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Publication numberUS20040196957 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/483,399
PCT numberPCT/JP2002/006595
Publication dateOct 7, 2004
Filing dateJun 28, 2002
Priority dateJul 11, 2001
Also published asEP1429138A1, US7817779, US20080298551, WO2003008952A1
Publication number10483399, 483399, PCT/2002/6595, PCT/JP/2/006595, PCT/JP/2/06595, PCT/JP/2002/006595, PCT/JP/2002/06595, PCT/JP2/006595, PCT/JP2/06595, PCT/JP2002/006595, PCT/JP2002/06595, PCT/JP2002006595, PCT/JP200206595, PCT/JP2006595, PCT/JP206595, US 2004/0196957 A1, US 2004/196957 A1, US 20040196957 A1, US 20040196957A1, US 2004196957 A1, US 2004196957A1, US-A1-20040196957, US-A1-2004196957, US2004/0196957A1, US2004/196957A1, US20040196957 A1, US20040196957A1, US2004196957 A1, US2004196957A1
InventorsMasami Ando
Original AssigneeMasami Ando
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Nondestructive analysis method and nondestructive analysis device and specific object by the method/device
US 20040196957 A1
Abstract
Novel nondestructive analysis method and nondestructive analysis device capable of providing a high-contrast image within an object easily and in one go by setting, when an object (2) is irradiated with homogenous, parallel X-rays (1) to beam a refraction X-ray (3) from the object (2) onto a transmitting crystal analysis element (4 a), and the refraction X-ray (3) is separated spectrally into a front-direction refraction X-ray (41 a) and a refraction-direction refraction X-ray (42 a) by the dynamic refracting action of the transmitting crystal analysis element (4 a), the thickness of the transmitting crystal analysis element (4 a) to such one that, when no object is present, the intensity of either one of the front-direction refraction X-ray (41 a) and the refraction-direction refraction X-ray (42 a) is almost zero in comparison with the intensity of the other at the intensity of an X-ray little affected by a directly beamed X-ray.
Images(16)
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Claims(22)
1-23. (Cancelled)
24. A nondestructive analysis method for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others with respect to the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use; and either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image are provided when the X-rays from the object are made incident on this transmission-type analyzer crystal.
25. A nondestructive analysis method for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the reflection-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that the X-rays from the object satisfy a diffraction condition and are transmitted by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal; and the reflection-type analyzer crystal reflects the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use with a reduction in X-ray intensity and transmits the X-rays from the object, so that an X-ray dark-field image is provided.
26. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others with respect to the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use; and either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image are provided when the X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal.
27. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others with respect to the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use; and either ones or both of the X-rays along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays along the diffraction direction are obtained when the X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal.
28. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially shaped so that it periodically exhibit such thicknesses that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others with respect to the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use; a slit plate is arranged on an output side of the transmission-type analyzer crystal; when the X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal, the transmission-type analyzer crystal and the slit plate are moved or the object is moved to obtain a plurality of slit-like images; and the images are synthesized into either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image.
29. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the reflection-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that the X-rays from the object satisfy a diffraction condition and are transmitted by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal; and the reflection-type analyzer crystal reflects the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use with a reduction in X-ray intensity and transmits the X-rays from the object, so that an X-ray dark-field image is provided.
30. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the reflection-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that the X-rays from the object satisfy a diffraction condition and are transmitted by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal; and the reflection-type analyzer crystal reflects the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use with a reduction in X-ray intensity and transmits the X-rays from the object, so that an image of the X-rays is provided.
31. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making X-rays from the object incident on an analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the analyzer crystal is usable as both transmission-type and reflection-type analyzer crystal, being configured to satisfy both a thickness condition that either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others with respect to the monochromatic parallel X-rays in use, and a thickness condition that the X-rays from the object satisfy a diffraction condition and are transmitted by the dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal; in the case of the transmission-type analyzer crystal, either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image from the transmission-type analyzer crystal are provided; and in the case of the reflection-type analyzer crystal, an X-ray dark-field image transmitted through the reflection-type analyzer crystal is provided.
32. The nondestructive analysis device according to any one of claims 29-31, characterized in that the reflection-type analyzer crystal is an asymmetric analyzer crystal.
33. The nondestructive analysis device according to any one of claims 26, 28, 29 and 31, characterized by comprising: an X-ray detecting device for detecting either one or both of the X-ray dark-field image and the X-ray bright-field image; and image processing equipment for creating an image by using detecting data from the X-ray detecting device.
34. The nondestructive analysis device according to claim 33, characterized in that the X-ray detecting device is a two-dimensional detector or a line sensor one-dimensional detector.
35. The nondestructive analysis device according to claim 33, characterized in that the image processing equipment is capable of creating either one or both of X-ray dark-field tomography and X-ray bright-field tomography, or either one or both of X-ray dark-field stereography and X-ray bright-field stereography.
36. The nondestructive analysis device according to any one of claims 26-31, characterized by comprising means for monochromating and parallelizing X-rays from an X-ray source.
37. The nondestructive analysis device according to claim 36, characterized in that the means for monochromating and parallelizing the X-rays, or a pre crystal device, is a symmetric or asymmetric monochromator.
38. The nondestructive analysis device according to claim 36, characterized in that atomic lattice planes of the pre crystal device, or the means for monochromating and parallelizing the X-rays, and atomic lattice planes of the transmission-type analyzer crystal or reflection-type analyzer crystal are parallel with each other.
39. The nondestructive analysis device according to any one of claims 26-28 and 31, characterized in that the X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal through one or a plurality of asymmetric monochromators.
40. The nondestructive analysis device according to any one of claims 29-31, characterized in that the X-rays from the object are made incident on the reflection-type analyzer crystal through one or a plurality of asymmetric monochromators.
41. The nondestructive analysis device according to any one of claims 26, 28 and 31, characterized in that either one or both of the X-ray dark-field image and the X-ray bright-field image obtained from the transmission-type analyzer crystal are output through one or a plurality of asymmetric monochromators.
42. The nondestructive analysis device according to claim 29 or 31, characterized in that the X-ray dark-field image obtained from the reflection-type analyzer crystal is output through one or a plurality of asymmetric monochromators.
43. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays or electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams, making X-rays or electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams from the object incident on an analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays or electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams emitted from the analyzer crystal, characterized by the comprising means:
to make the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the X-ray or the electromagnetic wave or the corpuscular beam source monochromated and parallelized by pre crystal device;
to use a transmission-type analyzer crystal as an analyzer crystal in order to analyze the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the object;
to make the atomic lattice planes of the pre crystal device and the atomic lattice planes of the analyzer crystal approximately parallel in order to utilize the angular-analysis capability of the analyzer crystal;
to make, based on the dynamical diffraction action the X-rays or the electromagnetic wave or the corpuscular beams divided into the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams along the diffraction direction, by fixing the thickness of the analyzer at a value;
to obtain, using the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the object, a dark-field image or a bright-field image along the forward diffraction direction and a bright-field image or a dark-field image along the diffraction direction;
and the X-ray X-rays or the electromagnetic wave or the corpuscular beam detecting device to detect the dark-field image and or the bright-field image.
44. A nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays or electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams, making X-rays or electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams from the object incident on an analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays or electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams emitted from the analyzer crystal, characterized by the comprising means:
to make the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the X-ray or the electromagnetic wave or the corpuscular beam source monochromated and parallelized by pre crystal device;
to use a reflection type analyzer crystal as an analyzer crystal in order to analyze the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the object;
to make the atomic lattice planes of the pre crystal device and the atomic lattice planes of the analyzer crystal approximately parallel in order to utilize the angular-analysis capability of the analyzer crystal;
the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams satisfy the diffraction condition and are transmitted by the dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal;
the angle between the monochromatic parallel the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams and the analyzer crystal and the thickness of the analyzer crystal are given settings at which it possible to obtain the dark-field image that is created from the transmission the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the analyzer crystal;
to obtain, using the X-rays or the electromagnetic waves or the corpuscular beams from the object, a dark-field image from the analyzer crystal;
and the X-ray or electromagnetic wave or the corpuscular beam detecting device to detect the dark-field image.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The invention of this application relates to a nondestructive analysis method, a nondestructive analysis device, and a specific object by the method/device.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] A technology for analyzing the internal structure of an object nondestructively, there have already been various techniques proposed as ways of obtaining an image inside an object by using X-rays, including Japanese Patent No. 2694049.

