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Publication numberUS20040224159 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/788,969
Publication dateNov 11, 2004
Filing dateFeb 26, 2004
Priority dateFeb 28, 2003
Also published asCN1524653A, CN100430170C, DE602004011582D1, DE602004011582T2, EP1479791A2, EP1479791A3, EP1479791B1, US7201956, USRE41111
Publication number10788969, 788969, US 2004/0224159 A1, US 2004/224159 A1, US 20040224159 A1, US 20040224159A1, US 2004224159 A1, US 2004224159A1, US-A1-20040224159, US-A1-2004224159, US2004/0224159A1, US2004/224159A1, US20040224159 A1, US20040224159A1, US2004224159 A1, US2004224159A1
InventorsTakatoshi Oshika, Toshiaki Ueda, Takuya Hayahi
Original AssigneeMitsubishi Materials Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
cutters composed of tungsten carbide or titanium carbonitride cermets, having hard undercoating layers including titanium or zirconium carbides, nitrides, carbonitride, oxycarbides or oxycarbonitrides and alumina overcoatings
US 20040224159 A1
Abstract
The present invention provides a cutting tool in which the hard coating layer demonstrates superior chipping resistance. The cutting tool has a tool base composed with tungsten carbide-based cemented carbide or titanium carbonitride-based Cermet, and a hard coating layer provided on the surface thereof; wherein the hard coating layer includes: (a) a Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer, which is a lower layer, comprising one or more layers of a TiC layer, TiN layer, TiCN layer, TiCO layer, TiCNO layer, ZrC layer, ZrN layer, ZrCN layer, ZrCO layer, ZrCNO layer and (b) an aluminum oxide layer having an α crystal structure which is an upper layer, including the highest peak in the inclination section within a range of 0-10.
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Claims(4)
What is claimed is:
1. A cutting tool provided with a tool base composed with tungsten carbide-based cemented carbide or titanium carbonitride-based Cermet, and a hard coating layer provided on the surface of the tool base; wherein the hard coating layer comprises:
(a) at least one of a Ti compound and a Zr compound layer, which is a lower layer, comprising at least one layer of a Ti carbide layer, Ti nitride layer, Ti carbonitride layer, Ti oxicarbide layer, Ti oxicarbonitride layer, Zr carbide layer, Zr nitride layer, Zr carbonitride layer, Zr oxicarbide layer and Zr oxicarbonitride layer formed by chemical vapor deposition, and having an overall mean layer thickness of 0.5-20 μm, and
(b) an aluminum oxide layer having an α crystal structure in the state of being formed by chemical vapor deposition, which is an upper layer, comprising the highest peak in the inclination section within a range of 0-10 degrees in the case of emitting an electron beam onto individual crystal grains having a hexagonal crystal lattice present within the measuring range of the surface polishing plane, measuring the inclination of the (0001) crystal plane of the crystal grains relative to the normal of the surface polishing plane using a field emission scanning electron microscope, dividing the measured inclinations within a range of 0-45 degrees indicated by the individual crystal grains for each pitch of 0.25 degrees, and preparing a pole plot graph by tabulating the measured inclinations present in each section for each section, and having the mean layer thickness is 1-30 μm.
2. A cutting tool according to claim 1, wherein the hard coating layer has an aluminum oxide core thin layer containing an aluminum oxide core between the lower layer and the upper layer.
3. A cutting tool according to claim 1, wherein the mean layer thickness of the aluminum oxide core thin layer is 20-200 nm.
4. A method for forming the hard coating layer for a cutting tool according to claim 2, comprising:
forming at least one of the Ti compound and the Zr compound layer;
forming the aluminum oxide core thin layer on the surface of the at least one of Ti compound and the Zr compound layer under conditions of a reaction gas composition, in % by volume, of AlCl3: 3-10%, CO2: 0.5-3%, C2H4: 0.01-0.3% and H2: remainder, a reaction atmosphere temperature of 750-900 C. and a reaction atmosphere pressure of 3-13 kPa; and
heating the aluminum oxide core thin layer to 1100-1200 C. under conditions in which the reaction atmosphere is hydrogen and the reaction pressure is 3-13 kPa; and
forming the aluminum oxide layer having an α crystal structure on the heated aluminum oxide core thin layer.
Description
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0001] The present application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. 119 to Japanese Patent Application Nos. 2003-053059 filed on Feb. 28, 2003 and 2003-056639 filed on Mar. 4, 2003. The contents of the applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The present invention relates to a Cermet cutting tool having a coated surface (to be referred to as a coated Cermet cutting tool) used for high-speed, intermittent cutting of various types of steel, cast iron and so forth, and its hard coating layer in particular demonstrates superior chipping resistance.

