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Publication numberUS20040198069 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/407,930
Publication dateOct 7, 2004
Filing dateApr 4, 2003
Priority dateApr 4, 2003
Also published asCN1768159A, EP1613790A1, US7547952, US20060208215, WO2004094691A1
Publication number10407930, 407930, US 2004/0198069 A1, US 2004/198069 A1, US 20040198069 A1, US 20040198069A1, US 2004198069 A1, US 2004198069A1, US-A1-20040198069, US-A1-2004198069, US2004/0198069A1, US2004/198069A1, US20040198069 A1, US20040198069A1, US2004198069 A1, US2004198069A1
InventorsCraig Metzner, Shreyas Kher, Yeong Kim, M. Rocklein, Steven George
Original AssigneeApplied Materials, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for hafnium nitride deposition
US 20040198069 A1
Abstract
The present invention generally is a method for forming a high-k dielectric layer, comprising depositing a hafnium compound by atomic layer deposition to a substrate, comprising, delivering a hafnium precursor to a surface of the substrate, reacting the hafnium precursor and forming a hafnium containing layer to the surface, delivering a nitrogen precursor to the hafnium containing layer, forming at least one hafnium nitrogen bond and depositing the hafnium compound to the surface.
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Claims(25)
1. A method for forming a layer comprising hafnium on a substrate surface, sequentially comprising:
a) exposing the substrate surface to a hafnium precursor to form a hafnium containing layer on the substrate surface;
b) purging the chamber with a purge gas;
c) reacting a second precursor with the hafnium containing layer;
d) purging the chamber with the purge gas;
e) reacting a third precursor with the hafnium containing layer;
f) purging the chamber with the purge gas;
g) reacting a fourth precursor with the hafnium containing layer; and
h) purging the chamber with the purge gas.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the layer comprising hafnium is hafnium silicon oxynitride.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising repeating steps a-h to deposit the layer comprising hafnium at a thickness from about 2 Å to about 1,000 Å.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the thickness is from about 10 Å to about 50 Å.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the hafnium precursor is selected from the group consisting of (Et2N)4Hf, (Me2N)4Hf, (EtMeN)4Hf and Cl4Hf.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the second precursor is selected from the group consisting of ammonia, hydrazines, azides and radical nitrogen compounds.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the third precursor is selected from the group consisting of SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, Si2Cl6, (Et2N)4Si, (Me2N)4Si, (Et2N)3SiH and (Me2N)3SiH.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the fourth precursor is selected from the group consisting of H2O, H2O2, organic peroxides, O, O2, O3 and radical oxygen compounds.
9. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
i) reacting a fifth precursor with the hafnium containing layer; and
j) purging the chamber with the purge gas.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the fifth precursor is selected from the group consisting of Me3Al, Me2AlH, AlCl3, Me2AlCl and (PrO)3Al.
11. A method for growing a layer comprising hafnium, comprising:
exposing a substrate sequentially to at least four precursors during an ALD cycle to deposit a compound film comprising hafnium and at least three elements selected from the group consisting of silicon, aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the at least four precursors include a hafnium precursor selected from the group consisting of (Et2N)4Hf, (Me2N)4Hf, (EtMeN)4Hf and Cl4Hf.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the at least four precursors include a silicon precursor selected from the group consisting of SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, Si2Cl6, (Et2N)4Si, (Me2N)4Si, (Et2N)3SiH and (Me2N)3SiH.
14. The method of claim 11, wherein the at least four precursors include a nitrogen precursor selected from the group consisting of ammonia, hydrazines, azides and radical nitrogen compounds.
15. The method of claim 11, wherein the at least four precursors include an oxygen precursor selected from the group consisting of H2O, H2O2, organic peroxides, O, O2, O3 and radical oxygen compounds.
16. The method of claim 11, wherein the at least four precursors include an aluminum precursor selected from the group consisting of Me3Al, Me2AlH, AlCl3, Me2AlCl and (PrO)3Al.
17. The method of claim 11, wherein the layer comprising hafnium is deposited to a thickness from about 2 Å to about 1,000 Å.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein the thickness is from about 10 Å to about 50 Å.
19. A method for depositing a hafnium compound on a substrate in a chamber during an atomic layer deposition process, comprising:
conducting a first half reaction comprising a hafnium precursor;
conducting a second half reaction comprising an oxygen precursor;
conducting a third half reaction comprising a nitrogen precursor; and
conducting a fourth half reaction comprising a silicon precursor.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the hafnium precursor is selected from the group consisting of (Et2N)4Hf, (Me2N)4Hf, (EtMeN)4Hf and Cl4Hf.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein the silicon precursor is selected from the group consisting of SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, Si2Cl6, (Et2N)4Si, (Me2N)4Si, (Et2N)3SiH and (Me2N)3SiH.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein the nitrogen precursor is selected from the group consisting of ammonia, hydrazines, azides and radical nitrogen compounds.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein the oxygen precursor is selected from the group consisting of H2O, H2O2, organic peroxides, O, O2, O3 and radical oxygen compounds.
24. The method of claim 19, further comprising conducting a fifth half reaction comprising an aluminum precursor selected from the group consisting of Me3Al, Me2AlH, AlCl3, Me2AlCl and (PrO)3Al.
25. A composition of a semiconductor material, comprising HfSixOyNz,
wherein x is at least about 0.2 and less than about 4;
y is at least about 0.5 and less than about 4; and
z is at least about 0.05 and less than about 2.
Description
    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to methods to deposit materials on substrates, and more specifically, to methods for depositing metal oxides, metal nitrides, metal oxynitrides, metal silicates and metal silicon oxynitrides using atomic layer deposition processes.
  • [0003]
    In the field of semiconductor processing, flat-panel display processing or other electronic device processing, chemical vapor deposition has played an important role in forming films on substrates. As the geometries of electronic devices continue to shrink and the density of devices continues to increase, the size and aspect ratio of the features are becoming more aggressive, e.g., feature sizes of 0.07 microns and aspect ratios of 10 or greater are being considered. Accordingly, conformal deposition of materials to form these devices is becoming increasingly important.
