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Publication numberUS20040210034 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/842,997
Publication dateOct 21, 2004
Filing dateMay 11, 2004
Priority dateJan 17, 2002
Also published asEP1540420A2, EP1540420A4, EP1540420B1, US7261997, US7608380, US20030166828, US20060063106, US20100040988, WO2004000928A2, WO2004000928A3
Publication number10842997, 842997, US 2004/0210034 A1, US 2004/210034 A1, US 20040210034 A1, US 20040210034A1, US 2004210034 A1, US 2004210034A1, US-A1-20040210034, US-A1-2004210034, US2004/0210034A1, US2004/210034A1, US20040210034 A1, US20040210034A1, US2004210034 A1, US2004210034A1
InventorsRobert Cox, Charles Neef
Original AssigneeCox Robert Christian, Neef Charles J.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Spin bowl compatible polyamic acids/imides as wet developable polymer binders for anti-reflective coatings
US 20040210034 A1
Abstract
Anti-reflective compositions and methods of using these compositions to form circuits are provided. The compositions comprise a polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent system. In a preferred embodiment, the polymers of the composition include recurring monomers having the formulas
where: (1) each R is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —OH, aliphatics, and phenyls; and (2) L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR′2—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics, phenyls, and —CX3, where each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens. The resulting compositions are spin bowl compatible (i.e., they do not crosslink prior to the bake stages of the microlithographic processes or during storage at room temperature), are wet developable, and have superior optical properties.
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Claims(28)
We claim:
1. A polymer formed by polymerizing a compound having the formula
with a compound having the formula
wherein:
each R is individually selected from the group consisting of —OH, —NH2, hydrogen, aliphatics, and phenyls, at least one R on each ring of (I) being —NH2; and
L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics, phenyls, and —CX3, where each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens.
2. The polymer of claim 1, wherein at least one R on each ring of (I) is —OH.
3. The polymer of claim 1, wherein L is —SO2—.
4. The polymer of claim 1, wherein L is —CR12—.
5. The polymer of claim 4, each R′ is —CF3.
6. In a composition for use in photolithographic processes wherein the composition comprises a polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent system, the improvement being that said polymer is a copolymer of a compound having the formula
and a compound having the formula
wherein:
each R is individually selected from the group consisting of —OH, —NH2, hydrogen, aliphatics, and phenyls, at least one R on each ring of (I) being —NH2; and
L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics, phenyls, and —CX3, where each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens.
7. The composition of claim 6, wherein at least one R on each ring of (I) is —OH.
8. The composition of claim 6, wherein L is —SO2—.
9. The composition of claim 6, wherein L is —CR12—.
10. The composition of claim 9, each R′ is —CF3.
11. The combination of:
a substrate having a surface; and
an anti-reflective layer adjacent said surface, said anti-reflective layer being formed from a composition comprising a polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent system, said polymer being a copolymer of a compound having the formula
 and a compound having the formula
wherein:
each R is individually selected from the group consisting of —OH, —NH2, hydrogen, aliphatics, and phenyls, at least one R on each ring of (I) being —NH2; and
L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics, phenyls, and —CX3, where each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens.
12. The combination of claim 11, said layer being a cured layer.
13. The combination of claim 12, said cured layer being wet developable.
14. The combination of claim 12, wherein said cured layer has a percent solubility of at least about 50% when propylene glycol methyl ether acetate is the solvent.
15. The combination of claim 11, wherein said substrate is selected from the group consisting of silicon wafers and ion implant layers.
16. The combination of claim 12, said combination further comprising a photoresist layer adjacent said cured layer.
17. The combination of claim 12, said cured layer being at least about 90% soluble in a base developer.
18. The combination of claim 11, wherein at least one R on each ring of (I) is —OH.
19. The combination of claim 11, wherein L is —SO2—.
20. The combination of claim 11, wherein L is —CR′2—.
21. The combination of claim 20, wherein each R′ is —CF3.
22. A method of using a composition in photolithographic processes, said method comprising the step of applying a quantity of a composition to a substrate to form a layer thereon, said composition comprising a polymer dissolved or dispersed in a solvent system, said polymer being a copolymer of a compound having the formula
and a compound having the formula
wherein:
each R is individually selected from the group consisting of —OH, —NH2, hydrogen, aliphatics, and phenyls, at least one R on each ring of (I) being —NH2; and
L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR′2—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics, phenyls, and —CX3, where each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein said applying step comprises spin-coating said composition onto said substrate surface.
24. The method of claim 22, wherein said substrate has a hole formed therein, said hole being defined by a bottom wall and sidewalls, and said applying step comprises applying said composition to at least a portion of said bottom wall and sidewalls.
