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Publication numberUS20040257152 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/602,364
Publication dateDec 23, 2004
Filing dateJun 23, 2003
Priority dateJun 23, 2003
Also published asUS6836180
Publication number10602364, 602364, US 2004/0257152 A1, US 2004/257152 A1, US 20040257152 A1, US 20040257152A1, US 2004257152 A1, US 2004257152A1, US-A1-20040257152, US-A1-2004257152, US2004/0257152A1, US2004/257152A1, US20040257152 A1, US20040257152A1, US2004257152 A1, US2004257152A1
InventorsSai Kwok
Original AssigneeMagis Networks, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Poly-phase network with resonant circuit bandpass shaping
US 20040257152 A1
Abstract
An R-C polyphase network that provides bandpass shaping and amplification to maintain the quadrature phase output is provided. In one implementation, a polyphase device comprises two transistors each having a collector, a base and an emitter. Positive and negative components of an input signal are coupled to a respective base of the transistors, the transistors adapted to drive the R-C polyphase network. Inputs of the R-C polyphase network are coupled to the collectors of the transistors. The R-C polyphase network includes an inductor and has first output and a second output offset in phase. The inductor is adapted to provide bandpass filtering of the first output and the second output to reduce harmonics and spurious content in the output, as well as provide amplification of the outputs relative to the input signal.
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Claims(20)
1. A polyphase device comprising:
a first transistor having a first collector, a first base and a first emitter, the first base adapted to receive a positive portion of an input signal;
a second transistor having a second collector, a second base and a second emitter, the second base adapted to receive a negative portion of the input signal, the first transistor and the second transistor adapted to drive the R-C polyphase network;
an R-C polyphase network having a first input coupled to the first collector and a second input coupled to the second collector;
the R-C polyphase network including an inductor;
the R-C polyphase network having first output and a second output, the first output and the second output offset in phase; and
the R-C polyphase network including the inductor adapted to provide bandpass filtering of the first output and the second output;
wherein the first output and the second output are offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees.
2. The device of claim 1 wherein the inductor is coupled to an input of the R-C polyphase network.
3. The device of claim 1 wherein the inductor is in resonance with a capacitive reactance of the R-C polyphase network.
4. (canceled)
5. The device of claim 1 wherein the inductor is adapted to reduce unwanted harmonics and spurious content in the first output and the second output.
6. The device of claim 1 wherein the inductor comprises:
a first inductor coupled to the first input of the R-C polyphase network; and
a second inductor coupled to the second input of the R-C polyphase network.
7. The device of claim 1 wherein the first output and the second output are amplified relative to the input signal.
8. The device of claim 1 wherein the R-C polyphase network comprises a two-stage R-C polyphase network.
9. A polyphase device comprising
a transistor having a collector, a base and an emitter;
an R-C polyphase network having an input coupled to the collector, the transistor adapted to drive the R-C polyphase network; and
the R-C polyphase network including an inductor, such that the R-C polyphase network and the inductor are adapted to provide bandpass filtering of a first output and a second output of the R-C polyphase network;
wherein the first output and the second output are offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees.
10. The device of claim 9 wherein the inductor is coupled in to the input of the R-C polyphase network.
11. The device of claim 9 wherein the inductor is in resonance with a capacitive reactance of the R-C polyphase network.
12. The device of claim 9 wherein the inductor is adapted to reduce unwanted harmonics and spurious content in the output.
13. The device of claim 9 wherein the output is amplified relative to an input signal coupled to the base and driving the R-C polyphase network.
14. A method of generating phase offset signals comprising the steps of:
inputting a positive portion of an input signal into a first base of a first transistor;
inputting a negative portion of the input signal into a second base of a second transistor;
causing each of the first transistor and the second transistor to become a current source;
driving an R-C polyphase network having a first input coupled to a first collector of the first transistor and a second input coupled to a second collector of a second transistor, wherein the R-C polyphase network includes an inductor; and
outputting a first output and a second output, the first output and the second output offset in phase, the R-C polyphase network including the inductor causing a bandpass filtering of the first output and the second output;
wherein the outputting step comprises outputting the first output and the second output offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein the inductor is coupled to an input of the R-C polyphase network.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein the inductor is in resonance with a capacitive reactance of the R-C polyphase network
17. (canceled)
18. The method of claim 14 further comprising reducing unwanted harmonics and spurious content in the first output and the second output.
19. The method of claim 14 wherein the inductor comprises:
a first inductor coupled to the first input of the R-C polyphase network; and
a second inductor coupled to the second input of the R-C polyphase network.
20. The method of claim 14 further comprising amplifying the first output and the second output relative to the input signal.
Description

[0001] This patent document relates to the following patent document filed concurrently herewith, which is incorporated herein by reference: U.S. patent application Ser. No.______ , of Kwok; entitled RECTIFIER TYPE FREQUENCY DOUBLER WITH HARMONIC CANCELLATION.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The present invention relates generally to polyphase filters, and more specifically to polyphase networks for generating output signals shifted in phase.

[0004] 2. Discussion of the Related Art

[0005] In radio communications, polyphase networks are often used to ensure good image rejection in a mixer. As is understood, a polyphase network is a circuit that receives an input signal and produces output signals each having generally the same magnitude as the input signal but shifted in phase. For example, a typical polyphase network produces quadrature outputs shifted by 90 degrees. Polyphase networks conventionally include one or more R-C stages.

