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Publication numberUS20040083722 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/065,651
Publication dateMay 6, 2004
Filing dateNov 6, 2002
Priority dateNov 6, 2002
Also published asDE10347461A1, US7475535, US20050217247
Publication number065651, 10065651, US 2004/0083722 A1, US 2004/083722 A1, US 20040083722 A1, US 20040083722A1, US 2004083722 A1, US 2004083722A1, US-A1-20040083722, US-A1-2004083722, US2004/0083722A1, US2004/083722A1, US20040083722 A1, US20040083722A1, US2004083722 A1, US2004083722A1
InventorsPaul Simpson, David Ketcher
Original AssigneeFord Global Technologies, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Diesel aftertreatment systems
US 20040083722 A1
Abstract
A method for improving NOx conversion efficiency of a NOx-reducing catalyst by determining an accurate amount of reductant required is presented. The method includes calculating an initial reductant injection amount based on a steady state amount of NOx in the engine feedgas and adjusting the initial amount to compensate for transient NOx emissions. The compensation is initiated in response to an engine transient, such as impending acceleration or deceleration. This method further results in improved vehicle fuel economy.
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Claims(34)
1. A method for improving efficiency of a NOx-reducing catalyst coupled downstream of an internal combustion engine, comprising:
providing an indication of an impending engine acceleration; and
adjusting an amount of reductant injection into the NOx-reducing catalyst to compensate for variations in engine feedgas NOx caused by said engine acceleration.
2. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the engine is a diesel engine.
3. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the NOx-reducing catalyst is an ALNC.
4. The method as set forth in claim 3 wherein said reductant is hydrocarbon.
5. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the NOx-reducing catalyst is an SCR catalyst.
6. The method as set forth in claim 5 wherein said reductant is urea.
7. The method a set forth in claim 1 wherein said indication of impending acceleration is based on a rate of change of pedal position.
8. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said indication of impending acceleration is based a rate of change of engine speed.
9. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said indication of impending acceleration is based a rate of change of engine fuel injection amount.
10. A system for reducing transient and steady-state NOx emissions in the exhaust gases of a vehicle powered by a diesel fueled internal combustion engine comprising:
a) a NOx-reducing catalyst downstream of said engine;
b) a source of liquid hydrocarbons;
c) a valve for introducing predetermined quantities of said hydrocarbons from said source into said exhaust gases upstream of said NOx-reducing catalyst pursuant to a command signal;
d) a plurality of vehicle sensors generating sensor signals indicative of at least one operating condition of said engine, said sensors including at least one transient operation sensor generating a signal prior to an acceleration of said engine and predictive of said acceleration;
e) an engine control unit having a plurality of programmed routines for controlling said engine in response to said plurality of sensor signals, said routines including at least,
(1) a first routine for generating a first command signal for introducing a first predetermined quantity of said hydrocarbons through said valve when said engine is operating at a steady state condition sufficient to reduce a portion of NOx emissions produced at the steady state condition, and
(2) a second routine activated when said at least one transient operation sensor generates said signal predictive of engine acceleration, said second routine comprising:
i) calculating a second quantity of hydrocarbons sufficient to reduce a portion of the NOx emissions generated during a period in which said engine is accelerating and
ii) generating a second command signal for introducing said second predetermined quantity of said hydrocarbons through said valve during at least a portion of the period in which said engine is accelerating.
11. The system of claim 10 wherein said source of hydrocarbons comprises a diesel fuel tank of said vehicle.
12. The system of claim 10 wherein said transient operation sensor comprises an engine speed sensor.
13. The system of claim 10 wherein said transient operation sensor comprises a pedal position sensor.
14. The system of claim 10 wherein said transient operation sensor is indicative of a change in speed of said engine.
15. The system of claim 10 wherein said transient operation sensor is indicative of a change in an engine fuel injection amount.
