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Publication numberUS2004545 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 11, 1935
Filing dateApr 19, 1933
Priority dateMay 5, 1928
Publication numberUS 2004545 A, US 2004545A, US-A-2004545, US2004545 A, US2004545A
InventorsHans Saenger, Hans Wolf, Hermann Leuchs
Original AssigneeIg Farbenindustrie Ag
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Production of porous building materials
US 2004545 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

PM... Jun '11, 1935.

UNITED STATES PRODUCTION "2,004,545 a or ronocs ncmnme reams 'Hans Wolf and Herman Leuchs, Ludwigshafenon-the-Rhine, and Hans Saenger, Bltterteld, Germany, assignors to I; G.'Farben1ndustrie Aktiengesellschaft, Germany Frankfort on -the -Main,

No Drawing. Application April 19, 1933, Serial No. 668,820. In Germany May 5, 1928 15 Claims. (01. inc-24) This application is a continuation-in-part to Ber. No. 360,616, filed May 4th, 1929. v

Thepresent invention relates to the produc- -tlon of porous building materials. 5 It has already been proposed to make cementlike materials of cellular structure by preparing a mixture. of hydraulic cement, water and a frothing flotation reagent and, if desired, an inert filler, the pulp obtained being then agitated to form afroth. The said frothing flotation re agents comprise pine oil mixtures with heavy oils such' as petroleum or coal tar, phosphocresylic acid, oleic acid or other oily organic acids. Although the customary process of pouring concrete 5- in the building industry furnishes building materials of high tensile and compression strength, it is attended with drawbacks which are considerable when the building materials tobe produced are not required to be specially strong. In these cases, the concrete building material forms a useless ballast, owing to its heavy weight, entails the consumption of unnecessary quantities of expensive material, and furnishes walls which are defective as regards the insulation of heat and sound. I

' We have now found that building materials which are porous and free from the said drawbacks can be produced in a highly advantageous manner, by making the hydraulic mineral binding media into a frothy, pulp together with water and a certain amount of water-glass with the aid of true sulphonic acids of organic compounds containing at least six carbon atoms in their molecule, the said pulp being then cast into 5 moulds in the usual manner. The true sulphonic acid substances employed can be chosen I from the great number of products of this kind which are well known and employed as .wetting out agents especially for use in the textile indus- 0 'try. The said true sulphonic acids comprise sulphonic acids of long chain fatty acids, '1. e. containing at least 6, preferablyiat least 10 carbon atoms, which acids may be unsaturated and/or,

hydroxylated, such as for example stearic, 'oleic,

5 myristic, lauric, palmitic, or ricinoleic acids,-sul-.

phonic acids of mineral or tar oils, or of fractions thereof, sulphonic acidsrof aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene or naphthalene, and more particularly sulphonic acids of alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, 'such as toluene, xylene, mono-ethyl benzene, di-ethyl benzene, methylethyl benzene, or mono-, di-, and tri-methyl, -ethyl, -propyl, -iso-propyl, -butyl, -iso-butyl naphthalene. The said true-sulphonic acids also l comprise those obtainable by condensing taurine (NHr-C He-CHz-SOaHi or its N-mono-alkyl- .ated derivatives with one of the aforesaid long chain fattyacids or with mixtures of such acids; processes for the preparation of such condensation products are described for example in the purposes of the present invention. The said salts which are diiferentiated from the'true sulphonic depending on the desired degree of porosity.

hydraulic binding agents, may, however, also be B ritish specifications No. 341,053, and No. 3433995 sim larly, condensation products obtainable from" hydroxyethane, sulphonic acid .and long chain fatty acids, for example according to the British specification ployed.

Instead of employing the said true sulphonic acids in the free state, any salts thereof may be employed, which salts are equivalents'for the v 10 may be chosen from-those with organic, nitrogenous bases such as pyridine, aniline, mono-, dior tri-ethyl amine, or mono-, di-, or triethanol amine, but we prefer to employ salts with inorganic bases such as ammonia, and especially those with metals such as the-alkali metals, i. e; sodium, potassiumJithium, caesium or rubidium, the alkaline earth metals, such as barium, calcium and strontium, including magnesium, aluminium and beryllium.

