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Publication numberUS20040208710 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/841,997
Publication dateOct 21, 2004
Filing dateMay 10, 2004
Priority dateMay 31, 2000
Publication number10841997, 841997, US 2004/0208710 A1, US 2004/208710 A1, US 20040208710 A1, US 20040208710A1, US 2004208710 A1, US 2004208710A1, US-A1-20040208710, US-A1-2004208710, US2004/0208710A1, US2004/208710A1, US20040208710 A1, US20040208710A1, US2004208710 A1, US2004208710A1
InventorsVladimir Shreider, Natalia Shreider
Original AssigneeShreider Vladimir Anatol, Natalia Shreider
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus and a method for constructing underground curved multisectional stratum and wall
US 20040208710 A1
Abstract
An apparatus and a method for constructing an underground curved and narrow multisectional structure, stratum and wall horizontally and vertically extending in a multihole excavation, trench and gallery being formed in the ground that utilizing a movable chassis, a framework arranged thereon and including upper frame, a slip tiltable and a pulling and pushing means that can be coupled between the frame and forming means. A set of elongate forming means is provided downward and upward separately movable relative to the framework. These forming means have a supporting motive means, a means for making alternately holes ahead of the motive means, along the length of a transversal cross-section of the excavation and adjacent closely together in a horizontal advancing direction and serve to alternately form, empty and fill up the holes with materials and to advance the chassis by the pulling means. These motive means are provided with an extensible motive frame of an equi-curvilinear, circular cylindrical or helical or plane, rectangular or trapezoidal shape or a chain of a plurality of shortened units connected in consecutive order for movement about pivotal axes perpendicular to the central longitudinal axes of the adjacent units, a means for supporting and guiding an adjacent forming means for movement that extending along the length of the frame or units, a means for directing the excavation of an adjacent hole that can be engaged with the supporting and guiding means of a forming means supported by the walls of a hole formed previously, hole walls-supporting members which can be expanded outwardly and shifted individually or in groups by means of rams coupled between the frame or units and the members. These means for making equi-curvilinear excavation comprise an endless chain cutter provided with cutting and driving endless chain and a driving chain wheel located within a hole being formed or an end-and-face mill cutter provided with cutter barrels which can be rotated about axes crossing the advancing direction and reciprocated along the axes by means of a drive means or a wedge-shaped cutter and can move the equi-curved frame against and to compress the facial wall of the structure being formed. The making means for directing and forming an initial curvilinear excavation section comprises a number of directing cutters capable of forcing the facial wall of an excavated section being formed in the crossing direction to force the front unit from its position toward the diverged direction and control the direction of the hole by means of the activating and drive means. There are an one wedge- or a two wedges-shaped cutter connected to the front unit for movement about the intended pivotal axis by means of a drive means within the excavated section or rams or a number of wedges-shaped cutter which can be shifted individually or in groups by means of rams coupled between the front unit and the cutters or the end-and-face mill barrel cutters which can be reciprocated and rotated in intended directions. The directing means comprise directing members supported by the front and a number of units motionless or for transversal movement by means of a drive means coupled between the unit and the member. The supporting and guiding means is formed by portions of the motive means that can engage the directing members.
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Claims(28)
We claim as our invention:
1. An apparatus for constructing an underground curved and horizontally and vertically extending multisectional structure in a multihole excavation being formed in the ground, the apparatus comprises:
a chassis means supporting a means for forming the structure and supplying power and materials to the structure forming means, the chassis means being movable along the length of a horizontally extending structure line and stoppable on structure section lines crossing the structure line;
a number of the means for forming sections of the structure in adjacent holes excavated in the ground to a predetermined depth and distance, where each of the forming means comprises a longitudinally displaceable elongate and extensible motive means for guiding and supporting components of the forming means, a means for making excavated sections of the holes to excavate holes sections ahead of the motive means, a means located within an excavated section for supporting and guiding the adjacent from the front, relative to the direction of advancement of the multihole excavation, forming means for advancement of a next front hole, where each of several of the forming means comprises a means inserted into the next excavated hole section for directing the next hole that is able to force the forming means from its position toward an intended advancing direction of the next hole relative to the supporting and guiding means of the forming means being supported by the surrounded walls of the rear hole section excavated previously and control the direction of the advancement of the next hole, and is adapted to be disposed in a working position and extended into the ground up to a predetermined depth and distance toward and in the intended advancing direction to excavate and form the walls of an excavated section being formed along the length of the structure section line to lay the materials into the formed excavation;
a connecting framework means mounted on the chassis means and adapted to assemble, disassemble and connect the forming means together and to the chassis means and to dispose and advance the forming means in an intended advancing direction, the framework means comprises a number of carrier members that are forced into engagement with the motive means of the forming means.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the supporting and guiding means comprises directing means-supporting and guiding members arranged along the intended length of and secured on a front portion of the motive means capable of being supported by the walls of the rear excavated section, where each of the members is capable of being connected engagely for longitudinal movement to and interacting with the directing means of the adjacent from the front forming means to urge the front forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the next excavated section toward the intended advancing direction and has directing means-supporting and guiding portions for forcing the directing means in the crossing direction, where the portions being engageable with the directing means and operable to move the next forming means with the directing means relative to the walls of the rear hole section excavated previously and being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the directing means against the supporting and guiding portions, their motive means and the walls.
3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the directing means comprises a number of hole sections-directing members supported by a rear portion of the forming means, where each of the members is capable of being connected for longitudinal movement to and forced into interaction with the supporting and guiding means of the adjacent from behind forming means being supported by the walls of an adjacent from behind excavated section to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the front excavated section being formed toward the intended advancing direction and has a backward oriented, excavation-directing portion for forcing the supporting and guiding means of the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the front excavated section being formed toward the intended advancing direction and has a backward oriented, excavation-directing portion for forcing the supporting and guiding means in the crossing direction, where the portions are operable to move the front forming means, with the directing members, relative to the supporting and guiding means and the walls being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the portions against the supporting and guiding means and the walls.
4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the supporting and guiding means is able to serve for directing the emptying of the formed holes and force the forming means that empties the hole from its position toward an intended emptying direction and control the direction of the emptying of the hole relative to the directing means of the adjacent from the front forming means that being supported by the walls of the excavated hole section and is able to serve for supporting and guiding the adjacent from behind forming means to empty the holes.
5. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the motive means of each of the number of the forming means that comprises an equally-curved motive frame member having the central longitudinal surface shaped into the intended cross-section of the structure that is to be formed of the intended constant curvature, the frame member is able to force the equally-curved side walls of a hole section being formed and control the direction of the advancement of the hole section within the surface when being forced into interaction with the walls to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended advancing direction and has excavation-directing portions for forcing the walls in the crossing direction, where the portions are operable to move the forming means, with the motive member, relative to the walls being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the portions against the walls.
6. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the making means is able to force the frame member from its position toward and against front and rear, relative to the direction of advancement of the multihole excavation, end walls of a hole section and the working front facial wall of the structure being formed and control the direction of the advancement of the hole, compression and formation of the walls, where the frame member has front and rear end portions for forcing the end and structure walls in the crossing direction and the making means comprises a number of hole sections-making, directing, and the end and facial walls-compressing and forming members, where each of the members is capable of being forced into interaction with the working end facial wall of the excavated hole section being formed to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the axis within the central longitudinal surface of the forming means and toward the end and structure walls and has hole section facial wall-cutting, hole-directing, and hole end and structure walls-compressing portions for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction, where the portions are remote from the carrier member, capable to control the force, direction, and disposal of deformation of the facial wall of the excavated hole section being formed and operable to move the forming means, with the making members, relative to the facial wall being forced toward and against the end and structure walls by an activating means of the apparatus capable of forcing the portions against the facial wall and moving the forming means about the connection the forming means and the carrier member into intended positions in the excavation and to compress the hole end and structure facial walls to form the structure.
7. The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the making means comprises a number of endless chain cutter means that are located ahead of the frame member and oriented across the direction of advancement of the excavated section, where each of the cutter means comprises an elongate member for guiding and supporting components of the cutter means, a number of pair of endless chain sprockets supported on shafts rotatably connected to the ends of the guiding and supporting member, endless chains extending around the pair of the chain sprockets, a plurality of face wall-cutting, hole-directing and end walls-compacting portions arranged on the endless chains to form the endless chain cutter members, where each of several of the cutter means has a chain driving wheel on the frame member and a drive means for effecting rotation of the driving wheel relative to the frame member in intended directions so that the cutting chains of the latter cutter means that are capable of rotating the chain sprockets of the rest chain cutter means with the shafts.
8. The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the making means comprises a number of barrels disposed in groups in end-to-end relationship, a member for guiding and supporting the barrels for movement about and along the longitudinal axis of the barrel that is located between the barrels and mounted on a saddle supported by a front wall and ahead of the motive means for relative movement in a direction along the axes of the barrels that crossing the advancing direction, a plurality of face wall-cutting, hole-directing and end walls-compressing portions arranged on the end and facial shell portions of the barrels at the acute cutting angle relative to the axis of the barrel, where the vertex is oriented toward the wall that is to be compressed, to form cutting, directing, and compressing end-and-face mill cutter means, a drive means located within the excavated section to effect the relative movement between the barrels and the motive means in the intended directions.
9. The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the making means comprises a wedge-shaped cutter member that is disposed at the acute cutting angle with the vertex located on the compacting end wall of the frame member and has forward oriented, wedge-shaping, cutting, hole-directing, and hole end walls and structure facial wall-compressing portions for forcing the hole facial wall, that are operable by the activating means for effecting disposal in working positions and advancement of the cutter member.
10. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the motive frame members have a forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction, acute angle shape and are capable of compressing the outside and end hole walls and supporting the surrounded hole walls, where each of the frame members has a front, relative to the advancing directions of the hole and the multihole excavation, angle-shaping end portion for supporting and guiding a wedge-shaped cutting means, a rear angle-shaping end portion for supporting and guiding the directing means, an external side wall for compressing the external side hole wall, where the cutting means is able to force the directing means with the motive means from its position toward and against the guiding and supporting means of the forming means being adjacent from behind in the formed hole section to facilitate the engaging connection the directing means and the guiding and supporting means and compress the outside walls of the adjacent holes and the rear end hole wall, and is capable of being interacted with the directing means of the next in turn forming means to urge the next forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended direction of advancement of the multihole excavation and serving to support and guide the next forming means with the directing means for extending into the ground and to direct the motive means for emptying a formed hole section and has forward, relative to the advancing directions of the hole and the excavation, oriented, angle-shaping cutting, outside and rear end hole walls-compressing, an adjacent forming means-supporting and guiding, hole emptying-directing portions for forcing the facial hole wall in the crossing advancing directions, where the portions have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall of the excavated section being formed and are operable to move the forming means, with the cutting means, to the facial wall being forced, in the advancing directions and compress the outside excavation wall and the facial structure wall.
11. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the motive means consists of a plurality of motive frame link members, the making means and the frame link members are connected in consecutive order, relative to the advancing direction of a hole, for movement about axes within the central longitudinal surfaces and crossing the longitudinal axes of the adjacent members with the ability to interact with the surrounded walls of the hole to urge the members in a lateral direction in the formation of the excavated section, where each of the members has portions for forcing the hole walls in the crossing direction, where the portions are operable by the activating means to move the members about the axes in order to move the members along the length of the section.
12. A means for making excavation sections, the making means is able to force a front motive member for supporting the making means from its position toward the intended advancing direction and control the direction of advancement of the excavation and comprises a number of excavation-directing and making members, where each of the directing and making members is capable of being forced into interaction with the facial wall of the excavated section being formed to urge the front motive member in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended advancing direction and control the direction of the excavated section and has excavation-directing and making portions for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction, where the portions have the ability to control the force, direction and disposal of deformation of the wall of the excavated section and operable to move the motive members, with the directing and making members, to the wall being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the portions against the wall and relative to the motive member.
13. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the directing and making means comprises a number of barrels disposed in groups in end-to-end relationship, a frame member for guiding and supporting the barrels for movement about and along the longitudinal axis of the barrel that is located between the barrels and mounted on a saddle supported by and ahead of the front motive frame member for relative movement in a direction along the axes of the barrels that crossing the advancing direction of the hole, a plurality of cutting portions arranged on the end and facial shell portions of the barrels to form an end-and-face mill cutter members, a drive means located within the excavated section to effect the relative movement in intended directions between the end-and-face mill cutter members and the frame member.
14. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the directing and making means comprises a cutter member having a number of paired and forward oriented, wedge-shaping, cutting, and hole-directing portions and a backward oriented cutter-directing foot tail portion being supported by a conjugated step-bearing portion of the front motive frame member for longitudinal and relative turning movement about a number of intended axes crossing the central longitudinal axes of the members, a drive means located within the excavated section to effect the rotation of the cutter member about the axes and relative to the frame member, where the drive means comprises a means for providing motive power that is supported on the frame member and a number of output members connected to the directing portion pivotally and remotely from the axis of the turning movement and displaceable about the axis.
15. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the directing and making means comprises a number of longitudinally displaceable directing and making cutter members and a motive frame member for supporting and guiding the members, where each of the cutter members has a forward oriented, wedge-shaping, cutting, and hole-directing portions with the vertex crossing the central longitudinal axis of the directing and making means and a double-acting piston and cylinder unit located in the motive frame member to effect the relative movement between the frame member and the cutter member to effect direction-controlling advancement of adjacent in bunch order hole sections.
16. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the directing and making means comprises a number of disk members supported by a front motive frame link member for rotation about their longitudinal central axes, where a number of the disk members are located co-axially the central longitudinal axis of the directing and making means and a number of the disk members are located behind and protruded with lesser part aside of the central disk members and each of the members has forward oriented ground-cutting mill portions arranged on the end face of the member, and the drive means for effecting the rotation of the members relative to the motive frame member in intended directions to effect direction-controlling advancement of the adjacent in bunch order hole sections.
17. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a plurality of hole side wall-supporting members that are relatively movable in the advancing direction and have the ability to be expanded and outwardly forced into compressive engagement with the surrounded walls being supported by the member to immobilize the side wall-supporting member relative to the walls.
18. The apparatus according to claim 17, wherein the side wall-supporting members have side wall-supporting portions reciprocately movable in transversal direction that are capable to compressively engage the walls of the excavated section and are operable to expand the supporting member for immobilizing the member relative to the walls by an activating means capable to outwardly move the portions to engage the walls and move the portions relative to the adjacent member.
19. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each of the forming means further comprises conduits for transmission of power and signals to the components and letting the materials into a formed hole section that are with the ability of being forced into connection with a means for supplying power, signals, and the materials and extending from the framework means along the motive means up to the making means and having branched ends at intended places of the forming means.
20. A method for continuous advancement of a curvilinear and narrow multihole excavation used in the construction of an underground multisectional structure, the method utilizing an apparatus for constructing an underground curvilinear and narrow horizontally and vertically extending multisectional structure in a multihole excavation being formed in the ground, the apparatus comprises a movable chassis means, a means for forming directionally a first hole section of the excavation, a means for forming directedly a plurality of adjacent hole sections of the excavation, each of the means for forming comprises a means for making hole sections, a motive means for guiding and supporting components of the forming means that being capable to be supported by the surrounded walls of the hole section, a means for supporting and guiding the directed forming means that is secured frontally, relative to the direction of advancement of the excavation, on and along the intended length of the motive means, a means for directing hole sections that is secured on the lower and rear end of each of the directed forming means, a framework means for connecting the chassis means to each of the forming means and to dispose and advance the forming means in an intended advancing direction that comprises a carrier member that is forced into engagement with the motive means of each of the forming means and comprising the following steps:
(a) operating an activating means of the apparatus that moves the chassis means along an structure line, stops the chassis means on a first hole section line, and inserts the means for forming directionally hole sections of the excavation at a working position into the ground up to a predetermined depth and distance in the hole and in the intended advancing direction along the first section line so that the directionally forming means forms the first intended hole section of the excavation and being supported by the surrounded walls of the section;
(b) operating the activating means to insert the means for making hole sections, that being part of the directed forming means, at a working position on a next hole section line into the ground to a predetermined depth and distance in an adjacent next excavated hole section of the excavation and in an intended advancing direction so that the means for making forms the portion of the next hole section, the direction of the hole diverges from the formed hole section;
(c) operating the activating means to move the motive means of the directed forming means in the intended advancing direction to cause the making means and the motive means to excavate the next section;
(d) operating the activating means to move the means of the directed forming means for directing hole sections, that is disposed in an operating position, into connection with the supporting and guiding means of the directionally forming means being in the first formed section and supported by the walls of the formed section and inserting into the next excavated section being formed to force the guiding and supporting means at the directing means in a direction opposite of the diverged direction to cause the directing means and the directed motive means to be forced toward the formed section so to advance the next section closely and join to the formed section and materials of the structure to be let into the formed sections.
21. The method according to claim 20, further utilizing an embodiment of the apparatus for constructing an underground equally curved and narrow multisectional structure in an equally-curved multihole excavation being formed in the ground, where the embodiment comprises the analogous means adapted to use the forming means comprising a motive frame member and a guiding and supporting means shaped into an equally curved cross-section of the excavation and comprising the following steps of advancement of a first equally curved hole section of the excavation:
(e) operating an activating means of the embodiment to move the equally curved guiding and supporting frame member of the forming means in the intended advancing direction to cause the making means to excavate the section of the hole along the hole line, the direction of the hole diverges from the advancing direction and is determined;
(f) operating the activating means to move the frame member to force the walls of the excavated hole at the frame member in a direction opposite of the diverged direction to cause the frame member to be forced in the diverged direction so to advance the hole in the diverged direction.
22. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the following steps of directing advancement of the first curvilinear hole section of the excavation:
(g) operating the activating means to insert the means for making at the working position into the ground to a predetermined depth and distance in the hole and in an intended advancing direction so that the means for making forms the section of the hole along the first hole section line, the direction of the hole diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the section and is determined;
(h) operating the activating means to move a motive means that consists of a plurality of shortened frame link members connected in consecutive order, relative to the advancing direction, for movement about axes preferably perpendicular to the central longitudinal axes of the adjacent members, in the intended advancing direction to cause the making means to excavate the section;
(i) operating the activating means to move the making means to force the working end facial wall of the excavated hole section being formed in a direction opposite of the diverged advancing direction to cause the motive means to be forced by the making means toward the diverged direction so to advance the hole in the diverged direction. diverged direction so to advance the hole in the diverged direction.
23. The method according to claim 20, utilizing a number of the directed forming means and the directing means movable relative to the motive means and comprising the following steps:
(j) operating an activating means of the directed forming means located in a front, relative to the direction of advancement the excavation, formed hole section to move the directing means relative to the motive means from the operative position into an inoperative position to cause the directing means to be forced out of the connection with the supporting and guiding means of an adjacent from behind forming means located in a rear formed hole section so to allow the rear forming means to move in an intended returning direction to empty the rear section;
(k) operating the activating means to insert a baffle means for forming the working front facial wall of the structure, the baffle means is substantially similar in construction to the motive means of the directed forming means, at a working position into the front formed hole section up to a predetermined depth in the front hole to lay the materials into the rear formed section to form the structure;
(l) operating the activating means to move the rear forming means in the returning direction of emptying the rear section so that the rear forming means forms a free gap in the interior between the working front facial wall of the structure being formed, the side walls of the rear formed hole section and the forming baffle means;
(m) letting the materials of the structure into and laying the materials in the formed free gap and thereby forming an advanced facial wall of the structure to form the structure.
24. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the following steps:
(n) operating the activating means capable to insert the front equally-curved forming means located in a front formed hole section into the ground and move the making means to move the forming means about the connection the forming means and the carrier member into intended positions in a formed hole section and toward the advanced facial wall of the structure in a rear formed hole section to cause a compressing means substantially similar in construction to the structure facial wall-forming baffle and motive frame member having a rear structure facial wall-forming and compressing baffle wall, to be forced against the structure wall so to compress the structure wall and form the structure.
25. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the following steps:
26. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the following steps:
(o) operating the activating means to insert a conduit member for letting and laying the materials at a working position into a formed hole section up to a predetermined depth and distance in the section;
(p) operating the activating means to move the conduit member, with the motive means, at the working position in an intended returning and emptying direction so that the forming means forms a free gap along the length of the rear hole section between the structure facial wall, the side walls of the section, the baffle means of a front forming means located in a front hole section, the forming means which empties the section to cause the conduit to let into and lay the structure materials in the gap, the direction of returning and emptying diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the formed gap and is determined;
(q) operating the activating means to insert and move the means for directing the emptying, the means for directing the emptying being substantially similar in construction to the guiding and supporting means, in a working position to force a means for supporting and guiding the forming means for the emptying, the means for supporting and guiding for emptying being substantially similar in construction to the directing means for the excavating, at the emptying-directing means in a direction opposite of the diverged returning and emptying direction to use the emptying-directing means and the motive means to be forced in the diverged returning and emptying direction so to advance the gap, let and lay the materials to form the structure section in the diverged direction.
27. The method according to claim 20, further utilizing a means for supporting walls of an excavation in the ground and comprising the following steps:
(r) digging the excavation in the ground to a predetermined depth and distance by means of an excavating device, inserting the means for supporting the walls at a working position into the excavation to stop at a predetermined depth and distance in the excavation so that the means for supporting support the walls;
(s) operating the activating means of the supporting means to move a number of wall-supporting portions of the stopped supporting means outwardly in directions against and into compressive engagement with the walls of the excavation to immobilize the supporting means relative to the walls.
(t) operating the activating means of the apparatus to move an intended part of the forming means relative to the supporting means in an intended advancing direction at a speed, the speed must be equal to a speed of movement of the part in the same direction with another activating means of the apparatus to cause the supporting means to decrease the force applied by and the overturning moment about the chassis means.
28. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the following step:
(u) operating an activating means of a framework means to engage forcedly a carrier member of the framework means with the motive means of the forming means supported by the walls of the formed hole and move the carrier member in a direction opposite to the direction of advancement of the excavation to cause the chassis means to advance from its rear working position in the advancing direction into a next in turn front working position and repeat the appropriate and suitable steps with the next in turn guided forming means to construct further sections of the structure along further section lines and the structure line.
Description
    CROSS-REFERENCE TO A RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application is continuation-in part of the parent application Ser. No. 09/584,682, Art Unit 3672, filed May 31, 2000 and abandoned May 13, 2003.
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [0002]
    Not Applicable
  • REFERENCE TO A MICROFICHE APPENDIX
  • [0003]
    Not Applicable
  • [0004]
    The invention relates to apparatuses and methods for excavating the ground to construct-in-place of a continuous narrow excavation an underground structure, such as anchor and foundation, draining and retaining stratum and wall especially to control of ground gas and water flow and to provide drainage, isolation, containment, and separation of subsurface environments, prevention of leakage through levees and isolation of contaminated and sensitive areas.
  • [0005]
    In constructing a curved surfacial and narrow underground wall according to a prior art technique, first a hole of an elliptical cross-section having a 2 to 3 m major axis is dug in the ground to a predetermined depth by a powerful bucket or a hole is dug to a predetermined depth by two or three series of auger drills. After the hole formed in slurry is sealed with a bentonite solution to prevent further penetration of slurry, a reinforcing bar cage is placed in the hole and a ready mixed-concrete is then poured into the hole to form a foundation column. Such a method is repeated to form an underground continuous wall. Slurry or bentonite solution layers interrupt the formation of the continuous wall so that after completion of the wall, ground water tends to leak into the inside of the continuous walls through the joints. It is therefore very difficult to provide the underground continuous wall simultaneously having two functions as foundation wall and a diaphragm wall.
  • [0006]
    There is known to use an excavator disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,244,315 for constructing an underground continuous wall, including a travelling trolley, supporting frames, an extensible guide post vertically supported by a tiltable frame on the trolley, and an endless chain cutter and agitator. The cutter excavates a trench, jets a hardening liquid in a hole and mixes the liquid with the earth and sand in the hole to form a soil cement wall. Significant defects of the excavator and method of its advancement are: 1) the excavator is not capable to form a wall in the unstable ground and a horizontal stratum; 2) the cantilever chain cutter being advanced that requires a huge traction force and stabilizing moment applied to the trolley; 3) the cutter carries the mixture out of the trench; 4) the cutter is not capable to compress the working front face of the wall being formed.
  • [0007]
    There is also disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,685,668 an apparatus for delivering an unrolling liner material into and along a trench being formed of a depth up to sixty feet that prevents side wall collapse in a subsurface water saturated zone and forms a barrier wall. Significant defects of that barrier wall installation system are as shown above and following: 1) a wall may be shaped into plane and vertical cylindrical surfaces only because of the cylindrical shape of a roll of the liner material; 2) it is difficult to use a very wide liner material of width that is sufficient to reach a deep impermeable ground layer.
  • [0008]
    It is known a means for steering a cable-laying apparatus disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,934,833, the steering means mounted securely to a frame of the chassis of the apparatus to allow excavating the curvilinear slit trench by turning break the frame about a central vertical hinge disposed between to turn relatively front driving wheels and a rear driven wheel, that is difficult because the steering is carried out, while the apparatus advances and the driving front wheels must provide large road-holding capacity.
  • [0009]
    To decrease the huge intended traction and stabilizing moment for the constructing means that must be created by the chassis it is well-known a slit trench digging apparatus disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,638,338 and provided with a disposed vertically slit trenching blade being capable of oscillating about a vertical axis to form a slit trench and expanding reciprocatingly aside to compact the side walls and widen the trench being advanced, so though there are common defects necessiated with forced applying a huge torque to the blade and its cheeks from above the ground level, and large friction resistance by the compacted walls to the advancement of the blade; as well as utilizing an advanceable and trench side walls-supporting shield disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,994,139 and adapted for laying a pipeline into a rectilinear trench, where the shield being composed of a set of the longitudinally displaceable elongate cutting and side wall-supporting members, a frame for supporting and guiding the members and ram means for effecting relative movement between the frame and the members to effect advancement of the trench. In operation, the ram means advance the members in relation to the frame so as to excavate a trench, and other ram means for the members not being advanced are blocked and holding the remainder of the shield, including the frame, that is stationary until all of the members have been advanced, and then the ram means shift the frame in the advancing direction. Significant defects of the shield and method of its advancement are: 1) the members and trench, on the one hand, and the frame and the pipeline, on the other hand, are advanced alternately and interruptible at a lesser mean speed because frequent standing idles; 2) advancement of the frame is not secured because stopping the advanced members and their firm frictional contact with the walls is not secured, especially in the unstable wet or stony ground, and 3) the shield is not capable of advancing a curvilinear trench section.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0010]
    It is an object of the invention to provide more efficient apparatuses and simple methods for constructing curved, deep, and narrow underground structures, such as an anchor and foundation, drain and impervious horizontal preferably stratum and vertical preferably wall in-place of a smooth multihole excavation, such as a trench, drift, and gallery being formed of a plurality of adjacent holes in the firm or unstable ground that having the side walls being supported by the movable longitudinally and turningly walls-supporting means of a structure-forming means of the apparatus, for lighten and reliable securing the continuous and steering turning advancement of the excavation, the continuous structure, and the non-self-propelled and steered apparatus across a land being difficult to pass through because of an increased traction force being applied by a massive cargo tractor to a chassis of the apparatus, removing stops and idle standing of the forming means advancing sections of the excavation and structure and real risk of damage of the structure being formed because the stoppages, in a broadened field of use.