25. The method of claim 22, further including the step of baking said layer, after said applying step, at a temperature of from about 100-250° C. to yield a cured layer.
26. The method of claim 25, further including the step of applying a photoresist to said cured layer.
27. The method of claim 26, furthering including the steps of:
exposing at least a portion of said photoresist to activating radiation; and
developing said exposed photoresist.
28. The method of claim 27, wherein said developing step results in the removal of said cured layer from areas adjacent said exposed photoresist.
Description
    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/180,624, filed Jun. 25, 2002, incorporated by reference herein. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/180,624 claims the priority benefit of a provisional application entitled SPIN BOWL COMPATIBLE POLYAMIC ACIDS/IMDES AS WET DEVELOPABLE POLYMER BINDERS FOR BARCS, Serial No. 60/349,569, filed Jan. 17, 2002, incorporated by reference herein.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0003]
    The present invention is concerned with new polymers and anti-reflective compositions for use in the manufacture of microelectronic devices. These compositions include a polyamic acid and are developable in aqueous photoresist developers.
  • [0004]
    2. Description of the Prior Art
  • [0005]
    Integrated circuit manufacturers are consistently seeking to maximize substrate wafer sizes and minimize device feature dimensions in order to improve yield, reduce unit case, and increase on-chip computing power. Device feature sizes on silicon or other chips are now submicron in size with the advent of advanced deep ultraviolet (DUV) microlithographic processes.
  • [0006]
    However, a frequent problem encountered by photoresists during the manufacture of semiconductor devices is that activating radiation is reflected back into the photoresist by the substrate on which it is supported. Such reflectivity tends to cause blurred patterns which degrade the resolution of the photoresist. Degradation of the image in the processed photoresist is particularly problematic when the substrate is non-planar and/or highly reflective. One approach to address this problem is the use of an anti-reflective coating applied to the substrate beneath the photoresist layer. While anti-reflective coatings are effective at preventing or minimizing reflection, their use requires an additional break-through step in the process in order to remove the coatings. This necessarily results in an increased process cost.
  • [0007]
    One solution to this problem has been the use of wet developable anti-reflective coatings. These types of coating can be removed along with the exposed areas of the photoresist material. That is, after the photoresist layer is exposed to light through a patterned mask, the exposed areas of the photoresist are wet developable and are subsequently removed with an aqueous developer to leave behind the desired trench and hole pattern. Wet developable anti-reflective coatings are removed during this developing step, thus eliminating the need for an additional removal step. Unfortunately, wet developable anti-reflective coatings have not seen widespread use due to the fact that they must also exhibit good spin bowl compatibility and superior optical properties to be useful as an anti-reflective coating. Thus, there is a need for anti-reflective coating compositions which are removed by conventional photoresist developers while simultaneously exhibiting good coating and optical properties.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention broadly comprises microlithographic compositions (and particularly anti-reflective coating compositions) that are useful in the manufacture of microelectronic devices.
  • [0009]
    In more detail, the compositions comprise a polymer dispersed or dissolved in a solvent system. In one embodiment, the preferred polymers are polyamic acids. The polyamic acids preferably include recurring monomers having the formulas
  • [0010]
    where each of
  • [0011]
    individually represent an aryl or aliphatic group.
  • [0012]
    In this embodiment, the polyamic acids are preferably formed by polymerizing a dianhydride with a diamine. Preferred dianhydrides have the formula
  • [0013]
    where
  • [0014]
    represents an aryl or aliphatic group.
  • [0015]
    Particularly preferred dianhydrides are:
  • [0016]
    Preferred diamines have the formula
  • [0017]
    where
  • [0018]
    represents an aryl or aliphatic group.
  • [0019]
    Particularly preferred diamines are:
  • [0020]
    In another preferred embodiment, the preferred polymers include recurring monomers having the formulas
  • [0021]
    In the foregoing formulas, each R is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —OH, aliphatics, and phenyls. Preferred aliphatics are C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyl groups such as t-butyl and isopropyl groups.
  • [0022]
    L is selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—. When L is —CR12—, then each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics (preferably C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyls), and phenyls, and —CX3. In embodiments where R′ is —CX3, each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens, with fluorine and chlorine being the most preferred halogens.
  • [0023]
    In yet another embodiment, the polymers are formed by polymerizing a compound having the formula
  • [0024]
    with a compound having the formula
  • [0025]
    In the formulas of this embodiment, each R is individually selected from the group consisting of —OH, —NH2, hydrogen, aliphatics, and phenyls. Again, as with the first embodiment, preferred aliphatics are C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyl groups such as t-butyl and isopropyl groups. Furthermore, it is preferred that at least one R on each ring of (I) be —NH2.