16. The system of claim 10 wherein said acceleration is controlled by the operator of said vehicle.
17. A method for reducing NOx emissions present in the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine comprising the steps of:
a) providing a source of liquid hydrocarbons;
b) providing a NOx-reducing catalyst downstream of said engine through which said exhaust gases pass;
c) sensing a set of engine operating parameters including at least a space velocity of the exhaust gases and a temperature of the exhaust gases;
d) calculating a first concentration of hydrocarbon and NOx emissions present in said exhaust gases based on said sensed engine operating parameters during a steady state operation of said engine;
e) determining an amount of said hydrocarbons sufficient to reduce a desired percentage of said NOx emissions when said exhaust gases leave said NOx-reducing catalyst during said steady state operation of said engine;
f) metering a quantity of said hydrocarbons into said exhaust gases upstream of said NOx-reducing catalyst sufficient to reduce said desired percentage of said NOx emissions during said steady state operation of said engine;
g) sensing a signal predictive of an engine acceleration;
h) calculating the expected concentration of NOx emissions present in said exhaust gases during said engine acceleration based on said signal predictive of said engine acceleration; and
i) metering an additional quantity of said hydrocarbons into said exhaust gases upstream of said NOx-reducing catalyst sufficient to reduce said expected concentration of NOx emissions during said engine acceleration.
18. The method of claim 17 in which said internal combustion engine is a lean operating gasoline engine.
19. The method of claim 18 wherein said lean operating gasoline engine operates at an air-to-fuel ratio of at least 1.03.
20. The method of claim 17 wherein said signal predictive of engine acceleration indicates a change in engine fuel demand.
21. The method of claim 17 wherein said signal predictive of said engine acceleration indicates a change in engine fuel injection amount.
22. The method of claim 17 wherein said signal predictive of said engine acceleration indicates a change in a pedal position.
23. The method of claim 17 wherein said signal predictive of said engine acceleration indicates a change in the speed of said engine.
24. The method of claim 17 wherein said engine acceleration is in response to an operator inputted command.
25. The method of claim 17 wherein said sensed operating conditions include the air-to-fuel ratio of the engine.
26. A method for reducing NOx emissions produced by a vehicle powered by a diesel engine having an active lean NOx catalyst through which the exhaust gases pass and sensors for determining NOx concentrations at steady state engine operating conditions, the improvement comprising the steps of:
a) sensing a pedal position sensor signal prior to acceleration of the vehicle; and
b) injecting a set quantity of diesel fuel reductant into the exhaust gases of the engine sufficient to substantially react with transient emissions produced by the engine during acceleration, the injection occurring at a time in advance of and not later than the time the engine produces the transient emissions.
27. A method for reducing NOx emissions present in the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine comprising the steps of:
a) providing a source of liquid hydrocarbons;
b) providing a NOx-reducing catalyst downstream of said engine through which said exhaust gases pass;
c) sensing a set of engine operating parameters including at least a space velocity of the exhaust gases and a temperature of the exhaust gases;
d) calculating a first concentration of hydrocarbon and NOx emissions present in said exhaust gases based on said sensed engine operating parameters during a steady state operation of said engine;
e) determining an amount of said hydrocarbons sufficient to reduce a desired percentage of said NOx emissions when said exhaust gases leave said reducing catalytic converter during said steady state operation of said engine;
f) metering a quantity of said hydrocarbons into said exhaust gases upstream of said reducing catalytic converter sufficient to reduce said desired percentage of said NOx emissions during said steady state operation of said engine;
g) calculating a rate of change of pedal position; and
h) metering an additional quantity of said hydrocarbons into said exhaust gases upstream of said reducing catalytic converter if said rate of change of pedal position is greater than a predetermined calibratable constant.
28. A method for controlling reductant injection into a NOx-reducing catalyst coupled downstream of an internal combustion engine, comprising:
providing an indication that a rate of change of pedal position is greater than a predetermined calibratable constant; and
in response to said indication, adjusting an amount of reductant injection into the NOx-reducing catalyst based on said rate of change of pedal position.
29. A method for controlling reductant injection into a NOx-reducing catalyst coupled downstream of an internal combustion engine, comprising:
providing an indication that a rate of change of engine speed is greater than a predetermined calibratable constant; and
in response to said indication, adjusting an amount of reductant injection into the NOx-reducing catalyst based on said rate of change of engine speed.