[0004] 2. Description of the Related Art

[0005] Known examples of coated Cermet cutting tools comprise a base (to be generically referred to as the tool base) made of tungsten carbide (WC)-based cemented carbide or titanium carbide (TiC)-based Cermet, and a hard coating layer. This hard coating layer comprises:

[0006] (a) a Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer, which is a lower layer, comprising one or more layers of a Ti carbide (TiC) layer, Ti nitride (TiN) layer, Ti carbonitride (TiCN) layer, Ti oxicarbide (TiCO) layer, Ti oxicarbonitride (TiCNO) layer, Zr carbide (ZrC) layer, Zr nitride (ZrN) layer, Zr carbonitride (ZrCN) layer, Zr oxicarbide (ZrCO) layer and Zr oxicarbonitride (ZrCNO) layer formed by chemical vapor deposition (to be simply referred to as vapor deposition formation), and having an overall mean layer thickness of 0.5-20 μm, and

[0007] (b) an aluminum oxide layer having an a crystal structure in the vapor deposited state (to be referred to as an α-Al2O3 layer), which is an upper layer, and having a mean layer thickness of 1-30 μm.

[0008] These coated Cermet cutting tools are widely known to be used for continuous and intermittent cutting of various types of steel, cast iron and so forth.

[0009] In addition, Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. Hei 6-31503 discloses that the Ti compound layer and the α-Al2O3 layer, which compose a hard coating layer, have a particulate crystal structure.

[0010] Moreover, Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. Hei 6-8010 discloses a technology for improving the strength of a TiCN layer comprising the Ti compound layer in which the TiCN layer is made to contain a longitudinally growing crystal structure by vapor deposition with an ordinary chemical vapor deposition device in an intermediate temperature range of 700-950 C. using a mixed gas containing organic carbonitride as the reactive gas.

[0011] Cutting devices have recently come to be required to offer higher performance, and there are also strong needs for saving of labor, saving of energy and reduced costs with respect to cutting processing. Accompanying these needs, the speed of cutting processing is tending to become even faster, resulting in the unavoidable circumstances of cutting processing under heavy-duty cutting conditions including greater cutting depth and faster feeding.

[0012] There are no problems with the use of the conventional coated Cermet cutting tools in the case of continuous or intermittent cutting of steel or cast iron and so forth under ordinary conditions. However, although the α-Al2O3 layer that composes the hard coating layer has superior heat resistance, since it is not provided with adequate strength, when used for high-speed intermittent cutting under severe cutting conditions, namely high-speed intermittent cutting in which thermal shock is repeatedly applied at an extremely short pitch to the cutting edge, chipping occurs easily in the hard coating layer. As a result, the cutting tool reaches the end of its service life in a comparatively short period of time.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0013] Therefore, the inventors of the present invention conducted research to improve chipping resistance by focusing on a Cermet cutting tool comprising an α-Al2O3 layer as the hard coating layer. As a result, the following research results were obtained.

[0014] (1) When an α-Al2O3 layer, which comprises a hard coating layer, is formed on the surface of a cutting tool by vapor deposition, prior to this formation by vapor deposition, an Al2O3 core (the Al2O3 core is preferably an Al2O3 core thin film having a mean layer thickness of 20-200 nm, to be referred to as an Al2O3 core thin film) is formed on the surface of the Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer, which is a lower layer, using an ordinary chemical vapor deposition device under low-temperature conditions of a reactive gas composition, in % by volume, of AlCl3: 3-10%, CO2: 0.5-3%, C2H4: 0.01-0.3% and H2: remainder, reaction atmosphere temperature of 750-900 C., and reaction atmosphere pressure of 3-13 kPa.

[0015] Next, an α-Al2O3 layer is formed under ordinary conditions on the Al2O3 core thin film which is heat treated under conditions in which the reaction atmosphere is changed to a hydrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 3-13 kPa and the reaction atmosphere temperature is raised to 1100-1200 C. The α-Al2O3 layer obtained in this manner was confirmed to demonstrate a pole plot graph in which the highest peak of the inclination section appears within a narrow range.

[0016] Specifically, as shown in the sketch drawings in FIG. 1, the inclination of the (0001) plane of crystal grains relative to the normal of the surface polishing plane is measured by emitting an electron beam onto individual α-Al2O3 crystal grains having a hexagonal crystal lattice present within the measuring range of the surface polishing plane using a field emission scanning electron microscope. Next, the measured inclinations within the range of 0-45 degrees indicated by the individual crystal grains are divided for each pitch of 0.25 degrees, and a pole plot graph is prepared in which the measured inclinations present in each section are tabulated for each section. In this case, as shown in FIG. 2, the pole plot graph is shown in which the highest peak of the inclination division appears within a narrow range of 0-10 degrees.

[0017] Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 3, a conventional α-Al2O3 layer was confirmed to have a pole plot graph in which a gradual highest pitch of the inclination section appears over a wide range of 25-35 degrees.

[0018] (2) An α-Al2O3 layer formed by vapor deposition on the heat-treated Al2O3 core thin film has significantly improved strength as compared with a conventional α-Al2O3 layer. Thus, a coated Cermet cutting tool in which a hard coating layer was formed by vapor deposition as the upper layer was confirmed to demonstrate superior chipping resistance as compared with a conventional Cermet cutting tool in which a conventional α-Al2O3 layer was formed by vapor deposition.