  • [0026]
    L is preferably selected from the group consisting of —SO2— and —CR12—, where each R′ is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aliphatics (preferably C1-C8 branched and unbranched alkyl groups), phenyls, and —CX3. When L is —CX3, each X is individually selected from the group consisting of the halogens.
  • [0027]
    Regardless of the embodiment, the compositions are formed by simply dispersing or dissolving the polymers in a suitable solvent system, preferably at ambient conditions and for a sufficient amount of time to form a substantially homogeneous dispersion. The polymer should be present in the composition at a level of 1-100% by weight, more preferably from about 20-80% by weight, and more preferably from about 40-60% by weight, based upon the total weight of solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight. The weight average molecular weight of this polymer is preferably from about 2,000-1,000,000 Daltons, more preferably from about 5,000-500,000 Daltons, and even more preferably from about 10,000-100,000 Daltons.
  • [0028]
    Preferred solvent systems include a solvent selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA), propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and mixtures thereof. The solvent system should have a boiling point of from about 50-250° C., and more preferably from about 150-200° C., and should be utilized at a level of from about 50-99% by weight, and preferably from about 90-98% by weight, based upon the total weight of the solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight.
  • [0029]
    Any other ingredients should be dissolved or dispersed in the solvent system along with the polymer. One such ingredient is a crosslinking agent. Preferred crosslinking agents include aminoplasts (e.g., POWDERLINK® 1174, Cymel® products) and epoxies. The crosslinking agent should be present in the composition at a level of from about 0-50% by weight, and preferably from about 10-20% by weight, based upon the total weight of the solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight. Thus, the compositions of the invention should crosslink at a temperature of from about 100-250° C., and more preferably from about 150-200° C.
  • [0030]
    It is preferred that the compositions also include a light attenuating compound or chromophore. The light attenuating compound should be present in the composition at a level of from about 0-50% by weight, and preferably from about 15-30% by weight, based upon the total weight of solids in the composition taken as 100% by weight. The light attenuating compound should be selected based upon the wavelength at which the compositions will be processed. Thus, at wavelengths of 248 nm, preferred light attenuating compounds include napthalenes and anthracenes, with 3,7-dihydroxy-2-napthoic acid being particularly preferred. At wavelengths of 365 nm, preferred light attenuating compounds include diazo dyes and highly conjugated phenolic dyes. At wavelengths of 193 nm, preferred light attenuating compounds include compounds containing phenyl rings.
  • [0031]
    It will be appreciated that a number of other optional ingredients can be included in the compositions as well. Typical optional ingredients include surfactants, catalysts, and adhesion promoters.
  • [0032]
    The method of applying the inventive compositions to a substrate simply comprises applying a quantity of a composition hereof to the substrate surface by any known application method (including spin-coating). The substrate can be any conventional chip (e.g., silicon wafer) or an ion implant layer.
  • [0033]
    After the desired coverage is achieved, the resulting layer should be heated to induce crosslinking (e.g., to a temperature of from about 100-250° C.). At a film thickness of about 40 nm and a wavelength of about 248 nm, the cured layers will have a k value (i.e., the imaginary component of the complex index of refraction) of at least about 0.3, and preferably at least about. 0.45, and an n value (i.e.,the real component of the complex index of refraction) of at least about 1.0, and preferably at least about 1.8. That is, a cured layer formed from the inventive composition will absorb at least about 90%, and preferably at least about 99% of light at a wavelength of about 248 nm. This ability to absorb light at DUV wavelengths is a particularly useful advantage of the inventive compositions.
  • [0034]
    A photoresist can then be applied to the cured material, followed by exposing, developing, and etching of the photoresist. Following the methods of the invention will yield precursor structures which have the foregoing desirable properties.
  • [0035]
    It will further be appreciated that the cured inventive composition is wet developable. That is, the cured composition can be removed with conventional aqueous developers such as tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide developers. At least about 90%, and preferably at least about 98% of the inventive coatings will be removed by a base developer such as a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide developer (e.g., OPD262, available from Olin Photodeveloper). This percent solubility in commercially-available developers is a significant advantage over the prior art as this shortens the manufacturing process and makes it less costly.
  • [0036]
    Finally, in addition to the many advantages described above, the present composition is spin bowl compatible. This is determined as described in Example 2, using PGMEA as the solvent and taking five measurements to determine the average thicknesses. The percent solubility is calculated as follows: % solubility = [ ( ave . initial sample thickness - ave . final sample thickness ) ( initial sample thickness ) ] * 100.