[0003] Here, the object is irradiated with monochromatic X-rays, refraction X-rays from the object are introduced to an analyzer crystal (also referred to crystal analysis plate, crystal analysis device, etc.). This utilizes the fact that the analyzer crystal has an angular-analysis capability. The image obtained by the angular-analysis is paired with a similar image having different contrast between the transmission beam and diffraction beam (an image of opposite signs: specifically, a white-and-black image if the other image is black-and-white).

[0004] Among other examples is U.S. Pat. No. 5,850,425, in which an object is irradiated with monochromatic X-rays, and the refraction X-rays from the object are introduced to an analyzer crystal to utilize reflection X-rays through the Bragg reflection emitted from the analyzer crystal as analyzer crystal.

[0005] Another technique has also been proposed in which an object is irradiated with monochromatic X-rays, and refraction X-rays from the object are introduced to a pair of reflection-type asymmetric analyzer crystals for double reflection, so that an image distorted by the first reflection is corrected into undistorted one by the second reflection.

[0006] Nevertheless, these conventional nondestructive analysis methods have demonstrated the following problems.

[0007] Moreover, the nondestructive analysis technique of Japanese Patent No. 2694049 has the problem that when the angular-analysis capability of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is utilized, the effect of the wavelength distribution remains, since no consideration is given to parallelization between the atomic lattice planes of the monochromator for generating the monochromatic X-rays and the atomic lattice planes of the analyzer crystal. Furthermore, there is the problem of requiring complicated operations for storing a white-and-black image and a black-and-white image with successive rotations of the analyzer crystal and forming a high contrast image through a computer since no consideration is given to forming the transmission-type analyzer crystal of a certain thickness and it is thus impossible to obtain the desired image of the object at a time.

[0008] That is, any of the foregoing nondestructive analysis techniques can only obtain poor-contrast, hard-to-recognize images due to the configuration that is chiefly intended to obtain an X-ray bright-field image, or an X-ray image or information on an object, superimposed with X-rays affected by the intensity of the X-rays incident directly in the X-ray bright-field image. It has thus been impossible to obtain nothing other than poor-contrast, hard-to-recognize images.

