FIELD OF THE INVENTION
- BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates generally to improvements in building panels typically used for roof construction and weatherproofing. More particularly, the present invention provides an improved roofing panel that allows for an improved roofing system and method for construction. Each panel is prefabricated with an impermeable surface layer bonded to the panel with one or more overlapping edges. Thus, the impermeable surface layer of each panel extends onto the surface layer of an adjacent panel to provide a weather resistant roof that eliminates the construction step of separately installing a water resistant layer such as tar paper or other impermeable materials while on the rooftop.
Weather resistant roofing is a crucial requirement for any successful building, and a number of methods have been used. In conventional home construction, roofs are often constructed by laying a weather resistant felt liner on a roofing deck, then applying shingles and long strips of liner that overlap the shingles. This process is expensive and time consuming, and may create a safety risk based on the additional time workers must spend on the roof. Additionally, nail holes can allow leaks over time, and wind uplift forces can readily damage the shingles.
Other roofing systems use panels to provide for quicker installation. Metal panels which overlap or interlock are often used, however heat induced expansion and contraction of the metal can lead to cracks or gaps through which moisture may enter the building. Metal roofing panels are also difficult to shape for fitting corners and angles.
Another type of roofing system is the single-ply membrane roof, in which an insulation barrier like foam or wood is installed in panels on the roofing deck, and then impermeable sheets of a polymeric material such as ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) are installed over the insulation panels. Single-ply roofs allow for faster construction than shingled roofs, however there are difficulties in attaching the membrane to the insulation panels. Mechanically fastening large sheets of membrane to the roofing deck requires careful labor and creates problems of wind uplift and water leakage. Likewise, using adhesives over the entire surface requires additional time and expense. Additionally, an area around the edges of the membrane sheets must often be cleaned in order to create a good seal when adjacent sheets are attached to one another. Plus, all construction must take place on the rooftop itself, creating difficult working conditions and a safety hazard.
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
As such, because of the necessity of having a weather resistant roof and because of the time and expense involved in building one, there is a need for an improved roofing material and method for installation that is efficient, quick, and reliable. Also, because construction often takes place on the rooftop, there is a need for a roofing system and construction method that reduce the time workers spend on the roof and thus improve safety.
The present invention is therefore directed to a weather resistant roofing panel, a roofing system using this panel, and a method for construction.
One aspect of the present invention relates to providing a prefabricated roofing panel that is cost effective to produce and install. Another aspect relates to an improved roofing system that may be constructed more efficiently with less overall cost and greater reliability while providing protection from the weather in a shorter installation time.
Another aspect of this invention is to provide a roofing panel that has an impermeable surface layer bonded to each panel prior to its use in construction of a roof. An additional aspect is to eliminate the need to attach weather resistant sheets at the construction site while on the rooftop. A further aspect of this invention is to provide a panel with an impermeable surface layer that may be easily joined to adjacent panels and sealed. Yet another aspect is to provide a roofing panel that may be joined to adjacent panels and sealed without the need for additional roofing components. Still another aspect is to provide a roofing panel in which nails are not needed to attach the impermeable surface layer. Additionally, the panel may include an impermeable surface layer having a textured or prepared surface that provides greater traction for the worker as he walks on the surface during construction. A further aspect is to provide an impermeable surface layer that reduces wrinkles. An additional aspect is to provide a surface layer made from coated paper to facilitate installation, weatherproofing, repairing, and bonding and to reduce expense.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Another aspect of this invention is to provide a versatile roofing panel that may be easily cut or altered to fit any roof shape desired. Further aspects stem from providing a roofing panel made from Oriented Strand Board (OSB). OSB functions as insulation, provides structural stability, reduces expenses, and may be easily cut to fit different roof shapes. Yet another aspect of the present invention is to provide a roofing panel that is resistant to wind uplift and that is easy to repair.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a roofing panel according to one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the panel of FIG. 1 illustrating the layers of the invention.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a roofing panel according to another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is an illustration of how the panels of FIG. 1 may be installed.
FIG. 5 is an illustration of a roofing surface according to one embodiment of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 6 is an illustration of a roofing surface according to another embodiment of the present invention.
In order to provide a cost efficient roofing system that can be quickly, efficiently, and safely installed, the present invention relates to an improved roofing panel. This invention also provides a roofing system and a method for construction based on the new panel.