[0006] A conventional polyphase network is driven by the emitter follower (EF) stage of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), which provides a low impedance input to the polyphase network. In other words, each input of the polyphase network is at the emitter of a respective transistor. Additionally, the input signal to the polyphase network must be extremely clean otherwise the polyphase network will not provide rejection of undesirable harmonics and spurious content. That is, the 90-degree phase difference at the center frequency can degrade substantially when the input signal is not a pure sine tone. For example, the phase offset may be calculated to be as much as 7 degrees in a non-clean incoming signal or sine wave having a 20 dBc harmonic present.

[0007] Furthermore, as is well known, exact quadrature is important to ensure good image rejection in a mixer. For example, a polyphase network producing quadrature outputs that are 4 degrees offset and having a 0.5 dB magnitude imbalance can degrade image rejection to 27 dBc. Depending on the requirements of the system, such performance may be unacceptable.

[0008] It is with respect to these and other background information factors that the present invention has evolved.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The present invention advantageously addresses the needs above as well as other needs by providing a polyphase network that provides bandpass shaping to maintain the quadrature phase output.

[0010] In one embodiment, the invention can be characterized as a polyphase device comprising a first transistor having a first collector, a first base and a first emitter, the first base adapted to receive a positive portion of an input signal; a second transistor having a second collector, a second base and a second emitter, the second base adapted to receive a negative portion of the input signal, the first transistor and the second transistor adapted to drive the R-C polyphase network; and an R-C polyphase network having a first input coupled to the first collector and a second input coupled to the second collector. The R-C polyphase network includes an inductor and has first output and a second output, the first output and the second output offset in phase. The inductor is adapted to provide bandpass filtering of the first output and the second output.

[0011] In another embodiment, the invention can be characterized as a polyphase device comprising a transistor having a collector, a base and an emitter; an R-C polyphase network having an input coupled to the collector, the transistor adapted to drive the R-C polyphase network; and the R-C polyphase network including an inductor adapted to provide bandpass filtering of an output of the R-C polyphase network.

[0012] In a further embodiment, the invention may be characterized as a method of generating phase offset signals comprising the steps of: inputting a positive portion of an input signal into a first base of a first transistor; inputting a negative portion of the input signal into a second base of a second transistor; biasing the first transistor and the second transistor to conduct current; driving an R-C polyphase network having a first input coupled to a first collector of the first transistor and a second input coupled to a second collector of a second transistor, wherein the polyphase network includes an inductor; and outputting a first output and a second output, the first output and the second output offset in phase, the inductor causing a bandpass filtering of the first output and the second output.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] The above and other aspects, features and advantages of the present invention will be more apparent from the following more particular description thereof, presented in conjunction with the following drawings wherein:

[0014]FIG. 1 is a simplified functional block diagram of a frequency doubler according to one embodiment of the invention;

[0015]FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram of a double rectifier-type frequency doubler circuit of the frequency doubler of FIG. 1 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention;

[0016]FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of a differential amplifier circuit of the frequency doubler of FIG. 1 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention;

[0017]FIG. 4 is an illustration of various waveforms of the frequency rectifier doubler circuit and the differential amplifier stage of the frequency doubler of FIGS. 2 and 3 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention;

[0018]FIG. 5 is a plot of the power spectrum vs. frequency of the output of the frequency doubler of FIGS. 1-3 illustrating the harmonic cancellation of the unwanted harmonic frequencies;

[0019]FIG. 6 is a plot is shown of the power spectrum vs. frequency of the output of the frequency doubler of FIGS. 1-3 when a phase offset of 2 degrees is present between the quadrature inputs to the rectifier doubler circuit of FIG. 2;

[0020]FIG. 7A is a circuit diagram of a conventional R-C polyphase network as known in the art;

[0021]FIG. 7B is a circuit diagram of an R-C polyphase network according to one embodiment of the invention;

[0022]FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram of one embodiment of the R-C polyphase network of FIG. 7B and used for example, in one embodiment of the frequency doubler of FIG. 1;

[0023]FIG. 9 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the R-C polyphase network of FIG. 8 from the viewpoint of the input at the collector of each transistor device of FIG. 8;

[0024]FIG. 10 is a frequency response plot of the R-C polyphase network of FIGS. 8 and 9 in comparison to that of a conventional R-C polyphase network; and

[0025]FIG. 11 is a circuit diagram of an R-C polyphase network in accordance with another embodiment of the invention.

[0026] Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding components throughout the several views of the drawings.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0027] The following description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, but is made merely for the purpose of describing the general principles of the invention. The scope of the invention should be determined with reference to the claims.

[0028] Generally an improved frequency multiplier circuit (e.g., a frequency doubler) is described with reference to FIGS. 1-6 while an improved polyphase network (e.g., for use in one embodiment of the improved frequency multiplier circuit) is described with reference to FIGS. 7A-11.

[0029] According to several embodiments of the invention, a frequency multiplier circuit is provided that does not require filtering for rejection. According to several embodiments, the input signal to be multiplied, e.g., doubled, is passed through a polyphase network, which produces two signals having the same frequency but offset in phase. Next, in a frequency doubler, each input signal is doubled using a known rectifier type doubler for each input signal, then the resulting doubled and phase offset outputs are combined using a differential amplifier to harmonically cancel the unwanted harmonics, e.g., even output harmonics are canceled. Advantageously, in embodiments where the presence of odd output harmonics is not harmful, this multiplier circuit does not require filtering for harmonic rejection. Furthermore, in embodiments where the presence of odd output harmonics is harmful, less filtering is required for harmonic rejection.