[0009] The invention of this application has been achieved in view of the foregoing. Thus, an object of the invention is to solve the problems of the conventional art and provide a new nondestructive analysis method and nondestructive analysis device, as well as a specific object by those nondestructive analysis method and device, which can realize a configuration chiefly intended to obtain an X-ray dark-field image in particular, or an X-ray image or object information by X-rays, unaffected by the intensities of the X-rays incident directly with an elimination or a reduction of an unnecessary illuminated background of X-rays, and can obtain a high-contrast image from inside an object at a time with facility.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] To solve the foregoing problems, the invention of this application firstly provides a nondestructive analysis method for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly; and either ones or both of the X-rays along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays along the diffraction direction are obtained when transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal.

[0011] The present invention in secondly provides a nondestructive analysis method for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly; and either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image are provided when transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal.

[0012] In addition, the invention of this application thirdly provides a nondestructive analysis method for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-ray, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that; transmitted transmission X-rays are provided by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal. The present invention in 4th provides a nondestructive analysis method for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: a transmitted X-ray dark-field image is provided by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal.

[0013] In addition, the invention of this application in 5th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly; and either ones or both of the X-rays along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays along the diffraction direction are obtained when transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal.

[0014] The present invention in 6th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly; and either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image are provided when transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal.

[0015] In addition, the invention of this application in 7th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the transmission-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the transmission-type analyzer crystal is initially shaped so that it periodically exhibit such thicknesses that when there is no object, either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly; a slit plate is arranged on an output side of the transmission-type analyzer crystal; when transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal, the transmission-type analyzer crystal and the slit plate are moved or the object is moved to obtain a plurality of slit-like images; and the images are synthesized into either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image.

[0016] In addition, the invention of this application in 8th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that; transmitted transmission X-rays are obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal.

[0017] The present invention in 9th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the reflection-type analyzer crystal, characterized in that: a transmitted X-ray dark-field image is provided by a dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal.

[0018] In addition, the invention of this application in 10th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on an analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the analyzer crystal is usable as both transmission-type and reflection-type analyzer crystals, being configured to satisfy both a thickness condition that either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly, and a thickness condition that transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object satisfy a diffraction condition and are transmitted by the dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal; in the case of the transmission-type analyzer crystal, either ones or both of the X-rays along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays along the diffraction direction from the transmission-type analyzer crystal are obtained; and in the case of the reflection-type analyzer crystal, transmission X-rays transmitted through the reflection-type analyzer crystal are obtained. The present invention in 11th provides a nondestructive analysis device for irradiating an object with monochromatic parallel X-rays, making transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object incident on an analyzer crystal, and obtaining an image inside the object by X-rays emitted from the analyzer crystal, characterized in that: the analyzer crystal is usable as both transmission-type and reflection-type analyzer crystals, being configured to satisfy both a thickness condition that either ones of X-rays along a forward diffraction direction and X-rays along a diffraction direction obtained by a dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal have an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by X-rays incident directly, and a thickness condition that transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object satisfy a diffraction condition and are transmitted by the dynamical diffraction action of the analyzer crystal; in the case of the transmission-type analyzer crystal, either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image from the transmission-type analyzer crystal are provided; and in the case of the reflection-type analyzer crystal, an X-ray dark-field image transmitted through the reflection-type analyzer crystal is provided.

[0019] In addition, the invention of this application in 12th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that the reflection-type analyzer crystal is an asymmetric analyzer crystal. The present invention in 13th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized by comprising: a X-ray detecting device for detecting either one or both of the X-ray dark-field image and the X-ray bright-field image; and image processing equipment for creating an image by using detecting data from the X-ray detecting device. The present invention in 14th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that the X-ray detecting device is a two-dimensional detector or a line sensor one-dimensional detector. The present invention in 15th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that the image processing equipment is capable of creating either one or both of X-ray dark-field tomography and X-ray bright-field tomography, or either one or both of X-ray dark-field stereography and X-ray bright-field stereography. The present invention in 16th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized by comprising means for monochromating and parallelizing X-rays from an X-ray source The present invention in 17th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that the means for monochromating and parallelizing the X-rays is a symmetric or asymmetric monochromator. The present invention in 18th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that atomic lattice planes of the symmetric or asymmetric monochromator and atomic lattice planes of the transmission-type analyzer crystal or reflection-type analyzer crystal are parallel with each other. The present invention in 19th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that transmission X-rays, refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, or small angle scattering X-rays from the object are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal or reflection-type analyzer crystal through one or a plurality of asymmetric monochromators. The present invention in 20th provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that either one or both of the X-ray dark-field image and the X-ray bright-field image obtained from the transmission-type analyzer crystal are output through one or a plurality of asymmetric monochromators.