  • [0037]
    The inventive compositions show a percent solubility of at least about 50%, and more preferably at least about 90%.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIG. 1 is a Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) depicting a cross-sectional view of a circuit structure showing how a wet developable anti-reflective layer is removed when the photoresist is developed;
  • [0039]
    [0039]FIG. 2 is an SEM of a cross-section of a circuit structure showing how a conventional thermosetting anti-reflective layer remains when the photoresist is developed; and
  • [0040]
    [0040]FIG. 3 an SEM depicting a cross-sectional view of a circuit structure showing how a wet developable anti-reflective layer according to the invention is removed when the photoresist is developed.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS EXAMPLES
  • [0041]
    The following examples set forth preferred methods in accordance with the invention. It is to be understood, however, that these examples are provided by way of illustration and nothing therein should be taken as a limitation upon the overall scope of the invention.
  • Example 1 Preparation of Anti-Reflective Coating Composition
  • [0042]
    1. Polymer Preparation
  • [0043]
    A polyamic acid was produced by combining 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4′-DPS), 3,3′-dihydroxybenzidene (HAB), and 4,4′-hexafluoroisopropylidene dipthalic anhydride (6FDA) (each obtained from KrisKev Corporation) at a molar ratio of 0.46:0.46:1. These ingredients were combined at 60° C. in diacetone alcohol (obtained from Aldrich). The mixture was stirred overnight and resulted in a dark brown, viscous liquid having a solids content of 10% by weight.
  • [0044]
    2. Anti-Reflective Coating Preparation
  • [0045]
    The ingredients of Table 1 were mixed to yield an anti-reflective coating composition.
    TABLE 1
    Formulation I Percentage By Weighta
    Polymer from Part 1 of this Example  1.58%
    PGMEAb 48.50%
    Diacetone alcohol  48.5%
    3,7-dihydroxy-2-napthoic acid  0.95%
    Crosslinking Agentc  0.47%
  • [0046]
    [0046]
    TABLE 2
    Formulation II Percentage By Weight
    Polymer from Part 1 of this Example  1.23%
    PGMEA 48.80%
    Diacetone alcohol  48.8%
    3,7-dihydroxy-2-napthoic acid  0.74%
    Crosslinking Agent  0.43%
  • [0047]
    [0047]
    TABLE 3
    Formulation III Percentage By Weight
    Polymer from Part 1 of this Example 1.20%
    PGMEA 48.50% 
    Diacetone alcohol 48.5%
    3,7-dihydroxy-2-napthoic acid 0.72%
    Crosslinking Agent 0.48%
  • [0048]
    [0048]
    TABLE 4
    Formulation IV Percentage By Weight
    Polymer from Part 1 of this Example  2.25%
    PGMEA 47.75%
    Diacetone alcohol 47.75%
    3,7-dihydroxy-2-napthoic acid  1.35%
    Crosslinking Agent  0.90%
  • Example 2 Testing Methods and Results
  • [0049]
    1. GPC Analysis
  • [0050]
    The polymers prepared in Part 1 of this example were analyzed to determine molecular weight using HPLC with an attached gel permeation column where n-methyl pyrillidone with tetrahydrofuran were used as the mobile phase. The polymer prepared in Part 1 of Example 1 had a molecular weight of 24,908 and a molecular number of 13,462.
  • [0051]
    2. Spin Bowl/Solvent Compatibility Test
  • [0052]
    Each of the four formulations prepared in Part 2 of Example 1 was subjected to a spin bowl/solvent compatibility test. This test was carried out by spin-coating the composition onto five 4″ silicon wafers for each sample. After spin-coating, the resulting layer was allowed to dry for 24 hours at ambient conditions. At that time, the average initial film thickness on each wafer was determined using a Stokes ellipsometer. After determining the thicknesses, each wafer was soaked with a different solvent (acetone, ethyl lactate, PGMEA, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), and 2-heptanone) for 180 seconds, followed by spin drying at 3500 rpm. The respective average final film thicknesses were then remeasured using a Stokes ellipsometer. The final thickness measurements of the samples showed that 100% of the anti-reflective coating layers had been removed for each solvent.