The aforesaid true sulphonic acids and their salts will be referre to for the sake of brevity in the following a foam producing sulphonic acid substances. It must be pointed outthat products of the aforesaid nature of organic com pounds which contain less than six carbon atoms arenot foam producing agents within the meaning of the above definition. Similarly, sulphuric esters of organic compounds, 1:. substances acids by the fact that the sulphur atmn of the sulphuric group isconnected by an oxygen atom to a carbon atom of the organic compound (R-0-SOaH=sulphuric ester, R-'SOaH=t1-ue sulphonic acid, R=organic radical), do not come into consideration for the purpose of the present invention, because they do not allow of the production of porous building materials having the properties required in practice.

The water-glassis incorporated with the said hydraulic mineral binding media when all the other additions have been added.

The quantity employed of the said foam producing sulphonic acid substances can be varied Generally from about one-tenth of one per cent to about one per cent. by weight of the hydraulic binding agent, will be sufllcient. Larger amounts, suchas 2, 3 or 5 per cent, by weight of the said employed. The amount of water-glass, i. e. sodium or potassium silicate, is usually from about 1 to about 4, preferably about 2.5, per cent by weight of the saidhydraulic binding agent; since about per cent by weight of water is contained in the commercial water-glass, the commercial water-glass of 38 B. is generally employed-in an amount of from about 2.5 to about.10, preferably from about 6 to about 7.5 per cent, by weight of the said hydraulic binding agents. The

No. 366,916, may likewise be em-- 6 .amount of water employed is usually betweenabout 12 and about 17, up to about 60, per cent by weight of the said hydraulic binding agent. The masses prepared .in-this manner are easily poured, stand well in the shapes or moulds and exhibit, when set, a perfectly homogeneous microporous structure of low specific gravity. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the building materials is comparatively'high, porous building material showing an uncommonly high resistance to pressure being obtained according to the present invention.

The production of porous building materials may be effected in various ways. For example, the special kind of cement chosen, such as Portland cement, iron Portland cement, orblast furnace cement, or mixtures thereof, or other hydraulic mineral binding media such as gypsum or mixtures of such other hydraulic mineral binding media with cement, or a mixture of the cement or binding medium or mixture of cement and binding medium with between about 10 to 800 per cent, usually between about 100 and about 500 per cent, by weight of said binding medium, of suitableadditions such as for example three times the weight of the amount of said cement, of sand, gravel, pumice or the like may be mixed with the said sulphonic acid substances, for example with the sodium salt of butylated or isopropylated naphthalenesulphonic acid, together with water,-and after adding water-glass, the mixture worked into a uniform froth by means'of the customary mixing machines, concrete mixers, or of stirrers, the introduction of gases, or in any other known and suitable way. The froth formingtrue sulphonic acid substances may, however, be added in the dry state to the hydraulic mineral binding medium, or to the mixture of the same and the additions, prior to adding the mixing liquid; or it may be dissolved in the mixing liquid and then incorporated with the other components. The foam can be'cast into moulds for the preparation of articles of any form and size, or parts of buildings can be cast directly into the desired position on'a building. A'considerable acceleration of setting can be, obtained by the employment of hot water.

phonic acid.

acid substance, the kind or intensity of the stirring, the amount of the mixing liquid and the kind and quantity of the additions. The building materials can be out, nailed and sawn.

The following examples will further illustrate the nature of the said invention which, however, is not restricted thereto. The parts are by weight.