[0020] In addition, the invention of this application in 21st provides the nondestructive analysis method according to the already described invention, characterized in that an electromagnetic wave other than the X-rays or a corpuscular beam is used instead of the X-rays. The present invention in 22nd provides the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention, characterized in that an electromagnetic wave other than the X-rays or a corpuscular beam is used instead of the X-rays. The present invention in 23rd provides a specific object identified by analyzing an internal structure of an object by using the nondestructive analysis method according to the already described invention, or the nondestructive analysis device according to the already described invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0021]FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of the invention of this application for the case of using a transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0022]FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating another embodiment of the invention of this application for the case of using a transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0023]FIG. 3 is a diagram for explaining the dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0024]FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining an X-ray bright-field image and an X-ray dark-field image of the transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0025]FIG. 5 is a chart illustrating a theoretical curve of the dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0026]FIG. 6 is a chart illustrating the relationship between the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal and an O-wave and a G-wave;

[0027]FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a further embodiment of the invention of this application for the case of using a transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0028]FIG. 8(a) is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of the invention of this application for the case of using a reflection-type analyzer crystal, and FIG. 8(b) is a perspective view illustrating the reflection-type analyzer crystal;

[0029]FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating another embodiment of the invention of this application for the case of using a reflection-type analyzer crystal;

[0030]FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of the invention of this application for situations where asymmetric monochromators are interposed between an object and a transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0031]FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of the invention of this application for situations where asymmetric monochromators are interposed between a transmission-type analyzer crystal and an X-ray detecting device;

[0032]FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a practical example of nondestructive analysis by the invention of this application;

[0033]FIG. 13 is a diagram showing another practical example of nondestructive analysis by the invention of this application;

[0034]FIG. 14 is a diagram showing another practical example of nondestructive analysis by the invention of this application;

[0035] and FIG. 15 is a diagram showing another practical example of nondestructive analysis by the invention of this application.

[0036] It should be noted that the reference numerals in the drawings represent the following:

[0037]1 monochromatic parallel X-rays;

[0038]2 object;

[0039]3 Refraction X-rays, and the like;

[0040]4 a transmission-type analyzer crystal;

[0041]40 a atomic lattice planes;

[0042]41 a X-rays along the forward diffraction direction;

[0043]42 a X-rays along the diffraction direction;

[0044]4 b reflection-type analyzer crystal; 40 b atomic lattice planes;

[0045]41 b transmission X-rays;

[0046]42 b reflection X-rays;

[0047]5 X-ray dark-field image;

[0048]6 X-ray bright-field image;

[0049]7 incident X-rays;

[0050]8 asymmetric monochromator;

[0051]8 a, 8 b, 8 c, 8 d asymmetric monochromators;

[0052]80 atomic lattice planes;

[0053]9 collimator;

[0054]90 atomic lattice planes;

[0055]10 X-ray detecting device;

[0056] and 11 slit plate.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION First Embodiment

[0057] The invention of this application uses, for example, Now, considering the case illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, for example.

[0058] An object (2) to be analyzed is irradiated with monochromatic parallel X-rays Ii (1). Transmission X-rays from the object (2), and such X-rays as refraction X-rays, diffraction X-rays, and even small angle scattering X-rays (for convenience of explanation, these will be collectively referred to as refraction X-rays, and the like) (3) are made incident on a transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) to utilize the dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) at this time. The thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) is initially set to such a thickness that when there is no object, either ones of the X-rays (41 a) along the forward diffraction direction (also referred to, equivalently, as diffraction X-rays along the incident direction or X-rays along the transmission diffraction direction) and the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction obtained by the dynamical diffraction action of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) show an intensity of approximately zero (including exactly zero; the same holds hereinafter) as compared to the intensity of the others in terms of the intensity of X-rays leas affected by the X-rays incident directly. This makes it possible to obtain either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image (5) and an X-ray bright-field image (6) of an image inside the object (2) at a time.

[0059] To be more specific, as also illustrated enlarged in FIG. 3, the dynamical diffraction action means an effect resulting from multiple scattering of X-rays in a nearly perfect crystal. The X-rays are thus output as divided into a wave (called O-wave) along the forward direction (also referred to as incident direction or transmission direction) and a wave (called G-wave) along the diffraction direction, the O-wave and the G-wave being reflected for a plurality of times repeatedly on a number of crystal lattice planes in the crystal.

[0060] Here, the relationship among the O-wave, the G-wave, and the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) can be expressed by the following equations:

[0061] [Eq. 1]; I O = W 2 + cos 2 ( π H W 2 + 1 Λ ) W 2 + 1 I i I G = sin 2 ( π H W 2 + 1 Λ ) W 2 + 1 I i I O + I G = 1

[0062] IO: Intensity of O-wave, IG: Intensity of G-wave

[0063] Ii: Intensity of incident wave

[0064] H: Thickness of an analyzer crystal (4) W = 2 Λ sin θ B λ ( θ - θ B - Δ θ 0 )

[0065] Λ: Extinction distance, λ: X-ray wavelength

[0066] θθ: The Bragg angle, θ: glancing angle Δ θ 0 = 2 ( 1 - n ) sin 2 θ B :

[0067] Bragg angle shift due to refraction 1 - n = - r e λ 2 2 π V c F 0

[0068] n: Refracive index, rc: Classical electoron radius

[0069] Vr: Volume of unit crystal lattice volume of unit cell F 0 : 2 sin θ B λ = 0