[0030] Referring first to FIG. 1, a simplified functional block diagram is shown of a frequency doubler according to one embodiment of the invention. The frequency doubler 100 (generically referred to as a frequency multiplier) includes a polyphase network 102 (e.g., an R-C polyphase network, polyphase filter or phase-sequence network), an optional buffer 104, a frequency doubler portion 106 (generically referred to as the frequency multiplier portion) including a rectifier doubler circuit 108 and a differential amplifier stage 110, and a power supply circuit 112. Also, illustrated are the various signals including an input signal 114 at frequency f1 and an output signal 128 at frequency 2f1. In this illustrated embodiment, the frequency doubler 100 is implemented within an integrated circuit device 130 (also referred to as IC device 130). It is understood that while in preferred form, a frequency doubler is described, it is understood that the multiplier circuit may be adapted to multiply the input frequency other than by two, e.g., quadrupled, etc.

[0031] Input signal 114, for example, a sinusoidal signal from an oscillator (such as a local oscillator of a radio frequency (RF) device), is to be multiplied. As is well known in the art, a local oscillator typically includes a crystal oscillator, which produces a signal having a known frequency f1. However, it is often desired to utilize multiples of the frequency f1 in other portions of the RF device. For example, a frequency doubler will produce an output that is twice that of its input, i.e., 2f1.

[0032] According to one embodiment, input signal 114, for example, a sinusoidal signal from an oscillator (such as a local oscillator of a radio device), is input to the polyphase network 102. In this embodiment, the input signal is a differential signal having a frequency of 2.1 GHz. It is noted that the input signal may have any desired frequency and that 2.1 GHz is used by way of example. The polyphase network 102 outputs two signals offset in phase from each other. In preferred embodiments, the two output signals 116 and 118 are in quadrature phase, i.e., signals 116 and 118 have the same frequency as input signal 114, but are offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees.

[0033] Any R-C polyphase network as understood in the art may be used; however, as described further below, in preferred embodiments, an improved polyphase network is implemented which provides better performance than conventional polyphase networks. Such an improved polyphase network is described with reference to FIGS. 7A-11.

[0034] Next, the signals 116 and 118 are buffered by buffer circuit 104 and output as signals 120 and 122. Thus, signals 120 and 122 are differential signals having the same frequency as signals 114, 116, 118 but are offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees. The buffer circuit 104 may be any known buffer circuit and provides good isolation for the oscillator providing the input signal 114. In some embodiments, the buffer circuit 104 also protects the polyphase network 102 from any impedance changes in the later stages of the circuit. It is noted that a buffer circuit is not required to practice a frequency doubler in accordance with the invention. For example, in some implementations, the buffer circuit 104 is eliminated. In embodiments without a buffer circuit 104, signals 116 and 120 are identical and signals 118 and 122 are identical.

[0035] Signals 120 and 122 are input to the frequency doubler portion 106, which produces an output signal 128 that is twice the frequency of input signal 114. Thus, the output signal 128 includes the desired 1st output harmonic of the input signal, the fundamental frequency f1 being suppressed. For example, in one embodiment, the output signal 128 includes a differential signal having a frequency of 4.2 GHz.

[0036] According to several embodiments of the invention, the frequency doubler portion 106 includes the rectifier doubler circuit 108 and the differential amplifier stage 110. Each of signals 120 and 122 is input to a respective rectifier type frequency doubler of the rectifier doubler circuit 108, which outputs signals 124 and 126. Signals 124 and 126 are rectified differential signals that are doubled in frequency in comparison to signals 120 and 122. Again, signals 124 and 126 are quadrature signals designed to be offset in phase by 90 degrees. The functionality and implementation of the rectifier type frequency doublers within the rectifier doubler circuit 108 is well known in the art.

[0037] However, it is well known with rectifier type frequency doublers that the signals 124 and 126 are rich with harmonics, in particular, even output harmonics relative to the desired harmonic output, e.g., the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th output harmonics. Rather than using complex L-C filtering to remove the even output harmonics and spurious content, according to several embodiments, signals 124 and 126 are summed together by the differential amplifier stage 110. Advantageously, the differential amplifier stage 110 cancels the even output harmonics relative to the desired output harmonic and generates signal 128 which is a relatively pure sine wave having double the frequency of the input signal 114. It is noted that the signals 124 and 126 include odd output harmonics, e.g., the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th output harmonics. The 1st output harmonic is the desired harmonic output having twice the frequency of the input signal 114. Thus, as a departure from the known art, the frequency doubler may be easily implemented on the integrated circuit device 130. Furthermore, the frequency doubler may be implemented without requiring expensive and difficult to implement L-C filtering in embodiments in which the presence of additional odd harmonics is not harmful. Thus, in these embodiments, the problem of implementing high performance on chip LC filters due to poor inductor quality is entirely avoided. Further advantageously, the frequency doubler according to several embodiments has a high dynamic range which maintains a low distortion output for a wide range of input levels and amplitude fluctuations. It is noted that in embodiments where the presence of additional odd output harmonics in the output signal is harmful, less LC filtering is required than is traditionally known since the even output harmonics are substantially canceled without filtering, i.e., only the unwanted odd output harmonics need to filtered.