  • [0004]
    While conventional chemical vapor deposition has proved successful for device geometries and aspect ratios down to 0.15 microns, the more aggressive device geometries require new, innovative deposition techniques. One technique that is receiving considerable attention is atomic layer deposition (ALD). In the scheme, reactants are sequentially introduced into a processing chamber where each reactant chemisorbs onto the surface of the substrate and a surface reaction occurs. A purge step is typically carried out between the delivery of each reactant gas. The purge step may be a continuous purge with the carrier gas or a pulse purge between the delivery of the reactant gases.
  • [0005]
    U.S. Pat. No. 6,287,965 describes a method of ALD to form a metal nitride layer having the structure of A-B-N, where A is a metal, B is an element to prevent crystallization and N is nitrogen. The preferred embodiment teaches a method to make TiAlN. No incorporation of oxygen into these films is disclosed; in fact, the invention teaches away from oxygen incorporation by sequentially stacking oxygen diffusion barrier layers between the metal nitride layers for oxygen protection.
  • [0006]
    U.S. Pat. No. 6,200,893, entitled “Radical-assisted Sequential CVD”, describes a method for CVD deposition on a substrate wherein radical species such as hydrogen and oxygen or hydrogen and nitrogen are used in an alternative step with a molecular precursor to form one cycle. A composite integrated film is produced by repetitive cycles of the method. In a preferred embodiment, the deposited material from the molecular precursor are metals and the radicals, in the alternate steps, are used to remove ligands left from the metal precursor reactions. The radicals oxidize or nitridize the metal surface in subsequent layers in order to respectively yield metal oxide or nitride. In various embodiments of the reference, metallic hafnium and hafnium oxide are made from a halogen-containing precursor. However, the reference does not address complex hafnium compounds (tertiary, quaternary or pentanary) produced from metal organic compounds. Furthermore, the reference requires the use of radicals to incorporate oxygen and/or nitrogen into the film.
  • [0007]
    Therefore, there is a need for a process for depositing hafnium compounds such as nitrides, silicates, oxynitrides, silicon nitrides, silicon oxynitrides, aluminum oxynitrides and aluminum silicon oxynitrides from organometallic compounds.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    In one embodiment, the present invention is a method for forming a layer comprising hafnium on a substrate surface, sequentially comprising: a) exposing the substrate surface to a hafnium precursor to form a hafnium containing layer on the substrate surface; b) purging the chamber with a purge gas; c) reacting a second precursor with the hafnium containing layer; d) purging the chamber with the purge gas; e) reacting a third precursor with the hafnium containing layer; f) purging the chamber with the purge gas; g) reacting a fourth precursor with the hafnium containing layer; and h) purging the chamber with the purge gas.
  • [0009]
    In another embodiment, the present invention is a method for growing a layer comprising hafnium, comprising exposing a substrate sequentially to at least four precursors during an ALD cycle to deposit a compound film comprising hafnium and at least three elements selected from the group consisting of silicon, aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen.
  • [0010]
    In another embodiment, the present invention is a method for depositing a hafnium compound on a substrate in a chamber during an atomic layer deposition process, comprising conducting a first half reaction comprising a hafnium precursor, conducting a second half reaction comprising an oxygen precursor, conducting a third half reaction comprising a nitrogen precursor and conducting a fourth half reaction comprising a silicon precursor.
  • [0011]
    In another embodiment, the present invention is a composition of a semiconductor material, comprising HfSixOyNz, wherein x is at least about 0.2 and less than about 4, y is at least about 0.5 and less than about 4 and z is at least about 0.05 and less than about 2.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0012]
    So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present invention can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the invention, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to embodiments, some of which are illustrated in the appended drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only typical embodiments of the invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the invention may admit to other equally effective embodiments.
  • [0013]
    [0013]FIG. 1 is a scheme to show an example of half reactions that are used to grow a hafnium nitride film.
  • [0014]
    [0014]FIG. 2 is a scheme to show an example of half reactions that are used to grow a hafnium oxide film.
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIGS. 3A-3D are schemes to show an example of half reactions that are used to grow a hafnium silicate film.
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIGS. 4A-4D are schemes to show an example of half reactions that are used to grow a hafnium silicon oxynitride film.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • [0017]
    The present invention provides methods for preparing hafnium compounds used in a variety applications including high k dielectric materials. The methods use atomic layer deposition (ALD) to have elemental control of the composition of hafnium compounds. The elemental control is generally separated by half reactions.
  • [0018]
    Half reactions are abstractly demonstrated via the reaction:
  • AC+BD→AB+CD,
  • [0019]
    wherein AB is the product compound and CD is the secondary compound or secondary product.
  • [0020]
    For example, a half reaction is demonstrated by each of the following steps:
  • [0021]
    (1) *NH2+(Et2N)4Hf→*N═Hf(NEt2)2+2HNEt2
  • [0022]
    (2) *N═Hf(NEt2)2+NH3→*N═Hf═NH+2HNEt2,
  • [0023]
    wherein the half reaction of step 1 is initiated by the functional group NH2 and * is an atom or molecule that is part of the substrate, film or surface group. The hafnium precursor reacts with the NH2 group and forms a Hf—N bond. Ligands are protonated from the hafnium precursor to form a secondary product. During the half reaction in step 2, ammonia reacts with the hafnium complex bound to the surface. The remaining ligands are protonated and removed while another Hf—N bond and another functional group (NH) are formed as the product compound. In each half reaction of steps 1 and 2, diethyl amine (HNEt2) can be made as a secondary compound. Other secondary compounds are amines and hydrazines and include radicals, ions and variations to ligands, such as Et2N, (Et2N)2, EtNH and (EtNH)2. Generally, these secondary compounds are readily removable, such as by vacuum and/or purge. The reaction schemes are not necessarily stoichiometric, but have a wide range of atomic ratios. Throughout the disclosure, reaction examples lack specific stoichiometry, bonding order and bonding connectivity of the product compounds and secondary compounds.
  • [0024]
    Another example of a half reaction is demonstrated by each of the following steps:
  • [0025]
    (3) *OH+(Et2N)4Hf→*O—Hf(NEt2)x+HNEt2
  • [0026]
    (4) *O—Hf(NEt2)x+H2O→*O—Hf—(OH)+HNEt2,
  • [0027]
    wherein the half reaction of step 3 is initiated by the functional OH group and forms a Hf—O bond. Step 4 proceeds to form another Hf—O bond as well as the terminus and functional OH group.