[0070] Crystal strucure factor in case of 2 sin θ B λ = 0

[0071] (scattering along transmission direction) Λ = λ cos θ B χ G , χ G = - r e λ 2 π V c F G

[0072] FG: The crystal structure factor in case 0≠0

[0073] In the invention of this application, in the foregoing equations 1, [Eq. 2]; W≦1 Under the condition of W≦1, the thickness H of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) should be selected so that either the intensity of IO for O-wave or the intensity of IG for G-wave will be approximately zero, in other words so that either one, compared to the other, that may receive less influence of the X-rays incident directly. Here, the wave that gives approximately the zero intensity forms the dark-field image (5) and the other wave forms the bright-field image (6). That is, the following relationship holds: [ Eq . 3 ] ; { Under the condition of thikness H O in case of giving I O 0 ( where W 1 ) then gives { I O = dark - field I G = bright - field Under the condition of thikness H G in case of giving I G 0 ( where W 1 ) then gives { I O = bright - field I G = dark - field

[0074] Further description will be given of the achievement of X-ray dark-field and bright-field images by the O-wave and G-wave according to this selection of thickness H, with reference to FIG. 4. Initially, when the object (2) is irradiated with monochromatic parallel X-rays P(W) (1), this generates the scattered/refracted refraction X-rays and the like R(W) (3) from the object (2), under the effects of scattering, refraction Q(W) from the object (2). When the refraction X-rays and the like R(W) are incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) at a glancing angle of θ which is formed between the monochromatic parallel X-rays (1) satisfying the equations 1 and the crystal lattice planes of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a), they are divided into the O-wave along the forward direction and the G-wave along the diffraction direction under the dynamical diffraction actions IO(W) and IG(W) of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a).

[0075]FIG. 5 illustrates the theoretical curves of the dynamical diffraction actions IO(W) and IG(W) in more details. Here, if the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) is rendered so that the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) is set at HO as shown in the foregoing equation 3, the O-wave constructs an X-ray dark-field image (5) under the dynamical diffraction action IO(W), and the G-wave constructs an X-ray bright-field image (6) under the dynamical diffraction action IO(W). In contrast, if the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) is set at HG, the G-wave constructs an X-ray dark-field image (5) under the dynamical diffraction action IG(W), and the O-wave constructs an X-ray bright-field image (6) under the dynamical diffraction action IO(W).

[0076] What is of importance here is that satisfying the foregoing relationship, appear in certain periods with respect to the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a). For example, when the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) is made of a diamond-type silicon analyzer crystal having a size of crystal lattice of 5.4311 angstroms and silicon 4,4,0 reflection is used, the thicknesses H at which IO or IG falls to nearly zero with respect to X-rays of 35 keV in energy appear in periods of 67.5 μm as illustrated in FIG. 6. Here, IO=0 when IG peaks, and IO peaks when IG=0. Consequently, when the thickness of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) is adjusted to this period, it is possible to obtain a high-contrast image of the object (2), either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image (5) and an X-ray bright-field image (6), at a time without rotating the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) as in the conventional art.

[0077] Moreover, with consideration given to the periodicity, for example, the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) may be formed in a wedge shape or the like that exhibits the foregoing thicknesses periodically, in which case X-ray dark-field images (5) and X-ray bright-field images (6) are obtained in a slit fashion successively as shown in FIG. 6. Consequently, as illustrated in FIG. 7, for example, a slit plate (11) is arranged on the output side of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) so that this slit plate (11) and the wedge shape transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) can be slid and moved relative to the object (2), or conversely the object (2) can be slid and moved relative to the alit plate (11) and the wedge shape transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a), to obtain a plurality of slit-like images through the slit plate (11).

[0078] Those images can be synthesized into an image or images of any fields of view, or equivalently, either one or both of an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image.

[0079] Here, either the O-wave, i.e. the X-rays (41 a) along the forward diffraction direction, or the G-wave, i.e. the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction, shows an intensity of nearly zero as compared to the intensity of the other in terms of the intensity of X-rays less affected by the X-rays incident directly. As is also evident from the foregoing description, this means that unnecessary X-rays affected by the intensity of the X-rays incident directly are not superimposed, and the intensity of the unnecessary which form an illuminated image background becomes nearly zero, or equivalently, the theoretical intensity in the absence of the object (2) becomes nearly zero.

[0080] The transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) capable of such intensity settings may have thicknesses in the range of, e.g., several micrometers to several tens of millimeters while the range varies, as can be seen from the foregoing equations 1, with various factors including the size of the crystal lattice, and the intensities and wavelengths of the X-rays, refraction X-rays, and the like (3).

[0081] Moreover, in practical terms, it is desirable that the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) in this case have a required finishing precision of 1% or less the thickness.

[0082] The X-rays (41 a) along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction from the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) given the foregoing thickness setting are detected by the X-ray detecting devices (10) (see FIGS. 1 and 2), and images are created by image processing equipment (not shown, but is configured capable of receiving the detecting data of X-rays) by using the detecting data of X-rays from the X-ray detecting devices (10).

[0083] In the example of FIG. 2, the X-ray dark-field image (5) is created from IO, and the X-ray bright-field image (6) from IG.