[0038] It is noted that as would be expected, the cancellation mechanism in the differential amplifier stage 110 is sensitive to phase input and signal quality. For example, in order for the frequency doubler portion 106 to perform optimally, the input signals 120 and 122 should have very little phase error. For example, in one implementation, phase error between the quadrature inputs should be less than 2 degrees. In this implementation, phase error greater than 2 degrees may not completely cancel the unwanted output harmonics. However, it is noted that 2 degrees as used above is by way of example and that in other implementations, more or less phase error may result in the unwanted output harmonics not being sufficiently canceled.

[0039] Thus, a high quality R-C polyphase network implementation should be employed as the polyphase network 102. As such, in preferred embodiments and as will be described in detail below with reference to FIGS. 7A-11, the polyphase network is placed at the collector of the driving transistor device and a shunt inductor is added in resonance with its capacitive reactance to provide bandpass shaping. Advantageously, the polyphase network according to several embodiments of the invention helps to reject incoming undesirable spurious content and harmonics. Furthermore, this polyphase network reduces circuit complexity and power consumption, as well as improves phase performance in comparison to traditional approaches. Thus, such a polyphase network provides very clean input sinusoidal signals 116 and 118 having little phase error for input to the frequency doubler portion 106. This ensures that the differential amplifier stage 110 will work optimally to harmonically cancel the unwanted even harmonics relative to the desired harmonic in signal 128.

[0040] It should be noted that in many embodiments, the frequency doubler portion 106 will work with any known polyphase network or other polyphase device, e.g., a simple flip flop or a conventional R-C polyphase network at the emitter of the driving transistor device(s); however, in applications having stringent requirements (e.g., wireless indoor communications), the frequency doubler portion 106 of several embodiments works optimally best with a polyphase network that provides a clean output that has very little phase error.

[0041] The power supply circuit 112 is a centralized power supply that provides DC power to the various stages and circuits of FIG. 1 as well as the bias currents for operation of the transistor devices contained therein. The temperature characteristics of the power supply circuit 112 are optimized to provide appropriate current for each stage in avoiding saturation and SNR reduction. Such a power supply circuit 112 is well known in the art and is thus, not further described.

[0042] In one embodiment, such a frequency doubler 100 is implemented within a pre-mixer stage that is used as an input to a mixer. For example, the output signal 128 may pass through another polyphase network (used for image rejection in the subsequent mixer stage), then another buffer circuit (for impedance isolation) and finally a pulse shaping circuit prior to being input to the mixer. It should be understood that the output of such a frequency multiplier circuit may be used for other purposes than as an input to a mixer.

[0043] Referring next to FIG. 2, a circuit diagram is shown of a double rectifier-type frequency doubler circuit 108 of a frequency doubler 100 of FIG. 1 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. Shown are signals 120 and 122, coupling capacitors 202, a first rectifier type frequency doubler stage 204 (also referred to as a first rectifier doubler stage and generically referred to as a first rectifier stage), a second rectifier type frequency doubler stage 206 (also referred to as a second rectifier doubler stage and generically referred to as a second rectifier stage), a bias circuit 208 and output signals 124 and 126.

[0044] As illustrated, the input signals 120 and 122 are shown as sinusoidal waveforms offset by approximately 90 degrees to each other. The coupling capacitors 202 act to AC couple the rectifier doubler stages to the previous stage and to block any DC components. Each rectifier doubler stage 204 and 206 is a differential pair including two transistors with emitter outputs as a rectification circuit. For example, the first rectifier doubler stage 204 includes transistors Q3 and Q4 while the second rectifier doubler stage 206 includes transistors Q5 and Q6. Input signals 120 and 122 are coupled to the base of the respective ones of Q3, Q4, Q5 and Q6, while Vcc provides DC voltage to the collectors of the transistors and to the bias circuit 208. The bias circuit 208 inputs bias current Ibias from the power supply circuit 112 to provide the proper bias currents at the base of each transistor to cause each rectifier double stage 204 and 206 to become a current source and to ensure the proper switching between Q3 and Q4 as well as between Q5 and Q6. The operation of these rectifier doubler stages and the proper bias circuit is well understood in the art, and is thus not described further. As is known, the output signal 124 is taken off of the emitter of the first rectifier doubler stage 204, while output signal 126 is taken from the emitter of the second rectifier doubler stage 206. Signals 124 and 126 are rectified signals having double the frequency of the input signals 120 and 122, as illustrated in FIG. 2. However, each of these signals 124 and 126 remain offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees with respect to each other, as shown in the illustrated output waveforms.

