75% solids

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLES B-D: COATED ABRASIVE ARTICLES HAVING CONVENTIONAL PF4 MAKE COATS COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE B

[0134] A 30.5 cm wide RMO (Round Multiple Orifice) die coater, was prepared from machine stainless steel by 3M Company and set up for coating. The CPTL Cloth was die coated with conventional PF4 make coat composition on the side of the cloth opposite the backsize followed by electrostatic coating of grade 50 aluminum oxides/zirconium oxide abrasive grit combination (NORZON) at a weight of 612 g/m2 into the make coat composition. The PF4 make coat was cured for 90 minutes at 90° C. and then 45 minutes at 100° C. in an air impingement oven. The make coat weight prior to curing was 255 g/m2 at 83% solids. Next, the abrasive grit coated make coat was spray sized with PF6 and cured 90 minutes at 90° C. and 14 hours at 105° C. in an air impingement oven. The size coat weight prior to curing was 288 g/m2at 75% solids. Finally, the coated abrasive article was converted into 2.5 cm×104 cm strips and a polyamide attachment piece was formed on each end of a strip by placing the end of the strip into a mold and injecting polyamide hot melt adhesive obtained under the trade designation JET MELT BRAND ADHESIVE PG3779 from 3M Industrial Specialties Division, 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn., into the mold with a hot melt gun. Each polyamide attachment piece had a cylindrical shape with height of 2.5 cm and diameter of 1.0 cm.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE C

[0135] The procedure of Comparative Example C was identical to that of Comparative Example B except that the size coat weight was 281 g/m2 at 75% solids.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE D

[0136] The procedure of Comparative Example D was identical to that of Comparative Example B except that the size coat weight was 288 g/m2 at 75% solids.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLES E-F AND EXAMPLES 14-15

[0137] Various size coat compositions were evaluated in abrasive disc constructions. For each example a nylon disc (17.8 outer diameter 2.2 cm inner diameter and 0.76 mm thickness was prepared by extrusion molding of nylon obtained from BASF Corporation, Mount Olive, N.Y. under the trade designation Ultramid) were coated with conventional PF5 make coat composition using a 3.8 cm wide paint brush and grade 50 aluminum oxide/zirconium oxide abrasive grit (NORZON) was drop coated into the make coat. The make coat composition was cured at 90° C. for 60 minutes and at 105° C. for 60 minutes. Next, the discs were sized with size coat composition ES-2 or PF7 using a 3.8 cm wide paint brush and cured for a specified time and temperature. (See Table 3 for more detail). The PF5 make coat and PF7 size coats were at 75% solids prior to curing and 100% solids after curing. Size coat ES-2 was at 100% solids both prior to and subsequent to curing.

TABLE 3
Make Coats, Size Coats, and Cure Conditions
Make Make Size
Coat Coat Mineral Coat Size Coat Size Cure
Example Type Wt. Weight Type Wt. Conditions
Comparative PF5 85 g/m2 @ 618 gsm PF7 325 g/m2 @ 60 min @ 90° C.
Example E 75% solidsa 75% solids 6 hrs @ 105° C.
Comparative PF5 93 g/m2 @ 663 gsm PF7 345 g/m2 @ 60 min @ 90° C.
Example F 75% solids 75% solids 6 hrs @ 105° C.
Example 14 PF5 99 g/m2 736 gsm ES-2 309 g/m2 @ UV: 600 Watts,
100% solids 100% solids @ 8 mpm;
12 hrs @ 160° C.
Example 15 PF5 101 g/m2 814 gsm ES-2 310 g/m2 @ UV: 600 Watts,
75% solids 100% solids @ 8 mpm;
12 hrs @ 160° C.

[0138] General Description of Wet and Dry Grinding Tests. In order to evaluate the make coat capabilities, grinding tests were run on a reciprocating bed grinding machine obtained under the trade designation ELB TYPE SPA 2030ND from ELB Grinders Corp., Mountainside, N.J. Coated abrasive articles of Examples 8-13 and Comparative Examples B-D were each separately attached using the attachment pieces at the end of the strips to the periphery of a 95.7 cm circumference metal wheel of the grinding machine, which was rotated to produce a surface speed of 1704 mn/min. The workpieces were 1018 steel bars (plain carbon steel containing 0.18% by weight of carbon) on which the surface to be abraded measured 1.27 cm by 35.6 cm. For each test a workpiece was mounted on a reciprocating table of the grinding machine with the longer axis of the workpiece parallel to the direction of the table motion. The table was traversed at a speed of 9.1 m/min in a direction parallel to the movement of the abrasive article at the grinding interface. At the end of each table traverse, the metal wheel was moved toward the table in a down feed increment of 0.051 to 0.089 mm. as indicated in Tables 4-7. If one workpiece became worn down to a point where it was no longer in contact with the abrasive article, a new workpiece was mounted on the reciprocating table.

[0139] A new separate coated abrasive sample was used for both the wet grinding test and dry grinding test. For the wet grinding tests, 23 l/min of water was delivered to the grinding interface as a coolant. For the dry grinding tests, 350-500 ml/min of water as a coolant was applied to the abraded surface of the work piece as it moved away from the grinding interface. When the table was traversed in the opposite direction, a stream of compressed air was used to remove any residual water from the surface of the work piece prior to it contacting the coated abrasive. The end point of the test was when the normal forces at the grinding interface reached 222.4 Newtons (N). The total amount of 1018 steel removed from the workpiece is reported in grams cut.