Second Embodiment

[0084] The invention of this application, for example, as illustrated in FIGS. 8(a), 8(b), and 9, when a reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) is used, an object (2) to be analyzed is irradiated with monochromatic parallel X-rays Ii(1) via an asymmetric monochromator (8). Refraction X-rays and the like (3) from the object (2) are made incident on the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b), at which time the dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) is utilized so that in the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b), the refraction X-rays and the like (3) from the object (2) satisfy the diffraction condition and are transmitted by the dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b). In this case, the angle between the monochromatic parallel X-rays (1) and the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) and the thickness of the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) are also given settings at which it possible to obtain the X-ray dark-field image (5) that is created from the transmission X-rays IT (41 b) from the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b).

[0085] In this case, the angle between the monochromatic parallel X-rays (1) and the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) may also be given another setting to satisfy the diffraction condition by the dynamical diffraction action of the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b), so as to obtain an X-ray bright-field image (6) that is created by reflection X-rays IB (42 b) according to the Bragg reflection condition.

[0086] Now, to eliminate and reduce the unnecessary X-rays that are directly incident on the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) and superimposed with the X-ray dark-field image (5), i.e., the X-rays (1) that form the unnecessary illuminated background in the X-ray dark-field image (5) in particular, are reduced through the use of the asymmetric reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, such X-rays are sufficiently reflected for reduction. Therefore, an X-ray dark-field image of favorable contrast are obtained.

Third Embodiment

[0087] <X-ray Detecting Device>

[0088] In the first embodiment and second embodiment described above, the X-rays from the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) are detected by the X-ray detecting devices (10). These X-ray detecting devices (10) may be flat-type panels, columnar panels, or the like based on two-dimensional detectors (such as an X-ray film, a nuclear plate, an X-ray image pick-up tube, an X-ray fluorescence multiplier tube, an X-ray image intensifier, an X-ray imaging plate, an X-ray CCD, and an X-ray imaging detector by amorphous element), or line sensor one-dimensional detectors.

[0089] Which X-ray detecting devices (10) to use may be selected arbitrarily depending on the type, condition, and the like of the object (2) to be analyzed. In addition, combination scanning of, for example, object movement, rotation, tilt, etc., with the line sensor one-dimensional detectors or two-dimensional detectors is useful for the creation of tomography and stereography by image processing equipment to be described later. For example, X-ray computed tomography technology can be introduced to obtain new nondestructive analysis images.

[0090] <Image Processing Equipment>

[0091] The image processing equipment (not shown) is capable of creating ordinary X-ray scattering images as either one or both of the X-ray dark-field image (5) and the X-ray bright-field image (6), based on the detecting data of X-rays from the X-ray detecting devices (10) described above. The image processing equipment may have the capability of creating X-ray dark-field and bright-field tomography and stereography through image synthesis processing or the like.

[0092] <X-ray Source>

[0093] An X-ray source (not shown) of the X-rays for the object (2) to be irradiated with may also be selected arbitrarily according to the object (2) to be analyzed. For example, one capable of generating X-rays having a wavelength=approximately 0.5 angstroms or shorter, an effective focal spot=approximately 0.5 mm×0.5 mm or smaller, and an output=approximately 50 W or higher may be used for industrial material. For medical application, one capable of generating X-rays having a wavelength a approximately 0.3 angstroms or shorter, an effective focal spot=approximately 0.5 mm×0.5 mm or smaller, and an output=approximately 1000 W or higher (pulses available) may be used.

[0094] (Monochromatization and Parallelization Means)

[0095] The X-rays from the X-ray source described above must reach the object (2) in the form of a monochromatic beam as well as a parallel beam (also referred to as plane wave).

[0096] This monochromatization and parallelization can be effected, for example, by using a parabolic mirror made of a multiple layer mirror. Alternatively, a parallel beam may be created through condensation by a parabolic reflection mirror or capillary, followed by monochromatization by monochromators or asymmetric monochromators.

[0097] In the example of FIG. 1, the incident X-rays (7) from the X-ray source (not shown) are monochromated and parallelized by the asymmetric monochromator (8). In the example of FIG. 2, the direction of the monochromatic parallel X-rays (1) from the asymmetric monochromator (8) (not shown) is changed by the collimator (9) for irradiation of the object (2).

[0098] This collimator (9) itself may also be used as a monochromator for monochromatization and parallelization. Naturally, the means for monochromatization and parallelization are not limited thereto. Various means publicly known heretofore may be used as appropriate.

[0099] Now, when the monochromator or the asymmetric monochromator (8) is used as the monochromatization and parallelization means, it is of extreme importance that the monochromator or the asymmetric monochromator (8) is arranged with its atomic lattice planes (80) in parallel with the atomic lattice planes (40 a), (40 b) of the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) as shown in FIGS. 1, 2, 8, and 9 (in FIG. 2, the atomic lattice planes (90) of the collimator (9) are also arranged in parallel).

[0100] This satisfies the achromatic condition and reduces the angular distribution of the resulting diffraction X-rays as much as possible, with an increase in angular sensitivity. It therefore becomes possible to grasp all the phenomena within the object (2), such as refraction, by the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) of a fixed angle.

