The invention concerns to ammunition and may be used as for cartridges of a small arms, and other kinds of ammunition, as well as for improvement of characteristics of sniper riffle barrels.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
It is known, that in firearms the smokeless gunpowder charge almost completely turns into the gaseous products at combustion having high elasticity and temperature. The pressure of powder gases, operating on a bottom of a bullet, creates movement of a bullet in the barrel channel. In spite of the fact that the movement in the barrel channel is characterized by short duration (about 0.002 sec), the influence of powder gases is essentially at intensive shooting. The channel of firearm barrel wears out especially essentially. The channel of the automatic weapon wears out the most quickly.
The result of firearms barrel wear is loss first of all the close grouping of shooting, reduction of distance of shooting and decrease of destructive power connected to it. Though these characteristics depend on many reasons, however such factors as design of ammunition and preparation of weapon and ammunition for shooting may change the said characteristics essentially in the best or on the contrary in the worse side.
The various designs of ammunition are created with the purpose of improvement of the said characteristics, using thus various modern materials. A number of ammunition devices are known to have been reconstructed in order to reach friction and wear reduction. For example, a cartridge of 5.6 millimeters calibre, containing a metal sleeve, a cap, a powder charge and a bullet [see the Specification to the U.S. Pat. No. 5,490,463, IC. F 42 B 12/82, dated from Dec. 13, 1996]. The head part of a bullet has a circular groove and is covered with a synthetic lubricant. Or, for example, a bullet with the metal core made of sintered metal powder with a covering from plastic or metal [see the Specification to the Great Britain patent No 2278423, IC. F 42 B 12/74, dated from. Nov. 30, 1994]. The covering made of plastic is covered in process of immersing of a heated up bullet in plastic.
The ammunition devices mentioned above reduce friction basically in the breech part of a weapon and do not influence its wear or friction in the weapon barrel shooting.
It is known that there is an artillery shell with a device that reduces wear of a barrel and a method of its manufacturing [see the specification of WO 9528612, IC. F 42 B 5/24, dated from Oct. 26, 1995]. The shell contains a sleeve which wall tablets made of material reducing barrel wear when shooting, which are fastened to the wall of the sleeve. The tablets contain a paraffin component, which sticks them to the sleeve wall when stiffening. Such way of fastening the protective material tablets may be applied for various calibre shells.
However the tablets located on the sleeve walls render very insignificant influence on a riffle barrels whole, and, consequently, on such characteristic as close grouping of shooting. Besides, the technology of using such tablets may be applied only for artillery shells, that is for an ammunition of large calibre.
It is known, that there is also a high-speed bullet to shoot from rifled fire-arms [see the Specification to the U.S. Pat. No. 5,365,853, IC F 42 B 12/34, dated from Nov. 2, 1994] which contains a core, that can be deformed, an envelope and details fixing the envelope on the core of a bullet. The details fixing the envelope on the core of a bullet are located in the apertures of the envelope and they serve for reduction of friction between a bullet and barrel channel rifling shooting.
Owing to reduction of friction between a bullet and barrel channel rifling the wear of the channel of a rifle barrel decreases also. However, complexity of bullet design reduces application range cartridges.
Besides, it is known a bullet which contains an envelope with a leaden shirt and a core [see the Specification to the Russian Federation patent No 2034231, IC F 42 B 12/06, dated from Jun. 30, 1990.], where the close grouping of shooting is 16-18% more than the known ones due to the core made of a solid alloy and the specific form of a bottom part of a leaden shirt. The specific form of the leading part of a bullet allows avoiding formation of bulges and envelope separation from the lead shirt at envelopes bending, i.e. promotes increase durability of assembly of bullet elements owing to what additional increase of close grouping shooting takes place.
However, when using the ammunition described above, the high parameters of close group shooting are characteristic mainly for the new, that is unworn out rifle arms, and they decrease essentially reduced after short period of usage because of wear of barrels channels.
The most similar to the declared decision according to its purpose, technical essence and the application result that must be reached while using the cartridge is a bullet, a powder charge an ignition cap and a sleeve [see Zug A. B A small arms.—M.: Military Publishing House. 1992. 645-648 p.]. The type of a cartridge of the infantry weapon established at the beginning of last century does not undergo basic changes and serves its purpose perfectly.
However, as in previous case, when using the ammunition described above, the high parameters of close group shooting are characteristic mainly for the new, that is unworn out rifle arms, and they decrease essentially after short period of usage because of wear of barrel channels. Thus, the problem of increasing the weapon resource and improvement of its characteristics is still actual today.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Therefore, the purpose of the offered technical decision is reduction of wear of the firearms barrel channel and, as consequence, increase of close group shooting and other characteristics of the weapon.