  • [0028]
    Therefore, in general, a first half reaction initiates with the reaction of a first functional group, establishes at least one product compound bond and establishes a second functional group. The second half reaction initiates with a reaction of the second functional group, establishes at least one product compound bond and establishes a third functional group. The third functional group, in many examples, is the same or similar to the first functional group. However, the second half reaction is still complete even when the third functional group is different. Examples with tertiary, quaternary and higher product compounds require half reactions with more than two precursors. Therefore, half reactions are not limited to only binary product compounds and may contain any number of half reactions. Most half reactions are sequentially separated by gas and/or vacuum purges.
  • [0029]
    Embodiments of the processes described herein deposit hafnium-containing materials on many substrates and surfaces. Substrates on which embodiments of the invention may be useful include, but are not limited to semiconductor wafers, such as crystalline silicon (e.g., Si<100> or Si<111>), silicon oxide, silicon germanium, doped or undoped polysilicon, doped or undoped silicon wafers silicon nitride and patterned or non-patterned wafers. Surfaces include bare silicon wafers, films, layers and materials with dielectric, conductive and barrier properties and include aluminum oxide and polysilicon. Pretreatment of surfaces includes polishing, etching, reduction, oxidation, hydroxylation, annealing and baking.
  • [0030]
    A substrate can be pretreated to be terminated with a variety of functional groups such as hydroxyls (OH), alkoxy (OR, where R=Me, Et, Pr or Bu), haloxyls (OX, where X=F, Cl, Br or 1), halides (F, Cl, Br or 1), oxygen radicals, aminos (NH or NH2) and amidos (NR or NR2, where R=Me, Et, Pr or Bu). A pretreatment can be accomplished by administering a reagent, such as NH3, B2H6, SiH4, SiH6, H2O, HF, HCl, O2, O3, H2O2, H2, atomic-H, atomic-N, atomic-O, alcohols or amines.
  • [0031]
    Once the surface of the substrate is pretreated, an ALD cycle is started. For many of the hafnium compounds, the hafnium precursor adsorption is self-limiting under certain process conditions, and generally must be at low temperatures (<500° C.) to exhibit this behavior. Some examples of half reactions that are self-limiting for the hafnium precursor include:
  • *NH2+(Et2N)4Hf→*N═Hf(NEt2)2+2HNEt2
  • *NH+(Et2N)4Hf→*N—Hf(NEt2)3+HNEt2
  • *OH+(Et2N)4Hf→*O—Hf(NEt2)3+HNEt2
  • [0032]
    wherein, hafnium is added to produce either *O—Hf(NEt2)x or *N—Hf(NEt2)x. An atom, such as a nitrogen or oxygen, can anchor the hafnium atom to the substrate or surface. *Hf(NEt2)x is self-limiting because the hafnium precursor will not react further; therefore, this is the first half reaction. To proceed with other half reactions, either an oxygen source (e.g., water) or a nitrogen source (e.g., ammonia) is added.
  • [0033]
    The first half reaction with a hafnium precursor initiates a series of many half reactions to make binary, tertiary, quaternary and more complex compounds. The first half reaction does not have to include a hafnium precursor, but can include any precursor to which a particular element is incorporated into the film. The following examples will portray hafnium precursors as the first half reaction in order to more clearly explain aspects of the invention.
  • [0034]
    One embodiment of the invention is directed to a process which proceeds with the half reaction of NH3 to *Hf(NEt2)x to produce *Hf—NH. Hafnium nitride is synthesized by sequentially proceeding with a half reaction of the hafnium precursor and a half reaction of a nitrogen source. FIG. 1 depicts a half reaction which is initiated by dosing (Et2N)4Hf from about 0.01 second to about 10 seconds, preferably about 0.25 second and dosing an inert gas purge from about 0.01 second to about 20 seconds, preferably about 0.25 second. A second half reaction is then initiated by dosing NH3 from about 0.01 second to about 10 seconds, preferably about 0.25 second and dosing an inert gas purge from about 0.01 second to about 20 seconds, preferably about 0.25 second. The two half reactions are cycled several times to grow a hafnium nitride film at the rate of about 50 ng/cm2 per cycle. By varying the cycle time, temperature, pressure and/or concentration, stoichiometry of the product compound is controlled. Slight variations of the stoichiometry can have an impact on the electrical properties, e.g., Hf3N4 is an insulating material while HfN is a conducting material. In one embodiment, HfN is made from a nitrate-free hafnium precursor. Hafnium nitride films can have oxygen contamination, since nitrates contain an oxygen/nitrogen ratio of three.
  • [0035]
    In one embodiment, a method for forming a semiconductor material by atomic layer deposition includes pulsing a hafnium precursor and a nitrogen precursor sequentially and cyclically. The hafnium nitride is deposited to the substrate surface wherein the hafnium nitride has a formula HfNx and x is at least about 1.1 and less than about 1.3. In one aspect, the hafnium precursor is TDEAH and the nitrogen precursor is NH3. In another aspect, the hafnium precursor is HfCl4 and the nitrogen precursor is a radical nitrogen, such as atomic nitrogen.
  • [0036]
    Another embodiment of the invention is directed to a process which proceeds with the half reaction of H2O to *Hf(NEt2)x and produce *Hf—OH. Hafnium oxide is synthesized by sequentially proceeding with a half reaction of the hafnium precursor and a half reaction of an oxygen source. FIG. 2 depicts a half reaction which is initiated by dosing (Et2N)4Hf from about 0.01 second to about 10 seconds and an inert gas purge dosed for about 0.01 second to about 20 seconds. A second half reaction is then initiated by dosing H2O from about 0.01 second to about 10 seconds and an inert gas purge from about 0.01 second to about 20 seconds. The two half reaction are cycled several times to grow a hafnium oxide film at the rate of about 1.2 Å per cycle.