FIG. 1 illustrates one embodiment of the roofing panel according to this invention. FIG. 2 provides a cross-sectional view of the roofing panel in FIG. 1. In FIG. 1, a roofing panel 1 is provided that includes a panel body 2 and a weather resistant surface layer 3 having a first weather resistant tab 4 and a second weather resistant tab 5. The weather resistant surface layer 3 is bonded to the panel body 2. The first tab 4 extends beyond a first edge 6 of the panel body 2, and the second tab 5 extends beyond a second edge 7 of the panel body 2. When panels are installed as illustrated in FIG. 4, the first and second tabs 4, 5 overlap the surface layers 3 of adjacent panels and thus may be bonded or fastened to create a seal over the line of abutment of the adjacent panels. Thus, the portions of the first and second tabs 4, 5 that extend beyond the edges of the panel body are preferably connected, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 4, so as to create a continuous weather resistant surface without gaps at the panel corners.
Additionally, in a further embodiment, the roofing panels may be made so that the weather resistant surface layer 3 is not bonded to the panel body 2 in a region along the edges of the panel so that clips may be installed to hold adjacent panels. In this manner, the consistency of the weather resistant surface layer 3 is not compromised, and the weather resistant surface layer 3 may overlap the clips. Furthermore, with this embodiment, the weather resistant surface layer 3 may be lifted up along the edges of the panel body 2 to allow for nails to be driven through roofing panel without penetrating the weather resistant surface layer 3.
It should be understood that the presently preferred use of the invention is for construction of roofs, but the panels may also be used for other construction purposes such as exterior wall sheathing, flooring, decking and other uses when an extended weather resistant surface is desired.
In accordance with the present invention, the roofing panel 1 illustrated by FIG. 1 eliminates the need to separately install a weather resistant surface layer 2 to roofing panels 1 after the panels have been installed. Instead, the roofing panels 1 of the present invention are prefabricated with a weather resistant surface layer 2 attached. The first and second tabs 4, 5 provide a waterproof layer across adjacent panel units by the use of an overlapping relationship. These features eliminate construction steps and components, thus saving time and expense and improving safety.
One of skill in the art will also recognize that the panel body 2 can be made of any desired material and can be selected to function as insulation as well as simply support for the roof. For example, composite wood such as Oriented Strand Board (OSB) or plywood may be used for the panel body to provide insulation, structural support, and stability. For example, a panel of the present invention made from OSB would typically have a thickness suitable for the particular purpose such as ¼ inch to 1 inch and may be 4 feet by 8 feet or 4 feet by 12 feet in size. The tabs 4, 5 may extend beyond the edge of the panel body 2 an appropriate amount such as ½ inch to 2 inches typically. Furthermore the weight of the OSB panel body 2 increases the panel's resistance to wind uplift when the surface layer 3 is bonded tightly to the panel. An OSB panel body 2 also allows for greater versatility in roof construction as the panel body 2 may easily be cut to fit the dimensions of the roof. Additionally, OSB also helps to reduce cost. One of skill in the art will recognize that other types of materials may also be used depending upon the particular application. One of skill in the art will also recognize that conventional plywood, foam, polymers, or other materials may also be used for the panel body 2.
One embodiment of the present invention may use coated paper as the weather resistant surface layer 3. The paper may be coated on one surface with any water resistant material such as tar, felt, polyethylene, or plastic. The uncoated surface of the paper may be readily bonded with an acceptable adhesive to the surface of the OSB panel body 2. The coating also makes the paper substantially impermeable to water and can provide traction for walking on the roof. The first and second tabs 4, 5 may then be formed by simply extending the length of the paper over the first and second edges 6, 7, respectively, of the panel body 2 during fabrication of the panels. Thus, the first and second tabs 4, 5 may be prefabricated onto the panel without using additional sealing components. Using coated paper also provides first and second tabs 4, 5 that are flexible, easy to work with, and easy to cut or trim while being resistant to tearing or destruction. Furthermore, coated paper may reduce the cost of the roofing panel. However, one of skill in the art will recognize that the weather resistant surface layer and weather resistant tabs of this invention may be made using numerous weather resistant materials, including polymeric membranes and paper coated with other appropriate materials or particles. Alternatively, panels may be prefabricated with separate tabs pre-bonded to the surface layer 3. Thus, tabs could be made from different material if desired.