  • [0011]
    In order to accomplish the object of the invention, there is a set of preferable embodiments of the apparatuses according to the invention for constructing underground multisectional, preferably paling-shaped curved, deep and narrow structures extending horizontally across the ground surface and vertically in the multihole excavation formed in the ground.
  • [0012]
    The apparatus for constructing an underground curved and horizontally and vertically extending multisectional structure in a multihole excavation being formed in the ground according to the invention that comprises generally a chassis means supporting a means for forming the structure, supplying power and materials to the structure forming means, and being movable along the length of a horizontally extending structure line and stoppable on structure section lines crossing the structure line; a number of the means for forming sections of the structure in adjacent holes excavated in the ground to a predetermined depth and distance, where each of the forming means comprises a longitudinally displaceable elongate and extensible motive means for guiding and supporting components of the forming means, a means for making excavated sections of the holes to excavate holes sections ahead of the motive means, a means located within an excavated section for supporting and guiding the adjacent from the front, relative to the direction of advancement of the multihole excavation, forming means for advancement of a next front hole, where each of several of the forming means comprises a means inserted into the next excavated hole section for directing the next hole that is able to force the forming means from its position toward an intended advancing direction of the next hole relative to the supporting and guiding means of the forming means being supported by the surrounded walls of the rear hole section excavated previously and control the direction of the advancement of the next hole, and is adapted to be disposed in a working position and extended into the ground up to a predetermined depth and distance toward and in the intended advancing direction to excavate and form the walls of an excavated section being formed along the length of the structure section line to lay the materials into the formed excavation; a connecting framework means mounted on the chassis means and adapted to assemble, disassemble and connect the forming means together and to the chassis means and to dispose and advance the forming means in an intended advancing direction, the framework means comprises a number of carrier members that are forced into engagement with the motive means of the forming means.
  • [0013]
    In another aspect, in the method for continuous advancement of a curvilinear and narrow multihole excavation used in the construction of an underground multisectional structure, the method using the apparatus described above, according to the invention and comprising following steps: (a) operating an activating means of the apparatus that moves the chassis means along an structure line, stops the chassis means on a first hole section line, and inserts the means for forming directionally hole sections of the excavation at a working position into the ground up to a predetermined depth and distance in the hole and in the intended advancing direction along the first section line so that the directionally forming means forms the first intended hole section of the excavation and being supported by the surrounded walls of the section; (b) operating the activating means to insert the means for making hole sections, that being part of the directed forming means, at a working position on a next hole section line into the ground to a predetermined depth and distance in an adjacent next excavated hole section of the excavation and in an intended advancing direction so that the means for making forms the portion of the next hole section, the direction of the hole diverges from the formed hole section; (c) operating the activating means to move the motive means of the directed forming means in the intended advancing direction to cause the making means and the motive means to excavate the next section; (d) operating the activating means to move the means of the directed forming means for directing hole sections, that is disposed in an operating position, into connection with the supporting and guiding means of the directionally forming means being in the first formed section and supported by the walls of the formed section and inserting into the next excavated section being formed to force the guiding and supporting means at the directing means in a direction opposite of the diverged direction to cause the directing means and the directed motive means to be forced toward the formed section so to advance the next section closely and join to the formed section and materials of the structure to be let into the formed sections.
  • [0014]
    According to the invention, the supporting and guiding means comprises directing means-supporting and guiding members arranged along the intended length of and secured on a front portion of the motive means capable of being supported by the walls of the rear excavated section, where each of the members is capable of being connected engagely for longitudinal movement to and interacting with the directing means of the adjacent from the front forming means to urge the front forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the next excavated section toward the intended advancing direction and has directing means-supporting and guiding portions for forcing the directing means in the crossing direction, where the portions being engageable with the directing means and operable to move the next forming means with the directing means relative to the walls of the rear hole section excavated previously and being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the directing means against the supporting and guiding portions, their motive means and the walls.
  • [0015]
    According to the invention, the directing means comprises a number of hole sections-directing members supported by a rear portion of the forming means, where each of the members is capable of being connected for longitudinal movement to and forced into interaction with the supporting and guiding means of the adjacent from behind forming means being supported by the walls of an adjacent from behind excavated section to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the front excavated section being formed toward the intended advancing direction and has a backward oriented, excavation-directing portion for forcing the supporting and guiding means of the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the front excavated section being formed toward the intended advancing direction and has a backward oriented, excavation-directing portion for forcing the supporting and guiding means in the crossing direction, where the portions are operable to move the front forming means, with the directing members, relative to the supporting and guiding means and the walls being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the portions against the supporting and guiding means and the walls. The supporting and guiding means is able to serve for directing the emptying of the formed holes and force the forming means that empties the hole from its position toward an intended emptying direction and control the direction of the emptying of the hole relative to the directing means of the adjacent from the front forming means that being supported by the walls of the excavated hole section and is able to serve for supporting and guiding the adjacent from behind forming means to empty the holes.
  • [0016]
    According to the invention, a first preferred embodiment of the motive means of each of the forming means that comprises an equally-curved motive frame member having the central longitudinal surface shaped into the intended cross-section of the structure that is to be formed of the intended constant curvature, the frame member is able to force the equally-curved side walls of a hole section being formed and control the direction of the advancement of the hole section within the surface when being forced into interaction with the walls to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended advancing direction and has excavation-directing portions for forcing the walls in the crossing direction, where the portions are operable to move the forming means, with the motive member, relative to the walls being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the portions against the walls.
  • [0017]
    According to the invention, the making means of the equally-formed forming means that is able to force the frame member from its position toward and against front and rear, relative to the direction of advancement of the multihole excavation, end walls of a hole section and the working front facial wall of the structure being formed and control the direction of the advancement of the hole, compression and formation of the walls, where the frame member has front and rear end portions for forcing the end and structure walls in the crossing direction and the making means comprises a number of hole sections-making, directing, and the end and facial walls-compressing and forming members, where each of the members is capable of being forced into interaction with the working end facial wall of the excavated hole section being formed to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the axis within the central longitudinal surface of the forming means and toward the end and structure walls and has hole section facial wall-cutting, hole-directing, and hole end and structure walls-compressing portions for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction, where the portions are remote from the carrier member, capable to control the force, direction, and disposal of deformation of the facial wall of the excavated hole section being formed and operable to move the forming means, with the making members, relative to the facial wall being forced toward and against the end and structure walls by an activating means of the apparatus capable of forcing the portions against the facial wall and moving the forming means about the connection the forming means and the carrier member into intended positions in the excavation and to compress the hole end and structure facial walls to form the structure.
  • [0018]
    A first preferred embodiment of the making means of the equally-curved forming means according to the invention that comprises a number of endless chain cutter means that are located ahead of the frame member and oriented across the direction of advancement of the excavated section, where each of the cutter means comprises an elongate member for guiding and supporting components of the cutter means, a number of pair of endless chain sprockets supported on shafts rotatably connected to the ends of the guiding and supporting member, endless chains extending around the pair of the chain sprockets, a plurality of face wall-cutting, hole-directing and end walls-compacting portions arranged on the endless chains to form the endless chain cutter members, where each of several of the cutter means has a chain driving wheel on the frame member and a drive means for effecting rotation of the driving wheel relative to the frame member in intended directions so that the cutting chains of the latter cutter means that are capable of rotating the chain sprockets of the rest chain cutter means with the shafts.
  • [0019]
    Furthermore, a second preferred embodiment of the making means of the equally-curved forming means according to the invention that comprises a number of barrels disposed in groups in end-to-end relationship, a member for guiding and supporting the barrels for movement about and along the longitudinal axis of the barrel that is located between the barrels and mounted on a saddle supported by a front wall and ahead of the motive means for relative movement in a direction along the axes of the barrels that crossing the advancing direction, a plurality of face wall-cutting, hole-directing and end walls-compressing portions arranged on the end and facial shell portions of the barrels at the acute cutting angle relative to the axis of the barrel, where the vertex is oriented toward the wall that is to be compressed, to form cutting, directing, and compressing end-and-face mill cutter means, a drive means located within the excavated section to effect the relative movement between the barrels and the motive means in the intended directions.
  • [0020]
    Furthermore, a third preferred embodiment of the making means of the equally-curved forming means according to the invention that comprises a wedge-shaped cutter member that is disposed at the acute cutting angle with the vertex located on the compacting end wall of the frame member and has forward oriented, wedge-shaping; cutting hole-directing; and hole end walls and structure facial wall-compressing portions for forcing the hole facial wall, that are operable by the activating means for effecting disposal in working positions and advancement of the cutter member.
  • [0021]
    Moreover, a second preferred embodiment of the motive means according to the invention that has a forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction, acute angle shape and is capable of compressing the outside and end hole walls and supporting the surrounded hole walls, where the motive means has a front, relative to the advancing directions of the hole and the multihole excavation, angle-shaping end portion for supporting and guiding a wedge-shaped cutting means, a rear angle-shaping end portion for supporting and guiding the directing means, an external side wall for compressing the external side hole wall, where the cutting means is able to force the directing means with the motive means from its position toward and against the guiding and supporting means of the forming means being adjacent from behind in the formed hole section to facilitate the engaging connection the directing means and the guiding and supporting means and compress the outside walls of the adjacent holes and the rear end hole wall, and is capable of being interacted with the directing means of the next in turn forming means to urge the next forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended direction of advancement of the multihole excavation and serving to support and guide the next forming means with the directing means for extending into the ground and to direct the motive means for emptying a formed hole section and has forward, relative to the advancing directions of the hole and the excavation, oriented, angle-shaping cutting, outside and rear end hole walls-compressing, an adjacent forming means-supporting and guiding, hole emptying-directing portions for forcing the facial hole wall in the crossing advancing directions, where the portions have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall of the excavated section being formed and are operable to move the forming means, with the cutting means, to the facial wall being forced, in the advancing directions and compress the outside excavation wall and the facial structure wall.
  • [0022]
    Furthermore, the third preferred embodiment of the motive means according to the invention that consists of a plurality of motive frame link members, the making means and the frame link members are connected in consecutive order, relative to the advancing direction of a hole, for movement about axes within the central longitudinal surfaces and crossing the longitudinal axes of the adjacent members with the ability to interact with the surrounded walls of the hole to urge the members in a lateral direction in the formation of the excavated section, where each of members has portions for forcing the hole walls in the crossing direction, where the portions are operable by the activating means to move the members about the axes in order to move the members along the length of the section.
  • [0023]
    Preferred embodiments of the making means of the forming means provided with the articulated motive means that according to the invention are able to force a front motive member from its position toward the intended advancing direction and control the direction of the advancement of the excavated hole and comprises a number of hole-directing and making members, where each of the directing and making members is capable of being forced into interaction with the facial wall of the hole section being formed to urge the forming means in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended advancing direction of the section and control the direction of the section and has hole-directing and making portions for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction, where the portions have the ability to control the force, direction and disposal of deformation of the wall of the excavated section being formed and operable to move the forming means, with the members, to the wall being forced toward the direction by an activating means capable of forcing the portions against the wall to effect direction-controlling advancement of the hole.
  • [0024]
    The first embodiment of the directing and making means that comprises a number of barrels disposed in groups in end-to-end relationship, a frame member for guiding and supporting the barrels for movement about and along the longitudinal axis of the barrel that is located between the barrels and mounted on a saddle supported by and ahead of the front motive frame member for relative movement in a direction along the axes of the barrels that crossing the advancing direction of the hole, a plurality of cutting portions arranged on the end and facial shell portions of the barrels to form an end-and-face mill cutter members, a drive means located within the excavated section to effect the relative movement in intended directions between the end-and-face mill cutter members and the frame member.
  • [0025]
    The second embodiment of the directing and making means that comprises a cutter member having a number of paired and forward oriented, wedge-shaping, cutting, and hole-directing portions and a backward oriented cutter-directing foot tail portion being supported by a conjugated step-bearing portion of the front motive frame member for longitudinal and relative turning movement about a number of intended axes crossing the central longitudinal axes of the members, a drive means located within the excavated section to effect the rotation of the cutter member about the axes and relative to the frame member, where the drive means comprises a means for providing motive power that is supported on the frame member and a number of output members connected to the directing portion pivotally and remotely from the axis of the turning movement and displaceable about the axis.
  • [0026]
    The third embodiment of the directing and making means that comprises a number of longitudinally displaceable directing and making cutter members and a motive frame member for supporting and guiding the members, where each of the cutter members has a forward oriented, wedge-shaping, cutting, and hole-directing portions with the vertex crossing the central longitudinal axis of the directing and making means and a double-acting piston and cylinder unit located in the motive frame member to effect the relative movement between the frame member and the cutter member to effect direction-controlling advancement of adjacent in bunch order hole sections.
  • [0027]
    The fourth embodiment of the directing and making means comprises a number of disk members supported by a front motive frame link member for rotation about their longitudinal central axes, where a number of the disk members are located co-axially the central longitudinal axis of the directing and making means and a number of the disk members are located behind and protruded with lesser part aside of the central disk members and each of the members has forward oriented ground-cutting mill portions arranged on the end face of the member, and the drive means for effecting the rotation of the members relative to the motive frame member in intended directions to effect direction-controlling advancement of the adjacent in bunch order hole sections.
  • [0028]
    Moreover, the preferred embodiments of the apparatus according to the invention further comprise a plurality of hole side wall-supporting members that are relatively movable in the advancing direction and have the ability to be expanded and outwardly forced into compressive engagement with the surrounded walls being supported by the member to immobilize the side wall-supporting member relative to the walls. The side wall-supporting members have side wall-supporting portions reciprocately movable in transversal direction that are capable to compressively engage the walls of the excavated section and are operable to expand the supporting member for immobilizing the member relative to the walls by an activating means capable to outwardly move the portions to engage the walls and move the portions relative to the adjacent member.
  • [0029]
    Furthermore, each of the preferred forming means comprises conduits for transmission of power and signals to the components and letting the materials into a formed hole section that are with the ability of being forced into connection with a means for supplying power, signals, and the materials and extending from the framework means along the motive means up to the making means and having branched ends at intended places of the forming means.
  • [0030]
    Moreover, the method using the above-described embodiment of the apparatus for constructing an underground equally-curved and narrow multisectional structure in an multihole excavation being formed in the ground, according to the invention further comprising the following steps of advancement of a first equally-curved hole section of the excavation: (e) operating an activating means of the embodiment to move the equally curved guiding and supporting frame member of the forming means in the intended advancing direction to cause the making means to excavate the section of the hole along the hole line, the direction of the hole diverges from the advancing direction and is determined; (f) operating the activating means to move the frame member to force the walls of the excavated hole at the frame member in a direction opposite of the diverged direction to cause the frame member to be forced in the diverged direction so to advance the hole in the diverged direction.
  • [0031]
    Moreover, the method according to the invention further comprising the following steps of directing advancement of the first curvilinear hole section of the excavation: (g) operating the activating means to insert the means for making at the working position into the ground to a predetermined depth and distance in the hole and in an intended advancing direction so that the means for making forms the section of the hole along the first hole section line, the direction of the hole diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the section and is determined; (h) operating the activating means to move the articulated motive means in the intended advancing direction to cause the making means to excavate the section; (i) operating the activating means to move the making means to force the working end facial wall of the excavated hole section being formed in a direction opposite of the diverged advancing direction to cause the motive means to be forced by the making means toward the diverged direction so to advance the hole in the diverged direction so to advance the hole in the diverged direction.
  • [0032]
    Furthermore, the method utilizing a number of the directed forming means and the directing means movable relative to the motive means that according to the invention comprises the following steps: (j) operating an activating means of the directed forming means located in a front, relative to the direction of advancement the excavation, formed hole section to move the directing means relative to the motive means from the operative position into an inoperative position to cause the directing means to be forced out of the connection with the supporting and guiding means of an adjacent from behind forming means located in a rear formed hole section so to allow the rear forming means to move in an intended returning direction to empty the rear section; (k) operating the activating means to insert a baffle means for forming the working front facial wall of the structure, the baffle means is substantially similar in construction to the motive means of the directed forming means, at a working position into the front formed hole section up to a predetermined depth in the front hole to lay the materials into the rear formed section to form the structure; (l) operating the activating means to move the rear forming means in the returning direction of emptying the rear section so that the rear forming means forms a free gap in the interior between the working front facial wall of the structure being formed, the side walls of the rear formed hole section and the forming baffle means; (m) letting the materials of the structure into and laying the materials in the formed free gap and thereby forming an advanced facial wall of the structure to form the structure.
  • [0033]
    Furthermore, the method according to the invention further comprising the following steps: (n) operating the activating means capable to insert the front equally-curved forming means located in a front formed hole section into the ground and move the making means to move the forming means about the connection the forming means and the carrier member into intended positions in a formed hole section and toward the advanced facial wall of the structure in a rear formed hole section to cause a compressing means substantially similar in construction to the structure facial wall-forming baffle and motive frame member having a rear structure facial wall-forming and compressing baffle wall, to be forced against the structure wall so to compress the structure wall and form the structure.
  • [0034]
    The method according to the invention further comprising the following steps: (o) operating the activating means to insert a conduit member for letting and laying the materials at a working position into a formed hole section up to a predetermined depth and distance in the section; (p) operating the activating means to move the conduit member, with the motive means, at the working position in an intended returning and emptying direction so that the forming means forms a free gap along the length of the rear hole section between the structure facial wall, the side walls of the section, the baffle means of a front forming means located in a front hole section, the forming means which empties the section to cause the conduit to let into and lay the structure materials in the gap, the direction of returning and emptying diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the formed gap and is determined; (q) operating the activating means to insert and move the means for directing the emptying, the means for directing the emptying being substantially similar in construction to the guiding and supporting means, in a working position to force a means for supporting and guiding the forming means for the emptying, the means for supporting and guiding for emptying being substantially similar in construction to the directing means for the excavating, at the emptying-directing means in a direction opposite of the diverged returning and emptying direction to use the emptying-directing means and the motive means to be forced in the diverged returning and emptying direction so to advance the gap, let and lay the materials to form the structure section in the diverged direction.
  • [0035]
    Furthermore, the method using a means for supporting walls of an excavation in the ground and according to the invention comprising the following steps: (r) digging the excavation in the ground to a predetermined depth and distance by means of an excavating device, inserting the means for supporting the walls at a working position into the excavation to stop at a predetermined depth and distance in the excavation so that the means for supporting support the walls; (s) operating the activating means of the supporting means to move a number of wall-supporting portions of the stopped supporting means outwardly in directions against and into compressive engagement with the walls of the excavation to immobilize the supporting means relative to the walls; (t) operating the activating means of the apparatus to move an intended part of the forming means relative to the supporting means in an intended advancing direction at a speed, the speed must be equal to a speed of movement of the part in the same direction with another activating means of the apparatus to cause the supporting means to decrease the force applied by and the overturning moment about the chassis means.
  • [0036]
    Moreover, the method according to the invention further comprising the following step: (u) operating an activating means of a framework means to engage forcedly a carrier member of the framework means with the motive means of the forming means supported by the walls of the formed hole and move the carrier member in a direction opposite to the direction of advancement of the excavation to cause the chassis means to advance from its rear working position in the advancing direction into a next in turn front working position and repeat the appropriate and suitable steps with the next in turn guided forming means to construct further sections of the structure along further section lines and the structure line.
  • [0037]
    According to the construction methods of the invention, it is possible to excavate the ground and continuously advance the section of the multihole excavation, then to empty the formed excavation section and at the same time to continuously construct the section of the underground multisectional and paling-shaped structure, such as the wall of cement mortar, in the freed gap. Moreover, as the underground wall being constructed by the method according to the invention has smooth surfaces without steps in wall surfaces and openings so that there is no risk of ground water leaking through the wall surfaces. Therefore, the construction method according to the invention is able to construct both a anchor or foundation or drain stratum and wall and a diaphragm or retain stratum and wall and the like in the ground. The invention will be more fully understood by referring to the following detailed specification and claims taken in connection with the appended drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIGS. 1 and 2 are side and front views of the apparatus for constructing an underground paling-shaped equally-curved, deep and narrow stratum and wall in a multihole excavation being formed in the ground, that apparatus comprises a set of structure sections-forming means according to the present invention and capable of interacting and moving accordingly to the method corresponding to the invention;
  • [0039]
    [0039]FIG. 3 is a side view of the preferred embodiment of the unit 24 of the forming means 10 in FIGS. 1 and 2 that according to the invention;
  • [0040]
    [0040]FIG. 4 is a view from above of the unit 24 in FIG. 3;
  • [0041]
    [0041]FIG. 5 is a front view of the plane unit 24 in FIG. 3;
  • [0042]
    [0042]FIG. 6 is a front view of a circular cylindrical-shaped unit 24 in FIGS. 3 and 4;
  • [0043]
    [0043]FIG. 7 is a side view of the preferred wedge-shaped embodiment 60 of the making means 16 and the directing member 63 of the directing means 18 in FIG. 1 according to the invention;
  • [0044]
    [0044]FIG. 8 is a front view of the cutter 60 in FIG. 7;
  • [0045]
    [0045]FIG. 9 is a rear view of the directing member 63 in FIG. 7;
  • [0046]
    [0046]FIG. 10 is an upper view of the directing member 63 in FIGS. 7 and 8;
  • [0047]
    [0047]FIG. 11 is a side view of the preferred embodiments of the endless chain cutters 69 and 70 of the making means 16 and the directing member 99 of the directing means 18 according to the invention;
  • [0048]
    [0048]FIG. 12 is a front view of the chain cutters 69 and 70 in FIG. 11;
  • [0049]
    [0049]FIG. 13 is an upper view of the directing member 99 in FIG. 11;
  • [0050]
    [0050]FIG. 14 is a rear view of the directing member 99 in FIGS. 11 and 13;
  • [0051]
    [0051]FIG. 15 is a side view of the preferred one-rowed end-and-face mill cutter embodiment 103 of the making means 16 and the embodiment 115 of the directing means 18 in FIG. 1 according to the invention;
  • [0052]
    [0052]FIG. 16 is a front view of the mill cutter 103 in FIG. 15;
  • [0053]
    [0053]FIG. 17 is a side view of the cutting blade 110 in FIG. 15;
  • [0054]
    [0054]FIG. 18 is an upper view of the directing member 115 in FIG. 15;
  • [0055]
    [0055]FIG. 19 is a rear view of the directing member 115 in FIGS. 15 and 18;
  • [0056]
    [0056]FIG. 20 is a side view of the preferred two-rowed end-and-face mill embodiment 16D of the making means 16 in FIG. 1 according to the invention;
  • [0057]
    [0057]FIG. 21 is a front view of the cutters 122 and 123 in FIG. 20;
  • [0058]
    [0058]FIGS. 22A, 22B, 22C, 22D, 22E, 22F, 22G, 22H, 22I, 22J, 22K and 22L are views illustrating the processes of the method for advancement of the forming means 12 in FIGS. 1 and 2 into the ground according to the invention;
  • [0059]
    [0059]FIGS. 23A, 23B, 23C, 23D, 23E, 23F and 23G are views illustrating the processes of the method for movement of the forming means 10 out of a formed hole section;
  • [0060]
    [0060]FIGS. 24A, 24B, 24C, 24D and 24E are views schematically illustrating some paling-shaped underground structures which the apparatus in FIGS. 1 and 2 is adapted to construct;
  • [0061]
    [0061]FIGS. 25, 26 and 27 are side, front and upper views of the preferred embodiment 200 of an apparatus for constructing an underground funnel- and half tore-shaped structure consisting of triangular and trapezoidal sections according to the invention;
  • [0062]
    [0062]FIG. 28 is a cross-section view of the forming means 209 in FIG. 25;
  • [0063]
    [0063]FIGS. 29A, 29B, 29C and 29D are views illustrating schematically the processes of relative movement of the box member 238 and the motive frame section 227 in FIGS. 25 and 28;
  • [0064]
    [0064]FIGS. 30A, 30B, 30C, 30D, 30E and 30F are views illustrating schematically the processes of inserting the urged front motive frame sections 227A and 227B into the ground by aid of the urging motive frame sections 227C in FIG. 25 according to the invention;
  • [0065]
    [0065]FIGS. 31A, 31B and 31C are views illustrating schematically some underground funnel- and half tore-shaped structures consisting of the triangular and trapezoidal sections which the apparatus 200 in FIGS. 25 to 29 is adapted to construct;
  • [0066]
    [0066]FIGS. 32 and 33 are side and front views of the preferred embodiment 300 of an apparatus for constructing an underground cylindrically- and paling-shaped and narrow horizontally and vertically extending structure in a multihole excavation being formed in the ground according to the invention;
  • [0067]
    [0067]FIGS. 34, 35 and 36 are side, upper and front views of the urging motive link 314′ in FIG. 32;
  • [0068]
    [0068]FIGS. 37 and 38 are side views of the wedge-shaped cutter embodiment 349 of the directing making means 316A in FIG. 32;
  • [0069]
    [0069]FIGS. 39 and 40 are longitudinal partial axial and cross-sectional views of the drive means 353 of the wedge-shaped cutter 349 in FIGS. 37 and 38;
  • [0070]
    [0070]FIGS. 41 and 42 are side and longitudinal partly axial cross-sectional views of the edge-shaped cutter embodiment 360 of the guided making means 316B in FIGS. 32 and 33;
  • [0071]
    [0071]FIGS. 43 and 44 are views of the motionlessly attached embodiment 365A of the directing means 321 in FIG. 32 in directions shown by arrows O and P in FIG. 41;
  • [0072]
    [0072]FIGS. 45 and 46 are side views of the preferred one-rowed and end-and-face mill cutter embodiment 368 of the directing making means 316A and guided making means 316B provided with the motionlessly attached embodiment 373 of the directing means 321 in FIG. 32 according to the invention;
  • [0073]
    [0073]FIGS. 47 and 48 are views of the directing member 373 in directions shown by arrows R and S in FIG. 45;
  • [0074]
    [0074]FIGS. 49A, 49B and 49C are views illustrating by arrows T and V directions of the turning movement of the mill barrels 372A to 372D, by arrows U and W directions of forcing the frame member 371 and by arrows B, B′ and B″ directions of the advancement of the mill cutter embodiment 368 in FIGS. 45 and 46;
  • [0075]
    [0075]FIGS. 50 and 51 are side views of the preferred two-rowed and end-and-face mill cutter embodiment 376 of the directing making means 316A and guided making means 316B in FIG. 32 that is provided with the directing members 373 according to the invention;
  • [0076]
    [0076]FIGS. 52A, 52B and 52C are views illustrating by the arrows T and V the directions of the turning movement of the mill barrels 379A to 379D, by the arrows U and W the directions of forcing the frame member 381 and by the arrows B, B′ and B″ the directions of the advancement of the mill cutter embodiment 376 in FIGS. 50 and 51;
  • [0077]
    [0077]FIGS. 53, 54 and 55 are side and partial cross-sectional views of the preferred two wedges-shaped embodiment 383 of the directing making means 316A in FIG. 32;
  • [0078]
    [0078]FIG. 56 is a cross-sectional view illustrating schematically an underground cylindrically-shaped retain stratum and walls which the apparatus 300 in FIGS. 32 and 33 is adapted to construct below a main water channel;
  • [0079]
    [0079]FIGS. 57 and 58 are side and rear views of the preferred embodiment 400 of an apparatus according to the invention for constructing an underground double-curved and narrow, horizontally and vertically extending structure in a multihole excavation being formed in the ground;
  • [0080]
    [0080]FIGS. 59 and 60 are side and partly longitudinal axial sectional views illustrating the preferred end mill cutter embodiment 438 of the guided making means 412B that is assembled with the preferred embodiments 418A and 418B of the urging motive link group 411A of the motive means 411 in FIG. 57;
  • [0081]
    [0081]FIG. 61 is front and partly cross-sectional views of the end mill cutter embodiment 431 of the directing making means 412A in FIG. 57.