[0019] The present invention is based on these research results. In order to solve these problems, the present invention provides a cutting tool provided with a tool base composed with WC-based cemented carbide or TiCN-based Cermet, and a hard coating layer; wherein the hard coating layer comprises:

[0020] (a) a Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer, which is a lower layer, comprising one or more layers of a TiC layer, TiN layer, TiCN layer, TiCO layer, TiCNO layer, ZrC layer, ZrN layer, ZrCN layer, ZrCO layer and ZrCNO layer, which are formed by vapor deposition, and having an overall mean layer thickness of 0.5-20 μm, and

[0021] (b) an aluminum oxide layer having an a crystal structure in the state of being formed by vapor deposition (α-Al2O3 layer), which is an upper layer, comprising the highest peak in the inclination section within a range of 0-10 degrees in the case of emitting an electron beam onto individual crystal grains having a hexagonal crystal lattice present within the measuring range of the surface polishing plane, measuring the inclination of the (0001) crystal plane of the crystal grains relative to the normal of the surface polishing plane using a field emission scanning electron microscope, dividing the measured inclinations within a range of 0-45 degrees indicated by the individual crystal grains for each pitch of 0.25 degrees, and preparing a pole plot graph by tabulating the measured inclinations present in each section for each section, and having a mean layer thickness in a range of 1-30 μm.

[0022] In the cutting tool of the present invention, the α-Al2O3 layer, which composes the hard coating layer, exhibits a pole plot graph in which the highest peak appears in the inclination section within a range of 0-10 degrees as shown in FIG. 2, and demonstrates superior chipping resistance. Thus, the cutting tool of the present invention exhibits superior wear resistance and cutting performance over a long period of time even during high-speed intermittent cutting of various types of steel and cast iron that is accompanied by extremely high levels of mechanical and thermal shock as well as the generation of a large amount of heat.

[0023] In the cutting tool, it is preferable for the hard coating layer to have an aluminum oxide core thin layer containing an aluminum oxide core between the lower layer and the upper layer.

[0024] In the cutting tool, it is preferable for the mean layer thickness of the aluminum oxide core thin layer to be in a range of 20-200 nm.

[0025] In the cutting tool, it is preferable that the hard coating layer is obtained by forming the Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer; forming the aluminum oxide core thin layer on the surface of the Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer under conditions of a reaction gas composition, in % by volume, of AlCl3: 3-10%, CO2: 0.5-3%, C2H4: 0.01-0.3% and H2: remainder, a reaction atmosphere temperature of 750-900 C. and a reaction atmosphere pressure of 3-13 kPa; and heating the aluminum oxide core thin layer to 1100-1200 C. under conditions in which the reaction atmosphere is hydrogen and the reaction pressure is 3-13 kPa; and forming the aluminum oxide layer having an α crystal structure on the heated aluminum oxide core thin layer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0026]FIGS. 1A and 1B are sketch drawings showing the measuring range of inclination of the (0001) plane of crystal grains in an α-Al2O3 layer which comprises a hard coating layer.

[0027]FIG. 2 is a pole plot graph of the (0001) plane of an α-Al2O3 layer which comprises a hard coating layer of the cutting tool of the present invention.

[0028]FIG. 3 is a pole plot graph of the (0001) plane of an α-Al2O3 layer which comprises a hard coating layer of a cutting tool of the prior art.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0029] As was previously explained, the cutting tool of the present invention is provided with a tool base composed with WC-based cemented carbide or TiCN-based Cermet, and a hard coating layer. The hard coating layer further comprises a Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer, which is a lower layer, and an α-Al2O3 layer, which is an upper layer.

[0030] The reasons for limiting the mean layer thicknesses of the upper and lower layers of the hard coating layer in the manner previously described are as indicated below.

[0031] (a) Ti Compound and/or Zr Compound Layer

[0032] The Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer is basically present as the lower layer of the α-Al2O3 layer. Since it has superior strength, the hard coating layer comprising it also has superior strength. In addition, since it is securely adhered to both the tool base and the α-Al2O3 layer, it contributes to improved adhesion of the hard coating layer to the tool base. If the mean layer thickness is less than 0.5 μm, the actions are unable to be fully demonstrated. On the other hand, if the mean layer thickness exceeds 20 μm, the thermoplastic deformation occurs easily during high-speed intermittent cutting accompanying the generation of high levels of heat, in particular, thereby causing uneven wear. Consequently, the mean layer thickness of the Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer is defined to be 0.5-20 μm.

[0033] (b) α-Al2O3 Layer

[0034] The α-Al2O3 layer improves wear resistance of the hard coating layer because Al2O3 itself has high hardness and superior heat resistance. At the same time, since the α-Al2O3 layer of the present invention has superior strength as compared with conventional α-Al2O3 layers, it acts to further improve the chipping resistance of the hard coating layer. However, the effects are unable to be adequately demonstrated if its mean layer thickness is less than 1 μm. On the other hand, if it is thicker than 30 μm, chipping occurs easily. Consequently, the mean layer thickness of the α-Al2O3 layer is defined to be 1-30 μm.

