BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention is concerned with new polymers and anti-reflective compositions for use in the manufacture of microelectronic devices. These compositions include a polyamic acid and are developable in aqueous photoresist developers.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Integrated circuit manufacturers are consistently seeking to maximize substrate wafer sizes and minimize device feature dimensions in order to improve yield, reduce unit case, and increase on-chip computing power. Device feature sizes on silicon or other chips are now submicron in size with the advent of advanced deep ultraviolet (DUV) microlithographic processes.
However, a frequent problem encountered by photoresists during the manufacture of semiconductor devices is that activating radiation is reflected back into the photoresist by the substrate on which it is supported. Such reflectivity tends to cause blurred patterns which degrade the resolution of the photoresist. Degradation of the image in the processed photoresist is particularly problematic when the substrate is non-planar and/or highly reflective. One approach to address this problem is the use of an anti-reflective coating applied to the substrate beneath the photoresist layer. While anti-reflective coatings are effective at preventing or minimizing reflection, their use requires an additional break-through step in the process in order to remove the coatings. This necessarily results in an increased process cost.
One solution to this problem has been the use of wet developable anti-reflective coatings. These types of coating can be removed along with the exposed areas of the photoresist material. That is, after the photoresist layer is exposed to light through a patterned mask, the exposed areas of the photoresist are wet developable and are subsequently removed with an aqueous developer to leave behind the desired trench and hole pattern. Wet developable anti-reflective coatings are removed during this developing step, thus eliminating the need for an additional removal step. Unfortunately, wet developable anti-reflective coatings have not seen widespread use due to the fact that they must also exhibit good spin bowl compatibility and superior optical properties to be useful as an anti-reflective coating. Thus, there is a need for anti-reflective coating compositions which are removed by conventional photoresist developers while simultaneously exhibiting good coating and optical properties.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention broadly comprises microlithographic compositions (and particularly anti-reflective coating compositions) that are useful in the manufacture of microelectronic devices.
In more detail, the compositions comprise a polymer dispersed or dissolved in a solvent system. In one embodiment, the preferred polymers are polyamic acids. The polyamic acids preferably include recurring monomers having the formulas
individually represent an aryl or aliphatic group.
In this embodiment, the polyamic acids are preferably formed by polymerizing a dianhydride with a diamine. Preferred dianhydrides have the formula
represents an aryl or aliphatic group.
Particularly preferred dianhydrides are:
Preferred diamines have the formula
represents an aryl or aliphatic group.
Particularly preferred diamines are:
In another preferred embodiment, the preferred polymers include recurring monomers having the formulas
In the foregoing formulas, each R is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —OH, aliphatics, and phenyls. Preferred aliphatics are C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyl groups such as t-butyl and isopropyl groups.
L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—. When L is —CR12—, then each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics (preferably C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyls), and phenyls, and —CX3. In embodiments where R′ is —CX3, each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens, with fluorine and chlorine being the most preferred halogens.
In yet another embodiment, the polymers are formed by polymerizing a compound having the formula
with a compound having the formula
In the formulas of this embodiment, each R is individually selected from the group consisting of —OH, —NH2, hydrogen, aliphatics, and phenyls. Again, as with the first embodiment, preferred aliphatics are C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyl groups such as t-butyl and isopropyl groups. Furthermore, it is preferred that at least one R on each ring of (I) be —NH2.
L is preferably selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics (preferably C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyl groups), phenyls, and —CX3. When L is —CX3, each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens.
Regardless of the embodiment, the compositions are formed by simply dispersing or dissolving the polymers in a suitable solvent system, preferably at ambient conditions and for a sufficient amount of time to form a substantially homogeneous dispersion. The polymer should be present in the composition at a level of 1-100% by weight, more preferably from about 20-80% by weight, and more preferably from about 40-60% by weight, based upon the total weight of solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight. The weight average molecular weight of this polymer is preferably from about 2,000-1,000,000 Daltons, more preferably from about 5,000-500,000 Daltons, and even more preferably from about 10,000-100,000 Daltons.
Preferred solvent systems include a solvent selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA), propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and mixtures thereof. The solvent system should have a boiling point of from about 50-250° C., and more preferably from about 150-200° C., and should be utilized at a level of from about 50-99% by weight, and preferably from about 90-98% by weight, based upon the total weight of the solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight.
Any other ingredients should be dissolved or dispersed in the solvent system along with the polymer. One such ingredient is a crosslinking agent. Preferred crosslinking agents include aminoplasts (e.g., POWDERLINK® 1174, Cymel® products) and epoxies. The crosslinking agent should be present in the composition at a level of from about 0-50% by weight, and preferably from about 10-20% by weight, based upon the total weight of the solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight. Thus, the compositions of the invention should crosslink at a temperature of from about 100-250° C., and more preferably from about 150-200° C.
It is preferred that the compositions also include a light attenuating compound or chromophore. The light attenuating compound should be present in the composition at a level of from about 0-50% by weight, and preferably from about 15-30% by weight, based upon the total weight of solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight. The light attenuating compound should be selected based upon the wavelength at which the compositions will be processed. Thus, at wavelengths of 248 nm, preferred light attenuating compounds include napthalenes and anthracenes, with 3,7-dihydroxy-2-napthoic acid being particularly preferred. At wavelengths of 365 nm, preferred light attenuating compounds include diazo dyes and highly conjugated phenolic dyes. At wavelengths of 193 nm, preferred light attenuating compounds include compounds containing phenyl rings.
It will be appreciated that a number of other optional ingredients can be included in the compositions as well. Typical optional ingredients include surfactants, catalysts, and adhesion promoters.
The method of applying the inventive compositions to a substrate simply comprises applying a quantity of a composition hereof to the substrate surface by any known application method (including spin-coating). The substrate can be any conventional chip (e.g., silicon wafer) or an ion implant layer.
After the desired coverage is achieved, the resulting layer should be heated to induce crosslinking (e.g., to a temperature of from about 100-250° C.). At a film thickness of about 40 nm and a wavelength of about 248 nm, the cured layers will have a k value (i.e., the imaginary component of the complex index of refraction) of at least about 0.3, and preferably at least about. 0.45, and an n value (i.e.,the real component of the complex index of refraction) of at least about 1.0, and preferably at least about 1.8. That is, a cured layer formed from the inventive composition will absorb at least about 90%, and preferably at least about 99% of light at a wavelength of about 248 nm. This ability to absorb light at DUV wavelengths is a particularly useful advantage of the inventive compositions.
A photoresist can then be applied to the cured material, followed by exposing, developing, and etching of the photoresist. Following the methods of the invention will yield precursor structures which have the foregoing desirable properties.
It will further be appreciated that the cured inventive composition is wet developable. That is, the cured composition can be removed with conventional aqueous developers such as tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide developers. At least about 90%, and preferably at least about 98% of the inventive coatings will be removed by a base developer such as a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide developer (e.g., OPD262, available from Olin Photodeveloper). This percent solubility in commercially-available developers is a significant advantage over the prior art as this shortens the manufacturing process and makes it less costly.
Finally, in addition to the many advantages described above, the present composition is spin bowl compatible. This is determined as described in Example 2, using PGMEA as the solvent and taking five measurements to determine the average thicknesses. The percent solubility is calculated as follows:
The inventive compositions show a percent solubility of at least about 50%, and more preferably at least about 90%.