30. A method for controlling reductant injection into a NOx-reducing catalyst coupled downstream of an internal combustion engine, comprising:
providing an indication that a measure of impending engine acceleration is greater than a predetermined calibratable constant; and
in response to said indication, adjusting an amount of reductant injection into the NOx-reducing catalyst based on said measure of impending engine acceleration.
31. The method as set forth in claim 30 wherein said measure of impending engine acceleration is a rate of change of engine speed.
32. The method as set forth in claim 30 wherein said measure of impending engine acceleration is a rate of change of engine fuel injection amount.
33. The method as set forth in claim 30 wherein said measure of impending engine acceleration is a rate of change of pedal position.
34. The method as set forth in claim 30 wherein said measure of impending engine acceleration is a rate of change of engine fuel demand.
Description
    BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of Invention
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to a system and a method for improving performance of a lean exhaust gas aftertreatment device and, more particularly, to controlling an amount of reductant injection to achieve optimum NOx conversion efficiency while minimizing the fuel economy penalty.
  • [0003]
    2. Background of the Invention
  • [0004]
    Current emission control regulations necessitate the use of catalysts in the exhaust systems of automotive vehicles in order to convert carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced during engine operation into harmless exhaust gasses. Vehicles equipped with diesel or lean gasoline engines offer the benefits of increased fuel economy. Such vehicles have to be equipped with lean exhaust aftertreatment devices, such as, for example, an Active Lean NOx Catalysts (ALNC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts, which continuously reduce NOx emissions, even in an oxygen rich environment, through active injection of reductant, such as fuel (HC) or urea, into the exhaust gas entering these devices. Further, it is important to precisely control the amounts of reductant in order to achieve maximum NOx conversion efficiency.
  • [0005]
    The inventors herein have recognized that transient changes in engine operating conditions cause changes in engine feedgas NOx production. For example, NOx production usually increases during engine acceleration, and decreases during deceleration. Since the amount of reductant injection is typically calculated based on steady state engine operating conditions, these transient NOx variations result in over or under-injection of reductant and negatively impact fuel economy and emission standards.
  • SUMMARY OF INVENTION
  • [0006]
    In accordance with the present invention, a system and a method for controlling an amount of reductant to be delivered to a NOx-reducing catalyst are presented. The method includes calculating a desired amount of reductant based on a measure of engine transient behavior; and injecting said calculated desired amount of reductant into the NOx-reducing catalyst.
  • [0007]
    In one aspect of the present invention, the device is an ALNC and the reductant is hydrocarbon. In another aspect of the present invention, the device is an SCR catalyst and the reductant is urea. In yet another aspect of the present invention, the measure of engine transient behavior is a measure of engine acceleration.
  • [0008]
    In another aspect of the present invention, the measure further includes engine deceleration. In another aspect of the present invention, the measure of engine transient behavior is based on a rate of change of pedal position.
  • [0009]
    In yet another aspect of the present invention, the measure of engine transient behavior is based on a rate of change of engine fuel injection amount. In yet another aspect of the present invention, the measure of engine transient behavior is based on a rate of change of engine speed.
  • [0010]
    In another aspect of the present invention, a method for improving efficiency of a NOx-reducing catalyst coupled downstream of an internal combustion engine includes: providing an indication of an impending engine transient; and adjusting an amount of reductant injection into the NOx-reducing catalyst to compensate for variations in engine feedgas NOx caused by said impending engine transient.
  • [0011]
    The present invention provides a number of advantages. In particular, NOx conversion efficiency of the NOx-reducing catalyst is improved by adjusting the injected reductant amounts to compensate for transient increases or decreases in the engine feedgas NOx amounts. Further, monitoring the rate of change of pedal position provides a quick and accurate indication of an impending engine transient and the associated change in engine feedgas NOx. Thus, reductant injection amount can be timely adjusted to compensate for NOx variations. Another advantage of the present invention is improved fuel economy due to optimized reductant usage. For example, reductant injection amount can be reduced in anticipation of engine deceleration to compensate for a reduction in engine feedgas NOx.