  • [0082]
    [0082]FIG. 62 is front and partly cross-sectional views of the mill cutter embodiment 438 of the guided making means 412B and the embodiment 440 of the directing means 414 in FIG. 57;
  • [0083]
    [0083]FIG. 63 is a cross-sectional view of the urging motive group 418B shown by arrows 1-1 in FIG. 59.
  • [0084]
    [0084]FIG. 64 is a cross-sectional view of the embodiment 443 of the urging motive group substantially similar to the group 418A in FIG. 59 that is adapted to be disposed in a working position between the urged motive link groups 411B in FIG. 57.
  • [0085]
    [0085]FIGS. 65, 66 and 67 are side and partly cross-sectional views of the preferred embodiment 437 of the urged motive link 411′ in FIG. 57 that is provided with the preferred embodiments 437D and 437E of the guiding and supporting means 413 in FIG. 57;
  • [0086]
    [0086]FIGS. 68A, 68B, 68C, 68D and 68E are views illustrating schematically the directions shown by arrows F and G of turning movement of the directing end mill cutters 435 in FIGS. 59, 61 and 62 and the directions shown by arrows H, I, J, K and B of the resultant movement of the directing end mill cutter means 431;
  • [0087]
    [0087]FIGS. 69, 70, 71 and 72 are side, partly longitudinal axial sectional and front views of the preferred loose multiwedge-shaped cutter embodiments 446, 452 and 455 of the directing making means 412A according to the invention;
  • [0088]
    [0088]FIGS. 73A and 73B are views illustrating schematically the directions shown by arrows N and 0 of turning and lateral movement of the cutter embodiment 446 or 452 or 455 when the only one or two wedge-shaped cutters 447 in FIGS. 69 to 72 that moved out as designed by a mark “+”;
  • [0089]
    [0089]FIGS. 74 and 75 are front, side and partly longitudinal axial sectional views of the preferred solid multiwedge-shaped cutter embodiment 458 of the directing making means 412A in FIG. 57 according to the invention;
  • [0090]
    [0090]FIGS. 76 and 77 are side and partly longitudinal axial sectional views of the preferred embodiment 463 of the urging motive link groups 418A and 418B in FIGS. 59 and 60 that are assembled with the multiwedge-shaped cutter 446 in FIGS. 69 and 70 according to the invention;
  • [0091]
    [0091]FIG. 78 is a cross-sectional view of one of the urging groups 463 shown by arrows 1-1 in FIG. 76;
  • [0092]
    [0092]FIG. 79 is a preferred cross-sectional view of urging groups like the groups 463 shown in FIG. 76 that are adapted to be assembled into any of the forming means 406 to 408 for constructing a structure section located in the vertex of an angle of divergence of the structure line;
  • [0093]
    [0093]FIGS. 80 and 81 are side and partly longitudinal and cross-sectional views of the preferred embodiment 470 of the urged motive link 411′ in FIG. 57;
  • [0094]
    [0094]FIG. 82 is a preferred cross-sectional view of an urged motive link like the motive link 470 shown in FIGS. 80 and 81 that is adapted to be assembled into any of the forming means 406 to 408 for constructing a structure section located in the vertex of an angle of divergence of the structure line;
  • [0095]
    FIGS. 83 to 85 are front, side and partly axial views of the preferred wedge-shaped embodiment 473 of the guided making means 412B in FIG. 57 and the directing means 475 according to the invention;
  • [0096]
    [0096]FIGS. 86A, 86B, 86C, 86D, 86E, 86F and 86G are views illustrating the steps of the method of inserting into the ground the end mill cutter means 438 and the urging motive link set 411A in FIG. 57 according to the invention;
  • [0097]
    [0097]FIGS. 87A, 87B, 87C, 87D, 87E, 87F and 87G are views illustrating the steps of the method of inserting into the ground the end mill cutter means 438 and the constant long tandem of two urging motive link set 411A in FIGS. 57, 76 and 77 according to the invention;
  • [0098]
    [0098]FIGS. 88A, 88B, 88C, 88D, 88E, 88F, 88G and 88H are views illustrating the steps of the method of inserting into the ground the multiwedge-shaped cutter means 446 or 452 or 459 in FIGS. 69 to 72 and 75 and two urging motive link set 411A in FIGS. 57, 76 and 77 according to the invention.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0099]
    To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related aims the invention then comprises the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the following description setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments of the invention, these being indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the invention may be employed.
  • [0100]
    In describing preferred embodiments of the invention illustrated in the drawings, specific terminology will be resorted to for sake of clarity. However, the invention is not intended to be limited to the specific terms so selected, and it is to be understood that each specific term includes all technical equivalents which operate in a similar manner to accomplish a similar purpose.
  • [0101]
    Such formed hole can also be used for constructing an underground anchor or foundation column and pile, or a drain or supplying well. The formed excavation sections are used to lay into the hole a suitable structure material, such as a grout or bentonite slurry or bentonite-sand-water mixture or neat cement milk or cement-pea gravel-sand-water ready concrete or pea gravel-sand mix or any other kind of a backfill can be put in place of excavated section emptied by underground structure-forming means movable in the ground by the method according to the present invention.
  • [0102]
    In FIGS. 1 and 2 it is illustrated an apparatus 01 for constructing an underground equally-curved, preferably circular cylindrically-shaped, and plane, deep and narrow multisectional underground structure, such as a horizontally preferably-extending stratum and vertically preferably-extending wall in a multihole excavation being extended into the ground 1 according to the invention preferably straight horizontally along the length of a structure line and composed of a number or a plurality of adjacent hole sections being extended preferably curvilinear vertically along the length of hole section lines crossing the structure line in a direction of the cross-section of the structure, the apparatus 01 comprises a travelling chassis 2 being movable along an initial or starting excavation, such as a trench 3 dug in the ground 1 to a predetermined depth along the length of the structure line in a direction shown by an arrow A in FIG. 1 and stoppable at the intended hole section lines, supporting components of the apparatus and supplying materials, power and controlling signals to the components and comprises a frame 4, a hydraulic control and pressure fluid pumping means 5 being driven by an engine, such as a combustion engine, a source means of a drilling fluid or a wash liquid and compressed air for withdrawing debris material of penetration of the working end facial wall out of an excavated section (not shown), a source of a structure material (not shown), an operator cabin 6 provided with a means for remote controlling operations of activating means of the apparatus, a connecting framework 7 mounted on the chassis 2, provided with a tiltable slip 8 for guiding and supporting components of a structure-forming means 9 including underground-movable structure section-forming means 10 to 12 and adapted to assemble and connect together and to the chassis means 2, to dispose and advance in an intended advancing direction shown by an arrow B the forming means 10 to 12, a bridge crane 13 for disposing the components and the chassis 2 and a carrier 14 for forcedly engaging the same preferably elongate and extensible motive frame means 15 for guiding and supporting components of the forming means 10 to 12, where all the frame means 15 have the same conjugated equally-curved central longitudinal surfaces, such as part of a circular cylinder or a screw helical spin, which is identical to the intended central longitudinal surfaces of hole sections and cross-section of the structure, a means 16 for making excavated hole sections to excavate hole sections ahead of the frame means 15. The making means 16, such as a wedge-shaped cutter or an endless chain cutter or an end-and-face mill cutter provided with a means for injecting the wash liquid and compressed air and withdrawing the drilled debris (later described) that is suitable for mechanical characteristics of the ground along the length of the hole line and has the ability to be replaced or substituted and supported securely by the front end of the frame means 15 provided with a lock means 17.
  • [0103]
    Each of the frame means 15 that comprises an internal aside oriented, relative to the direction of advancement of the multihole excavation, side portion 15A for interacting with the slip 8, an external aside oriented side portion 15B for interacting with the side wall of an excavated hole section, a forward oriented front portion 15C for supporting a means 18 for supporting and guiding the next in turn forming means, such as the forming means 11 and 12 for advancement of next holes, a backward oriented rear portion 15D for supporting a means 19 for interacting with the supporting and guiding means 18 and directing next holes, for guiding an adjacent from behind forming means, such as the forming means 10, forming, supporting and compressing the working front facial wall of a structure being formed.
  • [0104]
    The supporting and guiding means 18 of the forming means 11, for example, comprises directing means 19—supporting and guiding members (later described) arranged along the intended length of the front portion 15C of the frame means 15 capable of being supported by the walls of an excavated section, where each of the members is capable of being connected engagely for longitudinal movement to and interacting with the directing means 19 of the adjacent from the front forming means 12 to urge the forming means 12 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the next excavated section toward the intended advancing direction B and has a forward oriented, directing means 19—supporting and guiding portion (later described) for forcing the directing means 19 in the crossing direction, where the portions being engageable with the directing means 19 and operable to move the forming means 12 with the directing means 19 relative to the walls of the rear hole section excavated previously and being forced by the forming means 11 toward the direction B by an activating means of the apparatus 01 capable of forcing the directing means 19 against the supporting and guiding means 18, their frame means 15 and the walls.
  • [0105]
    The frame means 15 of the forming means 12, for example, that is able to be forced from its position toward the direction B by the directing means 19 which comprises a number of hole sections-directing members (later described) supported by the rear portion 15D, where each of the members is capable of being connected engagely for longitudinal movement to and forced into interaction with the supporting and guiding means 18 of the adjacent from behind forming means 11 being supported by the walls of the formed hole to urge the forming means 12 in the crossing direction toward the direction B and has a backward oriented, hole-directing portion for forcing the supporting and guiding means 18 of the forming means 11 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the front excavated section toward the direction B, where the portions are operable to move the front forming means 12, with the directing means 19, relative to the supporting and guiding means 18 and the walls being forced by the forming means 11 toward the direction B by the activating means of the apparatus 01 capable of forcing the portions against the supporting and guiding means 18 and the walls and control the direction of the advancement of the excavated section.
  • [0106]
    In operation, the frame means 15 of the first in turn forming means 10 when is forced by the bridge crane 13 and the activating means of the apparatus 01 and interacts with its portion 15A with the slip 8 to be forced from its position toward the intended advancing direction B to urge the forming means 10 in a direction crossing the tangent of the matched interacting surfaces of the slip 8 and the portion 15A about the axis O toward the direction B, where the portion 15A is forced against the slip 8 and moves the forming means 10, with the frame means 15, about the axis O relative to the slip 8 being forced toward the direction B so that the forming means 10 inserts in the working position into the trench 3 up to a predetermined depth in the trench 3 along the hole line, where bosoms between the trench walls 3B and 3C and the forming means 10 are filled up with a coarse sand or gravel preferably or the compacted withdrawn ground which supporting the forming means 10 and then the forming means 10 inserts further into the trench bottom 3A and forms and supports the side walls of the excavated hole section being formed up to a predetermined depth of the hole being formed. While the frame member 15 being supported and guided yet by the slip 8 for movement about the axis O into the ground, the making means 16 forms the excavated section being curved about the axis O and the side walls of the excavated section being formed that become to ensure the guiding and supporting of the frame member 15 for further movement about the axis O. The frame member 15 becomes to interact forcedly with the surrounded walls of the section being formed to urge the forming means 10 in a direction crossing the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the direction B, the portions 15A and 15B become to support and force the walls in the crossing directions and thereby move the forming means 10, with the frame means 15, relative to the walls being forced about the axis O toward the direction B.
  • [0107]
    The frame means 15 of the next in turn forming means 12, for example, that is forced by the bridge crane 13 into interaction firstly with the slip 8 and secondly with the forming means 11 being adjacent from behind in the formed previously hole section to urge the forming means 12 in a direction crossing the tangent of the matched interacting surfaces of its directing lower side portion 15A, the slip 8 and the central longitudinal surface of the frame means 15 of the forming means 11 toward the direction B by aid of the portion 15A forcing the slip 8 and the directing means 19 forcing the guiding and supporting means 18 of the forming means 11 in the opposite crossing direction and move the forming means 12, with its frame means 15, relative to the slip 8 and the forming means 11 about the axis O toward the direction B.
  • [0108]
    Each of the frame means 15 comprises conduits 20 and 21 having aside and longitudinally preferably oriented quick-acting inlet conduit connections, extending from the upper end of, into and along the length of the frame means 15 for transmission compressed air, a hydraulic pressure fluid, and the drilling fluid or wash liquid to and from the making means 16 and then the structure materials 22, such as a ready mixed-concrete or a hardening liquid, such as a mix of a cement milk and sand or a mortar and soil or a surrounded walls-supporting bentonite solution, and capable to be temporarily connected by the length of pipe members (not shown) to a known means for supplying the materials 22 and receiving and processing the drilling mud and to the pumping means 5, for supplying electrical power and transmission signals that being connected by the length of electrical cables (not shown) to the remote control means 6. The conduit 21 has branched preferably lower ends 21A opening at the far and lower end of the forming means 10 to 12 for letting the structure material 22 into and laying in the formed and emptied hole section in directions shown by arrows C in FIG. 1.
  • [0109]
    The frame means 15 is provided with a number or a plurality of longitudinally displaceable means 23 (later described) for supporting the walls of the hole section, such as the roof or the side walls, that are adapted to support and guide the frame means 15 and force the forming means 10 to 12 to move about the axis O relative to the walls being supported to effect advancement and emptying of the curved hole and to immobilise relative to the walls to support the chassis 2 and the liquid materials 22 to form the structure.
  • [0110]
    The frame means 15 has the ability of being extended by joining alternately a number or a plurality of spare motive frame units 24 capable to be connected rigidly together in end-to-end relationship by the lock means 17 and the connecting means of the conduits 20 and 21. The number of the units 24 that is determined accordingly to the predetermined depth and length of a hole being formed and the length of each of the units 24.
  • [0111]
    The framework 7 consists of reshaped preferably pier columns 25 and 26 supported by the chassis frame 4 and adapted to support the bridge crane 13 provided with a bridge beam 13A supported on rolls and rails in collar pier corbels 25A and 26A of n-shaped preferably cross-section for movement along the length of the corbels 25A and 26A by a drive means (not shown) comprising, for example, a means for providing motive power and screw shafts each of which is supported rotatably by the corbels 25A and 26A and threadedly engaged with a nut supported pivotably by the end of the bridge beam 13A (not shown), a hydraulic hoisting winch 13B supported by the bridge beam 13A for movement along the beam 13A and serving with its wire 13C for assembling the units 24 of the forming means 12, for example, being inserted into the ground, for disassembling the units 24 of the forming means 10, for example, being withdrawn out of the formed hole in a direction shown by an arrow D in FIG. 1 and for displacement of the spare units 24 forward in the direction A with the traverse carrier 14 capable to be forced into engagement by the lock means 17 with any unit 24, a guide pulley 27 supported rotatingly by the frame 4 for the wire 13C that is capable to be connected to the forming means 11, for example, being in the excavated hole section and supported by the walls of the section and serving as an abutment for advancing the chassis 2; an intended number of exchangeable sets of exchangeable supporting and guiding slip members 8A of the slip 8, where the slip members 8A of each of the sets that are shaped into a shape of the central longitudinal surface of the forming means 10 to 12, arranged preferably in transversal direction between and supported by the frame 4 and a longitudinal beam 28 located between and supported by the columns 25 and 26 and having the ability to be displaced in a vertical direction and fixed at intended operating horizontal positions by aid of pins 29 and 30 arranged along the columns 25 and 26 to form and tilt the slip 8 and connected securely to the frame 4 and the beam 28 by their ends and aid of pins (not shown) arranged along the frame 4 and the beam 28. Preferably the connections are easily detachable so that the slip members 8A can be removed and replaced to cope with the motive frame sections of different shapes of the rectilinear, for example, forming means 10 shown at working positions 10′ and 10″. So, the slip 8 has the ability to be disposed into any intended working positions for forming the excavation having different intended equally-curved cross-sections.
  • [0112]
    The chassis 2 comprises a means for anchoring the frame 4 that comprises a set of hydraulic outrigger supports 31A connected to the frame 4 between the ground surface and a number or a set of outrigger rods 31B being connected pivotally to the bridge beam 13A and capable to be connected with the carrier 14 and the lock means 17 to the frame means 15 of the forming means 11, for example, being motionless and supported by the walls of the formed hole. Hydraulic piston and cylinder units of the outrigger supports 31A when are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the outrigger support 31A against the ground surface and the rods 31B when are connected to the frame means 15 of the forming means 11 so that support motionless the chassis 2 to prevent its overturning.
  • [0113]
    The hydraulic drive means of the winch 13B being engaged with the bridge beam 13A and located with its wire 13C engaged with an upper in turn unit 24 of the forming means 10 by aid of the carrier member 14 is supplied with pressure fluid to pull the wire 13C into and thereby move upwardly the upper unit 24 which could be disassembled with the lock means 17 from the forming means 10 being withdrawn out of the formed hole in the direction D and could be advanced in the direction A in FIG. 1, assembled into the forming means 12 and being inserted again into the ground. Simultaneously the materialss 22 can be let through the opening 21A as it shown by the arrows C in FIG. 1 and then the wire 13C is extended around the pulley 27 and connected to the forming means 11 with the carrier 14 and the lock means 17 and the hydraulic winch 13B when is supplied with pressure fluid to pull into the wire 13C and thereby urge the frame 4 with the pulley 27 forward in the direction A relative to the forming means 11 so that the chassis 2 advances a step and complete the construction of that structure section. The operations of inserting the forming means 12 and withdrawing the forming means 10, for example, in this way are carried out repeatedly as part of an overall sequence involving the advancement of the apparatus 01 and excavation.
  • [0114]
    FIGS. 3 to 6 show one of the same rectangular preferably motive units 24 of the forming means 10, for example, in a plane embodiment 24A shown in FIG. 1 and a circular cylindrical embodiment 24B shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Each of the units 24A and 24B comprises a frame 32 for supporting and guiding components of the unit 24A and 24B, that comprises a number of connecting conform fork members 33, lug members 34 and pin members 35 of the locks means 17 in FIG. 1, sections 36 of the conduit 21 shown in FIG. 1 that extending along the length of the frame 32 and having known inlet and outlet end quick-acting connecting conform sockets and check valves 37 and 38, sections 39 of the conduit 20 shown in FIG. 1 that extending along the length of the frame 32 and having known end socket and check valves 40 and 41; inlet and outlet quick-acting end plug-and-socket connecting means 42 and 43 for transmission electrical power and the controlling signals, and the side walls-supporting and the frame 32-supporting and guiding, urging and immobilising means 23 shown in FIG. 1 that comprises a number or a set of side wall-supporting members 44 and 45 generally arranged in pairs and tandem order along the frame means 15. The frame 32 is provided with guide walls 46 and 47, and each pair of the members 44 and 45 is provided with a box frame 48 being supported and guided the members 44 and 45 for longitudinal displacement in the curvilinear directions shown by the arrows B and D in FIG. 3 between and along the length of the walls 46 and 47, a number of double-acting hydraulic piston and cylinder units 49 for effecting relative movement about the axis O shown in FIG. 2 between the frame 32 and the members 44 and 45 with the box frame 48 to effect turning advancement and emptying of the holes, where the unit 49 has its cylinder pivotally connected to a bracket or the like formed within the box frame 48 and its piston rod pivotally connected via linkage to the frame 32. The frame 32 is provided with known end switch means 50 and 51 that are capable to signal about end stroke positions of the box frame 48 and connected to the remote controlling means 6.
  • [0115]
    During the advancement or emptying of an equicurvilinear hole, a number of the groups of the members 44 and 45 are moved in the intended direction B or D about the axis O and stopped to support the side walls or the bottom and roof of the hole section being advanced or emptied by supplying pressure fluid to the unit 49 associated therewith so that the unit 49 correspondingly extends or shortens. The other groups of the members 44 and 45 remain preferably stationary and the units 49 associated therewith are blocked in known manner or act in the reverse direction D or B. The stopped members 44 and 45 are in static frictional contact with the walls and thus serve to anchor, support and guide the frame 32 and thereby act as an abutment or the unit 49 which is operated. This procedure would be repeated for the other members 44 and 45 and when each of the units 49 has been extended or shortened it can be operated in a reverse sense to retract and draw up the frame 32 ready for the next operative cycle. During the latter phase when the frame means 15 is drawn up, the intended number of the members 44 and 45 collectively act as an abutment for the units 49.
  • [0116]
    A number of the members 44 and 45 are with the ability to be expanded and outwardly forced into compressive engagement with the side walls being supported by the members 44 and 45 to immobilise the members 44 and 45 relative to the walls and adapted to compress the cylindrically-shaped walls and urge the frame 32 about the axis O and have side wall-supporting portions 52 and 53 reciprocatingly movable in transversal directions shown by arrows F and G in FIG. 5 that are capable to compressively engage the walls of the excavated section and operable to expand the supporting members 44 and 45 for immobilising the member 44 and 45 relative to the walls by an activating means, such as a number or a set of power hydraulic cylinder and piston units 54 capable to outwardly move the portions 52 and 53 in the directions F and G to engage the walls and move the portions 52 and 53 relative to the adjacent supporting member 44 or 45. The units 54 are connected hydraulically to the unit 49 and a suitable remote controlling electromagnetic distribution valves of a controlling hydraulic means 55 by the lengths of pipes. The portions 52 and 53 have preferably a [-shaped cross-section, for instance, and are provided with L-shaped edge stiffeners 56 and 57 that have the ability to form the supporting and guiding means 18 shown in FIG. 1, such as an aisle extending between, along and close by a forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction A, side wall 58 of the frame 32 and the stiffeners 56 and 58 and adapted to support and guide a T-shaped portion 59 (later described) of the directing means 19 of the forming means 12, for example, for longitudinal movement.
  • [0117]
    [0117]FIG. 6 shows a front view of a circular cylindrically-shaped unit 24B that has the design which is similar to the design of the plane unit 24A in FIGS. 3 to 5. Such units 24B are useful for constructing an underground structure shaped into a circular cylindrical trough shown in FIG. 24A, where as the units 24A are useful for constricting underground structures shown in FIGS. 24B to 24D.
  • [0118]
    While the members 44 and 45 (see FIG. 3 to FIG. 6) are in their operating positions, stationary and expanded within an excavated section, the portions 52 and 53 are faced and pressing on the walls in order to be compressingly engaged with the walls and are subjected to backpressures by the walls. A magnitude of such backpressure of the grounds allowing the cutting through by wedge-shaped cutters that is equal to about 1 to 6 kg/cm2, the boring-allowing rocky grounds—from 10 to 20 up to 20 to 40 kg/cm2, for example. The backpressures can create friction forces which are enough to impede securely relative displacement of the portions 52 and 53 to the excavated section, therefore the stopped members 44 and 45 can be operable as an abutment to securely urge the frame 32 along and relative to the excavated hole section, the walls of which being supported and compressed by the members 44 and 45. If the resistance of the ground to compression is equal to no less than 5 kg/cm2, for instance, the static friction coefficient is equal to no less than about 0.5, and dimensions of the portions 52 and 53 are: the width—200 centimeters and the length—400 centimeters, for example, then the static friction forces of the portions 52 and 53 being moved apart against the walls that can correspondingly reach more than about 400 tons and up to 2500 tons. While the members 44 and 45 are in their inoperative positions and move longitudinally forward, the members 44 and 45 can be decreased in its volume by the active pressure of the unstable walls, which can be equal up to about 1.0 kg/cm2, for instance, and create lesser significantly sliding friction forces which impede the displacement of the members 44 and 45 and the frame 32 within the excavated section and are correspondingly equal to no more than 80 tons. Therefore, the unit 49 must correspondingly exert a force equal to more than 100 tons for effecting relative advancement of the members 44 and 45 to the frame 32 and can exert a force equal more than about 400 tons for movement of the frame 32 relative to the members 44 and 45 to advance the forming means 12 with the frame means 15.
  • [0119]
    So, the members 44 and 45 are stationary until the unit 49 ends its piston pulling stroke with advancement of the frame means 15 with the frame 32 relative to the members 44 and 45 and the frame 32 approaches up to the box frame 48 so that the box frame 48 actuates the switch 51 which signals to the control assembly 55 to cease supplying pressure fluid into the rod end of the unit 49 and to connect it to a hydraulic drive tank and to simultaneously begin supplying pressure fluid into the head end of the unit 49 to start its piston pushing stroke with relative advancement of the members 44 and 45 to the frame 32 and signals to the assembly 55 to connect the hydraulic units 54 to the unit's 49 rod end and to the tank for ceasing the outwardly forcing the portions 52 and 53 by the units 54 to allow the portions 52 and 53 to inwardly move from the excavated section walls being supported and to decrease the members 44 and 45 in volume and the pressure of the ground on the portions 52 and 53, and then the members 44 and 45 move along and between the guides 46 and 47 forward up to the switch 50 and the end of the piston pushing stroke of the unit 49. Then the members 44 and 45 are stopped with the box frame 48 relative to the frame 32 and actuate the switch 50 to signal to the assembly 55 to cease supplying pressure fluid into the head end of the unit 49 and to connect the head end to the tank and to start supplying pressure fluid into the rod end of the unit 49 and to connect the rod end to the units 54 to supply the units 54 with pressure fluid and to outwardly push their pistons and the portions 52 and 53 toward the walls so that the portions 52 and 53 exert pressures on the walls to be fixed by friction forces stationary relative to the walls and the unit 49 forces the frame 32 forward relative to the securely fixed motionless portions 52 and 53 between and along the guides 46 and 47 of the stopped frame 32. After the unit 49 ends its piston pulling stroke and completes the forcing the frame 32 forward, where the frame 32 approaches the box frame 48 and actuates again the switch 51, and with that the cycle of actions of the unit 24 is ended. The units 24 analogously operate for urging the frame means 15 of the forming means 10 backward and out of the formed hole section.
  • [0120]
    When the forming means 10 in FIG. 1, for example, returns out of a formed hole to empty the formed hole and the materials of the structure to be let into the emptied hole section, its supporting and guiding means 18 which is similar to the supporting and guiding means 18 of the forming means 11 shown in FIG. 1 and able to serve for directing the emptying and force the forming means 10 from its position toward an intended emptying direction shown by the arrow D in FIG. 1 and control the direction D relative to the directing portion 15D and the directing means 19 of the adjacent from the front forming means 11 being supported by the walls of the excavated and formed hole section that are similar to the shown in FIG. 1 directing means 19 and directing portion 15D of the forming means 12 and able to serve for supporting and guiding the forming means 10 to empty the formed hole.
  • [0121]
    In FIGS. 7 to 21 there are shown exchangeable and substitutable embodiments of the making means 16 that are adapted to excavate the grounds having different mechanical characteristics and the directing means 19 in FIG. 1.
  • [0122]
    In FIGS. 7 to FIG. 10 there is shown a wedge-shaped cutter 60 that is adapted for using in the hover or loose or sandy or soft clayey ground that includes rocks of diameter equal up to about 50 centimeters, for instance, and has forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction B, wedge-shaping cutting portions 61 disposed at the angle of sharpness that is equal to about 45-60 and the angle of cutting equal to about 45 to 75, 60 being preferred, where the cutting angle vertex is located at the portion 16D in FIG. 1. The cutter 60 is connected to the far and lower end and within the central longitudinal surface of the frame means 15 by the lock means 17 with the ability to control the cutting angle by aid of a known means (not shown).