[0045] As is well known in the art, the output of rectifier type doublers is rich in harmonics. For example, the fundamental frequency (input signal) has been suppressed and each output 124 and 126 includes the desired doubled output harmonic and other odd and even output harmonics. It is generally known that in many applications, the even output harmonics are harmful, while odd output harmonics are not. Given an input signal having frequency f1(t) where:

f 1(t)=A cos(ωt)   Eq. (1)

[0046] where A is the amplitude (assuming A=1), ω is the angular frequency (where ω=2πf), and assuming f=2 GHz, then the Fourier series of a rectified and doubled signal f2(t) (e.g., signal 124) is as follows: f 2 ( t ) = 2 A π + 4 A π n = 1 1 1 - 4 n 2 cos ( 2 n ω t ) Eq . ( 2 )

[0047] where n is the output harmonic index. The Fourier series expansion of Eq. (2) can be expressed as: f 3 ( t ) = 2 A π - 4 A π ( 1 3 cos ( 2 ω t ) + 1 15 cos ( 4 ω t ) + 1 35 cos ( 6 ω t ) + 1 63 cos ( 8 ω t ) + ) Eq . ( 3 )

[0048] Based on this Fourier series expansion, the output harmonics can be calculated to be −14 dBc, −21 dBc and −26 dBc for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th output harmonic levels respectively, which has been verified in a SPICE simulation.

[0049] At this point, a conventional frequency doubler using complex LC filters is used to remove or suppress the unwanted output harmonics (e.g., the 2nd, 4th and 6th harmonics or even harmonics). In contrast, according to several embodiments of the invention, the signals 124 and 126 are summed by the differential amplifier circuit of FIG. 3 as described below to harmonically cancel the unwanted even output harmonics. In applications where the presence of odd output harmonics is harmful in the output signal, LC filtering would be needed to filter such harmonics; however, less LC filtering is needed since the unwanted even output harmonics are harmonically canceled.

[0050] Referring next to FIG. 3, a circuit diagram is shown of a differential amplifier stage 110 of the frequency doubler portion 106 of FIG. 1 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. Shown are signals 124 and 126, coupling capacitors 302, a differential pair comprising transistors Q7 and Q8, collector resistors Rc, emitter resistors Re, a bias circuit 304, capacitors 306 and output signal 128.

[0051] As illustrated, coupling capacitors 302 act to AC couple the outputs of the rectifier doubler circuit 108 to the differential amplifier stage 110. As is well known, the differential amplifier stage 110 includes two transistor devices Q7 and Q8. Input signals 124 and 126 (rectified and doubled signals offset in phase by approximately 90 degrees) are coupled to the base of the respective ones of Q7 and Q8, while Vcc and Rc provides DC voltage to the collectors of the transistors and to the bias circuit 304. The bias circuit 304 inputs the appropriate bias current Ibias from the power supply circuit 112 to provide the proper bias currents at the base of each transistor Q7 and Q8 to cause the transistors to become current sources. It is noted that a small value capacitor 306 has been added in parallel to each emitter resistor Re to compensate for tolerance changes. This helps to ensure good matching between the transistor pair over process tolerance. The output of the differential amplifier stage 110 is taken at the collector of each transistor Q7 and Q8 as signal 128. As is well known in a differential pair, when the transistors Q7 and Q8 are conducting, signal 128 is the summation of input signals 124 and 126, e.g., signal 128 is the result of the difference between signals 124 and 126. The operation of the differential pair stage 110 and the proper bias circuit 304 needed to operate transistors Q7 and Q8 is well understood in the art.

[0052] Referring briefly to FIG. 4, an illustration is shown of various waveforms of the double rectifier doubler circuit 108 and the differential amplifier stage 110 of FIGS. 2 and 3 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

[0053] As described above, given an input sine wave f1(t) of Eq. (1), and rectified signal f2(t) 124 from the first rectifier doubler stage 204: f 2 ( t ) = 2 A π + 4 A π n = 1 1 1 - 4 n 2 cos ( 2 n ωt ) Eq . ( 4 )

[0054] and rectified signal f3(t) 126 from the second rectifier doubler stage 206 that is offset approximately 90 degrees in phase from f2(t): f 3 ( t ) = f 2 [ t - ( 1 4 f - phase offset 360 f ) ] 10 amp offset 20 Eq . ( 5 )

[0055] where phase offset and amp offset are the phase offset and amplitude offset between signals 124 and 126, i.e., f2(t) and f3(t).

[0056] As illustrated in FIG. 4, the sine wave of f1(t) is illustrated as waveform 402, and the rectified and frequency doubled signals f2(t) and f3(t) are illustrated as waveforms 404 and 406, respectively, as output from the rectifier doubler stages 204 and 206. Further illustrated is the output of the differential amplifier stage 110 or f4(t) is illustrated as waveform 408 where:

f 4(t)=f 2(t)−f 3(t)   Eq. (6)

[0057] As can be clearly seen in FIG. 4, waveform 408 is a sinusoidal signal that represents the signal 128 as output from the differential amplifier stage 110 and has twice the frequency of the input signal 114, which is represented by waveform 402.

[0058] Referring next to FIG. 5, a plot is shown of the power spectrum vs. frequency of the output of the frequency doubler of FIGS. 1-3 illustrating the harmonic cancellation of the unwanted even output harmonic frequencies. In this embodiment, given an input signal at 2 GHz, the desired output harmonic 502 (i.e., the 1st output harmonic) is illustrated at 4 GHz. Note that the fundamental frequency at 2 GHz has been suppressed. Also illustrated are the additional odd output harmonics, e.g., the 3rd output harmonic 504 (e.g., at 12 GHz), the 5th output harmonic 506 (e.g., at 20 GHz) and the 7th output harmonic 508 (e.g., at 28 GHz). In this example, the 3rd, 5th and 7th output harmonics 504, 506, 508 are about 21 dBc, 30 dBc and 32 dBc lower, respectively, than the desired output harmonic 502.