  • [0053]
    3. Film Stripping Test
  • [0054]
    Each of the anti-reflective coating compositions prepared in Part 2 of Example 1 were subjected to a film stripping test to determine the amount of interaction between typical photoresist solvents and the underlying anti-reflective coating layer. In this test, a 4″ silicon wafer was coated with the particular anti-reflective coating formulation followed bybaking at 130° C. for 30 seconds and a second bake at 150° C. for 60 seconds. The film thickness was then measured using a Stokes ellipsometer. After measuring the thickness, the wafer was sprayed with ethyl lactate. The resulting puddle was allowed to stand on the wafer for 10 seconds followed by spin-drying of the wafer at 3500 rpm for 20 seconds. The wafer was then remeasured with a Stokes ellipsometer to determine the film thickness. The amount of stripping is the difference between the initial and final film thickness measurements. The percent stripping is % stripping = ( amount of stripping initial average film thickness ) × 100.
  • [0055]
    Compositions according to the invention will give a percent stripping of less than about 20%, and preferably less than about 5%. Each of these formulations exhibited no stripping at bake temperatures of 150-205° C.
  • [0056]
    4. V.A.S.E. Measurements
  • [0057]
    In this procedure, 4″ silicon wafers were individually coated with each of the formulations from Part 2 of Example 1. The respective refractive indices (i.e., n value) and imaginary refractive indices (i.e., k value) were determined using variable angle spectrophotometric ellipsometery. Each formulation showed an n value of 1.1 and a k value of 0.45 at 248 nm.
  • [0058]
    5. Photolithography
  • [0059]
    The formulations of Part 2 of Example 1 were spin-coated onto respective 8″ silicon substrate at 3500 rpm for 60 seconds, yielding a film having a thickness of 40 nm. The films were then baked at 130° C. for 30 seconds, followed by 175° C. bake for 60 seconds. A commercially available, 500 nm photoresist (SEPR430, available from Shinetsu) was spin-coated on each anti-reflective coating layer followed by a soft bake at 90° C. The photoresist was then patterned with lines and spaces using an ASML 5500/300 stepper with NANA of 0.63 and annular illumination with outer sigma of 0.87 and inner sigma of 0.57. After a KrF excimer laser exposure of 26 mj/cm2, the photoresist was baked at 110° C. for 90 seconds. The photoresist and the anti-reflective coating layer were then developed using a 0.26 N tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide aqueous developer (available under the name OPD262). A cross-sectional view of one of the sample wafers is shown in FIG. 3.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7364835Oct 15, 2004Apr 29, 2008Brewer Science Inc.Developer-soluble materials and methods of using the same in via-first dual damascene applications
US7563563Apr 18, 2006Jul 21, 2009International Business Machines CorporationWet developable bottom antireflective coating composition and method for use thereof
US7914974Aug 15, 2007Mar 29, 2011Brewer Science Inc.Anti-reflective imaging layer for multiple patterning process
US8133659Jan 29, 2009Mar 13, 2012Brewer Science Inc.On-track process for patterning hardmask by multiple dark field exposures
US8202678Jun 4, 2009Jun 19, 2012International Business Machines CorporationWet developable bottom antireflective coating composition and method for use thereof
US8415083Apr 9, 2013Brewer Science Inc.On-track process for patterning hardmask by multiple dark field exposures
US8507179Oct 19, 2009Aug 13, 2013Dow Corning CorporationSwitchable antireflective coatings
US8809482Oct 19, 2009Aug 19, 2014Dow Corning CorporationSilsesquioxane resins
US9110372Dec 20, 2010Aug 18, 2015Brewer Science Inc.Anti-reflective coatings using vinyl ether crosslinkers
US20050148170 *Oct 15, 2004Jul 7, 2005Mandar BhaveDeveloper-soluble materials and methods of using the same in via-first dual damascene applications
US20070243484 *Apr 18, 2006Oct 18, 2007Chen Kuang-Jung JWet developable bottom antireflective coating composition and method for use thereof
US20090291392 *Jun 4, 2009Nov 26, 2009International Business Machines CorporationWet developable bottom antireflective coating composition and method for use thereof
US20110236835 *Oct 19, 2009Sep 29, 2011Peng-Fei FuSilsesquioxane Resins
US20110236837 *Oct 19, 2009Sep 29, 2011Peng-Fei FuSwitchable Antireflective Coatings
Classifications
U.S. Classification528/335, 528/272, 430/271.1, 528/331, 528/288, 528/295, 528/293, 528/332
International ClassificationH01L21/027, G03F7/037, G03F7/11, G03F7/038, G03F7/09, G02B1/11, C08G73/10
Cooperative ClassificationY10S430/151, Y10S430/106, G02B1/111, C08G73/1039, C09D179/08, G03F7/091, G03F7/038, C08G73/10, C08G73/1064, C08G73/1025
European ClassificationC09D179/08, G03F7/038, C08G73/10F, C08G73/10B1P, C08G73/10, G03F7/09A, C08G73/10M2, G02B1/11B