  • [0123]
    An embodiment 62 of the directing means 19 shown in FIG. 1 that comprises a directing member 63 supported and guided by a front end section 64 of the frame means 15 for axial movement in transversal directions shown by arrows H and I in FIG. 7, a hydraulic double-acting piston and cylinder unit 65 for effecting relative movement between the section 64 and the member 63 to effect engaging connection and disconnection the member 63 and the supporting and guiding means 18 of the adjacent from behind forming means 11, for example. The member 63 is capable of being forced into interaction with the supporting and guiding means 18 to urge the forming means 12 in a direction crossing the central axis of the excavated section toward the direction B and into the section line and has an excavation-directing portion 66 for forcing the stiffeners 56 and 57 and a forward oriented, supporting and guiding wall 58 of the frame 32 (shown in FIGS. 3 and 4) that form an embodiment of the supporting and guiding means 18 of the forming means 10 and 11, for example, in a crossing direction, where the portion 66, the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 are operable to move the forming means 12, with the directing member 63, relative to the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 being forced toward the direction B and into the excavated section line by the units 49 of the forming means 12 capable of forcing the portion 66 against the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58. The rear wall 67 of the frame section 64 has a pocket or recess 68 for accommodation the portion 66 when in an inoperative position, where the recess 68 is filled up with an elastic material, such as a soft rubber being capable to be compressed by the portion 66.
  • [0124]
    The unit 65 when is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the member 63 toward the previously inserted into the ground forming means 11 located adjacently to the member 63 so that its portion 66 and the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 mate to join the frame means 15 of the forming means 11 and the frame means 15 of the forming means 12 together for relative longitudinal movement. The unit 65 when is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the member 63 from the forming means 11 so that its portion 66 moves through a gap between the stiffeners 56 and 57 to separate the frame means 15 of the forming means 11 and the frame means 15 of the forming means 12 and allow the rear forming means 10, for example, to move backward out of the formed hole and relative to the front forming means 11.
  • [0125]
    In FIGS. 11 to 14 there it is shown endless chain cutter embodiment 69 of the making means 16 in FIGS. 1 and 2 for using in the firm or frozen or solid ground, that consists of endless chain cutters 70A and 70B, each of the endless chain cutters 70A and 70B comprises a driving chain wheel 71 on a saddle 72 on a front end frame section 73 of the frame means 15, a means for sliding longitudinally, relative to the direction B, the saddle 72 on the frame section 73 (not shown), a guide frame 74 supported by the front end of the frame section 73 and positioned ahead of, within the central longitudinal surface, and across the longitudinal axis of the frame means 15, chain sprockets 75 and 76 both supported by the middle portion of parallel shafts 77 and 78 rotatably connected to the ends of the guide frame 74, an endless chain 79 extending around the chain driving wheel 71 and the sprockets 75 and 76, a number of cutter bits (not shown) arranged on the endless chain 79 to form a central or middle driving endless chain cutting section 80 of each endless chain cutter 70A and 70B; chain sprockets 81 and 82 supported by the left, relative to a direction of movement of the endless chain shown by an arrow J in FIG. 11, side portions of the shafts 77 and 78 by a saddle 83 on the frame 74 provided with a means for sliding the saddle 83 along and on the frame 74 (not shown), endless chains 84 extending around the sprockets 81 and 82, chain sprockets 85 and 86 (not shown) supported by the right side portions of the shafts 77 and 78, an endless chain 87 extending around the sprockets 85 and 86, a number of the cutter bits (not shown) arranged on the endless chain 84 to form a left driven cutting section 88 of each endless chain cutter 70A and 70B and on the endless chain 87 to form a right driven cutting section 89 of each endless chain cutter 70A and 70B, so that the cutting chain 79 is capable of driving the cutting chains 84 and 87.
  • [0126]
    The frame section 73 of each of the chain cutters 70A and 70B that contains a multiple drive means 90 (components are not shown) that is capable of rotating the driving chain wheels 71 in the direction J and in an opposite direction shown by an arrow K in FIG. 11, a branched conduit 91 for transmission power, preferably pressure fluid, and signals to a drive means, branched conduits 92 to 95 extending up to the front end of the frame section 73 and having lower opening ends for transmission and injecting pressured air and the wash liquid to the chain cutters 70A and 70B and withdrawing a mixture of air-liquid-debris after penetration the facial wall from the chain cutters 70A and 70B, the ability of transmission the liquid or the mixture or the structure materials and a known means (not shown) for remotely switching the transmission over to the another aid.
  • [0127]
    FIGS. 11 to 14 illustrate an embodiment 98 of the hole-directing means 19 (see FIG. 1) that comprises a directing member 99 supported and guided by the frame section 73 for movement in axial transversal directions shown by arrows L and M in FIG. 11 and having an excavation-directing portion 100 for forcing in a crossing direction the guiding and supporting stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 of the frame member 32 in FIGS. 3 and 4 that are forming the guiding and supporting means 18 of the adjacent from behind forming means 11, for instance, in FIG. 1 and a drive means, such as a hydraulic double-acting piston and cylinder unit 101 for effecting relative movement between the directing member 99 and the frame section 64 from an operative position for interacting with the guiding and supporting stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 into an inoperative position (not shown) within a pocket or recess 102 provided in the frame section 64 for accommodating the directing member 99 in the inoperative position and filled up with an elastic material, such as a soft rubber capable of to be compressed by the member 99 that in its inoperative position can thus lie adjacent the inner face of the frame section 64 within the recess 102 to effect disconnection the forming means 11 and the forming means 10, for instance. FIGS. 13 and 14 illustrate the 0- and T-shaped directing portion 100.
  • [0128]
    In constructing a hole section by the use of the endless chain cutter means 69 constructed described above, the power drive means 90 when connected to the chain drive wheels 71 are supplied with pressure fluid to rotate the drive wheels 71 in the recess 102 provided in the frame section 64 for accommodating the directing member 99 in the inoperative position and filled up with an elastic material, such as a soft rubber capable to be compressed by the member 99 that in its inoperative position can thus lie adjacent the inner face of the frame section 64 within the recess 102 to effect disconnection the forming means 11 and the forming means 10, for instance. FIGS. 13 and 14 illustrate the 0- and T-shaped directing portion 100.
  • [0129]
    In constructing a hole section by the use of the endless chain cutter means 69 constructed described above, the power drive means 90 when connected to the chain drive wheels 71 are supplied with pressure fluid to rotate the drive wheels 71 in the intended directions J and K or in the same directions J and thereby urge the driving endless cutting chains 79 to move and rotate the shafts 77 and 78 with the driving chain sprockets 75 and 76 so that the shafts 77 and 78 when connected to the driven chain sprockets 81 and 85, 82 and 86 rotate the driven chain sprockets 81 and 85, 82 and 86 in the directions J and K or J and thereby urge the driven endless chains 84 and 87 in the directions J and K or J to forms the section of the hole.
  • [0130]
    The cutters 70A and 70B of the forming means 12, for example, when their cutting chains being moved in the direction K and inserted into the ground thereby urge the front portion of the frame means 15 with the frame section 90 in a direction shown by the arrow K in FIG. 7 toward the wall 58 of the forming means 11 and serve to facilitate the connection and joining of the forming means 12 and the forming means 11. When a formed hole section is filled up with the materials, the cutters 70A and 70B of the forming means 11, for example, when being inserted further into the ground up to the intended depth and distance in the hole section being formed and thereby urges the frame means 15 with the frame section 90 about the suitable, preferably upper portion of the frame means 15 in the direction J toward and against the formed facial wall of the structure being supported by the forming means 11 and serving to compress the facial wall by the portion 15D of the frame means 15 to form the structure.
  • [0131]
    FIGS. 15 to 19 show an end-and-face mill cutter embodiment 103 of the making means 16 in FIG. 1 for using in the firm or frozen or solid ground where it is needed to facilitate the withdrawing or taking the penetration debris out of the excavated section being formed, that comprises four barrels 104 to 107 supported by an end motive frame 108 for power rotation about a common preferably axis of co-axially grouped shafts 109 of the barrels 104 and 105 and the same co-axially grouped shafts (not shown) of the barrels 106 and 107. Each of the barrels 104 to 107 is provided with a number of blades 110 for displacement of debris material, where the blades 110 have a )-shaped cross-section (shown in FIG. 17) and arranged along crew spirals with the angle of spiral equal to about 75 to 85 at the cutting angle 30 to 36, for example, and fixed to the shell, and a plurality of known cutter bits arranged along the length of the edges of the blades 110 and on the outer ends of the barrels at the cutting angle 30 to 36, for example, to form the end-and-face cutter barrels 104 to 107. The frame 108 is slidingly mounted on a saddle 111 supported by a front end frame section 112 of the frame means 15 for reciprocate movement along the axes of the shafts 109 in transversal directions shown by the arrows L and M substantially crossing, preferably perpendicular to the direction B of advancement of the holes. A known hydraulic preferably drive means 113 is provided and connected to the shafts 109 for effecting the relative movement about the axes between the cutters 104 to 107 and the frame 108 and a second known drive means, such as a hydraulic piston and cylinder unit 114 is provided and pivotally connected to a bracket or the like formed on the inside of the frame section 112 and on the outside of the 111 and frame section 112 for effecting reciprocate and relative movement between the saddle 111 and the frame 112 to effect advancement of the hole.
  • [0132]
    An embodiment of the directing means 19 in FIG. 1 has a directing member 115 arranged and fixed to a rear, relative to the advancing direction A in FIG. 1, wall 112A of the frame section 112 capable of being forced into interaction with the embodiment of the supporting and guiding means 18 shown in FIGS. 1, that is formed with the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, and has a directing portion 116 for forcing the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated hole section toward the advancing direction shown by the arrow B in FIG. 1. The portion 116 is operable to move the forming means 12, for example, with the member 115, relative to the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58 being forced toward the direction B by the activating means of the apparatus 01 capable of forcing the portion 116 against the stiffeners 56 and 57 and the wall 58.
  • [0133]
    The frame section 112 has branched transmission or injection pipes 117 provided with far or lower end outlet openings 117A and withdrawing pipes 118 and 119 having far or lower end inlet openings 118A and 119A and known check valves 120 and 121 for preventing the reversal of the mixture of wash fluid and debris material.
  • [0134]
    In operation, the cutters 104 to 107 are driven by means of the drive means 113 to rotate and by the unit 114 to reciprocate in the directions N and O, while the frame means 15 is advanced in the direction shown by the arrow B by the activating means of the apparatus 01 to form a continuous hole in the ground 1. The unit 114 when is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urges the cutters 104 to 107 from the opening 118A toward the opening 119A so that the check valve 120 closes the opening 118A, the end face wall 104A of the cutter 104 decreases pressure of the mixture being behind the face wall 104A and the end face wall 107A of the cutter 107 increases pressure of the mixture being ahead of the face wall 107A and facilitate flow of the mixture in the direction N along the facial wall of the excavated hole section the opening 118A and toward and into the opening 119A pass by and through the check valve 121 in the pipe 119. The unit 114 when is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten that acts the same manner and urges the cutters 104 to 107 toward the opening 118A so that the face wall 104A increases pressure of the mixture being between the face 104A and the opening 118A and facilitates flow the mixture toward and into the opening 118A and pass by the check valve 120 in the pipe 118 and the face wall 107A decreases pressure of the mixture being behind the end face 107A and facilitates flow the mixture in the direction O from the opening (not shown) of the pipe 117 along the facial wall of the hole section toward the opening 119A, while the check valve 121 closes. So, the making end-and-face mill means 103 is able to work like a deep-well displacement or piston and cylinder pump and facilitate the withdrawing of the mixture.
  • [0135]
    The cutting blades 110 when are rotated in opposite directions, reciprocated in the directions N and O, and advanced in the direction B by the multiple activating means of the apparatus 01 that force the facial wall of the hole section being formed and thereby urge the forming means 12, for example, in the directions N and O. The blades 110 when rotated in intended directions by the drive means 113 that force the facial wall and displace the debris material in the direction N and thereby urge the front end of the forming means 12 in the opposite direction O about the upper end of the frame means 15 of the forming means 12 toward the supporting and guiding means 18 of the forming means 11, for example, so that mate to join the directing member 115 and the supporting and guiding wall 58 of the forming means 11 or urge the front end of the forming means 11 in the direction O about the upper end of its frame means 15 toward the working facial wall of the structure being formed that is supported by the rear wall 15D of the frame means 15 shown in FIG. 1, so that compress the facial wall to form the structure.
  • [0136]
    In FIGS. 20 and 21 there is shown a further end-and-face embodiment 103′ of the making means 16 that is similar partly to the embodiment 103 shown in FIGS. 15 and 16 and adapted for forming hole sections in the more firm ground and consists of an intended number, four preferably end-and-face mill cutters 122 to 125 arranged in twos into two rows on sides a frame 126 and fixed to shafts 127 supported rotatably by the frame 126 and driven by a known drive means 128 (components are not shown) and provided with known cutting bits (not shown) and spiral blades 129 partly similar to the blades 110 in FIG. 17. There is shown also the similar directing member 115.
  • [0137]
    In constructing an equal-curvilinear, preferably circular cylindrical and multihole, deep and narrow excavation used in the construction of a paling-shaped underground structure, such as a horizontal preferably stratum and vertical preferably wall by the use of the apparatus 01 constructed described above, first the slot trench 3 having a predetermined depth is dug in the ground 1 along the structure line, where the structure, such as a hemicircular cylindrical trough is to be formed by means of a trench excavator or the like. The apparatus 01 (shown in FIGS. 1 and 2) then placed with the chassis 2 in a working position at the excavation section line. Thereafter, the motive means of the bridge crane 13 when located with its wire 13C provided with the carrier 14 engaged forcedly with the making means 16 and then with the first and front spare unit 24B shown in FIG. 22A by a sign A supplied with the motive power, preferably pressure fluid, to pull the wire 13C and thereby urge alternately the making means 16 and the front unit 24B toward the slip 8 to assemble the front unit 24B with the making means 16 in working positions together by the lock means 17 and the suitable connections of the conduits 20, 21 and other on the slip 8 into the forming means 10 for construction a first excavation section and slide them directionally into and up to the trench bottom 3A, then assemble a second spare unit 24B shown by a sign B in FIG. 22B in a working position on the slide 8 in end-by-end relationship together with the first unit 24B by the lock means 17 and the connections of the conduits 20 and 21 and other so that the slip 8 supports and guides the assembled units 24B to insert the forming means 10 into the trench bottom (shown in FIGS. 22C and 22D) in the intended advancing direction shown by the arrow B and being controlled by the slip 8. Then a ground-moving device like a single-bucket excavator fills up the bosoms between the trench walls 3B and 3C and the unit 24B with the coarse sand or gravel preferably or the withdrawn and compacted ground so that further advancement of the forming means 10 and the hole section being formed can be effected by movement of its hole section walls-supporting means 23 (shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 to 6) as it is discovered above. For that purpose the hydraulic units 54 of the first unit 24B are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the all-supporting portions 52 and 53 of the stopped wall-supporting members 44 and 45 (shown in FIGS. 3 to 6) outwardly in opposite directions against and into compressive engagement with the walls 3B and 3C of the trench 3 to immobilize the members 44 and 45 relative to the walls and then the ram 49 of the first unit 24B when is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the frame means 15 with the frame section 32 relative to the members 44 and 45 about the axis O in the advancing direction at a speed, V1, and insert the making means 16 into the trench bottom 3A and the second unit 24B into the trench 3 with the frame means 15 (see FIG. 22E). Then the hydraulic units 54 of the second unit 24B when are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the portions 52 and 53 outwardly and immobilize the second unit 24B with the members 44 and 45 relative to the walls and then the ram 55 of the second unit 24B when is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the frame member 15 with the section 32 of the second unit 24B forward and insert the making means 16 into the ground with the frame means 15, and the ram 55 of the first unit 24B when is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the members 44 and 45 forward relative to the section 32, and then the winch 13B when located with its wire 13C engaged forcedly with the third unit 24B shown by a sign C in FIG. 22F is supplied with pressure fluid to pull into and thereby urge the third unit 24B toward and assemble with the second unit 24B on the slip 8. Further advancement of the forming means 10 is effected by repeating these operations (shown in FIGS. 22G to 22M). The conduits 20, 21 and the other of the next in turn units 24B are connected alternately by their connecting means, cables and pipes to the control cabin 6 and the sources of pressure fluid, wash liquid and air so that the making means 16 forms the section of the hole along the section line, the direction of the excavated section diverges from the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the excavation section about the axis O of curvature of the excavation section and is determined at first by the slip 8. The frame means 15 moves relative to and force the slip 8 at the frame means 15 in a direction opposite of the diverged direction to cause the frame means 15 to be forced in the diverged direction so to excavate the ground and advance the excavation section in the diverged direction. Then the equally-curved advancing direction being controlled by the walls of the excavated section being formed. The advancement of the forming means 10 up to the intended depth and distance is effected by operating the rams 49 to effect alternate longitudinal movement in the advancing direction between the sections 32 of the frame means 15 and each group of the members 44 and 45. When groups of the members 44 and 45 of the units 24B are inserted into the trench 3 to support the walls 3B and 3C with the filling (see FIGS. 2 and 22E), then further movement of the forming means 10 is carried out by coordinated movements of the groups of the members 44 and 45 (shown in FIGS. 22F to 22M). So, while the members 44 and 45 of the first unit 24B is stopped and supports the walls and urges the making means 16 with the frame means 15 deeply into the ground 1, the members 44 and 45 of the second unit 24B are moved forward relative to the frame member 15 and stopped (see FIG. 22 F) to support the walls of further excavated hole section and to urge the making means 16 with the frame means 15 deeply into the ground 1, and then the members 44 and 45 of the first unit 24B are moved forward relative to the frame means 15 and stopped (see FIG. 22G) to support the walls of the further section and to urge the making means 16 with the frame means 15 deeply into the ground 1, and the winch 13B assembles the unit 24B shown by the sign C when it is disassembled, for instance, from the forming means 10 moving out of the formed hole, etc. A magnitude of the speed V1 is determined accordingly to the intended inserting speed of the making means 16 and the disassembling rate and the lifting or withdrawing speed of the forming means 10 (later described). A number of the grouped members 44 and 45 those urge the forming means 10 and 12 within the excavation section that is determined accordingly to a force required for the movement of the forming means 10 and 12. For instance, if the hole walls are stable, the movement of the forming means 10 and 12 can be effected by two alternately and longitudinally displaced groups of the members 44 and 45.
  • [0138]
    When the hole is formed then the winch 13B with its wire 13C is engaged forcedly with the making means 16 and the first unit 24B of the next in turn guided forming means 12, for example, shown in FIG. 1 and is supplied with motive power to pull the wire 13C into and thereby urge alternately the next making means 16 and the next first unit 24B toward and on the slip 8 so that to be supported by the slip 8 in a next working position on the next excavation section line for longitudinal relative movement into the trench 3 and assembled together by the lock means 13 and the connections of the conduits 20, 21 and the other and then the directing means 19 of the forming means 12 is engaged forcedly with the guiding and supporting means 18 of the adjacent from behind previous forming means 11, for instance, located in the formed hole for longitudinal relative movement and inserted at the next working position into the trench 3, then the bosoms are filled up with the sand or gravel or the compacted withdrawn ground and then the forming means 12 inserts into the bottom 3A of the trench 3 to a next predetermined depth and distance in the next excavation section and in a next intended advancing direction to excavate the ground 1 and form the next section along the next section line, where the direction of advancement of the next section diverges from the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the next excavated section about the axis O of curvature of the next section and is determined by the guiding and supporting means 18 of the forming means 11. After that the portions 15A and 15B of the frame means 15 of the next forming means 12 are operated by the activating means of the walls-supporting means 23 to force the walls of the adjacent from behind hole formed previously and supporting the frame means 15 of the forming means 11 with the previous frame means 15 in a direction opposite of the next diverged direction to cause the making means 16 with the frame means 15 of the forming means 12 to be forced toward and in the next diverged advancing direction so to advance the next hole section in the next diverged direction close to the hole formed previously. For this purpose the hydraulic unit 65 of the directing member 63 (see FIG. 7) or the hydraulic unit 101 of the directing member 98 (see FIG. 11) when is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the corresponding directing member 63 or 98, or the crane 13 when is supplied with motive power to extend the wire 13C and thereby allow the directing member 115 (see FIGS. 15 and 20) into movable engaging connection with the guiding and supporting means 18 of the adjacent previous frame means 15 being supported by the walls of the previous formed hole, the rams 49 when are supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby push together the adjacent wall-supporting members 44 and 45 where the directing means 19 is located to cause the guiding and supporting means 18 to be continuous beside the directing means 19 and then the forming means 12 (see above) inserts into the trench 3 and the ground 1 by the method above described up to the predetermined depth and distance and stops, and then the corresponding unit 65 shown in FIG. 7 or the unit 101 shown in FIG. 11 when is supplied with the pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the corresponding directing member 63 or 98 backward into the inoperative position or the unit 114 when supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the milling barrels 103 to 106 (shown in FIGS. 15 and 20) to allow the previous directing forming means 10 be moved without an obstacle, such as the moved out member 63 or 98 out of the formed hole, and operating the activating means of the apparatus to move the forming means 10 out of the formed hole to empty the hole section and materials 22 of the structure to be let into the emptied section (later described) and repeat the operations to form alternately and closely further holes and structure sections up to the end of the excavation line.
  • [0139]
    The winch 13B, units 49 and 54, when are supplied with motive power to insert the wedge-shaped cutter 60 shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 or the endless chain cutters 70A and 70B shown in FIGS. 11 and 12 or the end-and-face mill cutters 103 and 103′ shown in FIGS. 15 to 21 of the forming means 12, for example, into the ground 1 in the advancing direction shown by the arrow B and the drive means 90, 113 and 128 when supplied with motive to move the corresponding endless cutting chains 79, 84 and 87 of the cutters 70A and 70B, the blades 110 of the cutters 103 and the blades 129 of the cutters 103′ in the direction shown by the arrow A in FIG. 1, the arrow H in FIG. 7, the arrow K in FIG. 11, the arrows N in FIGS. 15 and 20 and thereby urge the front end of the frame means 15 with its corresponding frame section 64 or 73 or 112 of the forming means 12 in a direction shown by an arrow P in FIG. 1 toward the supporting and guiding portion 15C and wall 58 of the frame means 15 of the forming means 11 to facilitate the connection the forming means 12 and the forming means 11 and controlling the advancement of the excavated hole section being formed and the forming means 11 firstly in the direction shown by the arrow P toward and against the facial wall of the structure being formed that is supported by the forming means 11 so that the rear portion 15D compress the facial wall to form the structure and secondly in the direction shown by the arrow A from the formed structure wall into intended positions in the formed hole.
  • [0140]
    The winch 13B, units 49 and 54, when are supplied with motive power to operate and thereby urge the forming means 10, for instance, with the frame means 15 out of the formed hole to above the ground level and in an intended emptying direction shown by the arrow D in FIG. 1 so that the forming means 10 forms a section of the emptied hole along the structure section line to let the materials of the structure into the emptied section, where the direction of the emptying diverges from the tangent of the emptied section and is determined. Then the winch 13B, units 49 and 54, when are supplied with motive power to operate and thereby move a means for directing the emptying, which is substantially similar in construction to the frame means 15 in the working position to force the walls of the hole section at the frame means 15 in a direction opposite of the diverged direction to cause the directing and motive frame means 15 to be forced in the diverged direction so to advance the emptied section in the diverged direction.
  • [0141]
    The backward movement of the forming means 10 and the hole section being formed can be effected by movement of its hole section walls-supporting means 23 (shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 to 6) as it is discovered above and by the wire 13C of the bridge crane 13. For that purpose the activating means of the bridge crane 13 that is supplied with motive power to move the carrier 14 engaged forcedly with an end unit 24 shown by a mark E in FIG. 23A in an emptying direction shown by the arrow D in FIGS. 1, 23B and 23G about the axis O in FIG. 2, while the units 54 of a suitable number of the units A to D are supplied with the pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the wall-supporting portions 52 and 53 of the stopped wall-supporting members 44 and 45 (shown in FIGS. 3 to 6) outwardly in opposite directions against and into compressive engagement with the side walls of the hole to immobilize the members 44 and 45 relative to the walls and the rams 49 are supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby urge the frame means 15 with the sections 32 in the same direction D relative to the stopped and expanded members 44 and 45. When the ram 49 of any one of the units A to D, the unit A, for instance, ends its working stroke then the units 54 of the unit A release the pressure fluid to shorten and thereby release the members 44 and 45 relative to the walls and then the ram 49 of the unit A when is supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby urge the members 44 and 45 relative to the section 32 in the direction D into an advanced position shown in FIG. 23B. Then the ram 55 of the next in turn unit D, for example, ends its working stroke and the units 54 when release the pressure fluid to shorten and thereby release the members 44 and 45 and the ram 55 when is supplied with the pressure fluid to move and thereby urge the members 44 and 45 in the direction D into a further advanced position shown in FIG. 23D and stops the members 44 and 45 to extend. When the unit E is above the ground level, the activating means of the bridge crane 13 and the rams 55 stop the frame means 15 to disassemble the unit E and connect the supplying cables and pipes to the unit D, and then the activating means of the bridge crane 13 that are supplied with motive power to move the carrier 14 and thereby urge the spare unit E away in a direction shown by the arrow E in FIGS. 1 and 23F and then to move the carrier 14 into engagement with the unit D and in the direction D. These operations are repeated with the units C, B and A and the bridge crane 13 to effect movement of the forming means 10, for example, out of the hole (shown in FIGS. 23E to 23G) and to allow the materials 22 of the structure to be let into the emptied hole.
  • [0142]
    The operating of the rams 55 to move the forming means 10 with the frame means 15 relative to the supporting members 44 and 45 in the emptying direction D is effecting at a speed, V2, where the speed must be equal to a speed of movement of the forming means 10 in the same direction with the carrier 14 by the bridge crane 13 to cause the forming means 10 to decrease the traction by and the overturning moment about the chassis 2. A magnitude of the emptying speed V2 is determined accordingly to the speed of letting and laying the materials 22 in the hole being emptied and the disassembling rate of the forming means 10. A number of the grouped members 44 and 45 those urge the forming means 10 to 12 within the hole section that is determined accordingly to a force required for the movement of the forming means 10 and 12. For instance, if the hole walls are stable, the continuous uniform or step-by-step backward movement of the forming means 10 to 12 can be effected by two and more alternately and longitudinally displaced groups of the members 44 and 45.
  • [0143]
    When the excavation section is formed then the winch 13B with its wire 13C arranged about the pulley 27 and engaged forcedly with the forming means 11 shown in FIG. 1 that is motionless in the formed hole section is supplied with motive power to pull into and thereby urge the chassis 2 forward along the excavation line with the pulley 27 and stop at the next hole section line.