  • [0012]
    The above advantages and other advantages, objects and features of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0013]
    The objects and advantages described herein will be more fully understood by reading an example of an embodiment in which the invention is used to advantage, referred to herein as the Description of Preferred Embodiment, with reference to the drawings, wherein:
  • [0014]
    [0014]FIGS. 1A and 1B are schematic diagrams of an engine wherein the invention is used to advantage;
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIG. 2 is an example of a reductant delivery system used to advantage with the present invention;
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIGS. 3 and 4 describe an exemplary routine and a modification curve for determining an amount of reductant to be delivered to the exhaust gas aftertreatment device in accordance with the present invention.
  • DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)
  • [0017]
    Internal combustion engine 10, comprising a plurality of cylinders, one cylinder of which is shown in FIG. 1A, is controlled by electronic engine controller 12. Engine 10 includes combustion chamber 30 and cylinder walls 32 with piston 36 positioned therein and connected to crankshaft 40. Combustion chamber 30 is shown communicating with intake manifold 44 and exhaust manifold 48 via respective intake valve 52 and exhaust valve 54. Intake manifold 44 is also shown having fuel injector 80 coupled thereto for delivering liquid fuel in proportion to the pulse width of signal FPW from controller 12. Both fuel quantity, controlled by signal FPW and injection timing are adjustable. Fuel is delivered to fuel injector 80 by a fuel system including a fuel tank, fuel pump, and fuel rail (not shown).
  • [0018]
    Controller 12 is shown in FIG. 1A as a conventional microcomputer including: microprocessor unit 102, input/output ports 104, read-only memory 106, random access memory 108, and a conventional data bus. Controller 12 is shown receiving various signals from sensors coupled to engine 10, in addition to those signals previously discussed, including: engine coolant temperature (ECT) from temperature sensor 112 coupled to cooling sleeve 114; a measurement of manifold pressure (MAP) from pressure sensor 116 coupled to intake manifold 44; a measurement (AT) of manifold temperature from temperature sensor 117; an engine speed signal (RPM) from engine speed sensor 118 coupled to crankshaft 40.
  • [0019]
    Oxidation catalyst 13 is coupled to the exhaust manifold 48 downstream of engine 10 and may be a precious metal catalyst, preferably one containing platinum. Catalyst 14, a NOx-reducing catalyst capable of reducing NOx in an oxygen rich environment, is coupled downstream of the oxidation catalyst. In a preferred embodiment Catalyst 14 is an Active Lean NOx Catalyst (ALNC) comprising a precious metal or a combination of precious metals, such as Platinum or Palladium, an acidic support material, such as the one containing alumina and silica, and a zeolite material. In an alternative embodiment, catalyst 14 may be a urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst, which is a device comprising some or all of the features of the ALNC catalyst and optimized for use with urea or other ammonia-based compounds as reductant. The oxidation catalyst 13 exothermically combusts hydrocarbons (HC) in the incoming exhaust gas from the engine thus supplying heat to rapidly warm up catalyst 14. Additionally, carbon monoxide (CO) produced as a result of HC combustion in the oxidation catalyst 13 improves NOx reduction in the catalyst 14.
  • [0020]
    A reductant delivery system 16 is coupled to the exhaust gas manifold between the oxidation catalyst and the NOx-reducing catalyst and is described in more detail in FIG. 2 below. Alternatively, reductant delivery system 16 may be any system known to those skilled in the art capable of supplying reductant to the NOx-reducing catalyst. In a preferred embodiment, reductant delivery system injects fuel (hydrocarbon) into the exhaust gas mixture entering catalyst 14. Alternatively, reductant delivery system 16 may supply aqueous urea to the NOx-reducing catalyst.
  • [0021]
    Referring now to FIG. 1B, an alternative embodiment is shown where engine 10 is a direct injection engine with injector 80 located to inject fuel directly into cylinder 30.