[0101] Incidentally, FIG. 1 shows the asymmetric monochromator (8) and the transmission-type analyzer (4 a) which are integrated with each other, FIG. 2 shows the collimator (9) and the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) which are unified with each other into a channel-cut shape, and FIG. 8 shows the asymmetric monochromator (8) and the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) which are unified with each other into a channel-cut shape. It will be appreciated that the two may be separated or coupled loosely. FIG. 9 shows an example where the asymmetric monochromator (8) and the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) are arranged separately. In any case, the asymmetric monochromator (8), the collimator (9), and the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) must be assembled and adjusted so that their atomic lattice planes (80), (90), (40 a), (40 b) are in parallel with each other.

[0102] <Enlarged Image Acquisition Means>

[0103] When enlarged images of the X-rays from the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) are desired, the incident X-rays (7) from the X-ray source (not shown) are monochromated and parallelized by the asymmetric monochromator (8), the object (2) is irradiated with the monochromatic parallel X-rays (1), and the refraction X-rays and the like (3) from the object (2) are further passed through one or a plurality of composite asymmetric monochromators (8 a), (9 b) before incidence on the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a), as illustrated in FIG. 10, for example. This makes it possible to obtain the X-ray dark-field image (5) and the X-ray bright-field image (6) created by the X-rays (41 a) along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction from the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) as enlarged images, and to obtain them as images of higher resolution.

[0104] Moreover, as illustrated in FIG. 11, for example, the X-rays (41 a) along the forward diffraction direction and the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction from the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) may be further passed through one or a plurality of composite asymmetric monochromators (8 c), (8 d) before output to the X-ray detecting devices (10). This also makes it possible to obtain the X-ray dark-field image (5) and the X-ray bright-field image (6) as enlarged images.

[0105] It should be noted that while FIGS. 10 and 11 show embodiments for the case of using the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a), the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b) can also be used to obtain enlarged images and high resolution images, with such a configuration that one or a plurality of composite asymmetric monochromators (8 a), (8 b), (8 c), (8 d) are arranged before and behind the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b).

[0106] Moreover, as in FIG. 1, the asymmetric monochromators (8), (8 b) and the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) are also integrated with each other in FIG. 10 (those of FIG. 11 are substantially the same as in FIG. 1). The two parties may be separated or coupled loosely as long as the atomic lattice planes (80) and the atomic lattice planes (40 a) are in parallel with each other.

Fourth Embodiment

[0107] It should be noted that in the first and second embodiments, the analyzer crystals in use have predetermined functions and properties, such as transmission type (the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a)) and reflection type (the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b)).

[0108] Alternatively, an analyzer crystal sharable for both uses may be prepared, and adjusted in thickness in advance of an analysis so as to be usable as transmission type and reflection type, thereby achieving a nondestructive analysis device usable for both types.

[0109] That is, when adjusted in thickness so as to satisfy both the thickness condition described in the first embodiment and the thickness condition described in the second embodiment, the analyzer crystal can be used for both transmission type and reflection type.

[0110] Consequently, the ones of FIGS. 2 and 8, for example, can be offered as analysis devices usable for both types, not as the dedicated transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the dedicated reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b).

[0111] Furthermore, for example, when the analyzer crystals are used as transmission type, the refraction X-rays and the like (3) from the object (2) are desirably made incident from obliquely above as in FIG. 2. When the analyzer crystals are used as reflection type, the refraction X-rays and the like (3) from the object (2) are desirably made incident from directly above as in FIG. 8(a) (though oblique incidence is also available in reflection type). This requires the configuration that the collimator (9) or the asymmetric monochromator (8) can be irradiated with the incident X-rays (7) or the monochromatic parallel X-rays (1) in the directions as shown in FIGS. 2 and 8(a), and also the configuration that the X-ray detecting devices (10) can be arranged in the positions as shown in FIGS. 2 and 8(a).

[0112] Thus, when the analyzer crystals set to the foregoing thickness condition are used, selections between transmission type and reflection type can be made arbitrarily by simply changing the incident direction of the refraction X-rays and the like (3) from the object (2) and the like, thus achieving nondestructive analyses applicable for both types.

[0113] The invention of this application has the characteristics as described above. Hereinafter, practical examples will be given with reference to the accompanying drawings for the sake of further detailed description of the embodiments.

PRACTICAL EXAMPLES Practical Example 1

[0114]FIG. 12 shows an image of an object (2) made of a 1.0-mm thick of aluminum and 140-μm-diameter boron fibers embedded therein, the image being captured according to the embodiment of FIG. 2. A diamond-type silicon analyzer crystal of 4,4,0 reflection is used as the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a). The thickness was adjusted to H that satisfies the relationships of the foregoing equations 1 and 3. As is evident from FIG. 12, an X-ray dark-field image (5) showing the boron fibers sharply was provided by the G-wave, i.e., the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction. Needless to say, an X-ray bright-field image (6) was provided at the same time.

Practical Example 2

[0115]FIG. 13 shows an image of an object (2) made of a 7.0-mm thick of wax and 0.4-mm-diameter nylon fibers embedded therein, the image being captured according to the embodiment of FIG. 2. A crystal made of a diamond-type silicon analyzer crystal is used as the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) . The thickness was adjusted to H that satisfies the relationships of the foregoing equations 1 and 3. As is evident from FIG. 13, an X-ray dark-field image (5) showing the nylon fibers sharply was provided by the G-wave, i.e., the X-rays (42 a) along the diffraction direction. Needless to say, an X-ray bright-field image (6) was provided at the same time.