[0140] As demonstrated in Tables 4-7 epoxy-functional material/cyclic anhydride/polyfunctional (meth)acrylate make coats (Examples 8-13) demonstrate utility in abrasive article constructions. In fact, for some abrasive articles of the invention, the make coat exhibited superior performance compared to conventional phenolic/formaldehyde make coats in wet or dry grinding applications.

TABLE 4
Wet and Dry Grinding Evaluation of Cyclic Anhydride Type
in Make Coats of Articles of Invention
% Cut of % Cut of
Comparative Comparative
Example *Dry Cut (g) Example B **Wet Cut (g) Example B
Comparative 1851 100 1242 100
Example B
Example 8 1827  99 1377 111
Example 9 1063  57 1484 119
% Cut of % Cut of
Comparative Comparative
Example *Dry Cut (g) Example D Wet Cut (g) Example D
Comparative 2098 100 No data No data
Example D
Example 12 2299 109 No data No data
Example 13 2263 108 No data No data

[0141]

TABLE 5
Wet and Dry Grinding Evaluation of Polyfunctional
(meth)acrylate Level in Make Coat of Articles
of Invention
% Cut % Cut
Comparative Comparative
Example *Dry Cut (g) Example B **Wet Cut (g) Example B
Comparative 1851 100 1242 100
Example B
Example 8 1827  99 1377 111
% Cut % Cut
Comparative Comparative
Example *Dry Cut (g) Example C **Wet Cut (g) Example C
Comparative 2416 100  935 100
Example C
Example 11 2589 107  754  81

[0142]

TABLE 6
Wet and Dry Grinding Test Results,
Size Coat Weight Effect
% Cut % Cut
Comparative Comparative
Example *Dry Cut (g) Example C **Wet Cut (g) Example C
Comparative 2416 100  935 100
Example C
Example 10 2896 120 1659 177
% Cut % Cut
Comparative Comparative
Example *Dry Cut (g) Example D **Wet Cut (g) Example D
Comparative 2098 100 No data No data
Example D
Example 12 2299 109 No data No data

Size Coat Evaluation

[0143] The abrasive disc constructions of Comparative Examples E-F and Examples 14-15 were evaluated using the Swing Arm Test.

[0144] Swing Arm Flat Test. The abrasive disc to be evaluated was attached to a 20.3 cm circular backup plate, available by ordering Part No 05114145192 from. 3M Abrasive Systems Division, St. Paul, Minn., 55144-1000 and secured to a Swing Arm tester, obtained from Reel Mfg. Inc., Centerville, Minn., with a metal screw fastener. A 1.897 mm thick 4130 steel (alloy steel containing by weight C 0.28-0.33%, Si 0.20-0.35% Mn 0.40-60%, Cr 0.80-1.10%, P 0.025% maximum,. Mo 0.15-0.25%, S 0.025% maximum) cylindrical shaped work piece with a 30.5 cm diameter and 1.897 mm thickness was weighed and secured to the Swing Arm tester with a metal fastener. The pressure of the steel workpiece to be exerted onto the abrasive article disc was set at 4.0 kg. Next, the abrasive disc was rotated at 350 rpm and the workpiece was placed against the disc at an angle of 16.5 degrees. The endpoint of the test was 8 minutes at 350 rpm. The amount of steel removed (i.e., total cut) and weight loss of each abrasive disc (i.e., shelling) was recorded and is reported in Table 9.

TABLE 7
Dry Grinding and Shelling Test
Disc Wt. Loss (g) % Cut of Comparative
Example (Shelling) Total Cut (g) Example F
Comparative 0 115 98
Example E
Comparative 1 117 100
Example F
Example 14 0 95 81
Example 15 1 99 85

[0145] As shown in Table 7, the epoxy-functional material/cyclic anhydride/polyfunctional (meth)acrylate size coat compositions (Examples 14-15) demonstrated their utility as size coats by exhibiting shelling (i.e., disc weight loss) substantially equivalent to abrasive article discs having conventional phenolic/formaldehyde size coats (Comparative Examples E-F) and substantially similar total cut performance. Shelling is defined as weight loss of a coated abrasive during grinding due to, for example, loss of abrasive grit, make coat, and/or size coat.

[0146] The complete disclosure of all patents, patent applications, and publications, and electronically available material cited herein are incorporated by reference. The foregoing detailed description and examples have been given for clarity of understanding only. No unnecessary limitations are to be understood therefrom. The invention is not limited to the exact details shown and described, for variations obvious to one skilled in the art will be included within the invention defined by the claims.

Referenced by
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US7150771Jun 18, 2004Dec 19, 20063M Innovative Properties CompanyCoated abrasive article with composite tie layer, and method of making and using the same
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US8435098 *Dec 20, 2007May 7, 2013Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc.Includes a backing having first and second major surfaces, an abrasive layer overlying the first major surface, and a backsize layer overlying the second major surface
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WO2006007036A1 *May 3, 2005Jan 19, 20063M Innovative Properties CoCoated abrasive article with composite tie layer, and method of making and using the same
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Classifications
U.S. Classification451/526
International ClassificationC08G59/42, B24D11/00, C08F283/10, B24D3/28, C08J5/14, B24D3/00
Cooperative ClassificationB24D11/005, C08F283/10
European ClassificationC08F283/10, B24D11/00B3
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 29, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: 3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY, MINNESOTA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KINCAID, DON H.;THURBER, ERNEST L.;LARSON, ERIC G.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:012132/0075
Effective date: 20010823