[0035] (c) Heat-treated Al2O3 Core Thin Film

[0036] There is a close relationship between the inclination section indicating the highest peak and the ratio of the heat-treated Al2O3 core thin film, in a pole plot graph of the α-Al2O3 layer. If the ratio of the heat-treated Al2O3 core thin film is too low, it becomes difficult to adjust the inclination section where the highest peak appears to within the range of 0-10 degrees, and it also becomes difficult to impart a satisfactory level of strength to the α-Al2O3 layer formed by vapor deposition thereon. Consequently, the effect of improving chipping resistance is unavoidably inadequate. Thus, it is preferable to provide an Al2O3 core thin film, and particularly a heat-treated Al2O3 core thin film. Its mean layer thickness is preferably 20 nm or more, and more preferably 30 nm or more. On the other hand, since it becomes difficult to make the inclination section where the highest peak appears to be within the range of 0-10 degrees if its ratio becomes excessively large. Therefore, its mean layer thickness is preferably 200 nm or less, and more preferably 150 nm or less.

[0037] Thus, the mean layer thickness of the Al2O3 core thin film formed on the Ti compound and/or Zr compound layer prior to formation by vapor deposition of the α-Al2O3 layer is preferably 20-200 nm, and more preferably 30-150 nm.

[0038] A TiN layer having a gold color tone may also be formed by vapor deposition as necessary as the uppermost surface layer of the hard coating layer for the purpose of discriminating before and after use of the coated Cermet cutting tool. In this case, the mean layer thickness of the TiN layer having a gold color tone is preferably 0.1-1 μm. If the mean layer thickness is less than 0.1 μm, adequate discrimination effects are unable to be obtained. In addition, a mean layer thickness of up to 1 μm is adequate for the TiN layer to demonstrate a discrimination effect.

EXAMPLES

[0039] The following provides a more detailed explanation of the cutting tool of the present invention by referring to Examples and Comparative Examples.

[0040] As raw material powders, WC powder, TiC powder, ZrC powder, VC powder, TaC powder, NbC powder, Cr3C2 powder, TiN powder, TaN powder and Co powder having a mean particle diameter of 1-3 μm were prepared. These raw material powders were blended to the blending compositions shown in Table 1, wax was added to them, and they were then mixed using a ball mill for 24 hours in acetone. After drying under reduced pressure, the dried mixtures were pressed formed into green compacts of a predetermined shape at a pressure of 98 MPa. Next, the green compacts were vacuum sintered for 1 hour in a vacuum at 5 Pa at a predetermined temperature within the range of 1370-1470 C. After sintering, the cutting edges were subjected to honing of R=0.07 mm to produce tool bases A through F made of WC-based cemented carbide having the indexable insert shape defined in ISO-CNMG 120408.

TABLE 1
Blending Composition (% by mass)
Type Co TiC ZrC VC TaC NbC Cr3C2 TiN TaN WC
Tool A 7 Rem.
Base B 5.7 1.5 0.5 Rem.
C 5.7 1 Rem.
D 8.5 0.5 0.5 Rem.
E 12.5 2 1 2 Rem.
F 14 0.2 0.8 Rem.

[0041] In addition, as raw material powders, TiCN (mass ratio of TiC/TiN=50/50) powder, Mo2C powder, ZrC powder, NbC powder, TaC powder, WC powder, Co powder and Ni powder having a mean particle diameter of 0.5-2 μm were prepared. These powders were mixed to the blending compositions shown in Table 2, they were then wet-mixed for 24 hours with a ball mill. After drying, they were press formed into green compacts at a pressure of 98 MPa. Next, the green compacts were sintered for 1 hour at a nitrogen atmosphere at 1.3 kPa, at a temperature of 1540 C. After sintering, the cutting edges were subjected to honing of R=0.07 mm to produce tool bases a through f made of TiCN-based Cermet having the insert shape of ISO standard CNMG 120412.

TABLE 2
Blending Composition (% by mass)
Type Co Ni ZrC TaC NbC Mo2C WC TiCN
Tool a 13 5 10 10 16 Rem.
Base b 8 7 5 7.5 Rem.
c 5 6 10 Rem.
d 10 5 11 2 Rem.
e 9 4 1 8 10 10 Rem.
f 12 5.5 10 9.5 14.5 Rem.

[0042] The Ti compound and/or Zr compound layers having the target layer thicknesses shown in Table 4 were first formed by vapor deposition as the lower layer of the hard coating layer under the conditions shown in Table 3 (the 1-TiCN in Table 3 indicates the formation conditions of a TiCN layer having a longitudinally growing crystal structure described in Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. Hei 6-8010, while others indicate the formation conditions of an ordinary particulate crystal structure) using an ordinary chemical vapor deposition device on the surfaces of these tool bases A through F and a through f.