The panel in FIG. 1 may be assembled into a paneling system for use in roofing as is shown in the embodiment of this invention represented by FIGS. 4 and 5. FIG. 4 shows a paneling system in which panels are positioned adjacent to one another with their edges abutting. FIG. 5 shows this paneling system assembled on a roof. The paneling system of FIG. 4 may be constructed by installing a series of adjacent rows. Initially, row 12 is constructed by the steps of first positioning panel 8, then positioning a second panel 9 so that edge 14 of panel 8 abuts against edge 6 of panel 9. The first tab 4 of panel 9 may then overlap a portion of panel 8. The second tab of panel 9 has been removed because panel 9 is on an end row. Likewise, the first and second tabs of panel 8 have been removed because it is an end panel. Alternatively, tabs on end panels can be folded onto the panel body 2 or attached to adjacent structures if desired. End panels may also be cut or trimmed to fit the dimensions of any roof. Additional panels (not shown) may also be added to row 12 as desired according to the above method.
Next, row 13 of FIG. 4 is constructed by positioning panel 10 adjacent panel 8 so that edge 7 of panel 10 abuts edge 15 of panel 8 and second tab 5 of panel 10 overlaps a portion of panel 8. Then panel 11 is positioned adjacent to and abutting panel 10 and panel 9 so that the first and second tabs 4, 5 of panel 11 overlap a portion of the adjacent panels. Additional panels and rows of panels (not shown) may be added to the paneling assembly in accordance with the above steps. The first and second tabs 4, 5 of each panel may then overlap a portion of the adjacent panels and, if desired, be attached to the surface layers 3 of the adjacent panels. One of skill in the art will also recognize that the panels can be installed in a different sequence as long as the tabs overlap adjacent panels. Furthermore, although the panels of this invention may be effectively oriented in many positions, if a roof is sloped, then overlapping the second tab in a downwards direction will facilitate the flow of water over the panels. Additionally, if the weather resistant surface layer 3 of each panel is not bonded to the panel body 2 along its edges, then clips can be installed against the panel body 2, underneath the weather resistant surface layer 3 and underneath the overlapping tabs 4, 5, to hold adjacent panels together.
Alternatively, rows of panels may be arranged in a staggered arrangement for structural support, as is pictured in FIG. 6, with each panel abutting two adjacent panels at that panel's second edge 7 and abutting another two adjacent panels at the opposite edge 15, extending to the top and bottom of the roof. Thus, the second tab 5 of each panel would partially overlap two adjacent panels instead of one.
One of skill in the art will recognize that roofing panels are preferably assembled onto a roofing deck and may be attached to the roofing deck using any number of methods known in the art. If nails are used on the roofing panels, they may be positioned on the edges so that the tabs may overlap the nail heads. Alternatively, if the weather resistant surface layer 3 of each panel is not bonded to the panel body 2 along its edges, then the weather resistant surface layer 3 may be lifted up so that nails may be driven through the panel body without penetrating the weather resistant surface layer 3.
Additionally, the first and second tabs 4, 5 are preferably bonded to the surface layers 3 on adjacent panels using an appropriate adhesive running down the entire length of each tab so that consecutive surface layers 3 are effectively sealed. Such an adhesive may be applied by hand after the panels are attached in position or the undersurface of the tabs may be provided with an appropriate adhesive during manufacture. In this way, nails may be unnecessary to connect the surface layers 3, and leakage through nail holes can be reduced or avoided. However, mechanical fastening means such as-staples may be used if desired to attach and retain tabs 4, 5 in overlapping positions. Alternatively, other attaching means known in the art may also be used to attach the tabs to adjacent surface layers. Panels may also be prefabricated with surface layers having no coating along one or more of their edges for bonding purposes or with surface layers having a different material or consistency along one or more of the edges. Furthermore, the tabs could provide a sealing redundancy by the steps of first attaching the tabs to adjacent panels, and then overlaying the tabs with an additional sealing material such as an appropriate tape. The roofing panel of this invention may also comprise any number of tabs, connected or unconnected, including only a single tab as is illustrated in FIG. 3. Additional sealing may be used, if desired, by methods known in the art.