[0059] Advantageously, since the signals 124 and 126 are offset in phase, the summation of signals 124 and 126 substantially cancels the even output harmonics. For example, harmonic outputs at 8 GHz, 16 GHz, 24 GHz and 32 GHz are not shown in FIG. 5. These harmonics are the even output harmonics (i.e., the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th output harmonics). Advantageously, these even harmonics are canceled or suppressed without the use of complex LC filters. This enables a simpler integrated circuit (IC) implementation since both the rectifier doubler circuit 108 and the differential amplifier stage 110 are easily implemented on an IC device 130. It is noted that in embodiments in which the presence of odd output harmonics is not desired in the output signal, additional LC filtering should be used to remove the remaining unwanted output harmonics as is known in the art. However, less LC filtering is required in such embodiments relative to traditional frequency doubler approaches, since the even output harmonics have been canceled.

[0060] In actual use, it is noted that the even output harmonics are actually present in the output signal 128; however, these even output harmonics are suppressed considerably relative to the power of the desired output harmonic 502, i.e., for all practical purposes, the unwanted even output harmonics are substantially canceled. For example, in a SPICE simulation, the harmonic cancellation of the 2nd output harmonic (i.e., the output harmonic at 8 GHz) is 42 dBc, while the 3rd output harmonic 504 at 12 GHz is 46 dBc lower than the desired output harmonic 502. For most applications, such levels of reduction are more than adequate and are considered cancellation. Thus, according to one embodiment, the summation of signals 124 and 126 results in at least a 20 dBc reduction, more preferably, at least a 30 dBc reduction, and most preferably, at least a 40 dBc reduction in one or more unwanted harmonics of the output signal. In particular, the summation of signals 124 and 126 results in at least a 20 dBc reduction, more preferably, at least a 30 dBc reduction, and most preferably, at least a 40 dBc reduction in a first even output harmonic relative to the desired harmonic output. Preferably, the reduction levels above occur to all unwanted even output harmonics.

[0061] In one embodiment, the input frequency range is 2.1-2.2 GHz, the input signal range is from −10 to 0 dBm, the output phase noise must be less than −150 dBc/Hz, the 6 GHz spurious output must be less than −38 dBc, the frequency doubling phase noise degradation should be within a 2 degree accuracy, and the output level variation should be less than 2 dB. Such a doubler circuit described herein will operate under such conditions without requiring LC filters to remove unwanted output harmonics. The system parameters described are by way of example, and it is understood that in other embodiments, the frequency doubler circuit may be implemented in a system having different requirements.

[0062] Advantageously, the frequency doubler portion 106 of this embodiment is useful for mixer LO operation or any other application which requires frequency multiplication. It is further understood that one of skill in the art could further multiply the signal output from the frequency doubler to effectively multiply, e.g., quadruple, the frequency of the input signal. For example, another frequency doubler stage may be cascaded at the output of frequency doubler portion 106 to produce a signal having a frequency quadruple that of the input signal.

[0063] Additionally, it is noted that the cancellation mechanism of the rectifier doubler circuit 108 and the differential amplifier is sensitive to phase input and signal quality. Referring to FIG. 6, a plot is shown of the power spectrum vs. frequency of the output of the frequency doubler of FIGS. 1-3 when a phase offset of 2 degrees is present between the quadrature inputs to the rectifier doubler circuit 108. In this case, since the phase offset is 2 degrees offset from 90 degrees, the 2nd output harmonic 602 (at 8 GHz), the 4th output harmonic 604 (at 16 GHz), the 6th output harmonic 606 (at 24 GHz) and the 8th output harmonic 608 (at 32 GHz) are illustrated. Such a plot is similar to the output of the rectifier doubler circuit 108 illustrated in FIG. 5 except that the unwanted or even output harmonics 602, 604, 606 and 608 are higher. Thus, in preferred embodiments, it is desired that a high quality R-C polyphase network, such as that described with reference to FIGS. 7A-11, be employed which provides a very clean sinusoidal output having very little phase offset, e.g., less than 2 degrees.

[0064] It is also understood that although the performance requirements to be met in the preferred embodiments are quite stringent, in other applications with less stringent requirements, such a frequency doubler portion 106 may be used with any known polyphase network and produce an acceptable output at double the frequency of the input signal.

[0065] Next, an improved polyphase network is described, which may be used for example, in the frequency multiplier circuits described above. Initially, referring to FIG. 7A, a conventional R-C polyphase network as known in the art is illustrated. The R-C polyphase network 700 (also known in the art as a “polyphase filter” or a “phase-sequence network”) is illustrated as a two-stage (or two-pole) network having an input signal 702 (illustrated in positive and negative portions) and four quadrature outputs 708 (e.g., 0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees). Although the network 700 is illustrated as a two-stage network having stages 704 and 706, it is understood that an R-C polyphase network may include one or more R-C stages, e.g., a four stage R-C polyphase network. The R-C polyphase network 700 is a cyclic repetitive structure of equal resistors R and geometrically decreasing capacitors (e.g., c, c/2). That is, in each stage of the network, a resistor is serially connected between its input and output and a capacitor is connected between the input of one stage and the output of an adjacent stage.