  • [0144]
    The apparatus 01 is adapted to construct an equally curved multisectional, preferably narrow and paling-shaped underground structure, such as a circular cylindrical or wedge trough- or helical spin spiral-shaped or plane, horizontally extending drain or foundation or impervious stratum in an adit or gallery and horizontally and vertically extending wall in a trench being composed of a plurality of the same preferably adjacent and conjugated circular cylindrical or screw spin or plane holes being formed alternately of a predetermined depth of 15 to 100 meters and more, preferably 25 to 50 meters, and a thickness of 0.15 to 0.30 meter or more, preferably 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diverse grounds. The spare units 24 of the extensible motive frame means 15 can be of the length equal to about 2 to 25 meters, 3 to 5 meters being preferred; and using the suitable structure materials which can be let and laid in place of a hole section emptied by the forming means 10 to 12 being capable of moving in the ground by the method according to the present invention.
  • [0145]
    [0145]FIGS. 24A to 24E illustrate schematically some underground equally-curved, narrow and paling-shaped stratums and walls capable to be constructed accordingly to the invention: a circular cylindrical trough-shaped drain or impervious stratum 22A extending horizontally across, along and under a navigation channel 130 shown in FIG. 24A, a wedge trough- shaped drain or impervious stratum 22B extending across, along and under a natural navigation waterway 131 shown in FIG. 24B, box- and funnel-shaped impervious retaining barrier or diaphragm or walls 22C and 22D shown in FIGS. 24C and 24D both extending horizontally and vertically for surrounding a plume 132 of contamination at a contaminated material site; a helical-shaped stratum 22E consisting of a helical central section 133 and one or a plurality of co-axial helical spin sections 134.
  • [0146]
    In FIGS. 25 to 29 it is shown an embodiment 200 of an apparatus for constructing an underground multisectional, preferably paling-shaped, synclinal and about conical or hemispherical, and narrow structure 201 in a multihole excavation 202 being formed in the ground 203 that includes mainly ball-shaped rocks of a size equal up to about 0.5 meter and more, for instance.
  • [0147]
    The apparatus 200 comprises a travelling chassis 204 which being located and movable on a ground road 205 formed along the length of a circular structure line about the axis O of the structure 201 that is to be formed in a predetermined circular advancing direction shown by an arrow A in FIGS. 25 and 27. The chassis 204 has a frame 206, an engine 207 connected and supplying motive power to a means 208 for supplying a pressure fluid to a structure-forming means 209 (later described), an operator's cabin or cockpit 210 which is provided with a means for controlling the construction of the structure, front road wheels 211 which are provided with a coupling rod 211A for connecting the chassis 204 to a cargo tractor (not shown) for transportation of the apparatus 200 and back road wheels 212, where the wheels 211 and 212 rolling along and on the road 205 and being supported by wheels axles capable to be turned about a vertical preferably axis relative to the frame 206 into and fixed in an intended turned working position by known suitable stops (not shown), a known means for supplying materials to the forming means 209 (not shown), outrigger supports 213 for immobilising the stopped frame 206 relative to the road 205, a connecting framework 214 which is mounted on the chassis 204, adapted to connect the chassis 204 to the forming means 209 and comprises ┌-shaped pier columns 215 which are supported by the frame 206 and provided with corbels 215A of ┌┐-shaped cross-section connected between by a beam 216 and servicing for supporting a known bridge crane 217 which is provided with a bridge beam 217A being supported with rolls and rails by the corbels 215A for movement along the length of the corbels 215A by a drive means (not shown) comprising a means for supplying motive power that has screw shafts each of which is supported rotationally by the corbels 215A and threadedly engaged with a nut supported pivotally by the ends of the bridge beam 217A and a hoisting winch 217B being supported and guided by the bridge beam 217A for longitudinal displacement and working together with its wire 217C and a number of carrier members 218 being capable to be forced into engagement with angular dagger-shaped and structure sections-forming means 219 to 221(later described), a guide pulley 222 fixed rotatably on the frame 206 for supporting and guiding the wire 217C that is capable to be engaged forcedly with the forming means 220, for instance, located in a formed hole section, by aid of the carrier member 218 and servicing for advancement of the chassis 204; a slip 223 for assembling, disassembling, guiding and supporting the forming means 219 to 221 that comprises an intended number of exchangeable sets or pluralities of slip members 223A, where the slip members 223A of each of the sets of the slip 223 that are shaped into a shape of the central longitudinal surface of the forming means 219 to 221, arranged preferably in an intended meridian and circular advancing direction shown by an arrow B in FIGS. 25 and 26 about the center O between and fixed with their ends to the frame 206 and a beam 224 located between and supported by the columns 215 and having the ability to be displaced in vertical direction and fixed in intended horizontal preferably working positions by its ends and the aid of pins 225 and 226 arranged along the columns 215 by the aid of lugs and pins (not shown) arranged along the frame 206 and the beam 224 to form the slip 223. Preferably the connections are easily detachable so that the members 223A can be removed and replaced to cope with the forming means 219 to 221 of the different intended circular cylindrical shapes.
  • [0148]
    Each of the forming means 219 to 221 (there it is possible to use the forming means 219 and 221 only) comprises an elongate and extensible motive frame means 227 for guiding and supporting components of the respective forming means 219 to 221 that has a forward oriented, relative to an advancing direction shown by an arrow B in FIGS. 25 and 26 acute angle and triangular shape and the uniformly curved, circular cylindrical and about plane central longitudinal surface, a front and oriented downward and forward, relative to the advancing directions A and B, angle-shaping end portion for supporting and guiding a longitudinally extending hole sections-making and wedge-shaped cutter 228 having downward- and forward-oriented, angle- and wedge-shaping cutting portions disposed at the angle of sharpness that is equal to about 45-60, a rear angle-shaping and backward- and downward-oriented portion 229 for supporting the cutter 228 for movement in the direction A. The portion 229 has a groove shape, is adapted for directing the excavation of holes and able to force the frame 227 from its position toward the direction B and control the direction of the advancement of the holes.
  • [0149]
    The frame means 227 has a conduit or a pipe 230 for transmission and injection or pouring liquid structure materials, such as a mortar, that extends from the upper end into and along the length of the frame 227 and has a branched lower end 230A opening rearward at the lower end of the frame 227.
  • [0150]
    The frame 227 consists of a front triangular frame section 227A and a number or a plurality of conjugated trapezoidal spare frame sections, such as an urged frame section 227B and an urging frame section 227C (later described) that are capable to be joined securely together in consecutive order and end-to-end relationship and disjoined by a quick-acting lock means 231, such as lugs and pins located between the sections 227A to 227C. The section 227C and the following urged and urging motive frame sections which are similar to the sections 227B and 227C and comprise conduit sections for transmission motive power, the materials and electrical signals that are connected by a known suitable fitting and electrical connecting means (not shown) which are located between the section 227C and the rest sections together and to the respective associated pumping means 208, controlling means 210 and means for supplying the forming means 219 and 220 with the structure materials by the length of pipes and cables (not shown).
  • [0151]
    For effecting the insertion of the front sections 227A, 227B and 227C into the ground 203 the framework 214 is provided with a double-acting hydraulic cylinder and piston unit or ram 232 (shown in FIGS. 25 and 26) which has its cylinder pivotally secured as at the rear to a bracket or the like formed under the bridge beam 217A, that pivot connection permits the ram 232 to be swivelled to follow the sections 227A to 227C when that being inserted into the ground 203. The ram 232 has a hemispheric head 232A provided at the end of its piston rod and capable to engage forcedly with conjugated spherical thrust pads provided in the number of foot-steps 233 of a replaceable elongate rigid saddle 234 arranged and spaced accordingly to the length of the working stroke of the ram 232 along the saddle 234 having the lower central longitudinal surface shaped into the shape of the central longitudinal surface of the frame section 227C, for example, placed on the slip 223and provided with an upper claw portion 234A for geometric forcedly engaging with the upper edge of the section 227C by aid of connecting lugs and pins of the lock means 231. Preferably the connection 231 is easily detachable so that the saddle 234 can be removed and replaced to cope with any section 227 at different positions on the slip 223.
  • [0152]
    To avert the overturning of the chassis 204, there are provided a set of telescopic preferably brace rods 235 connected pivotally the bridge beam 217A through the carrier member 218 and the frame means 227 of the forming means 220, for example, located in the excavation and supported by the side walls 302A and 302B.
  • [0153]
    Each of the forming means 219 to 221 comprises a plurality or a set of side wall-supporting members 236 and 237 which are reciprocatingly movable in transversal directions shown by an arrow C in FIG. 28 and along the frame means 227 in directions shown by arrows D in FIG. 25, where each pair of the interacting members 236 and 237 is supported and guided by a box frame 238 supported and guided by the frame means 227 for longitudinal displacement, and to force or shift the members 236 and 237 with the box frame 238 relative to the frame means 227 there are provided a plurality or a set of double-acting hydraulic rams 239. The frame means 227 serves to space, support and guide the box frames 238 during their displacement. Each of the supporting members 236 and 237 that comprises a main frame portion 240 being supported and guided by the box frame 239 for displacement in transversal direction shown by an arrow C in FIG. 28 and a side wall-supporting portion 241. To force or shift the members 236 and 237 in the opposite directions C there are provided cylinder and piston units 242 which are located between and pivotably connected with known foot-steps (not shown) to the portions 241.
  • [0154]
    During the excavating or emptying operations, a pair of the members 236 and 237 or a group of the members 236 and 237 is advanced to support the walls 203A and 203B by supplying pressure fluid to the ram 239 associated therewith so that the latter moves. The other rams 239 are preferably blocked in known matter or moved so that the reminder of the members 236 and 237 remain stationary and are expanded and outwardly forced into compressive engagement with the walls 203A and 203B being supported by the respective members 236 and 237 and immobilising the members 236 and 237 relative to the walls 203A and 203B by supplying pressure fluid to the units 242 associated therewith so that the portions 241 move in the transversal directions C into compressive friction contact with and compressively engage the walls 203A and 203B and thus serve to anchor the box frame 238 which thereby effectively acts as an abutment for the ram 239 which is operated. This procedure would be repeated for the other members 236 and 237 and the rams 239 of the advanced and stopped members 236 and 237 can be operated in a reverse sense to draw up the frame means 227. During the latter phase when the frame means 227 is drawn up, a number of the members 236 and 237 collectively act as an effective abutment for the rams 239.
  • [0155]
    The section 227′ of the frame means 227, the members 236 and 237, the box frame 238, the ram 239 and the hydraulic units 242 are composed into an assembly unit 243 and a number or a plurality of the similar units 243 can be assembled alternately in consecutive end-to-end tandem order into the forming means 221 being inserted into the ground in the direction B and disassembled alternately from the forming means 219 being moved backward out of the formed hole in an emptying direction shown by an arrow E in FIG. 25 and simultaneously the structure materials can be let through the opening 230A in a direction shown by an arrow F in FIGS. 25 and 28. Then the winch 217B when located with its wire 217C engaged with forming means 220 located in the excavation 202 and supported by the walls of the excavation 202 is supplied with motive power to pull into the wire 217C and thereby urge the chassis frame 206 with the pulley 222 forward toward and relative to the forming means 220 so that the chassis 204 advances a step and complete the construction of that structure section. The operations of inserting the forming means 221 and withdrawing the forming means 219, for example, in this way is carried out as part of an overall sequence involving the advancement of the apparatus 200 and the structure 201.
  • [0156]
    In FIGS. 29A to 29D it is shown schematically one of the units 243 of the forming means 219 to 221 that has the frame section 221′ provided with the wedge-shaped supporting and guiding cutter portion 228′, the directing groove portion 229′, a central window of a trapezoidal shape formed by a front wall 244 relative to the direction B of advancement of the unit 243, a rear wall 246, a backward-oriented relative to the advancing direction A in FIG. 25 side wall 246 that is disposed parallel preferably to the groove portion 229′ and a forward-oriented side wall 247 that is disposed parallel preferably to the cutter portion 228′, the box frame 238 (the wall-supporting members 236 and 237 are shown in FIGS. 25 and 26 and not shown in FIGS. 29A to 29D) placed for longitudinal movement between the walls 244 to 247 effecting by the ram 239 which is pivotally secured via linkage to the box frame 238 and to the frame section 227′. The axis of the ram 239 is oriented in a direction shown by an arrow G crossing the cutter portion 228′ and the groove portion 229′ and passing behind, relative to the direction A, the vertex of the angle-shaped frame means 227.
  • [0157]
    In advancing the hole by the forming means 221 along the forming means 220 located motionless in the formed hole (shown in FIGS. 25 and 28) with its wall-supporting members 236 and 237 supported by the hole side walls or expanded and engaged compressively with in the formed hole walls, when the units 242 of the unit 243 (shown in FIG. 29A) are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the members 236 and 237 outwardly in opposite directions into compressive engagement with the side walls of the excavated hole section being formed so that the box frame 238 is immobilised relative to the walls, then the ram 239 is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the frame section 227′ forward toward the immobilised box frame 238 in the direction shown by the arrow G and crossing the wall 246, the directing groove section 229′ and the adjacent from behind supporting and guiding cutter 228 shown by a chain-dotted line at the position 228A of the forming means 220 (shown in FIGS. 25 and 28) so that the directing groove portion 229′ moves also in a direction shown by an arrow I and mate together with the supporting and guiding cutter 228 to join the forming means 221 and 220 together and the cutter 228 of the forming means 221 moves in the direction G and also in a direction shown by an arrow J to slit and split the ground 203 with an unwedging force which is more in many times than the forces created by the rams 239 and enough to move aside a buried rock of a diameter up to 50 centimeters that come across in the ground, for instance, and to advance the hole section being formed in the directions J or A and B up to the box frame 238 stops the frame section 227′ with the rear wall 245 at the position 245A. So, the wedge-shaped cutter 228 of the forming means 220 located in the formed hole section which side walls are supporting the forming means 220 that is able to guide and support the adjacent from the front groove portion 229 of the frame means 227 of the forming means 221 being inserted into the ground, where the groove portion 229 is able to force the frame means 227 relative to the walls of the formed hole section from its position toward the intended direction of advancement of an excavated hole section being formed and control the direction of the advancement of the next excavated hole section in the intended direction of advancement of the multihole excavation.
  • [0158]
    In constructing the structure 201 by the use of a baffle means for supporting the structure working facial wall 201A being formed, the baffle means is substantially similar in construction to the forming means 220, when the forming means 221 is located motionless in the formed hole (shown in FIGS. 25 and 28) with its wall-supporting members 236 and 237 supported by the hole side walls or expanded and engaged compressively with in the formed hole walls and the box frame 238 of the unit 243 of the forming means 220 that is shown schematically in FIG. 29B and located in the advanced position, for instance, and the units 242 are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the members 236 and 237 outwardly in opposite directions into compressive engagement with the side walls of the formed hole section so that the box frame 238 is immobilised relative to the walls and then the ram 239 is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the frame section 227′ forward toward the immobilised box frame 238 in the direction G and crossing the all 246 so that the baffle and directing groove section 229′ moves also in the direction I against the facial wall 201A being supported by the section 229′ and compacts the facial wall 201A to form the structure 201.
  • [0159]
    During the operation of emptying the formed hole section with the forming means 219 (shown in FIGS. 25 and 28), when the forming means 220 is located in the front formed hole section and the units 242 of the unit 243 of the forming means 219 that is shown schematically in FIG. 29C in a rear working position release pressure fluid to shorten and thereby release the members 236 and 237 (shown in FIG. 28) out of compressive engagement with the side walls of the formed hole section being emptied to release the box frame 238 for movement and the ram 239 is supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the members 236 and 237 with the box frame 238 relative to and toward the wall 245 of the frame section 227′ being supported motionless or urged by the other units 243 in the emptying direction shown by the arrow E in FIG. 25 and an arrow K in FIG. 29C crossing the wall 247 up to an advanced position 238A where the wall 245 stops the members 236 and 237 with the box frame 238. Further (see FIG. 29D), when the units 242 are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the stopped members 236 and 237 outwardly into compressive engagement with the side walls and then the ram 239 is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the directing cutter section b with the frame section 227′ in the direction K from the position 227′A toward, against and along the guiding and supporting groove 229 at the position 229A of the forming means 221 so that to facilitate the movable connection and engagement of the directing cutter section 228′ with the guiding and supporting groove 229 up to the box frame 238 stops the section 227′ with the wall 244 while the directing, supporting and compacting groove section 229′ retreats from the facial structure wall 201A and forms a gap or interior 202 between the wall 201A, the side walls of the formed hole and the groove section 229′ to let and lay the structure materials to form the structure 201. So, the groove portion 229 of the forming means 220 located in the front formed hole which side walls are supporting the forming means 220 that is able to guide and support the adjacent from behind edge-shaped cutter 228 of the forming means 219 being moved out of the rear formed hole section and force the frame means 227 of the forming means 219 relative to the walls of the front formed hole section from its position toward the intended direction E of the emptying of the rear formed hole section and control the same direction E of the advancement of the emptied gap in the intended directions A and E of advancement of the section of the multisectional structure 201.
  • [0160]
    In constructing an equally-curved and narrow multihole excavation 202 used in the construction of an underground multisectional and preferably synclinal, about conical or hemispherical or tore-, and paling-shaped structure 201 by the use of the apparatus 200 (shown in FIGS. 25 to 28) constructed described above, first a slot trench 248 having a predetermined depth and width is dug in the ground 203 along the structure line where the structure 201 is to be formed (shown in FIGS. 30A and 30B) by means of a trench excavator or the like and then the apparatus 200 is placed with the cargo tractor in a working position at a first excavation section line. Thereafter, the bridge crane 217 when located with its wire 217C engaged forcedly and alternately with two broadest preferably the units 243 is supplied with motive power to move itself and pull the wire 217C and thereby urge alternately the units 243 at working positions, where the supporting members 236 and 237 are in the inoperative narrowed positions, into the trench 248 to stop within the trench 248 to support the side walls 248A, bosoms between the units 243 and the walls 248A are filled up with a coarse sand or gravel preferably or the compacted or packed withdrawn ground 249 by a known means for moving and packing those materials, the units 242 of the stopped units 243 are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the members 236 and 237 to expand and be outwardly forced into compressive engagement with the walls 248A being supported by the members 236 and 237 so that the members 236 and 237 immobilize the units 243 relative to the walls 248A to form abutments. Then the bridge crane 217 when located with its wire 217C engaged forcedly with the front sections 227A to 227C, for example, of the forming means 219, where the section 227C is preferably similar in construction to the unit 243, that is supplied with motive power to displace the sections 227A to 227C into a working position on the slip 223 and the intended hole section line, displace a number of the rods 235 connected with their upper ends to the beam 217A into working positions to connect forcedly their lower ends to the units 243 servicing as the abutments. Then the unit 232 when located with its rod head 232A engaged with the respective foot-step 233 of the saddle 234 is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby move the cutter 228 in the working position into the filled trench 248 and in an intended advancing direction so that the cutter 228 forms the section of the hole along the section line, the direction B of the excavation diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the section about the axis O of curvature of the excavated hole and is determined, and move the frame sections 227A to 227C in the intended advancing direction B to cause the sections 227A to 227C to force the slip 223 at the sections 227A to 227C in a direction opposite of the diverged direction B to cause the sections 227A to 227C to be forced toward and in the diverged direction B so to guide and support the cutter 228 to advance and excavate the hole section within the filled trench 248 and its bottom 248B in the diverged direction B and to compact the walls of the hole section to keep the sections 227A to 227C on the intended section line. Then the bridge crane 217 is supplied with motive power to urge the next in turn frame section 227D, preferably similar in construction to the unit 243 toward the slip 223 into the first working position on the slip 223 and toward the section 227C located in and above the trench 248 to assemble forcedly the section 227D to the section 227C in end-by-end relationship by aid of the lock means 231 on the section line, then urge the saddle 234 toward and into engagement with the section 227D by aid of the lock means 231, and supply the ram 232 with pressure fluid to engage its rod head 232A with the suitable foot-step 233 of the saddle 234 and to extend and thereby urge the sections 227A to 227C with the section 227D supported by the slip 223 to force the ground at the sections 227A to 227C in a direction opposite of the diverged direction B to cause the sections 227A to 227D to be forced toward and in the diverged direction B so to further advance the hole section in the diverged direction B and to insert the unit 227D into the ground 249 and 203. Further advancement of the forming means 219 is effected by its interacting units 243 of the sections 227C and 227D and the next sections of the frame means 227 analogously to that is shown in FIGS. 22 and 23, while the controlling means 210 withdrawn the pressure fluid out of the units 242 to release the supporting members 236 and 237 of the abutment units 243 out of the compressive engagement with the side walls 248A and the bridge crane means 217 when located with its wire 217C engaged with the rods 235 and after that with the abutment units 243 is supplied with pressure fluid to pull the wire 217C into and thereby urge the rods 235 out of connection with the units 243 and after that urge the abutment units 243 out of the trench 248.
  • [0161]
    Dimensions of the wall-supporting portions 241 (see FIG. 28) are: the width—from about 50 centimeters for the frame section 227C up to about 200 centimeters for the last upper frame section and the length—about 200 to 500, preferably 400 centimeters, then the static friction forces of the portions 241 being moved apart against the walls can correspondingly reach more than about 20 tons and up to 500 tons and the sliding friction forces which impede the displacement of the members 236 and 237 and the section 227′ within the hole that can be equal correspondingly from 10 tons up to 40 tons. Therefore, the rams 239 must exert correspondingly a force equal to more than 10 to 40 tons for effecting relative advancement of the members 236 and 237 to the section 227′ and can exert a force equal more than about 20 to 500 tons to effect movement of the section 227′ relative to the members 236 and 237 and effect advancement of the hole section.
  • [0162]
    When the forming means 219 has formed the first hole section and is supported by the hole side walls, then the bridge crane 217 with its wire 217C engaged with the forming means 219 is supplied with motive power to move the wire 217C into and thereby urge the chassis 204 forward relative to the forming means 219 along the excavation line and stop at a next hole line, then the bridge crane 217 urges and assembles by the method above described the frame sections 227A to 227C, for example, of the next in turn forming means 220 on the slip 223 so that to be supported by the slip 223 in the first working position while the directing groove section 229′ of the frame section 227A is engaged forcedly with and supported by the guiding and supporting wedge-shaped cutter 228 of the adjacent from behind forming means 219 for longitudinal movement and inserted at the working position on the next hole line into the filled ground 249 and the bottom 248A of the trench 248 by the method above described up to a next predetermined depth and distance in the next hole section and in a next intended advancing direction B to excavate the ground and form a section of the next hole along the next hole line, where the direction B of the excavation diverges from the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the next excavated section about the axis O and is determined by the guiding and supporting cutter 228 being supported with the frame means 227 of the forming means 219 by the walls of the hole formed previously. After that the directing groove portion 230A of the next frame means 227 operates to force the guiding and supporting cutter 228 and the frame means 227 of the last forming means 219, for example, relative to the walls of the last formed hole section supporting the last frame means 227 in a direction opposite of the next diverged direction B to cause the frame means 227 of the next forming means 220 to be forced toward and in the next diverged advancing direction B so to advance the next excavation section in the next diverged direction B close to the formed previously hole section up to the predetermined depth and distance and stops to allow the last previous forming means 219 be moved out of the formed hole section; then operating the activating means of the apparatus 200 to move the forming means 219 out of the formed hole section to empty the section and materials of the structure to be let into the emptied section to advance the structure 201 being formed and form, support and compress the facial structure wall 201A by the rear groove portion 229 of the motive frame means 227 of the forming means 220 (shown in FIGS. 25 and 28) by the method described above; and repeat the operations to construct alternately further sections of the paling-shaped structure 201 in closely formed hole-shaped sections of a multihole narrow excavation and up to the end of the excavation line.
  • [0163]
    The apparatus 200 and the method according to the invention that are adapted to construct the underground paling-shaped structure 201 including a wall section 201A and a stratum section 201B shown in FIG. 31A, such as a drain or impervious retain, anchoring or foundation structure disposed into a synclinal, about a hemispherical bowl (see FIG. 31A) or a conical funnel-shaped impervious wall 201B shown in FIG. 31B, where both structures are extending horizontally and vertically for surrounding a plume 250 of contamination at a contaminated material site; a turning portion of a trough-shaped structure shown in FIG. 31C, for examples, that can be formed of a predetermined depth of 15 to 100 meters and more, 25 to 100 meters being preferable, and a thickness of 0.15 to 0.50 meter, 0.20 to 0.30 meter being preferable, in the grounds that may be cut through by the wedge-shaped cutter and include mainly rounded rocks of size up to 50 centimetres, for example. The triangular-shaped hole sections of the slit excavation being formed that can have the width equal up to about 1.5 to 5.0 meters, with 2.0 to 3.0 meters being preferred. The suitable structure material or any other kind of a backfill can be let or put in place of excavated slit trench section being emptied by the forming means 219 to 221 movable in the ground 203 by the method according to the present invention.
  • [0164]
    In FIGS. 32 to 55 there is shown an embodiment 300 of an apparatus for constructing an underground cylindrical trough-shaped structure 301 shown in FIG. 56 that consists an extending horizontally in a direction shown by an arrow A and vertically in a direction shown by an arrow B wall portion 301A and an extending horizontally in the directions A and B stratum portion 301B in a multihole excavation 302 (shown as a hole section 302′) being formed in the ground 303. The apparatus 300 comprises a travelling chassis 304 for supporting a means for forming the structure 301 and supplying materials and power to the structure forming means (later described), the chassis 304 being movable on a ground road 305 with road wheels 306 along the length of a structure line and stoppable at intended hole lines crossing the structure line, a hydraulic control and pressure fluid pumping means 307 being driven by an engine, a known means for supplying a drilling fluid or wash liquid and air pressure to the structure forming means, withdrawing a debris material after penetration of the working end facial wall of an excavated hole section 302′ being formed and supplying a structure material 301′ into formed hole sections 302′ (not shown), an operator cabin 308 provided with a means for remote controlling operations of the apparatus 300, a guiding and supporting framework 309 (later described) mounted on the chassis 304 and comprising a carrier member 310 for forcedly engaging underground-movable and cylindrically-shaped structure sections-forming means 311, 312 and 313 shown in FIGS. 32 and 33, where the forming means 311 is shown when it moves out of the formed hole section 302′ in a hole section-emptying direction shown by an arrow C in FIG. 32 and adapted to construct directionally a first or initial hole section 302′ of the excavation 302, the forming means 312 is shown when it being motionless in a next formed hole 302′ and the forming means 313 is shown when it inserts into the ground 303 and they are adapted to construct alternately adjacent closely sections (shown as 301′) of the structure 301.
  • [0165]
    Each of the forming means 311 to 313 comprises an elongate, articulated preferably like a flat link chain and displaceable longitudinally in the directions B and C motive means 314 for supporting components and transmission the materials and power to the components of the forming means 311 to 313. The motive means 314 is extensible by connecting shortened motive flat frame links 314′ each of which takes the form of a rectangular prismatic box-like structure (later described) in consecutive order, relative to the advancing direction B and in end-to-end relationship with a known quick-assembled hinge means 315 for movement about axes of the hinge means 315 preferably within the central longitudinal surfaces of the adjacent links 314′ and perpendicular to the direction B with the ability to interact with opposite walls 302′A and 302′B, such as the bottom and the roof of the excavated hole section 302′ being formed, occupied and then emptied to urge the frame links 314′ in a lateral direction crossing the central longitudinal surface of the excavated section 302′ toward the intended advancing direction B in the formation of the section 302′ by the forming means 313 and toward the intended returning direction C in the emptying of the hole section 302′ formed previously by the forming means 311 and to immobilise the stopped links 314′ of the forming means 312, for example, relative to the walls 302′A and 302′B supporting the links 314′ to form a supporting and guiding abutment means for supporting and guiding the forming means 313 when which inserts into the ground 303 and forms a next hole section 302′, for supporting and guiding the forming means 311 which empties the hole section 302′ formed previously, for forming and supporting the working facial wall 301A of the structure 301 to form the structure 301 and for supporting and guiding the chassis 304 for advancement.