TABLE 3
Formation Conditions
Reaction Atmosphere
Layers of Hard Coating Layer Reaction Gas Composition Pressure Temperature
(numbers indicate atomic ratios) (% by volume) (kPa) ( C.)
TiC TiCl4: 4.2%, CH4: 8.5%, H2: rem. 7 1020
TiN (first layer) TiCl4: 4.2%, N2: 30%, H2: rem. 30 900
TiN (other layer) TiCl4: 4.2%, N2: 35%, H2: rem. 50 1040
1-TiC0.5N0.5 TiCl4: 4.2%, N2: 20%, CH3CN: 0.6%, H2: rem. 7 1000
TiC0.5N0.5 TiCl4: 4.2%, N2: 20%, CH4: 4%, H2: rem. 12 1020
TiC0.5O0.5 TiCl4: 4.2%, CO: 4%, H2: rem. 7 1020
TiC0.3N0.3O0.4 TiCl4: 4.2%, CO: 3%, CH4: 3%, N2: 20%, H2: rem. 20 1020
ZrC ZrCl4: 4.2%, CH4: 8.5%, H2: rem. 7 1040
ZrN ZrCl4: 4.2%, N2: 30%, H2: rem. 30 960
ZrC0.5N0.5 ZrCl4: 4.2%, N2: 20%, CH3CN: 0.8%, H2: rem. 7 960
ZrC0.5O0.5 ZrCl4: 4.2%, CO: 4%, H2: rem. 7 1040
ZrC0.3N0.3O0.4 ZrCl4: 4.2%, CO: 3%, CH4: 3%, N2: 20%, H2: rem. 20 1040
α-Al2O3 AlCl3: 2.2%, CO2: 5.5%, HCl: 2.2%, H2S: 0.2%, H2: rem. 7 1000

[0043]

TABLE 4-1
Tool Hard Coating Layer (parentheses: target layer thickness: μm unless indicated in nm)
base 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th
Type symbol layer layer layer layer layer layer layer
Coated  1 A TiN 1-TiCN TiN TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
Cermet (1) (17.5) (1) (0.5) (50 nm) (3)
Cutting  2 B TiN 1-TiCN TiC TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
Tool of (1) (4) (4) (1) (80 nm) (8) (0.3)
Examples  3 C TiN 1-TiCN TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(1) (4.5) (0.5) (50 nm) (15)
 4 D TiN 1-TiCN TiC TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(0.5) (10) (2) (0.3) (100 nm) (3)
 5 D TiC 1-TiCN TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(1) (4) (1) (20 nm) (15)
 6 E TiC 1-TiCN TiCO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(0.5) 9 (0.5) (50 nm) (8)
 7 F TiN TiC 1-TiCN Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (1) (8) (150 nm) (5) (0.1)
 8 a TiCN 1-TiCN TiCO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(1) (8.5) (0.5) (200 nm) (10)
 9 b TiC 1-TiCN Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (9) (100 nm) (5) (1)
10 c TiN 1-TiCN TiC TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(0.5) (1.5) (0.5) (0.5) (80 nm) (20)
11 d TiN TiCN Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(1) (19) (100 nm) (1)
12 e TiN TiC TiCN TiCO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (1) (7) (1) (30 nm) (10) (0.1)
13 f TiCN TiC TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
(0.5) (2) (0.5) (80 nm) (30) (0.3)

[0044]

TABLE 4-2
Tool Hard Coating Layer (parentheses: target layer thickness: μm unless indicated in nm)
base 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th
Type symbol layer layer layer layer layer layer layer
Coated 14 A ZrN ZrCN ZrN ZrCO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
Cermet (1) (7.5) (1) (0.5) (50 nm) (6)
Cutting 15 B ZrN ZrCN ZrC ZrCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
Tool of (1) (4) (4) (1) (80 nm) (8) (0.3)
Examples 16 C ZrN ZrCN ZrCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(1) (16.5) (0.5) (200 nm) (3)
17 D TiN 1-TiCN ZrC ZrCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(0.5) (6) (2) (0.3) (100 nm) (12)
18 d ZrC ZrCN TiCNO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(0.5) (2) (0.5) (20 nm) (20)
19 e ZrC ZrCN ZrCO Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3
(0.5) (9) (0.5) (50 nm) (10)
20 f ZrN ZrCO ZrCN Al2O3 core thin film α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (1) (8) (150 nm) (15) (0.1)

[0045] Next, Al2O3 core thin films of the target layer thicknesses shown in Table 4 were formed under low-temperature conditions in which a reaction gas composition comprising, in % by volume, AlCl3: 6.5%, CO2: 1.6%, C2H4: 0.13%, and H2: reminder; a reaction atmosphere temperature: 820 C.; a reaction atmosphere pressure: 8 kPa; and a reaction time: 5-80 minutes (the relationship between the layer thickness of the Al2O3 core thin film and a reaction time was assessed in advance by an experiment, similar to the case of the Ti compound layer). Next, the Al2O3 core thin film was heat treated under conditions of changing the reaction atmosphere pressure to a hydrogen atmosphere at 8 kPa and raising the reaction atmosphere temperature to 1135 C. Subsequently, cutting tools of Examples 1, 3-6 and 8-11, 14, 16-19 were produced by forming by vapor deposition the α-Al2O3 layers of the target layer thicknesses shown in Table 4 for the upper layer of the hard coating layer under the conditions shown in the Table 3.