The basis of the invention is the improvement of the cartridge design by additional covering on a bullet with thickness δ=(0.01 to 0.03) D, where D is the bullet diameter appropriate to a bullet calibre, made on the basis of a film-forming organic carrier with filling substance, that are products of dehydration of the hydrates containing oxides as MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, Na2O, at the filling substance (0.05-0.15) grm/ml, therefore, apparently, the improvement of rotation transfer by the barrel channel grooves due the additional covering of a bullet is provided, the nutation corner in flight decreases, its gyroscopic stability in flight increases, and therefore such important characteristic as close grouping of shooting is improved, the adverse conditions of weapon storage render less influence on this characteristic that indicates the stabilization of barrel channel parameters and increase of weapon survivability.
The problem mentioned above is solved so that in the known cartridge containing a bullet, a powder charge, an ignition cap and a sleeve, according to the invention, the addition covering with thickness 6=(0.01 to 0.03) D is located on a bullet, where D is the bullet diameter appropriate to the bullet calibre, it is made on the basis of a film-forming organic carrier contains filling substance, the latter is products of dehydration of the hydrates containing oxides as MgO. SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe203, K2O, Na2O, at the filling substance (0.05 to 0.15) grm/ml in the film-forming carrier.
According to preferred embodiment of the invention, a film-forming gel on the basis of paraffin is used as an organic carrier for cartridges of calibre 22LR, 5.56×45 to 7.62×39, the covering being put on the whole bullet surface.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, a film-forming polymer is used as an organic carrier for cartridges of calibre 7.62×54 and bigger, the covering being applied as a belt of the width h=(0.7 to 1.8) D and at the distance L (0.5 to 0.7) D from the bullet tip.
The values of covering thickness, width of belts and distances from the bullet tip (ammunition) above mentioned are optimum from the point of view of the film filling substance and achievable effect.
As it is seen from the description of the technical decision, that is declared, it differs from the prototype and, consequently, it is new.
The decision has also an inventive level. The method of manufacturing wear resistant fire-arms barrels is known [see the Description to the Ukrainian patent No 35.271 A IC 41 A 21/00, published from. Mar. 15, 2001]. It includes its preliminary clearing and treating by ultra disperse powder or a mixture of ultra disperse powder with the technological environment before each shot of a series which includes not less than 3-5 shots, by covering an external surface of each shell and an internal surface of a barrel with ultra disperse powder or a mixture of ultra disperse powder with the technological environment taking into account that ultra disperse powder is produced of natural mineral belonging to layered silicates.
It was shown by tests, that usage of the technical decision described above provides increase of survivability of the fire-arms, that can be proved by steady improvement of its ballistic characteristics of the new as well as worn out weapons. In this case fulfillment of the certain conditions can make requirements of weapon storage less strict.
However, the method cannot be referred to technological ones, it can't be mechanized and applied for in the adverse conditions.
The present technical decision differs essentially from previously suggested one. It allows to prepare cartridges (ammunition) on conditions of the mass mechanized manufacture, with essential reduction of the filling substance and expenses for its manufacturing. The cartridges (ammunition) providing high ballistic properties of the weapon are suitable for transportation and usage on various conditions.
There is a composition to treat pairs of friction [see the Ukrainian patent 34768, IC C10M 125/10, published from Jun. 15, 2001]. It includes oxides of metals and nonmetals based on the products of dehydration of the hydrates at the temperature of the constitutional water removal and destruction of a crystal lattice in an interval 400-900° C. and which in a steady phase contain such oxides as MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, Na2O. The specified composition is used in a mixture with various fluid technological environments for decrease friction and wear.
The present technical decision differs essentially from the one suggested previously, because it uses the film-forming materials as a carrier, that provides formation of a steady additional covering on the bullet surface with uniform distribution of the necessary filling substance in the given zone. But the most important factor is that the covering fixation on the bullet surface provides an opportunity to use the necessary cartridges avoiding full wear of arm channels. As it is marked above, such a design of a cartridge is technological and suitable for mass production.
It is necessary to note also once again, that at the stable effect of increasing close grouping of shooting such parameter as speed of a bullet during tests might change a little bit both aside increase, and aside decrease or to remain constant. This fact gives the basis for the statement, that the offered decision gives a new technical result, that is improvement of transfer to a bullet of rotation by the channel grooves of a barrel through the additional bullet covering. Thus, probably, in this case, there is a leveling, smoothing of barrel channels, and due to its the corner of bullets nutation decreases in flight, its gyroscopic stability raises in flight.
The offered technical decision may find wide application for ammunition manufacture, as well as for operational development of barrel channels of rifle arms up to higher parameters.