  • [0166]
    Each of the links 314′ has side portions 314′A and 314′B (later described) for forcing the walls 302′A and 302′B in the crossing direction, where the portions 314′A and 314′B are operated by an activating means (later described) of the respective associated forming means 311 to 313 to move the links 314′ in about the axes of the hinges 315 in order to move the links 314′ along the length of the hole section 302′ and to immobilise the links 314′ relative to the walls 302′A and 302′B in order to immobilise the motive means 314, a forward oriented portion 314′C (later described) for supporting and guiding a next in turn front forming means, such as the forming means 313, that is operated by the activating means of the forming means 312 and 313, a rearward oriented portion 314′D (later described) for supporting and guiding a rear forming means, such as the forming means 311, that is operated by the activating means of the forming means 311 and 312, and for forming and supporting the structure facial wall 301A, that is operated by the activating means of the forming means 312.
  • [0167]
    A means 316A for making direction-controlly excavated hole sections 302′ to excavate the ground 303 and form the first or initial hole sections 302′ in the intended curvilinear advancing directions B alone the first or initial hole section lines ahead of the motive means 314 of the forming means 311, the directing and making means 316A performs both a ground-cutting function and and a hole-directing function and takes the form of later described wedge-shaped cutters which are shown in FIGS. 32, 33, 37 to 40 and 53 to 55 and end-and-face mill cutters which are shown in FIGS. 45, 46, 49A to 49C and 50 to 52C. The directing and making means 316A is able to force the front motive link 314′ from its position toward the intended advancing direction B and control the direction B of the advancement of the first or initial hole section 302′ and comprises excavation-directing and making members, such as the wedge-shaped cutter 316A shown in FIGS. 32 and 33, where each of the members is capable of being forced into interaction with the working end facial wall of the excavated section 302′ being formed to urge the forming means 311 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 302′ toward the intended advancing direction B and has a hole-directing and making portion for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction that has the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall and is operable to move the forming means 311, with the directing and making member, relative to the facial wall being forced toward the direction B by an activating means (later described) capable of forcing the portions against the wall.
  • [0168]
    The above-mentioned cutters have the ability to be replaced and substituted with the aid of the framework 309 accordingly to the mechanical characteristics of the ground 303 located along the length of the hole line.
  • [0169]
    Each of the links 314′ comprises a number of transmission conduits 317′, 318′ and 319′ (later described and not shown in FIGS. 32 and 33) extending from the upper end into and through each of the links 314′ for transmission the materials, power and signals and having a respective associated, aside and longitudinally oriented, inlet and outlet, quick-acting, connecting and coupling means 317′A, 318′A and 319′A which are armoured and flexible about the respective associated hinge 315. The connecting and coupling means 317′A is provided with known socket and check valves, where the inlet means 317′A is able to be temporarily connected by the length of pipes (not shown) to the means for supplying the drilling fluid and compressed air, to a known means for cleaning the drilling mud from the debris material and for supplying the structure material 301′. The connecting and coupling means 318′A is able to be temporarily connected by the length of pipes (not shown) to the pumping means 307. The connecting and coupling means 319′A is able to be connected by the length of electrical cables (not shown) to the remote controlling means at the cabin 308. The conduits 317′ of the front link 314′ of each of the forming means 311 to 313 that have branched preferably lower ends 317′B opening at the front link 314′ and at the mill making means 316A and 316B (later described).
  • [0170]
    The directing forming means 311 has a means 320 for measuring angles of relative diverging between the central longitudinal planes of the directing means 316A and the adjacent link 314′ (later described).
  • [0171]
    Each of the portions 314′C forms a means 321 (later described) for supporting and guiding the next in turn guided forming means 312, for instance, and is able to force the motive means 314 of the forming means 312 from its position toward the intended diverged advancing direction B′ in FIG. 33 and control the direction B of the advancement of the next hole section 302′.
  • [0172]
    The portions 314′D of several of the links 314′, preferably the front link 314′ of each of the guided forming means 312 and 313 that comprise a longitudinally in the direction B displaceable means 322 for directing next excavated hole sections 302′ being formed (later described) that is able to force the links 314′ of the forming means 313, for example, being inserted into the ground 303 from its position toward the intended diverged advancing direction B′ and control the direction B of the advancement of the next hole section 302′ along the length of the next hole section line close and relative to the adjacent formed hole section 302′.
  • [0173]
    Each of the forming means 312 and 313 comprises a means 316B for making guidedly excavated hole sections 302′ to excavate the ground 303 and form further adjacent and copied hole sections 302′ ahead of the motive means 314 of the forming means 312 and 313, the directed or guided making means 316B performs both the cutting and a being guided function and takes the form of later described wedge-shaped cutter which is shown in FIGS. 32, 33, 41 to 44 and end-and-face mill cutters which are shown in FIGS. 45 to 48, 50 and 51.
  • [0174]
    The motive means 314 of the forming means 312, for instance, that is able to be supported by the walls 302′A and 302′B of the formed hole 302′ and perform when it is the supporting and guiding abutment means three functions of forcing the motive means 314 of the forming means 313 from its position toward the intended advancing direction B and control the direction B of the advancement of the front hole section 302′, forcing the forming means 311 from its position toward the intended returning direction C and control the direction C of the emptying of the rear hole 302′ formed previously, forming and supporting the facial wall 301A of the structure 301.
  • [0175]
    Each of the links 314′ of the forming means 312 that is capable of being forced into interaction with the walls 302′A and 302′B of the formed hole 302′ that are supporting the link 314′ with its portions 314′A and 314′B to urge, firstly, with its portion 314′C the motive means 314 of the forming means 313 which inserts into the ground 303 and forms the front hole section 302′ in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section of the front hole 302′ being formed toward the direction B′, where the portion 314′C and the portions 314′D of the forming means 313 that are operable to move the forming means 311, with its links 314′, relative to the links 314′ of the forming means 312 toward the direction B′ by the activating means capable of forcing the portions 314′D against the portions 314′C and via the portions 314′A and 314′B against the formed walls 302′A and 302′B; secondly, with its portion 314′D the motive means 314 of the forming means 311 being moved in the direction C out of the hole 302′ formed previously in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the emptied section 302′ toward the direction C for forcing the motive means 314 of the forming means 311 in the crossing direction, where the portions 314′D of the forming means 312 and the portions 314′A of the forming means 311 that are operable to move the forming means 311, with its links 314′, relative to the links 314′ of the forming means 312 toward the direction C by the activating means capable of forcing the portions 314′A against the portions 314′D and via the portions 314′A and 314′B against the formed walls 302′A and 302′B; thirdly, to form and support the structure facial wall 301A.
  • [0176]
    The framework 309 consists of reshaped preferably pier columns 324 and 325 supported by a frame 323 of the chassis 304, a supporting and guiding slip 326 for assembling and disassembling, supporting and guiding the forming means 311 to 313, a bridge crane 327 provided with a bridge beam 327A supported on rolls and rails by corbels 328 and 329 of ┌┐-shaped preferably cross-section of the columns 324 and 325 for movement in transversal direction shown by arrows D in FIG. 32 along the length of the corbels 328 and 329 that effecting by a drive means (not shown) comprising, for example, a means for providing motive power and having screw shafts each of which is supported rotationally by the corbels 328 and 329 and threadedly engaged with a nut supported rotationally by the end of the bridge beam 327A, a hoisting winch 327B supported by the bridge beam 327A for movement along the length of the beam 327A and serving with its wire 327C for assembling the links 314′ of the forming means 313, for example, being inserted into the ground 303, for disassembling the links 314′ of the forming means 311, for example, being withdrawn out of the formed excavation section, for displacement of the spare links 314′ forward in the direction A and for advancement of the chassis 304 from its position in the direction A into a next working position by the aid of the carrier member 310 which is forced into engagement by the lock means 315 with each of the links 314′, a guide pulley 330 supported rotationally by the frame 323 for the wire 327C when it is connected to a located above the level of the ground road 305 end portion of the upper link 314′ of the forming means 312, for example, being motionless in the formed hole section 302′ and supported by the walls 302′A and 302′B of the section 302′ and serving as the abutment for advancing the chassis 304, a number of outrigger supports 331 connected to the frame 323 between the ground road 305.
  • [0177]
    The winch 327B when engaged with its wire 327C with a next in turn upper link 314′ of the forming means 311 being withdrawn out of the formed section in the direction C in FIG. 32 is supplied with motive power to pull the wire 327C into and thereby urge upwardly the upper link 314′ which could be disassembled with the hinge means 315 and the connecting means 317A to 319A from the adjacent from below link 314′ and then be advanced in the direction A in FIG. 32 and assembled with the hinge means 315 and the connecting means 317A to 319A into the forming means 313 being inserted into the ground 303 in the direction B in FIGS. 32 and 33. Simultaneously the structure material 301′ can be let through the opening 317CA as it shown by an arrow E in FIG. 32 and then the wire 327C is connected to the upper unit 314′ of the forming means 312 by the carrier member 310 and the winch 327B when located with its wire 327C engaged with forming means 312 is supplied with motive power to pull into the wire 327C and thereby urge the frame 323 with the guide pulley 330 forward in the direction A relative to the forming means 312 so that the chassis 304 advances a step and complete the construction of that structure section. The operations of inserting the forming means 313 and withdrawing the forming means 311, for example, in this way are carried out as part of an overall sequence involving the advancement of the apparatus 300.
  • [0178]
    The directing means 322 has excavation-directing members (later described and not shown in FIGS. 32 and 33) each of which is capable of being forced into interaction with walls 302′A and 302′B of a hole 302′ formed previously with the aid of the guiding and supporting means 321 of the links 314′ of the directing forming means 311 or a directing forming means which is substantially similar to the forming means 312, for example, being in the formed hole 302′ and supported by its walls 302′A and 302′B to urge the guided forming means 313 being advanced in the crossing direction and has hole-directing portions (later described) for forcing guiding and supporting portions (later described) of the guiding and supporting means 321 of the directing and forming means 311 or 312 in the crossing direction. The guiding and supporting portions are operable to move the guided forming means 311 or 312, with the directing means 322, to the walls 302′A and 302′B being forced toward the advancing direction B by the activating means (later described) capable of forcing the directing portions against the supporting and guiding portions and the walls 302′A and 302′B of the formed hole 302′.
  • [0179]
    In FIGS. 34 to 36 there is shown an embodiment 332 of one of the same preferably, urging motive frame links 314′ of the forming means 311, for example. The link 314′ has a motive frame 333 for supporting and guiding components of the link 314′ that is provided with a number of known connecting members, such as conform forks, lugs and pins, of the hinge means 315, the transmission conduits 317′, 318′ and 319′ (not shown) extending in and along the length of the frame 333 and having the end flexible connecting means 317′A, 318′A and 319′A, the measuring means 320 which has a steel flexible beam 320A with its ends being fixed to the adjacent frames 333 and a set of known strain meters (not shown) which are connected together by wires into a known electrical bridge circuit and to the controlling means 308 by the length of a cable (not shown), an embodiment of the wall-supporting portions 314′B and 314′C in FIG. 33 that is adapted for guiding and supporting the frame 333 for longitudinal displacement in the advancing direction B and the emptying direction C in FIGS. 32 and 33 and immobilising relative to the walls 302′A and 302′B and comprises wall-supporting members 334 and 335 supported for displacement in their longitudinal directions shown by arrows F and G in FIG. 34 between transversal walls 336 and 337 and along the length of longitudinal walls 338 and 339 of the frame 333 and about the axes of the hinge means 315 and axes (not shown) of curvature of an excavated hole section 302′ and to force or shift the members 334 and 335 there is provided a double-acting hydraulic ram 340 which is pivotably connected with its ends and via a linkage or bracket to the frame 333 and a box frame 341 for supporting and guiding the members 334 and 335 for movement in the directions F and G and transversal directions shown by arrows H and I in FIG. 36. The walls 336 and 337 are provided with known electrical end switch means 342 which can signal about end positions of the box frame 341 and are connected to the remote controlling means 308 by the length of a cable (not shown).
  • [0180]
    Each of the members 334 and 335 has a main frame portion 343 which is supported and guided by the box frame 341 for relative movement and a respective associated side wall-supporting portion 344 and 345 reciprocatingly movable in the directions H and I. To outwardly force or move the members 334 and 335 in the directions H and I there are provided a plurality of interacting power hydraulic cylinder and piston units 346 which are located between the portions 344 and 345 and connected pivotally via known step-bearings to the respective associated portion 344 and 345 and hydraulically to the ram 340 by the lengths of pipes and a known suitable remote controlling means 347 provided with electromagnetic distribution valves. During the known excavating and emptying operations, the members 334 and 335 are stopped, then expanded and outwardly forced into compressive frictional engagement with the walls 302′A and 302′B being supported by the members 334 and 345 and thereby immobilised relative to the walls 302′A and 302′B and thus serve to anchor the frame box 341 which thereby effectively acts as an abutment for the ram 340 which is operated. After that the members 334 and 335 are narrowed, forced inwardly out of the compressive engagement with and released from the walls 302′A and 302′B, then advanced, deform the ground 303 and form the cylindrically-shaped walls 302′A and 302′B, and urge the links 314′ about the axes of the hinges 315. An intended number of the urging links 314′ can provide longitudinal movement of the forming means 311 to 313. The urged motive frame links 314′ being without the rams 340 and units 346.
  • [0181]
    The portions 344 and 345 have [-shaped cross-section and are provided with L-shaped edge stiffeners 344A and 345A. The guiding and supporting means 321 shown in FIG. 31 that is substantially similar in construction to an aisle formed and extending along the length and between by the stiffeners 344A and 345A and a front end, relative to the direction A, wall 348 of the frame 333.
  • [0182]
    In FIGS. 37, 38 and 40 there is shown a two-sided wedge-shaped cutter embodiment 349 of the directing and making means 316A for using in the hover or loose or sandy or clayey ground that includes rocks of diameter equal up to about 50 centimeter, for instance, that comprises a wedge-shaped cutter 350 which has forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction B, wedge-shaping cutting portions 351A and 351B disposed at the angle of sharpness that is equal to about 45-60 and the angle of cutting equal to about 45 to 75, 60 being preferred and which vertex is located at a rear end wall of the cutter 350 relative to the direction A and a motive tail frame link 352 supported by the link 314′ for movement about an axis 352A on the central longitudinal surfaces of the cutter 350 and the front link 314′ and preferably perpendicular to the advancing direction B in directions shown by arrows K and L in FIG. 39 through an arc of about 60, for instance, a set of co-axial drive means 353 (see FIGS. 38 and 39) which are located between the cutter 350 and the link 314′ within the section being excavated and comprise a means for providing motive power, such as a hydraulic power cylinder and two piston rods unit 354 which has two longitudinally displaceable in directions shown by arrows M in FIG. 38 opposite output piston rods 354A (the second rod 354A is not shown) that are disposed co-axially with the axis 352A and two interacting drive and turning screw-and-nut mechanisms each of which includes a cross-head 355 with longitudinally splined bearing portions leaning on correspondingly splined bearing portions of the support member 356 for axial longitudinal displacement and engaging screw-shaped portions 357 which interact with corresponding engaged screw nut-shaped portions 358 of the cutter 350. The unit 354 when located with its rods 354A engaged with the drive means 353 is supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby urge axially the screw portions 357 relatively to the screw nut portions 358 to move the nut portions 358 together with the cutter 350 about the axis 352A relatively to the link 314′.
  • [0183]
    The moved aside in the direction K or L cutter 350 is capable of being forced into interaction with the working end facial wall of the hole section being formed to urge the front link 314′ located remotely from the adjacent following hinge 315 about the following hinge 315 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 302′ from the diverged advancing direction B′ correspondingly aside and has the ability to control the direction B of the section 302′.
  • [0184]
    The portions 351A and 351B for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction that are operable to move the forming means 311, with the cutter 350, relative to the wall being forced toward the direction by the rams 340 capable of forcing the portions 351A and 351B against the wall and have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the wall of the excavated section 302′ being formed by the aid of the remotely controlling means 307. The force of deformation is controlled by the aid of the rams 340 and units 346 of the urging links 314′. The directions K and L and a rate of an angle of deflection of the cutter 350 that are depended on a length of a working stroke of the piston rods 354A and sizes of the screw and nut portions 357 and 358 and equal up to about 30 leftward and rightward, controlled by the controlling means 307 by the aid of measuring of a volume of pressure fluid with that the unit 354 which is like a selsyn is supplied for movement and are determined accordingly to the intended curvilinear direction B of advancement of the first or initial hole of the excavation 302. The unit 354 can be blocked in known manner and immobilise the cutter member 350 relative to the front link 314′ with the drive means 353.
  • [0185]
    In FIGS. 41 to 44 there are shown a wedge-shaped cutter embodiment 360 of the guided making means 316B that comprises a wedge-shaped cutter 361 supported securely by a motive tail frame link 362 which is connected to the following front link 314′ by the hinge 315, connecting means 318A and 319A and diverging angle-measuring means 320, and two the same preferably embodiments 363 of the directing means 321 (shown in FIG. 32). The cutter 361 has forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction B, wedge-shaping cutting portions 364A and 364B which are disposed at the angle of sharpness that is equal to about 45 to 60 and angle of cutting which is equal to about 45 to 75, 60 being preferred and which vertex is located at a rear, relative to the direction A in FIG. 32, end wall of the cutter 361. Each of the directing means 363 has a directing member 365 which is supported and guided by the frame link 362 for movement in axial directions shown by arrows N in FIG. 41 and has an excavation-directing portion 365A for forcing the walls 302′A and 302′B of the adjacent from behind formed hole section 302′ in the crossing directions and an activating and drive means, such as a hydraulic double-acting piston and cylinder unit 366 for effecting relative movement between the directing member 365 and the frame link 362 from an operative position for interacting with the guiding and supporting stiffeners 344A and 345A and the wall 348 into an inoperative position (not shown) in a pocket or recess 367 provided in the link 362 for accommodating the directing portion 365A in the inoperative position and filled up with an elastic material, such as a soft rubber which is compressed by the portion 365A that in its inoperative position can thus lie adjacent the inner face of the link 314′ within the recess 367. In FIGS. 43 and 44 there are shown the 0- and T-shaped directing portion 365A as it is viewed in directions shown by arrows O and P in FIG. 41 where it is shown also the conduit section 317′ and the opening 317′B.
  • [0186]
    Each of the members 365 is capable of being forced into interaction with the side walls 302′A and 302′B of the adjacent from behind formed hole section 302′ to urge the respective associated forming means 312 or 313 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended diverged advancing direction B′ and control the direction B of the excavated section 302′.
  • [0187]
    Each of the portions 365A is being engageable with the guiding and supporting stiffeners 344A and 345A and end wall 348 (represented by chain-dotted lines) of links 314′ of the adjacent from behind and respective associated directing forming means 311 or 312 and operable to move the forming means 312 or 313, with the member 365, relative to the walls 302′A and 302′B supporting the links 314′ and being forced by the links 314′ of the forming means 311 or 312 toward the advancing direction by the rams 340 capable of forcing the portions 365A against the walls 302′A and 302′B via the stiffeners 344A and 345A, end wall 348 and side portions 314′B and 314′C that are substantially similar in construction to the side wall-supporting portions 344 and 345 of the side wall-supporting members 334 and 335 in FIGS. 34 to 36. The portions 365A have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the side walls 302′A and 302′B of the adjacent formed hole 302′ by the aid of the rams 340 and units 346 of the urging links 314′ and the remote controlling means 307.
  • [0188]
    In FIGS. 45 to 49C there is shown an end-and-face mill cutter embodiment 368 of the directing making means 316A and the guided making means 316B that is partly and substantially similar in construction and using to the embodiment 103 of the making means 16 (above described and shown in FIGS. 15 and 16) but differs from the embodiment 103 with the hinge 315, a motive frame link 369 for supporting components of the mill cutter 368, a guiding, supporting and reciprocating T-shaped frame 370 for supporting the same preferably barrels for reversible power rotation, where each of the barrels is provided with a number of known double- or reversible-acting and outwardly oriented cutter bits (not shown) arranged on the face shells and the outer ends of the barrel to form reversible end-and-face mill barrels 371A, 371B, 371C, 371D and each group of two mill barrels 371A and 371B, and 371C and 371D is supported on the same preferably respective associated co-axial reversible shafts 372 and 373, a known activating, hydraulic preferably motor having an output shaft and being assembled and connected with a reversible drive means 374 remotely controlling by the controlling means 307 for effecting the relative movement with the shafts 372 and 373 between the mill barrels 371A to 371D and the frame 370.
  • [0189]
    Each of the mill barrels 371A to 371D of the directing mill cutter 368 that is capable of being forced into interaction with the facial wall of the hole section 302′ being formed to urge the front link 314′ located remotely from the adjacent following hinge 315 about the following hinge 315 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 302′ from the direction B′ correspondingly aside and has the ability to control the direction B of the excavated section b.
  • [0190]
    The cutter bits of the directing mill cutter 368 that are adapted for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction from the direction B′ and are operable to move the forming means 311, with the mill barrels 371A to 371D, relative to the facial wall being forced toward the direction B′ by the rams 340 and the activating and drive means 374 capable of forcing the bits against the facial wall and have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall of the excavated section 302′ being formed. The direction of deformation is controlled with the direction of rotation of the mill barrels 371A to 371D that is shown by arrows T and V in FIGS. 49A to 49C by the activating and drive means 374, the force of deformation is controlled by the rams 340 and units 346 of the urging links 314′ that are shown in FIGS. 34 to 36.
  • [0191]
    In excavating a hole section 302′, the directing mill cutter 368 operates similarly to the mill cutter 130 (above described) but moreover, when the rams 340 urges the cutter 368 with the motive means 314 in the advancing direction B (see FIGS. 49A to 49C) and the drive means 374 when engaged with the mill barrels 371A to 371D is supplied with motive power to rotate and thereby urge the all cutter bits in a tangential direction shown by an arrow T in FIG. 49A and crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated hole section 302′ from the direction B′, so that the mill barrels 371A to 371D force the facial wall of the hole section 302′ being formed in the direction T and urges the frame link 369 with the frame 370 in the opposite direction shown by an arrow U in FIG. 49A that crossing the longitudinal axis of the excavated hole section 302′ remotely from the hinge 315 and toward the direction B′, controls the force and direction of deformation of the facial hole wall and moves the directing forming means 311, with the mill barrels 371A to 371D, relative to the facial wall being forced in the direction U toward the direction B′.
  • [0192]
    When the drive means 374 is supplied with motive power to rotate and thereby urge the cutter bits in directions shown by arrows V in FIG. 49B so that the cutter 368 urges the frame link 369 with the frame 370 about the hinge 315 in the opposite direction shown by an arrow W in FIG. 48B toward an intended diverged advancing direction B″ and move the forming means 311, with the cutter 368, relative to the facial hole wall being forced in the direction W toward the direction B″.
  • [0193]
    When the drive means 374 is supplied with motive power to rotate and thereby urge the cutter bits of the mill barrels 371A and 371B, 371C and 371D in opposite directions shown by the arrows T and V in FIG. 49C to force the facial hole wall in the opposite directions T and V so that the cutter 368 urges the frame link 369 with the frame 370 in the opposite directions U and W and therefore the forming means 311 moves with the frame 370 in the direct direction B (the arrows B′, B″, U and W in FIGS. 49A to 49C are not respective exactly to the real directions of movement).
  • [0194]
    The guided embodiment of the mill cutter 368 comprises the same preferably hole-directing members 375 each of which is secured on the front and rear, relative to the advancing direction B, ends of the portion 314′D which is substantially similar to a rear, relative to the advancing direction shown by the arrow A in FIG. 32, end wall of the frame link 369 and has T-shaped cross-section and a backward oriented, relative to the direction A, 0-shaped directing portion 375A for forcing the side walls 302′A and 302′B of the adjacent from behind formed hole section 302′.
  • [0195]
    Each of the directing members 375 is capable of being forced into interaction with the walls 302A and 302B of the adjacent from behind formed hole section 302′ to urge the forming means 312 or 313 in a direction crossing the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the intended advancing direction B′ by the aid of movable engagement with the directing and supporting means 321 in FIG. 32 which is substantially similar to the stiffeners 344A and 345A and the end wall 348 of the adjacent from behind directing and forming means 311 or a next in turn directing and forming means which is substantially similar to the forming means 312 and represented by chain-dotted lines in FIGS. 45, 47 and 48.
  • [0196]
    Each of the directing portions 375A is being engageable with the guiding and supporting stiffeners 344A and 345A and end wall 348 (represented by chain-dotted lines) of the links 314′ of the adjacent from behind and respective associated directing forming means 311 or 312 and operable to move the forming means 312 or 313, with the member 365, relative to the walls 302′A and 302′B supporting the links 314′ and being forced by the links 314′ of the forming means 311 or 312 toward the advancing direction by the rams 340 capable of forcing the portions 365A against the walls 302′A and 302′B via the stiffeners 344A and 345A, end wall 348 and side portions 314′B and 314′C that are substantially similar in construction to the side wall-supporting portions 344 and 345 of the side wall-supporting members 334 and 335 in FIGS. 34 to 36. The portions 365A have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the side walls 302′A and 302′B of the adjacent formed hole 302′ by the aid of the rams 340 and units 346 of the urging links 314′ and the remote controlling means 307.
  • [0197]
    In FIGS. 50 to 52C there is shown a second end-and-face mill cutter embodiment 376 of the directing making means 316A and guided making means 316B that is partly and substantially similar to the above-described end-and-face mill cutter 16D (shown in FIGS. 20 and 21) but differs from the mill cutter 16D with the hinge 315, a motive frame link 377 for supporting components of the cutter 376, an activating and reversible drive means 378, the same preferably barrels each of which is provided directions T and V so that the cutter 376 urges the frame link 377 with the frame 381 in the opposite directions U and W and therefore the forming means 311 moves with the cutter 376 in the direct direction B.
  • [0198]
    The guided embodiment of the mill cutter 376 comprises the same preferably hole-directing members 375 which are described above and secured on the front and rear ends of the end wall of the frame link 377.
  • [0199]
    In FIGS. 53 to 55 there it is shown a second wedge-shaped cutter embodiment 383 of the directing making means 316A in FIG. 32 that is composed of two the same preferably longitudinally displaceable elongate, adjacent side-by-side and mirror symmetrical, one-sided wedge-shaped cutters 384 and 385 generally oriented along the longitudinal axis of the cutter 383 and excavated hole b being formed. Each of the cutters 384 and 385 has an aside and forward oriented wedge-shaping cutting portion 384A or 385A and a rear oriented holding portion 384B or 385B which are supported and guided by a front motive frame link 386 of the motive means 314 for longitudinal displacement in the directions shown by the arrows B and C in FIG. 32 along guiding and supporting portions 386A and 386B of the frame link 386 by the motive means 314 to penetrate the facial wall of the hole 302′. The portions 384A and 385A form the adjacent angles of sharpness 45 to 60 and the cutting angles which are equal to about 180. To force or shift the cutters 384 and 385 individually or together relative to the frame 386 there are provided hydraulic cylinder and plunger units 387 and 388 which are located in the portions 384B and 385B and pivotally secured at the rear to the frame 386. The frame 386 is supported by the front portion of the front link 314′ with the hinge 315 and contains the conduit section 317′, 318′ and 319′ (not shown) which are connected to the corresponding conduit sections of the link 314′ by the connecting means 317′A, 318′A and 319′A and the measuring means 320.