Practical Example 3

[0116]FIG. 14 shows an image of an object (2) made of amber containing an insect, the image being captured according to the embodiment of FIG. 2. A diamond-type silicon analyzer crystal was used as the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a). The monochromatic parallel X-rays (1) displayed energy of 35 keV. As is evident from FIG. 14, a sharp X-ray dark-field image (5) showing the insect was provided. Needless to say, an X-ray bright-field image (6) was provided at the same time.

Practical Example 4

[0117]FIG. 15 shows an image of a dried fish as an object (2) to be analyzed, the image being captured according to the embodiment of FIG. 8. A silicon crystal of 4,4,0 reflection was used as the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b). The thickness was set at 1 mm. As is evident from FIG. 15, an X-ray dark-field image (5) showing the dried fish sharply by means of transmission X-rays IT (41 b) was provided. Needless to say, an X-ray bright-field image (11) was provided separately by reflection X-rays IB (42 b). Obviously, the invention of this application is by no means limited to any of the foregoing examples, and various modifications may be made to details.

[0118] Note that the invention of this application can be easily practiced in the form of the foregoing methods or devices in accordance with the equations 1, 2, and 3 while using other electromagnetic waves or neutron beams, electron beams, or other corpuscular beams instead of the X-rays.

[0119] As is the case with the X-rays, excellent nondestructive analyses can be performed by using the other electromagnetic waves or corpuscular beams. In this case, for example, transmitted corpuscular beams, refracted corpuscular beams, diffracted corpuscular beams, small angle scattering corpuscular beams, secondary corpuscular beams, and/or the like from the object (2) are made incident on the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a) or the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b). The corpuscular beams along the forward diffraction direction and the corpuscular beams along the diffraction direction from the transmission-type analyzer crystal (4 a), or the transmitted corpuscular beams and the reflected corpuscular beams from the reflection-type analyzer crystal (4 b), are detected by using corpuscular beams detecting devices instead of the X-ray detecting devices (10). Image creation can be performed by image processing equipment capable of image processing using the detecting data of corpuscular beams.

[0120] The electromagnetic waves other than X-rays (10−3 nm to 10 nm) include gamma rays (10−2 nm or shorter), ultraviolet rays (1 nm to 400 nm), visible rays (400 nm to 800 nm), and infrared rays (800 nm to 4000 nm). Any of these can be used to effect the above-described nondestructive analysis according to the invention of this application. Incidentally, the source of the names and wavelength bands of these electromagnetic waves is “electromagnetic waves” in “Butsurigaku Jiten [Dictionary of Physics], the 4th Revision” (Baifukan, 1998). The names and wavelength bands of the electromagnetic waves seen in this source are not the only suitable ones, and any electromagnetic wave is applicable as long as it is capable of the above-described nondestructive analysis according to the invention of this application.

[0121] The invention of this application described above can provide even new comprehensive systems, such as inspection and processing systems, medical diagnostic systems, and status- and form-variation observing systems, which can analyze the structure and function of any kind of objects including foods, drugs, medical diagnostic subjects, semiconductors, and organic and inorganic substances which have been impossible to elucidate or check by the conventional art, in a nondestructive manner with high contrast and high resolution (for example, at least on the order of several tens of micron meters or less). Consequently, in every field of application, it becomes possible to identify objects useful to that field out of various objects, and offer them as new products such as useful foods and useful drugs.

[0122] In particular, in the field of microscopic technologies in which significant advances of technical innovation have been seen, the invention of this application can be practiced to achieve high synergistic effects. For example, it is possible to identify and offer an object appropriate for a new drug out of any type of objects by elucidating the physiological status of the brain, liver, or the like of an animal, human being, or the like, elucidating the process and status of occurrence and development of cancer, and elucidating the cause-and-effect relationships among the process of occurrence and development of cancer, the status of form variations thereof, and medication.

[0123] Moreover, for structural analyses in the field of polymers such as a protein structural analysis, the combination with the structural analysis at an atomic structure level in X-ray diffraction analysis or the like makes it possible to design and offer a new drug, antibody, or the like through the analysis and elucidation in association with what the structure of the macroscopic form is like.

Industrial Applicability

[0124] An has been detailed above, the invention of this application provides a new nondestructive analysis method and nondestructive analysis device by which high-contrast images of the internal structure of any kind of object, regardless of a living body/non-living body, crystal/amorphous, single member/composite member, solid/liquid, etc., can be easily obtained as an X-ray dark-field image and an X-ray bright-field image at a time. In particular, the X-ray image in the form of X-ray dark-field image, as compared to that of X-ray fluoroscopy not available heretofore, has a significant feature that the structure of the object to be analyzed can be analyzed with extremely high contrast, high precision, extreme visibility, and facility by the simple configuration. In addition, when the nondestructive analysis method and device of the invention of this application are used for nondestructive analysis, it becomes also possible to identify objects having useful operation, effect, and the like in a variety of fields, and provide them as new products or the like.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification378/82
International ClassificationG01N23/20, G01N23/04, G01N23/207
Cooperative ClassificationG01N23/04, G01N23/207
European ClassificationG01N23/207, G01N23/04