[0046] Moreover, cutting tools of Examples 2, 7, 12, 13, 15 and 20 were produced by forming by vapor deposition the TiN layers of the target layer thicknesses shown in Table 4 for the uppermost surface layer of the hard coating layer under the conditions shown in the Table 3 on the resulting α-Al2O3 layers.

[0047] In addition, for the sake of comparison, comparative cutting tools 1 through 20 were respectively produced under the same conditions with the exception of not forming the Al2O3 core thin film and not performing heat treatment prior to forming the α-Al2O3 layer of the hard coating layer as shown in Table 5.

TABLE 5
Hard Coating Layer (parentheses: target
Tool layer thickness: μm)
Base 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
Symbol layer layer layer layer layer layer
Coated  1 A TiN 1-TiCN TiN TiCNO α-Al2O3
Cermet (1) (17.5) (1) (0.5) (3)
Cutting  2 B TiN 1-TiCN TiC TiCNO α-Al2O3 TiN
Tools of (1) (4) (4) (1) (8) (0.3)
Compara-  3 C TiN 1-TiCN TiCNO α-Al2O3
tive (1) (4.5) (0.5) (15)
Examples  4 D TiN 1-TiCN TiC TiCNO α-Al2O3
(0.5) (10) (2) (0.3) (3)
 5 D TiC 1-TiCN TiCNO α-Al2O3
(1) (4) (1) (15)
 6 E TiC 1-TiCN TiCO α-Al2O3
(0.5) (9) (0.5) (8)
 7 F TiN TiC 1-TiCN α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (1) (8) (5) (0.1)
 8 a TiCN 1-TiCN TiCO α-Al2O3
(1) (8.5) (0.5) (10)
 9 b TiC 1-TiCN α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (9) (5) (1)
10 c TiN 1-TiCN TiC TiCNO α-Al2O3
(0.5) (1.5) (0.5) (0.5) (20)
11 d TiN TiCN α-Al2O3
(1) (19) (1)
12 e TiN TiC TiCN TiCO α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (1) (7) (1) (10) (0.1)
13 f TiCN TiC TiCNO α-Al2O3 TiN
(0.5) (2) (0.5) (30) (0.3)
14 A ZrN ZrCN ZrN ZrCO α-Al2O3
(1) (7.5) (1) (0.5) (6)
15 B ZrN ZrCN ZrC ZrCNO α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (4) (4) (1) (8) (0.3)
16 C ZrN ZrCN ZrCNO α-Al2O3
(1) (16.5) (0.5) (3)
17 D TiN 1-TiCN ZrC ZrCNO α-Al2O3
(0.5) (6) (2) (0.3) (12)
18 d ZrC ZrCN TiCNO α-Al2O3
(0.5) (2) (0.5) (20)
19 e ZrC ZrCN ZrCO α-Al2O3
(0.5) (9) (0.5) (10)
20 f ZrN ZrCO ZrCN α-Al2O3 TiN
(1) (1) (8) (15) (0.1)

[0048] Production of Pole Plot Graphs

[0049] Pole plot graphs were respectively produced using a field emission scanning electron microscope for the α-Al2O3 layers that compose the hard coating layer with the resulting coated Cermet cutting tools of Examples 1-20 and coated Cermet cutting tools of Comparative Examples 1-20.

[0050] Namely, the surface of the α-Al2O3 layer was placed inside the barrel of a field emission scanning electron microscope as the polishing plane. Next, an electron beam having an acceleration voltage of 15 kV was emitted onto individual crystal grains having a hexagonal crystal lattice present within the measuring range of the surface polishing plane at an emission current of 1 nA and incident angle of 70 degrees relative to the polishing plane. Inclination of the (0001) plane, which is the crystal plane of the crystal grains, was measured relative to the normal of the surface polishing plane in intervals of 0.1 μm/step for a region measuring 3050 μm using an electron backscattering diffraction imaging device. The measured inclination within the range of 0-45 degrees indicated by each crystal grain was divided for each pitch of 0.25 degrees based on the measurement results, and the measured inclinations present in each section were tabulated for each section to prepare pole plot graphs.

[0051] The inclination sections in which the (0001) plane exhibits the highest peak are respectively shown in Tables 6-1 and 6-2 in the resulting pole plot graphs of the α-Al2O3 layer.

TABLE 6-1
Inclination section in which Amount of flank
(0001) plane of α-Al2O3 layer wear (mm)
indicates highest peak Alloy Carbon Cast
(degrees) steel steel iron
Coated  1 3.25-3.50 0.31 0.30 0.33
Cermet  2 1.00-1.25 0.23 0.24 0.25
Cutting  3 1.50-1.75 0.26 0.25 0.24
Tool of  4 2.75-3.00 0.32 0.31 0.34
Examples  5 8.00-8.25 0.38 0.36 0.35
 6 2.00-2.25 0.28 0.28 0.29
 7 5.25-5.50 0.33 0.34 0.37
 8  9.75-10.00 0.37 0.36 0.36
 9 2.25-2.50 0.29 0.29 0.31
10 0.50-0.75 0.23 0.21 0.21
11 3.50-3.75 0.38 0.39 0.45
12 4.25-4.50 0.34 0.33 0.33
13 0.00-0.25 0.25 0.20 0.19
14 3.00-3.25 0.30 0.32 0.31
15 1.50-1.75 0.24 0.25 0.26
16 1.00-1.25 0.26 0.24 0.26
17 2.75-3.00 0.32 0.30 0.33
18 8.50-8.75 0.39 0.38 0.36
19 1.50-1.75 0.25 0.26 0.27
20 5.00-5.25 0.34 0.32 0.35