  • [0200]
    Each of the wedge-shaped cutters 384 and 385 is capable of being forced into with outwardly and radial oriented double-acting or reversible cutting portions or bits (not shown) arranged on the end faces and shells of each barrel to form end-and face mill barrels 379A, 379B, 379C, 379D each of which is supported with the same preferably shaft 380 by a frame 381 for power reversible rotation.
  • [0201]
    In excavating a hole section 302′, the directing cutter 376 operates similarly to the cutters 103 and 16D described above and works like a deep-well displacement or piston pump and also as the cutter 368. When the rams 340 urges the cutter 376 with the motive means 314 in the direction B (see FIG. 52A) and the drive means 378 when engaged with the mill barrels 379A to 379D is supplied with motive power to rotate and thereby urge the cutter bits in the tangential direction shown by the arrow T and crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated hole section 302′ from the direction B′ so that the cutter 376 forces the facial wall of the section being formed in he direction T and urges the frame link 377 with the frame 381 in the opposite direction shown by the arrow U and crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 302′ toward the direction B′, controls the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall and moves the directing forming means 311, with the cutter 376, to the facial wall being forced in the direction T toward the direction B′.
  • [0202]
    Similarly, when the drive means 378 is supplied with motive power to rotate and thereby urge the cutter bits in directions shown by arrows V in FIG. 52B so that the cutter 376 urges the frame link 377 with the frame 381 in the opposite direction shown by an arrow W in FIG. 52B toward an intended diverged advancing direction B″ and move the frame link 377, with the mill barrels 379A to 379D, relative to the facial wall being forced about the hinge 315 in the direction W toward the direction B″.
  • [0203]
    When the drive means 378 is supplied with motive power to rotate and thereby urge the cutter bits of the cutters 379A and 379B, 379C and 379D in opposite directions shown by the arrows T and V in FIG. 52C to force the facial wall in the opposite interaction with the facial wall of the hole section 302′ being formed to urge the frame link 386 located remotely from the adjacent following hinge 315 about the following hinge 315 in a direction shown by an arrow X in FIG. 55 and crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 302′ toward the diverged direction B′ and has the ability to control the direction B of the section 302′.
  • [0204]
    Each of the wedge-shaping cutting portions 384A and 385A is adapted for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction from the direction B′ and are operable to move the directing forming means 311, with the mill barrels 371A to 371D, relative to the facial wall being forced toward the direction B′ by the rams 340 and the activating and drive means 374 capable of forcing the bits against the facial wall and have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall of the excavated section 302′ being formed. The direction of deformation is controlled with the direction of rotation of the mill barrels 371A to 371D that is shown by arrows T and V in FIGS. 49A to 49C by the activating and drive means 374, the force of deformation is controlled by the rams 340 and units 346 of the urging links 314′ that are shown in FIGS. 34 to 36. During the direct excavating operation, the cutters 384 and 385 are located preferably at rear working positions close to the frame 386 and advanced to penetrate the facial wall with the frame 386. In a second way, the cutters 384 and 385 are located at front advanced working positions and the units 387 and 388 are extended and blocked in known manner.
  • [0205]
    During the turning excavating operation in the diverged direction B′ in FIG. 55, the unit 387 of the cutter 384 or the unit 388 of the cutter 385 when which is located in the rear working position and remotely from the direction B′ is supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the respective cutter 384 or 385 in the advancing direction B toward the facial wall relative to the frame 386 to penetrate and force the wall in a direction from the direction B′ at a point which is located remotely from the front hinge 315 than the other cutter 385 or 384 so that the advanced cutter 384 or 385 creates the yawing or turning moment about the front hinge 315 and urges the frame 386 to move about the front hinge 315 in a direction shown by an arrow X in FIG. 55 toward the direction B′. The reminder inoperated unit 387 or 388 is preferably shortened and blocked so that the reminder cutter 385 or 384 remains in the rear working position which is used for the direct excavating operation.
  • [0206]
    In second way, the unit 387 of the cutter 384 or the unit 388 of the cutter 385 when located in the advanced working position remotest from the frame 386 and nearest, relative to the other cutter 385 or 384, to the direction B′ releases pressure fluid to shorten and thereby allow the corresponding cutter 384 or 385 to be urged by the facial wall toward the frame 386 so that the other advanced cutter 385 or 384 penetrates and forces the facial wall in a direction from the direction B′ at a point more remote from the hinge 315 than the other cutter 385 or 384 and thereby creates the greater yawing or turning moment about the front hinge 315 and urges the frame 386 to move about the hinge 315 in the direction X toward the direction B′. The other unit 387 is preferably extended and blocked so that the reminder cutter 385 or 384 remains in the advanced working position being used for direct advancement.
  • [0207]
    In FIG. 56 there is shown schematically the cross-section of a section of the underground curved and narrow structure 301 consisting of wall portions 301A and a wide stratum portion 301B that is constructed under a ground water channel as one of some schemes of underground controllable curved paling-shaped structures which could be constructed in a multihole cylindrical narrow excavation like joined together a gallery between trenches formed of a predetermined depth and distance up to 100 meters and more and a thickness of 0.15-0.30 meter and more, preferably 0.20-0.25 meter in the ground 303 with using the described apparatus 300 and the method according to the present invention.
  • [0208]
    In constructing the underground multisectional stratum and wall 301 by the use of the apparatus 300 constructed described above, a trench 389 having a predetermined width and depth is dug in the ground 303 at a position where the underground multisectional structure 301 is to be formed by means of a known trencher (not shown). The forming means 311, for example, is then assembled of the respective to the mechanical characteristics of the ground 303 making means 316A and the urging links 314′ and placed by the aid of the crane 327 into the trench 389. Thereafter, correspondingly the unit 354 in FIGS. 37 to 40 is supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby displace the cutter 350 with the drive means 353 into the direct working position or the units 387 and 388 in FIGS. 53 to 55 that are supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby displace the cutters 384 and 385 into the same working positions or the activating and drive means 370 or 378 are supplied with motive power to rotate the mill barrels 371A to 371D of the cutter 368 in FIGS. 45 and 46 or the mill barrels 379A to 379D of the cutter 376 in FIGS. 50 and 51 in the directions T and V shown in FIGS. 49A to 49C and 52A to 52C, while the units 114 in FIGS. 45 and 50 are supplied with pressure fluid to reciprocate the mill barrels 371A to 371D with the frame 370 or the mill barrels 379A to 379D with the frame 381 and the units 346 in FIGS. 34 to 36 are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the members 334 and 335 outwardly into compressive engagement with the walls of the trench 389 and the units 326 are supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby urge the frames 333 in the direction G so that the above-mentioned embodiment 350 or 368 or 376 or 383 of the making means 316A forms a hole section 302′ in the straight advancing direction B in the ground 303 while the activating means of the crane 327 is supplied with motive power to move and thereby urge the spare and respective units 314′ to assemble to the motive means 314.
  • [0209]
    When the direction B′ of excavating the hole section 302′ is diverges from the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 302′ being formed (shown in FIG. 33), the unit 354 is supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby displace the cutter 350 with the drive means 353 into an intended diverged working position 350′ shown in FIG. 40 toward the diverged direction B′ or the units 387 and 388 that are supplied with pressure fluid to move and thereby advance the cutter 384, for instance, which is located remotely from the direction B′ into an advanced relative to the cutter 385 working position shown in FIGS. 53 and 55 or move the cutter 385 which is located closely to the direction B′ from its advanced working position which is adjacent to the advanced cutter 384 into a rear working position that is located behind the cutter 384 or the activating and drive means 374 or 378 are supplied with motive power to rotate the mill barrels 371A to 371D or 379A to 379D in the same directions T or V shown correspondingly in FIGS. 49A or 49B and 52A or 52B to force the facial wall of the excavated section 302′ being formed from the direction B′ and thereby urge the respective associated frame 370 or 381 with the mill cutter 368 or 376 about the hinge 315 toward the direction B′, so to advance the excavated hole section 302′ in the direction B′. The links 314′ interact with the walls 302′A and 302′B of the hole section 302′ being formed and be urged by the walls 302′A and 302′B to move about axes of the hinges 315 and in the direction B′ in the formation of the curvilinear excavated section 302′, while the portions 314′A and 314′B of the links 314′ that are substantially similar to the portions 344 of the members 335 and the portions 345 of the members 336 are operated by the rams 340 to move the links 314′ about the hinges 315, force and deform the walls 302′A and 302′B in a cylindrical shape in order to move the links 314′ along the length of the section 302′. So, the forming means 311 forms direction-controlly the hole section 302′ up to the intended depth and distance and stops to be supported by the walls 302′A and 302′B.
  • [0210]
    Then the crane 327 when is supplied with motive power that moves the wire 327C and thereby urges the suitable making means 316B, such as the cutter 360 or the cutters 368 or 376 or the cutters 383 and the front urging link 314′ and then the respective spare links 314′ to assemble the forming means 312 and forces the directing members 365 of the cutter 360 or the members 375 of the cutters 368 or 376 into movable engagement with the supporting and guiding portions shown by chain-dotted lines 344A, 345A and 348A of the links 314′ of the forming means 311 and places the forming means 312 into the trench 389. Thereafter, the corresponding activating and drive means 374 or 378 when are supplied with motive power rotate the mill barrels 371A to 371D or the mill barrels 379A to 379D in the directions T and V shown in FIGS. 49C and 52C, while the frames 333 are advanced in the direction B in FIGS. 32 and 33 by the above-described operating the units 326 and the rams 340 to move the members 334 and 335 to form a next hole section 302′ closely to the formed section 302′ which is occupied by the forming means 311. When the direction B′ of the excavation diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the hole section 302′ being formed, the corresponding directing member 365 or 375 forces the walls 302′A and 302′B of the formed section 302′ at the members 365 or 373 by the aid of the supporting and guiding portions 344A, 345A and 348A and the side wall-forcing portions 314′A and 314′B of the links 314′ of the forming means 311 in a direction opposite of the diverged direction B′ to cause the members 365 or 375 and the frame 362 of the cutter 360 or the frame 370 of the cutter 368 or the frame 378 of the cutter 376 to be forced toward and in the direction B′ to advance the excavated section 302′ in the direction B′. So, the forming means 312 forms the next hole section 302′ up to the intended depth and distance and stops to be supported by the walls 302′A and 302′B.
  • [0211]
    Then the units 366 of the cutter 360 or the ram 114 of the cutters 368 or 376 are supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the directing members 365 out of the engagement with the portions 344A, 345A and 348A into the pockets 367 or the cutters 368 or 376 from the forming means 311 to allow the forming means 311 to move in the returning direction C by the above-described operating the rams 340 and units 346 of the links 314′ that are supplied with pressure fluid to reciprocate and thereby urge the frames 333 and the members 334 and 335 toward above the ground level 305 and in the intended direction C of emptying the formed hole section 302′ so that the forming means 311 forms a gap in the formed section 302′ in the interior between the walls 302′A and 302′B and the portions 314′D of the links 314′. The crane 327 when located with its wire 327C and the carrier member 310 engaged with the upper link 314′ of the forming means 311 that appears above the ground level 395 is supplied with motive power to move the wire 327C to disassemble the upper link 314′ from the forming means 311 and move the disassembled spare link 314′ in the direction A to assemble again together with the forming means 313 being inserted into the ground 303, while the structure material 301′, such as a cement-clay mixture is let into the gap 302′ being formed through the opening 317′B of the conduit 317′ provided in the links 314′ of the forming means 312 as shown by the arrow E in to form a section of a clay-cement structure 301.
  • [0212]
    [0212]FIGS. 57 and 58 show an embodiment 400 of an apparatus for constructing an underground complicatedly curved and narrow horizontally and vertically extending structure, such as stratum and wall 401, which is consisted of adjacent well-shaped sections in a multihole excavation 402 being formed in the ground 403. The apparatus 400 comprises a chassis, such as a caterpillar tractor 404 for supporting components of the apparatus 400 and supplying power and materials to the components, where the tractor 404 being movable in an intended horizontal advancing direction shown by an arrow A in FIG. 57 along the length of a structure line and stoppable at working positions on heads of well section lines crossing the structure line and is provided with a known controlling and pressure fluid pumping means (not shown) being driven by an engine and a framework 405 which is adapted to connect the tractor 404 to a number or a set of a means 406 to 408, for instance, for forming the structure 401 and to dispose the forming means 406 to 408 and insert into the ground 403 in an intended advancing direction shown by an arrow B in FIG. 57 to form a hole section 402′ and withdraw out of the formed hole section 402′ in a direction shown by an arrow C in FIG. 57 to form a structure section 401′ and provided with a pile driver 409 comprising a rails beam 409A, a hoisting winch 409B, a winch wire 409C and a carrier member 409D for engaging forcedly each of the forming means 406 to 408, a remote controlling means at a tractor cabin 410 for controlling operations of the apparatus 400.
  • [0213]
    The forming means 406 is adapted for constructing direction-controlly the first or initial space- or spatial-curvilinear section 401′ of the structure 401 and the forming means 407and 408 are adapted for further constructing next space-curvilinear sections 401′ of the structure 401, where each of the next sections 401′ is constructed along a last section 401′ formed previously. Each of the forming means 406 to 408 comprises an elongate, flexible like a chain and longitudinally displaceable motive means 411 which is extensible by connecting in consecutive order and in end-to-end relationship spare extension and articulated short-linked motive links 411′ to the motive means 411, The forming means 406 comprises a means 412A for making direction-controlly the first excavated hole section 402′ and each of the forming means 407 and 408 comprises a means 412B for making guidedly further hole sections 402′ ahead of its respective motive means 411 and a means 413 for supporting and guiding the following guided forming means 407 and 408 (later described). Each of the forming means 407 and 408 has a means 414 for directing the excavation of the next excavated hole sections 402′ (later described).
  • [0214]
    The making means 412A is able to force the front link 411′ from its position toward the intended advancing direction B and control the direction B of the advancement of the hole 402′ and comprises hole-directing and making members (later described), where each of the members is capable of being forced into interaction with the working end facial wall of the hole section 402′ being formed to urge the forming means 406 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 402′ toward the direction B and has the ability to control the direction B of the excavated section 402′ and excavation-directing portions for forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction that have the ability to control the force and direction of deformation of the facial wall and operable to move the forming means 406, with the members, relative to the wall being forced toward the direction B by an activating means (later described) capable of forcing the portions against the wall.
  • [0215]
    The directing means 414 is able to force the making means 412B with the front link 411′ from their positions toward the direction B and control the direction B of the advancement of the next excavated hole section 402′ and has excavation-directing members (later described) each of which is capable of being forced into interaction with walls 402′A and 402′B of an adjacent from behind formed hole section 402′ via the guiding and supporting means 413 and the motive means 411 of the respective directing forming means which is substantially similar to the forming means 406 at first and then the forming means 407 being in the formed hole 402′ and supported by its walls 402′A and 402′B to urge a respective next in turn guided forming means, such as the forming means 408 in the crossing direction and has an excavation-directing portion for forcing a guiding and supporting portion of the guiding and supporting means 413 of the respective forming means 406 and then the forming means 407 in the crossing direction, where the supporting and guiding portion is operable to move the guided forming means 407 at first and then the forming means 408 with the guiding and supporting means 413 relative to the walls 402′A and 402′B supporting and being forced by the forming means 406 and then forming means 407 toward the advancing direction B by the activating means capable of forcing the portion against the walls 402′A and 402′B.
  • [0216]
    Each of the links 411′ comprises known conduits for transmission a drill or wash liquid and pressured air into an excavated hole section 402′ being formed, a debris material after penetration of the facial wall out of the section 402′, the material 401A of the structure 401 into the formed hole section 402′, power and controlling signals to an activating means of the forming means 406 to 408 that are extending from the upper end into and along the length of the motive links 411′ and having a known and like above described connecting inlet means which is located above the ground level, flexible and armoured transit quick-acting, connecting and coupling means, branched lower outlet ends opening at the activating means and the lower end of the forming means 406 to 408 for letting or jetting or pouring the drill or wash liquid, pressured air and the materials 401A into a hole section 402′ being formed and then emptied.
  • [0217]
    The shorten links 411′ are connected together separately or in groups with a preferable ball-and-socket hinge means 415 for movement about axes crossing the central longitudinal axes of the adjacent links 411′ and perpendicular to the directions B and C, so that each of the links 411′ is capable of being forced into interaction with the surrounded walls of the hole section 402′ being formed and then emptied to urge the forming means 406 to 408 with the links 411′ in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the section 402′ toward the direction B in the formation of the hole section 402′ and then toward the direction C in the formation of the structure section 401′.
  • [0218]
    Each of the links 411′ takes the form of a box-like structure and has opposite side portions 416A and 416B, 417A and 417B for supporting and forcing the surrounded walls 402′A, 402′B, 402′C, 402′D (shown in FIG. 63) of the hole section 402′ being formed and then emptied in the crossing direction in formation of the curved walls 402′A to 402′D and movement of the forming means 406 to 408, with the links 411′, about the axes of the hinges 415 relative to the walls 402′A to 402′D being forced toward the directions B or C in order to move the links 411′ along the length of the excavated hole section 402′ by an activating means (later described) of the apparatus 400 that is capable of forcing the portions 411′A to 411′D against the walls 402′A to 402′D.
  • [0219]
    In FIGS. 59 to 68 there are shown embodiments of components of the forming means 406 to 408 in FIGS. 57 and 58 that are provided with a drilling mill cutter embodiment, for example (later described) of the making means 412A and 412B.
  • [0220]
    In FIGS. 59 to 61 and 63 it is shown more clearly an embodiment 418 of an urging motive link set 411A in FIGS. 57 and 58 that consists of four motive links 411′A to 411′D which are connected together in consecutive order of two telescopic motive link group 418A and 418B for relative longitudinal displacement and have the quadrangular cross-section. The frontally disposed, relative to the direction B, link group 418A comprises a front motive link 411′A which has an outer telescopic sleeve portion 419 and a rear portion of a front hinge 415A of the coupling connection to the making means 412 and a rear motive link 411′B which has an inner telescopic bush pipe 420 and a front portion of a following hinge 415B of the connection to the rear link group 418B which comprises a forward oriented inner telescopic bush pipe portion 421 of a motive link 411′C which has from the front end a rear portion of the hinge 415B and a rearward oriented motive link 411′D which has from the front end an outer telescopic sleeve portion 422 and from the rear end a front portion of a following hinge 415C of the coupling connection to the next link 411′. To force or shift the links 411′A to 411′D in their longitudinal direction there are provided double-acting hydraulic cylinder and piston units or rams 423 and 424 which are pivotally connected via linkages or brackets to the front end of the sleeve portion 419 and to the rear end of the sleeve portion 422 where the rams 423 and 424 are pivotably connected together with the cylinder ends and to the inner portion of the hinge 415B.
  • [0221]
    The hole walls-supporting portions 416A, 416B, 417A and 417B shown in FIGS. 57 and 58 of the links 411′A and 411′D that are formed with a plurality of outward oriented hole wall-supporting portions 425A of the plurality of disposed on the sides of the sleeve portion 419 and preferably the same wall-supporting members 425 of the link 411′A and with a plurality of outward oriented hole wall-supporting portions 426A of the plurality of disposed on the sides of the sleeve portion 422 and preferably the same wall-supporting members 426 of the link 411′D, where the members 425 and 426 have the ability to be expanded and outwardly forced into more effective compressive engagement with the hole walls being supported by the members 425 and 426 to immobilise securely the members 425 and 426 and the sleeve portions 419 and 422 relative to the walls. The portions 425A and 426A are reciprocatingly movable in opposite outward directions shown by arrows D and inward directions shown by arrows E in FIGS. 59 to 61, capable of compressively engaging the walls 402′A to 402′D of the excavated hole section 402′ and operable to expand the supporting members 425 and 426 for immobilising securely the members 425 and 426 and the sleeve portions 419 and 422 relative to the walls 402′A to 402′D by an activating means, such as the same preferably and expansible by pressure fluid hydraulic power tubs or chambers of an elastic material, such as a rubber, or telescopically connected together hydraulic power cylinders units 427 of the link 411′A and the same preferably power hydraulic units 428 of the link 411′D that are capable of outwardly moving the portions 425A and 426A to engage compressively the walls 402′A to 402′D. The sleeve portions 419 and 422 are shaped to provide the same preferably pockets or recesses 429 and 430 for accommodating, supporting and guiding the respective members 425 and 426 for expansion and for accommodating the tubs 427 and 428 between the sleeve portions 419 and 422 and the members 425 and 426. It is possible to provide a group of rams 423 and 424 for each group of the members 425 and 426.
  • [0222]
    While the members 425 in FIG. 55 and the members 426 in FIG. 56 are in their operating positions, stationary and being expanded within the hole, the portions 425A and 426A are faced and pressing on the walls 402′A to 402′D relative to the sleeves 419 and 422 by the activating tubs 427 and 428 being supplied with pressure fluid to expand and thereby urge the members 425 and 426 to expand in order to be compressingly engaged with the walls 402′A to 402′D and subjected to above-mentioned backpressure by the walls 402′A to 402′D to impede securely displacement of the portions 425A and 426A relative to the walls 402′A to 402′D.
  • [0223]
    During the excavating operation, the making means 412A is advanced to penetrate the facial wall of the hole 402′ with supplying pressure fluid firstly to the tubs 428 associated with the members 426 so that the tubs 428 expand and thereby urge the members 426 to expand toward and against the walls 402′A to 402′D to compressively engage the walls 402′A to 402′D so that the link 411′D remains stationary and secondly to the rams 423 and 424 associated therewith so that the latter extend and thereby urge the links 411′B, 411′C and the making means 412 with the link 411′A in the advancing direction A toward the facial wall. The direction of advancement of the links 411′A and 411′B that is controlled by the making means 412A (later described), the direction of advancement of the links 411′B to 411′D that is controlled by the link 411′A. When the rams 423 and 424 have been extended so that the link groups 418A and 418B extend and the making means 412 advances a hole section 402′ then the rams 423 and 424 have been stopped and can be operated in a reverse sense to retract and draw up the links 411′B, 411′C with the link 411′D forward. During this latter phase when the links 411′B to 411′D are drawn up, firstly the tubs 428 are evacuated with releasing pressure fluid to narrow and thereby release the members 426 out of their compressive engagement with the walls 402′A to 402′D and the tubs 427 are supplied with pressure fluid to expand and thereby urge the members 425 to expand toward and against the walls 402′A to 402′D so that the members 425 and the link 411′A remain stationary and secondly the rams 423 and 424 are supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′D toward the link 411′A so that the link groups 418A and 418B shorten and are ready to advance the section 402′. The direction of advancement of the link 411′B that is controlled by the link 411′A, the direction of advancement of the links 411′C and 411′D that is controlled by the link 411′B. The movement of the links 411′B to 411′D relative to the link 411′A in the advancing direction b is effected by the rams 423 and 424 at a speed which must be equal to a speed of movement of the forming means 408, for example, with the motive means 411 in the same direction B by an activating means of the derrick 403 to decrease the pushing force by the derrick 403 and the overturning moment about the derrick 403. The operation of advancement the hole sections 402′ in this way is carried out as part of an overall sequence involving the advancement of the forming means 408 to 410.
  • [0224]
    The structure 418A and 418B is provided with a known means for remote measuring angles of the relative diverging with the hinge 415 between the making means 412A and the link 411′A, the links 411′A and 411′B, the links 411C and 411′D, that is similar to a known strain metering means which is located at the hinges 415A to 415C and a known photo-electrical means which is located on the rear end of the making means 412A, for instance, and with a known means for remote measuring distances between the links 411′A and 411′D, that is similar to a known length-measuring tape means extending between the hinges 415A and 415C and provided with guiding pulleys, rolling reels and strain metering spirals (not shown) being capable to signal about the relative positions of the links 411′A and 411′D and connected by the length of cables to the remote controlling means 410.
  • [0225]
    In operation, while the members 425 and 426 are in their operating positions, stationary and expanded within the hole section 402′, the portions 425A and 426A are faced and pressing on the walls 402′A to 402′D in order to be compressively engaged with the walls 402′A to 402′D and are subjected to backpressures by the walls 402′A to 402′D that is equal up to about the ground compression strength (see above). If dimensions of the same preferably portions 425A and 426A are: the width—50 centimeters and the length—50 centimeters, then the static friction forces between the walls 402′A to 402′D and the sleeves 419 and 422 each of which is provided with four oppositely disposed members 425 and 426 with the portions 425A and 426A being moved apart against the walls 402′A to 402′D that can correspondingly reach up to about 30 tons and more. While the members 425 and 426 are in their inoperative positions and out of the compressive engagement with the walls 402′A to 402′D or decreased in its volume by the active pressure of the walls 402′A to 402′D, which is equal up to about 0.5 kg/cm2, for instance, so the sliding adhesion and friction forces between the walls 402′A to 402′D and the surface of the links 411′A to 411′D that impede the displacement of the links 411′A to 411′C of the length being increased from 50 cm up to about 150 cm, for instance, within the hole 402′ that can reach up to about 8 tons. The friction force in a hole section 402′ having the stable walls 402′A to 402′D that is lesser than the own weight of the motive means 411 and the links 411′A to 411′D and equal to about 1 ton, for instance. Therefore, the rams 423 and 424 can extend and thereby urge the links 411′A to 411′C and the making means 412A forward relative to the link 411′D with a force equal up to correspondingly 25 tons to advance the section b and can shorten and thereby urge the links 411′B to 411′D and next links 411′ forward relative to the link 411′A with the force equal up to 25 tons to advance the motive means 411 with the link 411′D (as that is later described). So, an intended plurality of the urging link sets 411A and their locations along the length of the motive means 411 are corresponding to the mechanical characteristics of the ground 403, the length of a plurality of the links 411′ inserted into the hole section 402′ being formed and an intended embodiment of the making means 412A. For adjacent in tandem order two link sets 411A there is a constant length between the hinge 415A of the front set 411A and the hinge 415C of the second set 411A and the constant lengths of sections of the conduits which are extending within the links 411′A to 411′D.
  • [0226]
    In FIGS. 59 and 61 there it is shown a directing and drilling embodiment 431 of the making means 412A in FIG. 57 that comprises a frame 432 for supporting components of the drilling cutter 431, the intended number, two preferably of central main end mill cutters 433 and 434 which are located co-axially and ahead of the frame 432 for rotation about the central longitudinal axis of the cutter 431 that is extended along the axis of the hole section 402′ in opposite directions shown by arrows F and G in FIG. 68A and an intended number, four the same preferably end mill cutters 435 which are located behind the cutters 433 and 434 and ahead of the frame 432 and supported by the frame 432 for rotation in the controlling intended directions F and G (later described) about the axes parallel preferably to the central axis. Each of the cutters 433 to 435 has forward oriented cutter bits or portions (not shown) which are arranged on the face of the cutters 433 to 435 and each of the cutters 435 has the cutter bits which being capable of acting in the directions F and G. The frame 432 is supported by the front portion of the link 411′A with the hinge 415A and contains sections of the conduits, where a front end wash liquid-injection conduit section is substantially similar to a hollow shaft 436 of the cutter 434 and has a lower outlet opening at the lower end of the shaft 436 and lower b ends 437 of the withdrawing conduit section are located around the cutter 434 and between the cutters 435. The drill cutter 431 comprises a known drive means which is located in the frame 432, servicing for providing motive power to the cutters 434 and 435, and has preferably a remotely controllable set of a hydraulic motor and a gear (not shown).