  • [0037]
    The processes to grow the hafnium nitride or hafnium oxide films, as described above, can be modified to achieve other materials, namely tertiary compounds. Hafnium nitride is porous and reacts with water to form hafnium oxynitride, Hf—O—N. Therefore, to the hafnium nitride cycle, a half reaction of an oxygen source (e.g., water) is added to synthesize hafnium oxynitride. The ratio of Hf:O:N is controlled and varied to the desired characteristics of the product compound. In one embodiment, an oxygen precursor half reaction is included into the half reaction cycle. Such a cycle comprises a hafnium precursor half reaction, a nitrogen precursor half reaction, another hafnium precursor half reaction and an oxygen precursor half reaction. The oxygen precursor half reaction can be added into the cycle at any ratio relative to the hafnium and nitrogen precursor half reactions. As an example, an oxygen precursor half reaction is added at every ten complete cycles of hafnium and nitrogen precursor half reactions. Furthermore, the ratio can be varied in order to control the oxygen stoichiometry by film depth. Hence, a graded film is formed. In one embodiment, the process conditions are as follows, pressure is about 1 Torr, temperature is about 225° C., argon carrier flow is about 200 sccm, H2O and NH3 are dosed into the argon carrier flow in the range from about 1 second to about 4 seconds and TDEAH is dosed at about 20 seconds.
  • [0038]
    Graded films can be used to transition between various materials. One embodiment uses the method to transition between hafnium nitride and hafnium oxide. Within the hafnium nitride film, the elemental ratios N:Hf:O start out at 10:10:0, progress to 10:10:1, progress to 5:10:5, progress to 1:10:10 and finally 0:10:10, such that the film at the exposed surface following deposition is hafnium oxide. Graded films have advantageous characteristics, such as allowing control of electrical properties throughout the depth of the film, as well as higher levels of film adhesion.
  • [0039]
    Additional embodiments include methods to synthesize hafnium oxynitride. Due to the porosity of hafnium nitride, multiple layers are susceptible to oxygen enrichment. Instead of incorporating oxygen into each surface layer via half reactions, an excess oxygen precursor (e.g., water) is used to penetrate multiple layers of hafnium nitride and form a hafnium oxynitride graded film such as:
  • HfN—HfN—HfN—HfN—HfN+xsH2O→HfN—HfN—HfON—HfON—HfON.
  • [0040]
    Therefore, hafnium nitride can be formed by ALD, CVD, PVD or other techniques and thereafter oxygenated with an oxygen precursor.
  • [0041]
    Other embodiments of the invention include methods to synthesize tertiary hafnium nitride compounds incorporating silicon. Preferred silicon precursor compounds include (Me2N)4Si and (Me2N)3SiH. In one embodiment, a silicon precursor half reaction is included into the half reaction cycle for hafnium nitride formation. The cycle includes a hafnium precursor half reaction, a nitrogen precursor half reaction, a silicon precursor half reaction and another nitrogen precursor half reaction. The silicon precursor half reaction is added into the cycle at any ratio relative to the hafnium and nitrogen precursor half reactions. As an example, a silicon precursor half reaction is added about at every two complete cycles of hafnium and nitrogen precursor half reactions. Furthermore, the ratio can be varied in order to control the ratio of the silicon incorporated by depth of the film. Similarly to hafnium oxynitride, the method enables control of the Hf:Si:N stoichiometry.
  • [0042]
    Other embodiments of the invention are methods to synthesize tertiary hafnium oxide compounds incorporating nitrogen. Similarly as discussed above, the method reverses to use of oxygen and nitrogen to synthesize hafnium oxynitride. In one embodiment, a nitrogen precursor half reaction is included into the half reaction cycle of hafnium oxide. The cycle comprises a hafnium precursor half reaction, an oxygen precursor half reaction, another hafnium precursor half reaction and a nitrogen precursor half reaction. The nitrogen precursor half reaction is added into the cycle at any ratio relative to the hafnium and oxygen precursor half reactions. As an example, a nitrogen precursor half reaction is added at every two complete cycles of hafnium and oxygen precursor half reactions. Furthermore, the ratio can be varied in order to control the ratio of the nitrogen incorporated by depth of the growing film.
  • [0043]
    Other embodiments of the invention include methods to synthesize tertiary hafnium oxide compounds incorporating silicon, namely hafnium silicate (Hf—Si—O), as depicted in FIGS. 3A-3D. In one embodiment, a silicon source half reaction is included into the half reaction cycle of hafnium oxide. The cycle comprises a silicon precursor half reaction, an oxygen precursor half reaction, a hafnium precursor half reaction and another oxygen precursor half reaction. Purges occur between each half reaction. The silicon precursor half reaction can be added into the cycle at any ratio relative to the hafnium and oxygen precursor half reactions. As an example, a silicon precursor half reaction is added at every two complete cycles of hafnium and oxygen precursor half reactions. Furthermore, the ratio can be varied in order to control the ratio of the silicon incorporated by depth of the film.
  • [0044]
    Embodiments of the invention include multiple methods to synthesize quaternary compounds, especially hafnium silicon oxynitride (HfSiON), as depicted in FIGS. 4A-4D. Methods to synthesize two tertiary compounds (HfSiO and HfSiN) are modified to respectively nitridized or oxidized within the cycles to form the quaternary complex HfSiON. Half reactions of nitrogen, oxygen or silicon precursors are added at particular cycles, providing complete control to the N:O:Si ratios relative to hafnium.
  • [0045]
    In one embodiment, a nitrogen source half reaction is included into the half reaction cycle of hafnium silicate. Such a cycle comprises a silicon precursor half reaction, an oxygen precursor half reaction, a hafnium precursor half reaction and a nitrogen precursor half reaction. The nitrogen precursor half reaction can be added into the cycle at any ratio relative to the hafnium, silicon and oxygen precursor half reactions. As an example, a nitrogen precursor half reaction can be added at about every two complete cycles of hafnium, silicon and oxygen precursor half reactions. Furthermore, the cycle ratio can be varied in order to control the nitrogen ratio incorporated within film depth. Some embodiments grow hafnium silicon oxynitride graded films with higher concentrations of nitrogen near the top of the film.
  • [0046]
    In one aspect, the surface is terminated with a *SiOH group. The half reaction cycles are conducted with a hafnium precursor, a nitrogen precursor, a silicon precursor and an oxygen precursor, each separated with a purge. The respective precursors can be TDEAH, ammonia, Tris-DMAS and water. In another aspect, the respective precursors are HfCl4, radical nitrogen, Si2Cl6 and O3. The composition is controlled to form a semiconductor material, comprising HfSixOyNz, wherein x is at least about 0.2 and less than about 4, y is at least about 0.5 and less than about 4 and z is at least about 0.05 and less than about 2.