[0052]

TABLE 6-2
Inclination section in Cutting test results
which (0001) plane of (time to reach service life)
α-Al2O3 layer indicates Alloy Carbon Cast
highest peak (degrees) steel steel iron
Coated  1 25.75-26.00 2.8 min. 2.7 min. 2.9 min.
Cermet  2 29.50-29.75 1.7 min. 1.5 min. 1.0 min.
Cutting  3 33.50-33.75 0.5 min. 0.3 min. 0.3 min.
Tool of  4 26.50-26.75 2.7 min. 2.9 min. 3.0 min.
Comparative  5 32.25-32.50 0.5 min. 0.4 min. 0.5 min.
Examples  6 29.50-29.75 1.5 min. 1.8 min. 1.9 min.
 7 27.50-27.75 2.0 min. 2.1 min. 1.6 min.
 8 31.00-31.25 0.9 min. 0.7 min. 0.6 min.
 9 26.25-26.50 2.2 min. 1.9 min. 1.9 min.
10 33.25-33.50 0.3 min. 0.3 min. 0.5 min.
11 25.00-25.25 3.1 min. 2.6 min. 1.5 min.
12 31.50-31.75 1.1 min. 0.8 min. 0.8 min.
13 34.75-35.00 0.2 min. 0.3 min. 0.5 min.
14 25.75-26.00 2.9 min. 2.8 min. 2.7 min.
15 29.00-29.25 1.8 min. 1.7 min. 1.2 min.
16 32.50-32.75 0.8 min. 0.5 min. 0.9 min.
17 28.50-28.75 2.5 min. 2.8 min. 3.0 min.
18 34.25-34.50 0.5 min. 0.3 min. 0.7 min.
19 29.25-29.50 1.7 min. 1.8 min. 2.0 min.
20 27.75-28.00 2.2 min. 1.9 min. 1.8 min.

[0053] Thickness layer of Hard Coating Layer

[0054] The thickness of each layer of the hard coating layers of the resulting coated Cermet cutting tools of Examples 1-20 and Comparative Examples 1-20 was measured using a scanning electron microscope (measurement of longitudinal cross-section). As a result, all of the mean layer thicknesses (average of five measuring points) were confirmed to be substantially the same as the target layer thickness. Furthermore, measurement of the layer thickness of the heat-treated Al2O3 core thin film in the coated Cermet cutting tools of Examples 1-20 was extremely difficult.

[0055] Next, coated Cermet cutting tools of Examples 1-7 and 14-17 and coated Cermet coating tools of Comparative Examples 1-7 and 14-17 were bolted onto the end of a tool steel cutting bit followed by performing the cutting tests described below.

[0056] Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Alloy Steel

[0057] The amount of flank wear of the cutting edge, or when that was unable to be measured, the service life of the cutting edge, namely the amount of time until chipping occurred in the hard coating layer, was measured. The cut material and test conditions used are indicated below. The test results are shown in Table 6.

[0058] Cut material: Round bar composed of JIS-SCM440 in which four longitudinal grooves are formed at equal intervals in the direction of length

[0059] Cutting speed: 350 m/min (normal cutting speed: 250 m/min)

[0060] Cutting depth: 1 mm

[0061] Feed: 0.25 mm/rev.

[0062] Cutting time: 5 min.

[0063] Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Carbon Steel

[0064] Similar to the Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Alloy Steel, the amount of wear of the flank of the cutting edge or the service life of the cutting edge was measured. The cut material and test conditions used are indicated below. The results are shown in Table 6.

[0065] Cut material: Round bar composed of JIS-S45C in which four longitudinal grooves are formed at equal intervals in the direction of length

[0066] Cutting speed: 400 m/min (normal cutting speed: 300 m/min)

[0067] Cutting depth: 1 mm

[0068] Feed: 0.25 mm/rev.

[0069] Cutting time: 5 min.

[0070] Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Cast Iron

[0071] Similar to these tests, the amount of wear of the flank of the cutting edge or the service life of the cutting edge was measured. The cut material and test conditions used are indicated below. The results are shown in Table 6.

[0072] Cut material: Round bar composed of JIS-FC300 in which four longitudinal grooves are formed at equal intervals in the direction of length

[0073] Cutting speed: 450 m/min (normal cutting speed: 300 m/min)

[0074] Cutting depth: 1.5 mm

[0075] Feed: 0.25 mm/rev.

[0076] Cutting time: 5 min.