  • [0022]
    The diagram of FIG. 2 generally represents an example of one embodiment of a reductant delivery system according to the present invention. The system comprises an evaporator unit 21 housing an elongated heating element 22. The mixing unit 23 has a reductant inlet and an air inlet and an outlet 24 coupled to the evaporator unit 21 through which a mixture of reductant and air is injected into the housing and subsequently comes into contact with the surface of the heating element 22. Alternatively, both air and reductant can be injected through a single input. The reductant can be supplied to the mixing unit 23 from the fuel tank or from a storage vessel. Air pump 25 supplies pressurized air to the mixing unit 23 thereby creating a mixture of reductant and air. Outlet 24 is configured to deliver the reductant and air mixture to more than one area on the surface of the heating element. Controller 12 can selectively enable and disable injection of the mixture to these areas depending on operating conditions, such as engine speed, load, exhaust gas temperature, etc. For example, when the amount of reductant required is high, such as at high load conditions, it may be necessary to enable delivery of the reductant and air mixture to more than one area on the surface of the heating element. Alternatively, outlet 24 may be configured to deliver the reductant and air mixture to a specific area on the surface of the heating element.
  • [0023]
    As will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art, the routines described in FIGS. 3 and 4 below may represent one or more of any number of processing strategies such as event-driven, interrupt-driven, multi-tasking, multi-threading, and the like. As such, various steps or functions illustrated may be performed in the sequence illustrated, in parallel, or in some cases omitted. Likewise, the order of processing is not necessarily required to achieve the objects, features and advantages of the invention, but is provided for ease of illustration and description. Although not explicitly illustrated, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that one or more of the illustrated steps or functions may be repeatedly performed depending on the particular strategy being used.
  • [0024]
    Referring now to FIG. 3, an exemplary routine for controlling injection of a reductant into exhaust flow is presented. First, in step 500, the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas mixture entering the device, NOxfg, is estimated based on engine operating conditions. These conditions may include engine speed, engine load, exhaust temperatures, exhaust gas aftertreatment device temperatures, injection timing, engine temperature, and any other parameter know to those skilled in the art to indicate the amount of NOx produced by the combustion presses. Alternatively, a NOx sensor may be used to measure the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas mixture. Next, in step 600, the steady-state reductant injection amount, RAinj 1, is calculated based on the following equation: ( R A f g + R A inj_ 1 ) N O x f g = R d e s
  • [0025]
    wherein
  • RAjg
  • [0026]
    is the amount of reductant in the engine feedgas, which can be determined based on engine operating conditions. This initial reductant amount,
  • RAinj 1,
  • [0027]
    is evaluated at steady state and yields a base reductant quantity to be injected for each engine speed and load point. The amount is calibrated to achieve a certain feedgas reductant to NOx ratio, Rdes. The ratio is typically obtained as a trade-off between NOx conversion and the fuel penalty due to reductant injection, and in this example is set at approximately 10. Next, in step 700, the steady-state base reductant injection amount,
  • RAinj 1,
  • [0028]
    is modified to account for engine operating conditions, such as engine coolant temperature,
  • Tc,
  • [0029]
    exhaust gas temperature,
  • Teg,
  • [0030]
    EGR valve position,
  • EGRpos,
  • [0031]
    start of injection,
  • SOI,
  • [0032]
    and other parameters:
  • RA inj 2 =RA inj 1ˇƒ1(T cƒ 2(T eg)ˇƒ3(SOI)ˇƒ4(EGR pos)
  • [0033]
    The routine then proceeds to step 800 wherein the rate of change of pedal position is computed as follows: pps_diff ( t ) = ( p p s ( t ) - p p s ( t - 1 ) ) T s
  • [0034]
    where Ts is the sampling rate, and
  • pps(t)
  • [0035]
    denotes the pedal position at time
  • t.