  • [0047]
    Embodiments of the invention include multiple methods to synthesize pentanary compounds, especially hafnium aluminum silicon oxynitride (HfAlSiON). Half reactions of hafnium, aluminum, nitrogen, oxygen and silicon precursors are added at particular cycles, providing complete control to the Al:N:O:Si ratios relative to hafnium. In one aspect of the process, one cycle of half reaction pulses will include, in the respective order, water, TDEAH, ammonia, Tris-DMAS, water and TMA. In another aspect of the process, one cycle of half reaction pulses will include, in the respective order, water, HfCl4, ammonia, Tris-DMAS, water and TMA.
  • [0048]
    Therefore, any stoichiometry of the following compounds is made by methods of the process: HfO, HfN, HfON, HfSiO, HfSiN, HfSiON, HfAlO, HfAlN, HfAlON, HfSiAlO, HfSiAlN, HfSiAlON. Therefore, ALD provides stoichiometric control during the deposition of product compounds. The stoichiometry may be altered by various procedures following the deposition process, such as when Hf3N4 is thermally annealed to form HfN. Stoichiometry is also controlled by altering the precursor ratios during deposition.
  • [0049]
    Many industrial applications exist for the product compounds synthesized by the various embodiments of the invention. Within the microelectronics industry, the product compounds are used as high-k transistor gate dielectric materials, transistor gate interface engineering, high-k capacitor dielectric materials (DRAMs), seed layers, diffusion barrier layers, adhesion layers, insulator layers, conducting layers and functionalized surface groups for patterned surfaces (e.g., selective deposition). In the realm of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), the materials formed by the claimed invention are used as insulating, conducting or structural films. The materials can also serve as functionalized surface groups to reduce stiction. Additional functionality of surface groups is used in gas or liquid chromatography, chemical sensors and active sites for chemical attachment, patterned surfaces (e.g., combinatorial chemistry). Silicon nitride is also used as a hardening coating on tools and within optical devices.
  • [0050]
    Many precursors are within the scope of the invention. One important precursor characteristic is to have a favorable vapor pressure. Precursors may be a plasma, gas, liquid or solid at ambient temperature and pressure. However, within the ALD chamber, precursors are volatilized. Organometallic compounds or complexes include any chemical containing a metal and at least one organic group, such as alkyls, alkoxyls, alkylamidos and anilides. Precursors comprise of organometallic and halide compounds.
  • [0051]
    Exemplary hafnium precursors include hafnium compounds containing ligands such as alkylamidos, cyclopentadienyls, halides, alkyls, alkoxides and combinations thereof. Alkylamido hafnium compounds used as hafnium precursors include (RR′N)4Hf, where R or R′ are independently hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl. Specific hafnium precursors include: (Et2N)4Hf, (Me2N)4Hf, (EtMeN)4Hf), (tBuC5H4)2HfCl2, (C5H5)2HfCl2, (EtC5H4)2HfCl2, (Me5C5)2HfCl2, (Me5C5)HfCl3, (iPrC5H4)2HfCl2, (iPrC5H4)HfCl3, (tBuC5H4)2HfMe2, (acac)4Hf, (hfac)4Hf, (tfac)4Hf, (thd)4Hf, Br4Hf, Cl4Hf, 14Hf, (NO3)4Hf, (tBuO)4Hf, (iPrO)4Hf, (EtO)4Hf and (MeO)4Hf.
  • [0052]
    Exemplary silicon precursors include: alkylamidosilanes (e.g, (Me2N)4Si, (Me2N)3SiH, (Me2N)2SiH2, (Me2N)SiH3, (Et2N)4Si, (Et2N)3SiH), Si(NCO)4, MeSi(NCO)3, SiH4, Si2H6, SiCl4, Si2Cl6, MeSiCl3, HSiCl3, Me2SiCl2, H2SiCl2, silanols (e.g., MeSi(OH)3, Me2Si(OH)2), (EtO)4Si and various alkoxy silanes (e.g., (RO)4-nSiLn, where R=methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl and L=H, OH, F, Cl, Br or I and mixtures thereof). Also, higher silanes are used as silicon precursors by processes of the invention. Higher silanes are disclosed in U.S. provisional patent application 60/419,426, 60/419,376 and 60/419,504, each filed on Oct. 18, 2002, assigned to Applied Material, Inc., and each entitled, “Low temperature deposition with silicon compounds” and are incorporated herein by reference in entirety for the purpose of describing silicon precursors.
  • [0053]
    Exemplary nitrogen precursors include: NH3, N2, hydrazines (e.g., N2H4 or MeN2H3), amines (e.g., Me3N, Me2NH or MeNH2), anilines (e.g., C6H5NH2), organic azides (e.g., MeN3 or Me3SiN3), inorganic azides (e.g., NaN3 or Cp2CoN3) and radical nitrogen compounds (e.g., N3, N2, N, NH or NH2). Radical nitrogen compounds can be produced by heat, hot-wires and/or plasma.
  • [0054]
    Exemplary oxygen precursors include: H2O, H2O2, O3, O2, NO, N2O, NO2, N2O5, alcohols (e.g., ROH, where R=Me, Et, Pr and Bu), peroxides (organic and inorganic) carboxylic acids and radical oxygen compounds (e.g., O, O2, O3 and OH radicals). Radical oxygen compounds can be produced by heat, hot-wires and/or plasma.
  • [0055]
    Exemplary aluminum precursors include: aluminum alkyls such as: Me3Al, Et3Al, Pr3Al, Bu3Al, Me2AlH, Et2AlH, Me2AlCl, Et2AlCl, aluminum alkoxyls such as: (MeO)3Al, (EtO)3Al, (PrO)3Al and (BuO)3Al, aluminum dimmers, aluminum halides and aluminum hydrides.