[0077] Moreover, the coated Cermet cutting tools of Examples 8-13 and 18-20 and the coated Cermet cutting tools of Comparative Examples 8-13 and 18-20 were bolted to the end of the tool steel cutting bit followed by performing the cutting tests described below.

[0078] Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Alloy Steel

[0079] Similar to these tests, the amount of wear of the flank of the cutting edge or the service life of the cutting edge was measured. The cut material and test conditions used are indicated below. The results are shown in Table 6.

[0080] Cut material: Round bar composed of JIS-SCM440 in which four longitudinal grooves are formed at equal intervals in the direction of length

[0081] Cutting speed: 400 m/min (normal cutting speed: 250 m/min)

[0082] Cutting depth: 0.7 mm

[0083] Feed: 0.15 mm/rev.

[0084] Cutting time: 5 min.

[0085] Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Carbon Steel

[0086] Similar to these tests, the amount of wear of the flank of the cutting edge or the service life of the cutting edge was measured. The cut material and test conditions used are indicated below. The results are shown in Table 6.

[0087] Cut material: Round bar composed of JIS-S45C in which four longitudinal grooves are formed at equal intervals in the direction of length

[0088] Cutting speed: 400 m/min (normal cutting speed: 300 m/min)

[0089] Cutting depth: 0.7 mm

[0090] Feed: 0.15 mm/rev.

[0091] Cutting time: 5 min.

[0092] Dry High-Speed Intermittent Cutting Test Using Cast Iron

[0093] Similar to these tests, the amount of wear of the flank of the cutting edge or the service life of the cutting edge was measured. The cut material and test conditions used are indicated below. The results are shown in Table 6.

[0094] Cut material: Round bar composed of JIS-FC300 in which four longitudinal grooves are formed at equal intervals in the direction of length

[0095] Cutting speed: 450 m/min (normal cutting speed: 300 m/min)

[0096] Cutting depth: 0.7 mm

[0097] Feed: 0.15 mm/rev.

[0098] Cutting time: 5 min.

[0099] As shown in Tables 4 through 6, in the coated Cermet cutting tools of the Examples 1-20, the (0001) plane of the α-Al2O3 layer indicated the highest peak in the inclination section within the range of 0-10 degrees in the pole plot graphs. Consequently, these cutting tools demonstrated extremely high resistance to mechanical and thermal shock, and superior chipping resistance even during high-speed intermittent cutting of steel or cast iron accompanied by the generation of a large amount of heat. The cutting tools significantly suppressed the occurrence of chipping of the cutting edge, and exhibited superior wear resistance.

[0100] In contrast, in the case of the Cermet cutting tools of Comparative Examples 1 to 20, the (0001) plane of the α-Al2O3 layer, which is the upper layer of the hard coating layer, indicated the highest peak in the inclination section within the range of 25-35 degrees in the pole plot graphs. Consequently, these cutting tools were unable to withstand the severe mechanical and thermal shock during high-speed intermittent cutting, chipping occurred in the cutting edge, and the cutting tools reached the end of their service life in a comparatively short period of time.

[0101] As has been described above, the cutting tool of the present invention is naturally capable of continuous and intermittent cutting of various types of steel and cast iron under normal conditions, is extremely resistant to mechanical and thermal shock, exhibits superior chipping resistance even during the most severe high-speed intermittent cutting accompanied the generation of a large amount of heat, and demonstrates superior cutting performance over a long period of time. Thus, the cutting tool of the present invention is capable of satisfactorily accommodating increased performance of cutting devices, labor and energy savings in cutting processing, as well as reductions in costs.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7273665Dec 21, 2004Sep 25, 2007Mitsubishi Materials CorporationSurface-coated cermet cutting tool with hard coating layer having excellent chipping resistance
US7276301Nov 24, 2004Oct 2, 2007Mitsubishi Materials CorporationSurface-coated cermet cutting tool with a hard coating layer exhibiting excellent chipping resistance
US7964295Dec 20, 2005Jun 21, 2011Sandvik Intellectual Property AbCoated cutting inserts
US8404366Jan 2, 2007Mar 26, 2013Taegutec, Ltd.Surface treating method for cutting tools
EP1674597A1 *Nov 29, 2005Jun 28, 2006Sandvik Intellectual Property ABCutting tool insert
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/408, 428/472, 428/699, 428/698
International ClassificationB23C5/16, C23C16/30, C23C16/02, C23C30/00, C23C16/34, C23C16/40, C23C16/36, C23C28/04
Cooperative ClassificationC23C28/042, C23C28/044, C23C30/00, C23C16/403, C23C16/30, C23C16/34, C23C16/36, C23C30/005, C23C16/0272, B23B2228/10
European ClassificationC23C16/34, C23C16/40D, C23C16/30, C23C16/02H, C23C28/04, C23C30/00, C23C30/00B, C23C16/36
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 14, 2008RFReissue application filed
Effective date: 20080916
Jul 12, 2004ASAssignment
Owner name: MITSUBISHI MATERIALS CORPORATION, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OSHIKA, TAKATOSHI;UEDA, TOSHIAKI;HAYAHI, TAKUYA;REEL/FRAME:014840/0721
Effective date: 20040705