[0066] Typically, a conventional polyphase network is driven by the emitter follower (EF) stage of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), which provides a low impedance input to the polyphase network 700. In other words, each input of the polyphase network 700 is taken at the emitter of a respective transistor. In conventional polyphase networks, if the input signal is not clean, the outputs will include undesirable harmonics and spurious content. For example, the phase offset from the desired 90 degrees may be calculated to be as much as 7 degrees in a non-clean incoming signal or sine wave having a 20 dBc harmonic present. Additionally, in an application using the polyphase network 700 for image rejection for a mixer, exact quadrature is important. For example, a polyphase network producing quadrature outputs that are 4 degrees offset and having a 0.5 dB magnitude imbalance can degrade image rejection to 27 dBc. The structure and operation of an R-C polyphase network such as illustrated in well known in the art.

[0067] Referring next to FIG. 7B, a circuit diagram is shown of an R-C polyphase network according to one embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment of the R-C polyphase network 710, an inductor is coupled in parallel to each input of the network 710. For example, as illustrated, inductors 712 and 714 are coupled in parallel to the positive and negative portions of the input signal 702, respectively. As is described in more detail below, when the input to the network 710 is at a high impedance, e.g., when the input 702 of the R-C polyphase network 710 is coupled to the collectors of the driving transistors in a common emitter configuration, the inductors are selected to be in resonance with the capacitive reactance of the R-C polyphase network 710 in order to add bandpass filtering in the output 708. This is in contrast to the low pass response of the traditional R-C polyphase network. Additionally, locating the polyphase network 710 at the collectors of the driving transistors provides amplification in the output 708.

[0068] Referring next to FIG. 8, a circuit diagram is shown of one embodiment of the R-C polyphase network of FIG. 7B and used for example, in one embodiment of the frequency doubler of FIG. 1. The R-C polyphase network circuit 800 includes input signal 802 (e.g., input signal 114) coupled to a pair of transistors (i.e., transistor Q9 and transistor Q10) via coupling capacitors 804, an R-C polyphase network 806 (also referred to simply as polyphase network 806, a polyphase filter or a phase-sequence network) coupled to the collectors of the transistors Q9 and Q10, emitter resistors Re, emitter inductors 808, a bias circuit 810 and outputs 812 and 814 (e.g., output signals 116 and 118). As is well understood in the art, each transistor is illustrated as a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a base B, collector C and emitter E in the common emitter (CE) configuration.

[0069] As illustrated, the input signal 802 is shown as a sinusoidal waveform, the positive component coupled to Q9 and the negative component coupled to Q10. The coupling capacitors 804 act to AC couple the circuit to any previous stages and to block any DC components. Vcc provides DC voltage to the polyphase network 806 collectors and to the bias circuit 810. The bias circuit 810 inputs bias current Ibias from a power supply (e.g., the power supply circuit 112) to provide the proper bias currents at the base of each transistor Q9 and Q10 to cause each transistor to become a current source. The small value emitter inductors 808 are coupled in series to the emitter resistors Re and are provided to improve distortion to compensate for tolerance changes. The operation of the proper bias circuit 810 needed to operate transistors Q9 and Q10 is well understood in the art.

[0070] The polyphase network 806 comprises a traditional two pole R-C polyphase network however with the addition of shunt inductors 824, 826 each coupled in parallel to an input of the polyphase network 806 (similar to the network 710 of FIG. 7B) in order to provide bandpass filtering or shaping in order to reduce unwanted harmonics and spurious content; thus, to maintain a better phase output. Thus, shunt inductor 824 is coupled in parallel with the positive component of the input signaling while shunt inductor 826 is coupled in parallel with the negative component of the input signaling. As such, the polyphase network 806 produces positive and negative components of the two outputs, which are offset by approximately 90 degrees (e.g., I+, I and Q+, Q). Waveforms 828 illustrates output 812 (I) while waveform 830 illustrates output 814 (Q). As seen, output signal 814 is approximately 90 degrees offset from output signal 812.

[0071] A traditional R-C polyphase network such as illustrated in FIG. 7A is driven by the emitter follower (EF) stage of a bipolar junction transistor, i.e., each input of the polyphase network is taken at the emitter of a respective transistor. As such, a low impedance input is provided to a high impedance R-C polyphase network 700. The output is a low pass frequency response due to the resistance and capacitance of the network.

[0072] In contrast, in this embodiment, the polyphase network 806 is coupled to the collector of the transistors Q9 and Q10 in a common emitter configuration with the additional shunt inductors. In this case, the impedance is high at the collector creating a current source. Thus, the input to the polyphase network 806 is a high impedance source. The shunt inductors 824 and 826 provide an additional filtering on the high side of the frequency response to produce bandpass filtering. Thus, the output creates a resonant frequency that is close to the desired frequency. In other words, unwanted harmonics and spurious content are filtered by the polyphase network 806 to produce a more pure output. In contrast, the traditional polyphase network 700 only provides a low pass response and does not filter higher frequencies.

[0073] Furthermore, as would be appreciated in the art, the addition of a similar shunt inductor to the known polyphase network of FIG. 7A in the emitter follower configuration would not be effective due to the low impedance at the emitter. Additionally, since the shunt inductors 824 and 826 are at a high impedance point, amplification of the input signal is also provided in additional to selectivity (filtering).