  • [0056]
    The processes of the invention can be carried out in equipment known in the art of ALD. The apparatus brings the sources into contact with a heated substrate on which the films are grown. Hardware that can be used to deposit films is an ALD apparatus as disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/251,715, filed Sep. 20, 2002, assigned to Applied Material, Inc., Santa Clara, Calif. and entitled “An Apparatus for the Deposition of High Dielectric Constant Films”, and is incorporated herein by reference in entirety for the purpose of describing the apparatus. Carrier gases or purge gases include N2, Ar, He, H2, forming gas and mixtures thereof.
  • [0057]
    In one embodiment, hydrogen gas is applied as a carrier gas, purge and/or a reactant gas to reduce halogen contamination from the film. Precursors that contain halogen atoms (e.g., HfCl4, SiCl4 and Si2Cl6) readily contaminate the film. Hydrogen is a reductant and will produce hydrogen chloride as a volatile and removable by-product. Therefore, hydrogen is used as a carrier gas or reactant gas when combined with a precursor compound (i.e., hafnium, silicon, aluminum, oxygen or nitrogen precursors) and can include another carrier gas (e.g., Ar or N2). In one aspect, a water/hydrogen mixture, at a temperature in the range from about 250° C. to about 650° C., is used to reduce the halogen concentration and increase the oxygen concentration of the film.
  • [0058]
    The present invention provides methods for preparing the following compounds. The subscripts (w, x, y, z) imply that stoichiometry is intentionally varied (i.e., compositionally controlled) via ALD dosing sequences to form the following product compounds:
    hafnium aluminate: HfAlxOy
    hafnium oxide: HfO2 and HfOx
    hafnium nitride: Hf3N4, HfN and HfNx
    hafnium oxynitride: HfOxNy
    hafnium aluminum oxynitride: HfAlxOyNz
    hafnium silicate: HfSiO4, Hf4SiO10, Hf3SiO8, Hf2SiO6,
    HfSiO2, HfxSiyO2(x+y) and HfxSiyO
    aluminum silicate: Al6Si2O13 and AlxSiyO
    hafnium aluminum silicate: Hf2Al6Si4O21 and HfxAlySizO
    hafnium silicon nitride: HfxSiyN
    hafnium silicon oxynitride: Hf2Si2N2O5 and HfSixOyNz
    aluminum silicon oxynitride: AlSixOyNz
    hafnium aluminum silicon HfAlwSixOyNZ
    oxynitride:
  • [0059]
    The list of product compounds is only partial and other materials are prepared with the methods of the invention. Other elements, such as carbon, titanium, tungsten, ruthenium, tantalum, zirconium, molybdenum, iridium, nickel, copper, tin, boron or phosphorus may be incorporated into the films as product compounds. Therefore, a product compound may comprise hafnium silicon oxynitride and carbon. Examples of half reactions are listed below. Note, that *=surface species.
  • [0060]
    Reactivity of Precursors with Surface Hydroxyl Groups (—OH)
  • Al—OH*+TDMAS(g)→Al—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—OH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Al—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—OH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Al—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Al—OH*+TDEAH(g)→Al—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Al—OH*+TMA(g)→Al—O—AlCH3 *+xsCH4(g)
  • Hf—OH*+TDMAS(g)→Hf—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—OH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Hf—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—OH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Hf—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—OH*+TDEAH(g)→Hf—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—OH*+TMA(g)→Hf—O—AlCH3 *+xsCH4(g)
  • Si—OH*+TDMAS(g)→Si—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—OH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Si—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—OH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Si—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Si—OH*+TDEAH(g)+Si—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Si—OH*+TMA(g)→Si—O—AlCH3 *+xsCH4(g)
  • [0061]
    Reactivity of Surface Products with H2O(g) to Regenerate Surface Hydroxyl (—OH) Groups.
  • Al—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Al—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Al—O—SiH(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Al—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Al—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Al—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+H2O→Al—O—Hf(OH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—AlCH3*+H2O→Al—O—Al(OH)*+xsCH4(g)
  • Hf—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—O—SiH(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—O—Hf(OH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—AlCH3*+H2O∝Hf—O—Al(OH)*+xsCH4(g)
  • Si—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O∝Si—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Si—O—SiH(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Si—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Si—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O∝Si—O—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+H2O∝Si—O—Hf(OH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—AlCH3*+H2O→Si—O—Al(OH)*+xsCH4(g)
  • [0062]
    Reactivity of Surface Products with NH3(g) to Generate Surface Amine (—NH2, —NH) Groups.
  • Al—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Al—O—Si(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Al—O—SiH(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Al—O—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Al—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Al—O—Si(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+NH3→Al—O—Hf(NH2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Al—O—AlCH3*+NH2(p)→Al—O—Al(NH2)*+xsCH4(g)
  • Hf—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Hf—O—Si(OH)*+ xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Hf—O—SiH(NH)*+ xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Hf—O—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Hf—O—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+NH3→Hf—O—Hf(NH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—O—AlCH3*+NH2(p)→Hf—O—Al(NH)*+xsCH4(g)
  • Si—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Si—O—Si(NH)*+ xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Si—O—SiH(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Si—O—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Si—O—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3→Si—O—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+NH3→Si—O—Hf(NH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Si—O—AlCH3*+NH2(p)→Si—O—Al(NH)*+xsCH4(g)
  • [0063]
    Reactivity of Precursors with Surface Amine Groups (—NH or —NH2)
  • Hf—NH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—NH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Hf—N—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—NH*+TDEAH(g)→Hf—N—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—NH*+TMA(g)→Hf—N—AlCH3 *+xsCH4(g)
  • Si—NH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Si—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—NH*+TrisDMAS(g)→Si—N—Si(N(CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Si—NH*+TDEAH(g)→Si—N—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Si—NH*+TMA(g)→Si—N—Al(CH3)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • [0064]
    Reactivity of Surface products with NH3 to Regenerate Surface Amine Groups.
  • Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Hf—N—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Hf—N—SiH(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Hf—N—Si(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Hf—N—Hf(NH2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—AlCH3*+NH2(p)→Hf—N—Al(NH2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Si—N—Si(NH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Si—N—SiH(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—N—Si(N(CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Si—N—Si(NH2)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—N—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+NH3(g)→Si—N—Hf(NH2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Si—N—Al(CH3)*+NH2(p)→Si—N—Al(NH2)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • [0065]
    Reactivity of Surface Products With H2O(g) to Generate Surface Hydroxyl Groups.
  • Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—N—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Hf—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O @ Hf—N—SiH(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Hf—N—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*H2O→ Hf—N—Hf(OH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Hf—N—AlCH3*+H2O∝Hf—N—Al(OH)*+xsCH4(g)
  • Si—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Si—N—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)+H2(g)
  • Si—N—SiH(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Si—N—SiH(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—N—Si(N(CH3)2)*+H2O→Si—N—Si(OH)*+xsHN(CH3)2(g)
  • Si—N—Hf(N(CH2CH3)2)*+H2O→Si—N—Hf(OH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • Si—N—Al(CH3)*+H2O→Si—N—Al(OH)*+xsHN(CH2CH3)2(g)
  • EXAMPLES
  • [0066]
    [0066]
    TDEAH = tetrakisdiethylamidohafnium = (Et2N)4Hf
    TDMAS = tetrakisdimethlaminosilicon = (Me2N)4Si
    TrisDMAS = trisdimethylaminosilicon = (Me2N)3SiH
    TMA = trimethyl aluminum = Me3Al
  • [0067]
    The ALD processes are maintained in a temperature range from about 20° C. to about 650° C., preferably from about 150° C. to about 300° C., more preferably at about 225° C. Materials grown may be similar throughout a wider temperature range assuming that saturating ALD behavior is maintained. The ALD processes are conducted with a pressure in the range from about 0.1 Torr to about 100 Torr, preferably in the range from about 1 Torr to about 10 Torr. Materials grown may be similar from high vacuum to high pressures assuming saturating ALD behavior is maintained. The flow is maintained viscous to encourage reactant separation. Carrier gas (e.g., N2) is maintained in the range from about 50 sccm to about 1,000 sccm, preferably at about 300 sccm with a speed of about 1 m/s. Higher speeds may create particle transport issues while lower speeds could allow particle formation due to inefficient purging, affecting electrical behavior of thin films. Films are deposited with thickness in the range from about 2 Å to about 1,000 Å, preferably, from about 5 Å to about 100 Å, and more preferably in the range from about 10 Å to about 50 Å.
  • [0068]
    In one example, a hafnium oxide film is grown by ALD in the presence of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is used to reduce levels of halogen contaminates (e.g., F or Cl) within hafnium-containing films. Flow A, containing hafnium tetrachloride and at least one carrier gas (e.g., Ar, N2 and H2), is pulsed sequentially with Flow B, containing water, hydrogen and an optional carrier gas. Flows A and B are each pulsed for about 1 second and purge flows of argon are pulsed for about 1 second between each pulse of Flows A and B. The temperature is maintained in the range from about 250° C. to about 650° C.
  • [0069]
    In another example, a hafnium silicate film is grown by ALD in the presence of hydrogen gas. Flow A, containing hafnium tetrachloride and at least one carrier gas (e.g., Ar, N2 and H2), is pulsed sequentially with Flow B, containing water, hydrogen and an optional carrier gas and Flow C, containing Tris-DMAS and at least one carrier gas. Flows A, B and C are each pulsed for about 1 second and purge flows of argon are pulsed for about 1 second between each pulse of Flows A, B and C. The temperature is maintained in the range from about 450° C. to about 650° C.
  • [0070]
    In another example, a hafnium silicon oxynitride film is grown by ALD in the presence of hydrogen gas. Flow A, containing hafnium tetrachloride and at least one carrier gas (e.g., Ar, N2 and H2), is pulsed sequentially with Flow B, containing water, hydrogen and an optional carrier gas and Flow C, containing Tris-DMAS and at least one carrier gas and Flow D, containing a nitrogen plasma and an optional carrier gas. Flows A, B, C and D are each pulsed for about 1 second and purge flows of argon are pulsed for about 1 second between each pulse of Flows A, B, C and D. The temperature is maintained in the range from about 450° C. to about 650° C.
  • [0071]
    Materials are deposited by dosing chemicals separately in an alternating fashion to achieve the desired film composition or characteristics with selected half reactions. The above half reactions, however, do not dictate the exact bonding connectivity or the stoichiometry of the resulting film. Stoichiometry is largely controlled by thermodynamics; however, kinetically controlled films may be achieved. Thus, the dosing sequence may be modified to effect the overall composition and qualities of the film. The types of thin-film materials that can be grown with ALD half reactions generally are:
  • [0072]
    1. Binary Materials: Repetitive cycles of reactants {A+B}: e.g., Hf3N4
  • [0073]
    2. Direct Alloys: Repetitive cycles of reactants {A+B+C+D}: e.g., HfSiO4
  • [0074]
    3. Compositionally Controlled Alloys: Repetitive cycles of reactants {y(A+B)+z(C+D)} (where either y or z=1 and either z or y is >1, respectively): e.g., HfxSi(2-x)O4
  • [0075]
    4. Compositionally Controlled Gradient Materials: Similar to 3, however, y or z is varied during deposition.
  • [0076]
    5. Layered or laminate materials: Deposition of two different materials in discrete physical layers. Repetitive cycles of reactants {y(A+B+C+D)+z(E+F)} (where y and z are typically ≧4): e.g., nanolaminates of hafnia and alumina
  • [0077]
    ALD of Hafnium Aluminates (HfXAlYO)
  • [0078]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+H2O+TMA+H2O)
  • [0079]
    half reactions (s)=4.03+5.03+4.08+5.08
  • [0080]
    Compositionally Controlled: 1 cycle=n(TDEAH+H2O)+m(TMA+H2O) where typically n is one and m is varied or m is one and n is varied.
  • [0081]
    half reactions (second) (e.g., n=3, m=1)=4.03+5.03+4.07+5.07+4.07+5.07+4.08+5.08
  • [0082]
    Layered: 1 layer=p(TDEAH+H2O)+q(TMA+H2O) where p and q are typically ≧4 half reactions (second) (e.g., n=4, m=4)=4.03+5.03+(4.07+5.07+4.07+5.07+4.07+5.07)+4.08+5.08+(4.04+5.04+4.04+5.05+4.04+5.04)
  • [0083]
    ALD of Hafnium Nitrides (Hf3N4 or HfN)
  • [0084]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+NH3).