  • [0036]
    Next, in step 900, a low pass filter is applied to smooth out the noise:
  • pps diff lp(t)=(1−k ƒpps diff lp(t−1)+k ƒ ˇpps diff(t−1)
  • where
  • kƒ
  • [0037]
    controls the rate of filtering. The routine then proceeds to step 1000 wherein the reductant amount is further modified to account for engine transient behaviors as represented by the changes in the pedal position:
  • RA inj 3 =RA inj 2 ˇƒ 5(pps diff lp)
  • [0038]
    where function
  • ƒ5
  • [0039]
    is shaped to allow overinjection of reductant during pedal position tip-in and underinjection of reductant during pedal position tip-out. An example of
  • ƒ5
  • [0040]
    is shown with particular reference to FIG. 6. In an alternative embodiment, rate of change of engine speed, rate of change of engine fuel injection amount, rate of change of engine load, rate of change of engine fuel demand or any other parameter known to those skilled in the art to provide a measure of engine transient behavior may be used to obtain
  • RAinj 3.
  • [0041]
    The routine then exits.
  • [0042]
    In an alternative embodiment (not shown), the modified steady-state reductant injection amount,
  • RAinj 2,
  • [0043]
    calculated in step 700, is further modified to account for engine transient behavior only if the rate of change of pedal position is greater than a predetermined calibratable value.
  • [0044]
    Therefore, according to the present invention, in order to achieve a more efficient NOx-reducing catalyst performance, the amount of reductant to be injected should be adjusted to account for increases and decreases in the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas entering the catalyst. This can be accomplished by continuously monitoring engine parameters that are capable of providing a measure of engine transient behaviors, and continuously adjusting the amount of reductant to be injected as a function of these parameters. Since NOx production typically increases at tip-in and decreases at tip-out, the result of such operation would be to increase the base injected amount in the former case, and decrease the base injected amount in the latter case. By monitoring parameters that are capable of providing very quick indication of engine transients, such as, for example, rate of change of pedal position, rate of change of engine fuel injection amount, or rate of change of engine speed or load, it is possible optimize system response and ensure that optimal reductant amount is timely injected into the device in response to a change in engine feedgas NOx.
  • [0045]
    This concludes the description of the invention. The reading of it by those skilled in the art would bring to mind many alterations and modifications without departing from the spirit and the scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the following claims:
Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7650747Mar 28, 2007Jan 26, 2010Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc.Method and apparatus for exhaust gas purifying using hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction
US7703434Jun 5, 2007Apr 27, 2010Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc.Method and apparatus for controlling ignition timing in a compression-ignition engine operating in an auto-ignition mode
US7877986Feb 1, 2011GM Global Technology Operations LLCMethod and apparatus for generating a reductant in an exhaust gas of a compression-ignition engine
US20080236142 *Mar 28, 2007Oct 2, 2008Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc.Method and apparatus for exhaust gas purifying using hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction
US20080271434 *May 4, 2007Nov 6, 2008Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc.Method and apparatus for generating a reductant in an exhaust gas of a compression-ignition engine
US20080302329 *Jun 5, 2007Dec 11, 2008Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc.Method and apparatus for controlling ignition timing in a compression-ignition engine operating in an auto-ignition mode
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/286, 60/285, 60/301
International ClassificationF01N13/02, F01N3/24, F02D41/02, F02D41/10, F02B3/06, F01N3/20, F01N3/36, B01D53/94, F01N3/08, F01N3/10
Cooperative ClassificationY02T10/24, F02D41/107, B01D53/9495, B01D53/9431, F02D2200/1012, F02D41/0275, F01N2250/04, F01N2610/03, F02B3/06, F01N2610/02, F01N3/2066, F01N3/36, F01N2250/12, F01N2610/1453, F01N13/009
European ClassificationF02D41/10F, B01D53/94Y, F02D41/02C4D1, B01D53/94F2D, F01N3/36, F01N3/20E
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 6, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: FORD GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC., MICHIGAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FORD MOTOR COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:013228/0222
Effective date: 20021106
Owner name: FORD MOTOR COMPANY, MICHIGAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SIMPSON, PAUL;KETCHER, DAVID ARTHUR;REEL/FRAME:013228/0220
Effective date: 20021105
Apr 22, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: FORD GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC, MICHIGAN
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:FORD GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:013987/0838
Effective date: 20030301
Owner name: FORD GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC,MICHIGAN
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:FORD GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:013987/0838
Effective date: 20030301