[0074] Thus, according to several embodiments, the polyphase network 806 is placed at the collector terminal which provides amplification of the output signal in comparison to locating the polyphase network in the emitter follower configuration. Furthermore, a shunt inductor is added in parallel to each input of the polyphase network 806 which increases the impedance at the collector which further increases the amplification, resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. Additionally, the shunt inductors are selected so that they are in resonance with the capacitive reactance of the polyphase network in order to provide bandpass shaping of the output signal, in addition to outputs offset in phase. Advantageously, the polyphase network helps to reject incoming undesirable spurious content and harmonics. Furthermore, this polyphase network reduces circuit complexity and power consumption, as well as improves phase performance in comparison to traditional approaches. Reduced complexity and power consumption are particularly advantageous in integrated circuit implementations.

[0075] It is noted that such a polyphase network may be implemented at the input to a frequency multiplier circuit, such as described above with reference to FIGS. 1-6. However, it is understood that the polyphase network may be implemented in other applications (e.g., as an input to a mixer stage) and is particularly well suited to applications requiring little phase offset.

[0076] Referring next to FIG. 9, an equivalent circuit diagram is shown of the polyphase network 806 of FIG. 8 from the viewpoint of the input at the collector of each transistor. That is, from the viewpoint of the collector of each transistor Q9 and Q10, the polyphase network 806 appears and behaves as the equivalent circuit 900. A conventional R-C polyphase network behaves as a resistor (R) in parallel with a capacitor (C) and provides low pass filtering. The additional shunt inductor (illustrated as having a resistance RL and a reactance XL) according to several embodiments of the invention is coupled in parallel to the input of the conventional R-C polyphase network, such as equivalently illustrated in FIG. 9. Thus, the improved polyphase network takes advantage of residual capacitive reactance in the conventional polyphase network. In preferred embodiments, the inductor is selected such that it is in resonance with the capacitive reactance of the R-C polyphase network, i.e., the inductor resonates with the effective shunt capacitance of the polyphase network. This provides bandpass filtering in the output signal. In such case, it is recognized that the inductor is not an ideal inductor and that it includes a resistance RL and reactance XL. The loaded quality factor QL of the inductor can be expressed as: Q L = R R L X L Eq . ( 10 )

[0077] solving for XL, the reactance (and thus the inductance value) of the shunt inductor can be determined to operate the polyphase network at a given Q where: X L = R R L Q L Eq . ( 11 )

[0078] Thus, the shunt inductor takes advantage of the residual capacitive reactance, such that the inductor preferably operates in resonance therewith. Additionally, amplification is provided since voltage gain Vg at the collector is a function of the current gain gm and the impedance of the inductor ZL and can be expressed as:

Vg=g m Z L   Eq. (12)

[0079] Thus, the increased impedance due to the presence of the inductor provides further amplification to the output signal, in addition to that provided by the fact that the polyphase network is coupled to the collector of the transistors.

[0080] Referring next to FIG. 10, a frequency response plot is shown for the polyphase network 806 of FIG. 8 in comparison to that of a conventional polyphase network. The response of a conventional polyphase network (e.g., polyphase network 700) is illustrated as line 1002, while the response of the improved polyphase network (e.g., polyphase network 806) such as described herein is illustrated as line 1004. As can be seen, with an input signal having a frequency of about 2 GHz, there is over a 10 dB improvement in rejection performance. Furthermore, in computer simulations of an improved polyphase network such as described herein, with a pure since wave input, the quadrature output was exactly at 90 degrees (i.e., zero phase offset). Even with the input degraded, e.g., by including a 14 dBc 2nd harmonic and a 21 dBc 3rd harmonic at the input (such as would be common at the output of a conventional rectifier type doubler), the quadrature offset was about 3.2 degrees. This is a significant improvement over conventional polyphase networks, which may have an offset of as much as 7 degrees. Additionally, in an implementation such as that shown in FIG. 1 where a second polyphase network is used at the output of the frequency doubler portion 106 for image rejection, the resulting phase offset at the second polyphase network was reduced to 0.7 degrees, which should meet the requirements of some of the most stringent wireless communication systems.

[0081] Referring next to FIG. 11, a circuit diagram is shown of an R-C polyphase network in accordance with another embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment, the input of the polyphase network 1102 is not differential, thus, only one transistor device is used to drive the polyphase network. For example, an input signal 1106 to be doubled is coupled to the base of a single transistor device Q11 to drive a polyphase network 1102 having one input coupled to the collector of the single transistor device Q11. As described above, an inductor 1104 is coupled in parallel to the input of the polyphase network 1102 and is selected to resonate with the capacitive reactance of the polyphase network 1102 in order to provide bandpass filtering of the output 1108. In this embodiment, the polyphase network 1102 is a two stage network and the output 1108 has a component at 0 degrees and an output at 90 degrees. It is also noted that the polyphase network 1102 also functions as the equivalent diagram of FIG. 9 from the viewpoint of the collector of Q11.

[0082] While the invention herein disclosed has been described by means of specific embodiments and applications thereof, numerous modifications and variations could be made thereto by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention set forth in the claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7005920 *Aug 18, 2005Feb 28, 2006Scintera NetworkProgrammable passive inductor
US7324791 *Jan 21, 2005Jan 29, 2008Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Low-noise differential bias circuit and differential signal processing apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification327/552
International ClassificationH03B27/00, H03H11/22
Cooperative ClassificationH03B27/00, H03H11/22
European ClassificationH03B27/00, H03H11/22
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