  • [0085]
    half reactions (second)=7.02+8.02
  • [0086]
    In this case, deposition at these temperatures may produce Hf3N4. Annealing to higher temperatures may produce HfN.
  • [0087]
    ALD of hafnium oxynitrides (HfOxNy)
  • [0088]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+H2O+TDEAH+NH3)
  • [0089]
    half reactions (second)=7.02+9.02+4.07+6.07
  • [0090]
    Compositionally Controlled: 1 cycle=n(TDEAH+H2O)+m(TDEAH+NH3) where typically n is one and m is varied or m is one and n is varied.
  • [0091]
    Layered: 1 layer=p(TDEAH+H2O)+q(TDEAH+NH3) where p and q are typically ≧4
  • [0092]
    ALD of Hafnium Aluminum Oxynitrides (HfwAlxOyNz)
  • [0093]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+NH3+TMA+H2O) hafnium oxynitride/alumina oxynitride alloy
  • [0094]
    Variations possible: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+NH3+TDEAH+H2O+TMA+H2O)
  • [0095]
    Note: The different dosing sequence effects the bonding connectivity, especially when grown at lower temperatures <300° C. and without a higher-temperature anneal. In the top example, one might predict —O—Hf—N—Al—O— connectivity. This may be thought of as a hafnium oxynitride/aluminum oxynitride alloy. In the bottom example, one might predict —O—Hf—N—Hf—O—Al—O— connectivity. This may be thought of as a hafnium oxynitride/alumina alloy.
  • [0096]
    ALD of Hafnium Silicates (HfSiO4 and HfxSiyO)
  • [0097]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+H2O+TrisDMAS+H2O)=HfSiO4
  • [0098]
    Silica-rich hafnium silicates: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+H2O)+3(TrisDMAS+H2O)=Hf2Si5O14
  • [0099]
    Compositional control (Hf:Si) from pure HfO2 to silica-rich (>70%) hafnium silicates are possible.
  • [0100]
    ALD of Aluminum Silicate (Al6Si213 and AlxSiyO)
  • [0101]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TMA+H2O+TrisDMAS+H2O)=Al6Si2O13
  • [0102]
    Silica-rich aluminum silicates: 1 cycle=(TMA+H2O)+3(TrisDMAS+H2O)=Al2Si2O7
  • [0103]
    Compositional control (Al:Si) from pure Al2O3 to silica-rich (>50%) aluminum silicates are possible.
  • [0104]
    ALD of Hafnium Aluminum Silicate (Hf2Al6Si4O21 and HfxAlySizO)
  • [0105]
    e.g., 1 cycle=(TDEAH+H2O+TrisDMAS+H2O+TMA+H2O+TrisDMAS+H2O)=Hf2Al6Si4O21
  • [0106]
    ALD of Hafnium Silicon Nitride (HfSixOyNz)
  • [0107]
    Direct: 1 cycle=(TDEAH+NH3+TrisDMAS+NH3)
  • [0108]
    ALD of Hafnium Silicon Oxynitride (HfSixOyNz)
  • [0109]
    e.g., (TDEAH+H2O+TrisDMAS+NH3)
  • [0110]
    e.g., (TDEAH+NH3+TDEAH+H2O+TrisDMAS+H2O+TrisDMAS+NH3)
  • [0111]
    ALD of Aluminum Silicon Oxynitride (AlSixOyNz)
  • [0112]
    e.g., (TMA+H2O+TrisDMAS+NH3)
  • [0113]
    ALD of Hafnium Aluminum Silicon Oxynitride (HfAlwSixOyNz)
  • [0114]
    e.g., (TDEAH+NH3+TMA+H2O+TrisDMAS+H2O)
  • [0115]
    e.g., (TDEAH+NH3+TDEAH+H2O+TrisDMAS+NH3+TMA+H2O)
  • [0116]
    Continuous ALD of silica (SiO2)
  • [0117]
    e.g., Direct: 1 cycle=Si(NCO)4+H2O
  • [0118]
     This process may allow laminate layers of pure SiO2 or more easy control of Si concentration in mixed allows. Si(NCO)4 is very reactive with Hf—OH* groups making silica incorporation easy (since TDEAH is reactive with SiOH*).
  • [0119]
    e.g., Consider several (TrisDMAS+H2O) cycles with an occasional (TDEAH+H2O) or (TMA+H2O) cycle or (flash anneal>700° C.+H2O) to reform surface hydroxal groups to reinitiate growth.
  • [0120]
    Si3N4, (e.g. Non-Continuous Seed Layer or Capping Layer)
  • [0121]
    e.g., Direct: 1 cycle=(TrisDMAS+NH3)
  • [0122]
    SixOyN, (e.g., Non-Continuous Seed Layer or Capping Layer)
  • [0123]
    e.g., Direct: 1 cycle=(TrisDMAS+NH3+TrisDMAS+H2O)
  • [0124]
    AlN
  • [0125]
    e.g., 1 cycle=(TMA+NH3)
  • [0126]
    AlxSiyN:
  • [0127]
    AlxOyN:
  • [0128]
    HfxAlyN:
  • [0129]
    While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the present invention, other and further embodiments of the invention may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification438/785, 257/E21.292, 438/778, 427/255.32, 257/E21.193, 427/255.7
International ClassificationC23C16/40, H01L21/28, H01L29/51, C23C16/34, C23C16/30, H01L21/318, C23C16/455, C23C16/44
Cooperative ClassificationH01L29/513, C23C16/308, H01L21/318, H01L21/28202, H01L21/28185, C23C16/45531, H01L29/517, C23C16/40, C23C16/34, H01L21/28167, H01L21/28194, H01L29/518
European ClassificationC23C16/30E, C23C16/34, H01L21/28E2C2D, C23C16/40, H01L21/28E2C2N, H01L21/28E2C2C, H01L21/318, H01L29/51M, H01L29/51N, H01L29/51B2, C23C16/455F2B4
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 4, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, COLORADO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:METZNER, CRAIG;KHER, SHREYAS;KIM, YEONG KWAN;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:013848/0556;SIGNING DATES FROM 20030512 TO 20030515
Owner name: APPLIED MATERIALS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:METZNER, CRAIG;KHER, SHREYAS;KIM, YEONG KWAN;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:013848/0556;SIGNING DATES FROM 20030512 TO 20030515