  • [0227]
    Each of the cutters 435 is capable of being forced when rotated into interaction with the facial wall of the hole section 402′ being formed in the directions F and G to urge the links 411′ with the frame 432 in directions shown by arrows H in FIG. 68A, I in FIG. 68B, J in FIG. 68C, K in FIG. 68D, B in FIG. 68E and crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 402′ toward the intended advancing direction B or in the opposite directions shown in FIG. 68E to move straight in the direction B so that to control the direction 8 of the section 402′. The cutter bits are capable of forcing the facial wall in the crossing direction and controlling the force and direction of deformation of the wall and operable to move the forming means 409, with the cutters 435, to the wall being forced in the directions H to K toward the advancing direction B by the activating means of the apparatus 400 that are capable of forcing the bits of the cutters 435 against the wall in the intended directions F or G to control the direction B of the advancement of the section 402′ and to force the motive link 411′A with the frame 432 toward the direction B. It is possible to provide further combinations of the rotation directions of the cutters 435 for forcing the frame 432 in intermediate directions between the directions H to K.
  • [0228]
    In FIGS. 64 to 66 there is shown an embodiment 437 of the urged motive link 411′E shown in FIGS. 57 and 58 and provided with the hole wall-forming and supporting portion 437A, portions 437B and 437C of the hinges 415, and an embodiment of the guiding and supporting means 413 shown in FIG. 57 that is substantially similar to a groove portion 437D longitudinally extending through the portions 437A to 437C and having a geometrically closed shape like a swallow-tail for engagement of the link 411′E of the guiding and supporting forming means 407, for example, with the directing means 420 shown in FIG. 57 (later described) of the guided and supported forming means 408 for relative longitudinal movement. The intended, preferably front link 411′E has an end outlet groove portion 437E of a geometrically open shape shown in FIG. 67 and being capable to allow releasing the guiding forming means which is similar to the forming means 406 with the guiding means 413 out of the engagement with the directing means 420 for movement in the returning direction C out of the formed hole 402′.
  • [0229]
    In FIGS. 59 and 62 it is shown a guided drilling cutter embodiment 438 which is similar to the cutter 431 and has the cutters 433 to 435 and a frame 439 for supporting and guiding components of the cutter 438 and an embodiment 440 of the directing means 414 shown in FIG. 57 that comprises a directing member 441 being displaceable longitudinally with the frame 439 in the advancing direction B and relative to the frame 439 in an axial direction shown by an arrow L in FIG. 67 from an operative position represented by full lines into an inoperative position represented by chain-dotted lines and a drive means, such as a hydraulic cylinder and piston unit 442 formed in a rear holding portion 441A of the member 441 conjugated for the sliding swallow-tail engaging connection with the guiding and supporting groove portions 437D and 437E of the adjacent links 411′E of the directing and forming means which is substantially similar to the forming means 406 and 407. The directing member 441 is able in its operative position to force the frame 439 from its position toward the direction B and control the direction B of the advancement of a next excavated hole section 402′ and is capable of being forced by the unit 442 and an activating means of the framework 406 into sliding engagement with the groove 437D of the located above the ground level link 411′E of the forming means 407 being in the hole section 402′ formed previously and into interaction with the respective side walls 402′A to 402′D of the section 402′ via the links 411′E supported by the respective walls 402′A to 402′D to urge the forming means 408, for instance, with the making means 412B being inserted into the ground 403 in a direction crossing the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section toward the direction B. The member 441 is capable of forcing the walls 402′A to 402′D through the links 411′E in the crossing direction and operable to move the links 411′ of the forming means 408 with the frame 439 and the member 441 relative to the walls 402′A to 402′D being forced toward the direction B by the activating means of the apparatus 400 that capable of forcing the member 441 through the links 411′E of the forming means 407 against the walls 402′A to 402′D. The portion 437E of the suitable, preferably front link 411′E allows the member 441 to be displaced out of the engagement from the operative position into the inoperative position.
  • [0230]
    In FIG. 64 there is shown the cross-section I-I of an embodiment 443 of the urging link groups 418A and 418B in FIGS. 59 and 60 that is adapted for assembling the urging motive set 411A between the urged links 411′E, where each of the links 411′A and 411′D is provided with a sleeve frame 444 having a groove portion 444A and each of the links 411′B and 411′C has a bush pipe section 445 having a groove portion 445A.
  • [0231]
    In operation, the guiding and supporting grooves 437D and 437E in FIGS. 65 to 67 of the links 411′E in FIGS. 57 and the groove 444A in FIG. 64 of the set 411A in FIGS. 57 and 58 that being filled up with wash liquid, and the directing member 441 of the drill cutter 438 being inserted into the ground 403 inserts into the respective grooves 437D and 444A and forces the frame 440 from its position toward the intended advancing direction B and controls the direction B of the advancement of the next hole section 402′ close to the adjacent from behind hole 402′ formed previously.
  • [0232]
    In FIGS. 69 and 70 there it is shown a preferred wedge-shaped embodiment 446 of the directing and making means 412A in FIG. 57 that is composed of a plurality or a set of four preferably the same elongate, loose and longitudinally displaceable hole sections-making and concave wedge-shaped cutter members 447 generally oriented along the longitudinal axis of the cutter 446 and an excavated hole section 402′. Each of the cutter members 447 has a forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction B, concave wedge-shaping cutting portion 447A and a backward oriented holding portion 447B which is supported and guided by a frame 448 for longitudinal displacement in the direction B with the motive means 411 to penetrate the facial wall of the hole section 402′ being formed. The portions 447A have a substantially (-shaped broad profile and the holding portions 447B have a prismatic shape and a square profile. To force or shift the cutter members 447 individually or in groups in the directions B and C relative to the frame 448 there are provided the same preferably double-acting hydraulic cylinder and piston units 449 which are formed in the portions 447B and pivotally secured at the rear to the frame 448. This frame 448 has a pocket 448A for spacing, directing and supporting the cutter members 447 for longitudinal relative displacement by the units 449 when perform both cutting and directing functions. The same preferably scrapers 450 conjugated with the portions 447A that are supported by the portions 447A and the frame 448 with a known torsional hinge 451 for displacement ahead of and about the front edge of the frame 448 between the cutter members 447 and the frame 448 and form an additional and forward-oriented wedge-shaping cutting portion of the cutter 446 to facilitate penetration the facial wall. The frame 448 is supported by the front portion of the link 411′A with the hinge 415A and contains sections of the supplying conduits connected to the corresponding conduit sections of the link 411′A by the known flexible connecting and coupling means and an embodiment of the guiding and supporting means 413 in FIG. 57 that is substantially similar to shelf rail-shaped guiding and supporting portions 448B and 448C.
  • [0233]
    In FIGS. 71 and 72 there are shown views from the front of shaped and acting similarly to the cutter 446 pyramid-forming embodiment 452 of a plurality or a set of the same preferably wedge-shaped cutters 453 each having the triangular cross-section and oriented aside triangular cutting portion and the plurality or the set of the same preferably trapezoidal-shaped scrapers 454 (see FIG. 71) and a cone-forming embodiment 455 of a plurality or a set of the same preferably cutters 456 each having a sector-shaped cross-section and oriented aside conical cutting portion and the plurality or the set of conjugated and the same preferably about trapezoidal-shaped scrapers 457.
  • [0234]
    During the direct excavating operation all the cutters 447 are located preferably at rear working positions within the pocket 447A and being advanced to penetrate the face by the frame 448 through the units 449 shortened and blocked in known manner. In a second way, all the cutters 447 are located at front working positions and the units 449 are extended and blocked.
  • [0235]
    During the turning excavation, the single cutter 447 in FIG. 73A or a group of two cutters 447 in FIG. 73B, for example, that located relative remotely from a determined advancing direction, which diverges from the tangent of the central longitudinal axis of the excavated section 402′, is or are advanced relative to the frame 448 to penetrate and force the facial wall in a direction from the diverged direction in a point located remotely from the hinge 415A than other cutters 447 and thereby to create the yawing or turning moment about the hinge 415A and urge the frame 448 to move about the hinge 415A in a direction shown by an arrow N in FIG. 73 and an arrow 0 in FIG. 73B with supplying pressure fluid to the corresponding unit 449 or the group of two units 449 associated therewith so that the latter extends or extend. The other units 448 are preferably shortened and blocked so that the reminder of the cutters 447 remain stationary relative to the frame 448 at the rear working positions using for direct advancement.
  • [0236]
    In the second way, the single cutter 447 or the group of two cutters 447 that located nearly to the determined diverged advancing direction that is or are moved backward relative to the frame 448 by supplying pressure fluid to the corresponding unit 449 or the group of two units 449 associated therewith so that the latter shortens or shorten to penetrate and force the facial wall in the direction from the diverged direction in a point located nearly from the hinge 415A and thereby to create the yawing or turning moment about the hinge 415A and urge the frame 448 to move about the hinge 415A by the reminder of the cutters 447 remain stationary relative to the frame 448 at the advanced working positions using for direct advancement.
  • [0237]
    Each of the cutters 447 is able to be reciprocated and advanced alternately ahead of and relative to the frame 448 by the unit 449 and stopped temporarily ahead of the frame 448 which being advanced by the activating means of the apparatus 400. Each of the units 449 performs its pushing forward working stroke and then its backward stroke under pressure from behind by the frame 448 being advanced and pressure from the front by the cutter 447 being stopped by the ground 403. The frame 448 is able to urge forward simultaneously an intended number of the cutters 447 accordingly to the compactness of the ground 403, so that the very compacted ground 403 can be cut through with the cutters 447 which are capable to be advanced alternately.
  • [0238]
    In FIGS. 74 and 75 there is shown a solid wedges-shaped cutter embodiment 458 of the making means 412A, that comprises a crossing wedges-shaped cutter 459 having two preferably forward oriented and crossing wedges-shaping cutting portions 459A, a 466A and 466B. An inner bush pipe 467 of the link 411B and an inner bush pipe 468 of the link 411C each has a rectangular cross-section.
  • [0239]
    In FIG. 78 it is shown the cross-section I-I in FIG. 76 of the links 411′C and 411′D, for example, which are adapted for constructing a cylindrically shaped underground structure 401 and in FIG. 79 it is shown a cross-section of an embodiment 469 of the urging motive link group 418A and 418B in FIGS. 59 and 60 that is adapted for constructing a 30 angle corner-shaping, for example, curvilinear hole section 402′ in constructing a curved underground structure 401 having a complicated conformation.
  • [0240]
    In FIGS. 80 and 81 there are shown side and partly axial sectional views of a rectangular pipe-shaped embodiment 470 of the urged motive link 411′E in FIG. 57 that is provided with longitudinally extending guiding and supporting shelf rail-shaped portions 470A and 470B and hinge-forming end portions 470C and 471D. In FIG. 82 it is shown a cross-sectional view of an analogous pipe-shaped and corner-shaping embodiment 471 of the urged link 411′E for forming corner-shaping hole sections 402′ in constructing corner-shaping sections 401′ of the structure 401, that comprises shelf rail portions 471A and 471B.
  • [0241]
    In FIG. 83 to FIG. 85 there it is shown a wedge-shaped embodiment 473 of the guided making means 412B in FIG. 57, that comprises a wedge-shaped cutter 474 which has forward oriented, relative to the advancing direction B, wedge-shaping portions 474A and 474B forming the cutting angle equal to about 30-90, 60 being preferable, and the tool angle of sharpness equal to about 30-60, 45-60 being preferable, that are supported frontally by the front end of the link 411′A with the hinge 415A. The cutter 474 is provided with an embodiment 475 of the directing means 414 in FIG. 57 that comprises a front directing blade 476 which is secured on and perpendicularly to the rear oriented, relative to the advancing direction A in FIG. 57, portion of the cutting edge 474A and a rear, relative to the advancing direction B, rearward oriented, sphere-shaped heel portion 459B, a direction-controlling portion 459C and being supported for displacement in its longitudinal direction and about the sphere center of the portions 459B and a spherical-shaped step-bearing portion 460A of a main frame 460 for supporting the cutter 459. The portions 459A and 459C are protruded remotely from the sphere center. To force or move turningly the cutter 459 there are provided a drive means, such as a set of four disposed oppositely in pairs and interacting selsyn-like hydraulic cylinder and piston units 461 each of which is pivotably connected at the end via a linkage or bracket to the frame 460 and via the length of a chain, preferably the anchor chain or steel rope 461A extending around sprockets 462 to the direction-controlling portion 459C at a point located remotely from the sphere center.
  • [0242]
    During the excavating operation, the cutter 459 is advanced longitudinally in the advancing direction B to penetrate the facial wall of an excavated hole section 402′ with the frame 460. When the direction B diverges from the central longitudinal axis of the hole section 402′ and is determined and the units 461 when are located with their ends engaged by the chain with the direction-controlling portion 459C and supplied with pressure fluid to extend and shorten and thereby urge the portion 459C toward and into an intended turned working position and blocked in known manner so that the cutting portions 459A shift also into and immobilised relative to the frame 460 in a corresponding intended turned working position.
  • [0243]
    In FIGS. 76 to 79 there it is shown an embodiment 463 of the urging link set 411A in FIG. 57 that is similar on the whole to the embodiment 418 in FIGS. 59 to 61 but differs from the embodiment 418 with an embodiment 464 of the guiding and supporting means 413 in FIG. 57. An outer frame 465 of the link 411′A that has longitudinally extending, guiding and supporting shelf rail-shaped portions 465A and 465B (not shown). An outer frame 466 of the link 411′D has the same rail portions directing blade 477 which is secured on the rear oriented, relative to the direction A, portion 474B. Each of the blades 476 and 477 has a respective rear oriented broad directing portion 476A and 477A (latter not shown) for leaning against and sliding along forward oriented, relative to the direction A, guiding and supporting walls of the motive links 411′E, such as the wall 470C which is shown in FIG. 81 and directing and hook-shaping end portions 476B and 476C, 477B and 477C for sliding engagement with guiding and supporting portions 470A and 470B of the link 471.
  • [0244]
    In operation, the winch 409B when is located with its wire 409C engaged with the front portion of the forming means 408 and supplied with motive power to move the forming means 408 and thereby urge the directing blades 476 and 477 with the cutter 474 at a working position above the ground level toward the upper link 411′E of the forming means 407 being in the formed hole section 402′ so that their directing hook portions 476B and 476C, 477B and 477C and the conjugated guiding and supporting rail portions 471A and 471B of the link 411′E mate to engage movingly the forming means 408 and the forming means 407 together for relative movement in the directions B and C.
  • [0245]
    In constructing an underground complicate or double-curved multisectional structure 401, such as a paling-shaped stratum and wall, or a holes-bunch-shaped air or drain trunk by the use of the apparatus 400 constructed described above, first an excavation 478, such as a hole or pit or trench having a predetermined depth and width that is equal to the width of the motive means 411 is dug in the ground 403 at a position where the underground structure 401 is to be formed by means of a known ground excavator (not shown).
  • [0246]
    In a first preferred way, the pile driver 409 assembles in consecutive order the directing making means 412A, such as the end mill cutter 438, the urging link set 411A shown in FIGS. 59, 60 and 63 and composed of the telescopic group 418A of the link 411′A shown in FIG. 86A by signs /// and the link 411′B shown by mirror symmetrical signs relative to the previous signs and being moved relatively by the ram 423 and the telescopic group 418B of the link 411′C shown by signs ||| and the link 411′D shown by signs = and being moved relatively by the ram 424, where the rams 423 and 424 are shown as extended and then shortened and the links 411′A and 411′B, 411′C and 411′D are shown as combined in pairs and an urged motive set 411B of the links 411′E (shown in FIG. 86B). This assembly is inserted by the winch 409A into the excavation 478 (see FIG. 86C) so that the wall-supporting members 425 and 426 are adjacent to the excavation walls. Thereafter, the mill cutter means 438 is driven by means of the hydraulic motor supplied with pressure fluid in the directions F and G shown in FIGS. 68A and 68E, the hydraulic tubs 428 of the link 411′D which is stationary are supplied with pressure fluid to expand and thereby urge the members 425 and 426 to expand into compressive engagement with the walls (see above) and the rams 423 and 424 also are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the making means 438 and the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′A in the advancing direction B with the force equal up to about 10 tons (above described) while the members 426 are adjacent to the side only walls of the trench or up to 25 tons while the members 426 are adjacent to the surrounded walls of the hole to penetrate the facial wall of and advance the hole section 402′ by aid of the cutter 438 which can be connected to the any suitable supplying means and supplied with a mud solution or a wash liquid for a wet drilling the ground 403 and with pressured air so that the debris material excavated by the penetration the facial wall with the cutter 438 that can be removed and lifted by the aid of any suitable appliance located above the ground level. Then (see FIGS. 86D) the next urged motive set 411B is assembled and connected to the previous set 411B by the pile driver 409 and the tubs 428 of the link 411′D release pressure fluid to shrink and thereby release the members 426 out of compressive engagement with the side walls and the tubs 427 of the stopped link 411′A are supplied with pressure fluid to expand and then the rams 423 and 424 are supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C and the set 411B with the link 411′D in the advancing direction B. The operations are repeated (shown in FIGS. 86E and 86F), while the further urged motive set 411B is assembled and connected to the previous set 411B by the pile driver 409 (shown in FIG. 86G).
  • [0247]
    In FIGS. 87A to 87G there are shown a second preferred way using an urging portion of the motive means 411 of the two assembled tandem urging motive link sets 411A of a constant total length, where the rams 423 and 424 of the front set 411A are shortened and the rams 423 and 424 of the next set 411A are extended, for example (shown in FIG. 87A). The pile driver 409 assembles and inserts this assembly into the excavation 478 (shown in FIG. 87B) and then assembles a following urged portion 411C of the motive means 411 to the second set 411A and thereafter the tubs 428 of the front set 411A and the tubs 427 of the second set 411A that are stationary are supplied with pressure fluid to expand (shown in FIG. 87C) and then the rams 423 and 424 of the front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′A in the direction B and the rams 423 and 424 of the second set 411A are also supplied with pressure fluid to shortened and thereby urge links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′D in the direction B (see FIG. 87D). Then the tubs 427 of the front set 411A and the tubs 428 of the second set 411A which are stationary are supplied with pressure fluid to expand (see FIG. 87D), the rams 423 and 424 of the front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the making means 438 and the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′A in the direction B and the rams 423 and 424 of the second set 411A also are supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′D in the direction B (shown in FIG. 87E) and the operations are repeated.
  • [0248]
    [0248]FIGS. 88A to 88I there are shown the steps of advancement of the forming means 406 to 408 which are provided with the wedge-shaped cutter 446 demanded a great pushing force which being applied by the motive means 411. The pile driver 409 assembles the cutter 446 and the tandem of two, for example, motive urging sets 411A where the rams 423 and 424 of the both sets 411A are shortened and a set 411D of the urged motive links 411′E and inserts this assembly into the excavation 478 (see FIGS. 88A and 88B). Then the tubs 428 of the stationary front set 411A and the tubs 427 and 428 of the stationary second set 411A that are supplied with pressure fluid to expand and then the rams 423 and 424 of the front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the cutter 446 and the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′A and with the pushing force equal up to about 30 or 75 tons (see above) to penetrate the bottom of the excavation 478 and advance the hole 402′ in the direction B (see FIG. 88D). Then the tubs 428 of the front set 411A and the tubs 427 of the second set 411A release pressure fluid and the respective members 426 and 425 out of compressive engagement with the walls, the tubs 427 of the front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to expand and the rams 423 and 424 of the front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′D in the direction B and with the force which is equal up to about 15 or 25 tons relative to the front link 411′A and simultaneously the rams 423 and 424 of the second set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′A of the second set 411A in the direction B and with the pushing force which is also equal to about 15 or 25 tons. Then (see FIGS. 88E and 88F) the tubs 427 of the stopped front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to expand and the rams 423 and 424 of the front set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the links 411B and 411C with the link 411′D in the direction B and then the rams 423 and 424 of the second set 411A are simultaneously supplied with pressure fluid to expand and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C with the link 411′A in the direction B. Then the tubs 428 of the second set 411A release pressure fluid to shrink and the tubs 428 of the front set 411A and the tubs 427 of the second set 411A are supplied with pressure fluid to extend and then the rams 423 and 424 of the second set 411A are supplied with the pressure fluid to shorten and thereby urge the links 411′B and 411′C of the second set 411A in the direction B. Thereafter the pile driver 409 assembles a next urged portion 411 D of the motive means 411 to the previous portion 411D so that the both sets 411A are ready for the same further operative cycles (see FIGS. 88H and 88I).
  • [0249]
    The operative cycles of advancing the excavated hole section 402′ in these ways are carried out repeatedly up to the predetermined depth or distance as part of an overall sequence involving the advancing the forming means 406 to 408.
  • [0250]
    It is apparent that the invention may be employed in many configurations, modifications and variations other than the preferred and specific forms and embodiments are described and given hereinbefore by way of example only without departing from the essential scope, spirit, and substance thereof and the scope of the invention is defined and limited only by the terms of the appended claims, including also all subject matter encompassed by the doctrine of equivalents as applicable to the claims.
  • [0251]
    For brevity the term “an intended advancing direction” is used in the claims as the direction to be gone, and it is to be understood that this term is intended to encompass a horizontal direction of extending of an underground multisectional structure such as horizontal, inclined, and vertical preferably anchor or foundation, barrier or diaphragm, drain or supplying stratum and wall; and an inclined and vertical direction of extending
  • [0252]
    Accordingly, the term “a chassis means” is to be understood that this term is intended to encompass a trailer or track or trolley or caterpillar and wheeled tractor.
  • [0253]
    Such apparatuses must act according to the present invention and form in the ground in situ cut off and impervious and retaining, conical- or cylindrical- or pyramid-shaped barriers or curtains or walls of a thickness of from 0.2 to 1.0 meters and more 0.3 meter mainly) and of the depth of from 10 to 100 meters and more, and flat-lying and water-draining or impervious stratums and trough-shaped layers of the such dimensions. The forming means of such apparatus can have several shapes, such as a prism or a chain of prisms or a circular cylindrical arched plank or triangular dagger or conjugated parts of helical surface. The prismatic forming means can move in the ground at a desired angle to the horizontal plane from 30 to 150 while an apparatus is advancing above the ground level, and at an angle from 0 to 150 when it is advancing above the ground level and near and along a slope's foot, and at any desired angle when it is advancing underground. The excavation-making means of the forming means are interchangeable depending on mechanical characteristics of the ground and have conventional forms, such as a wedge-shaped knife or endless chain cutter or drill cutter or a shearer mounted to a front end of the motive frame means and forced forward and backward by the motive frame member relative to side wall-supporting members, acting by the aid of conventional activating and drive means, such as hydraulic cylinder and piston units, and using known drilling fluids and pressured air lifting. Urging the wall-forming means into the ground and out of a formed hole section can be carried out by forcing the forming means forward and backward relative to its hole walls-supporting members in the continuous uninterrupteable manner and in an interrupted step-by-step manner while using conventional methods for feeding of a material of the proposed structure into the hole section being emptied. In one's capacity as a material of the proposed impervious screen and wall can be used waterproof sealing materials, such as a clay-cement mortar, and as a material of underground draining stratums and walls water-permeable materials, such as metal, sand and gravels can be used. The extensible forming means can be assembled from separable spare units which are connected for relative movement about axes between and disassembled by a conventional appropriate pile driver which is mounted on any movable and power- and material-supplying chassis means, such as a towed trailer and trolley, a flat-car, a truck provided with conventional means for remote controlling the activating and drive means and a means for preparation and feeding the drilling and sealing materials.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7771140Jun 19, 2009Aug 10, 2010Terra Shield, LlcMethods for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US8016518Jun 19, 2009Sep 13, 2011Terra Technologies, LLCSheet pile for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US8061065 *Jul 30, 2007Nov 22, 2011Vladimir Anatol ShreiderApparatus and a method for constructing an underground continuous filling wall and stratum
US8061934Aug 5, 2010Nov 22, 2011Terra Technologies, LLCMethod and installation for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US8079163 *Oct 12, 2010Dec 20, 2011Vladimir Anatol ShreiderExcavator and a method for constructing an underground continuous wall
US8096733Jul 10, 2009Jan 17, 2012Hercules Machinery CorporationApparatus for inserting sheet pile having an independently adjustable insertion axis and method for using the same
US8303217Jun 19, 2009Nov 6, 2012Terra Technologies, LLCSystems for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US8342778Mar 3, 2010Jan 1, 2013Hercules Machinery CorporationMethod and apparatus for facilitating the subterranean support of underground conduits having a fixed insertion axis
US8608410 *Apr 12, 2010Dec 17, 2013Vladimir Anatol ShreiderApparatus and a method for constructing an underground curved multisectional wall and stratum
US8944356 *Jan 29, 2009Feb 3, 2015Metso Minerals Inc.Fastening device, a cone crusher and a method for fastening an inner crushing blade to a head of a cone crusher
US9151011 *Jul 19, 2011Oct 6, 2015Soilmec S.P.A.Drilling device for executing diaphragm walls and method thereof
US20090031591 *Jul 30, 2007Feb 5, 2009Vladimir Anatol ShreiderApparatus and a method for constructing an underground continuous filling wall and stratum
US20100074690 *Jun 19, 2009Mar 25, 2010Terra Shield, LlcSystems for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US20100074694 *Jun 19, 2009Mar 25, 2010Terra Shield, LlcMethods for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US20100074698 *Jun 19, 2009Mar 25, 2010Terra Shield, LlcSheet pile for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US20100254768 *Apr 12, 2010Oct 7, 2010Vladimir Anatol ShreiderApparatus and a method for constructing an underground curved multisectional wall and stratum
US20100263892 *Mar 3, 2010Oct 21, 2010Hercules Machinery CorporationMethod and apparatus for facilitating the subterranean support of underground conduits having a fixed insertion axis
US20100296872 *Aug 5, 2010Nov 25, 2010Terra Shield, LlcMethod and installation for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US20110008111 *Jul 10, 2009Jan 13, 2011Hercules Machinery CorporationApparatus for inserting sheet pile having an independently adjustable insertion axis and method for using the same
US20110113658 *Oct 12, 2010May 19, 2011Vladimir Anatol ShreiderExcavator and a method for constructing an underground continuous wall
US20110309176 *Jan 29, 2009Dec 22, 2011Metso Minerals Inc.Fastening device, a cone crusher and a method for fastening an inner crushing blade to a head of a cone crusher
US20120012391 *Jul 19, 2011Jan 19, 2012Soilmec S.P.A.Drilling device for executing diaphragm walls and method thereof
CN105181937A *Oct 9, 2015Dec 23, 2015中国矿业大学(北京)Combined type slope model excavation device
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/267, 405/258.1, 405/270
International ClassificationE02F5/14, E02F5/10
Cooperative ClassificationE02F5/103, E02F5/14
European ClassificationE02F5/14, E02F5/10B2