Example 1 300 parts of dry sand, the single grains of which have an average diameter between about 0.1 and about 7 millimetres, per cent of said grainshaving a diameter below 1 millimetre, are mixed with 60 parts of water containing 1 part of the sodium salt of isopropylated naphthalenesulphonic acid, the mixture being then incorporated with parts of Portland cement. 5 parts of commercial sodium water-glass (containing about 55 per cent of water) are then allowed to flow into the mixture in a thin jet while stirring, and the whole is then stirred for about 3 minutes in a concrete mixer to a frothy pulp, which can be poured directly into moulds, shapes 'or the like, and sets to a microporous mass, having an apparent specific weight of about 1.3.

If the mixing. operation in the concrete mixer iscarried out for a longer time than 3 minutes, for example during 4, 5 or .6 minutes, products are obtained which show a still lower apparent specific weight.

The aforesaid sodium salt may be replaced by that of a monoor di-butyl naphthalene sul- Eromple 2 In order to show the excellent results obtainable according to the process of the present invention by the employment, for the preparation of porous building materials, of true sulphonic acids as the foam forming agent, as compared with acid sulphuric esters, a series of different porous building materials have been prepared, the following table showing the specific conditions and ingredients employed in each case, and also the properties of the resulting porous building material.

. Sand, Water-glass Resistance w m- F r in t Pmhmd 35 $3.??? fOl' g Diem" 5 3? a oair arm a an o s w s c t g g 0.1 to 7 1 not otherwise minutes ala weight mm. stated) 1 90 ccm 0.9g.n-buty1ated naphthalene sulphonic 450 grams. 150 grams- 7- -m 4 1- v acid sodium salt. I v

2 75 n 0.9 3. do 450 do..... 150 do 7.5 do 4 42.0 1. a

a as do 0.9 3. do. 450 do 150 do----- 7.6 do. 4 25.6 1.20 4 Mllters..- g.do 60k 20 lllter 3 20.2 1.10 5 as com.... 0.9 1;. do... grams. grams. 1.5 com. (pa 1 4 23.9 1.35

. tassium).

6 6 liters 125 grams sodium salt oiacid sulphuric 38 kg 12.5 kg..--- 600 com 3 ester or laurlc alcohol.

7 6 do 02.5 g. do 58 do 12.6 do 600 do 3 8 6.6 do-.. 56.3 g. oleic acid ester of hydroxy ethane 38 do.- 12.5 do.. 600 do 3 18.2 1. 48

sulphonic acid sodium salt. 0 6.6 do.. 411; olelc N-methyl tauride sodium 38 do 12.5 do.-- 600 do 3 18.0 1. 23 V The masses prepared according to this process can beadapted within wide limits, in respect of specific gravity and porosity, to the purposes in view, for 'example' as building material or insulating material or for other purposes accord-' ing to the amount of the froth forming sulphonic In tests 4, 6, 7, a and 9 stirring has been carried out in a concrete mixer, whereas stirring has been i done by hand intests 1, 2, 3.and 5. The froth of material of porous building materials prepared with the aid of true sulphonic acid substances in the presence of water-glass. It also shows that the process allowsi of the preparation of porous building material of .any desired apparent weight, which material has a comparatively very great mechanical strength.

What we claim is:-

1. The process for the production of porous building materials which comprises making a hydraulic mineral binding medium into a frothy pulp together with'water, waterglass and a true sulphonic acid substance of an aromatic compound containing at least 6- carbon atoms.

2. The process for the production of porous building materials which comprises making a hydraulic mineral binding medium into a frothy pulp togetherwith water, waterglass and a true sulphonic acid substance of an alkylated aromatic compound containing at least 6 carbon atoms.

3.'The process for the production of porous building materials which comprises making a hydraulic mineral. binding medium into a frothy pulp together with water, waterglass and a true sulphonic acid substance of 'an alkylated naphthalene.

4. The process for the production of porous building. materials which comprises making a "building materials which comprises making a hydraulic mineral binding medium into a frothy pulp together with water, between about 1 and about 4 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of waterglass, and between about onetenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of an aromatic compound containing at least 6 carbon atoms.

6. The process for the production of porous building materials which comprises making a hydraulic mineral binding medium into a frothy pulp together with between about 12; and about 60 per cent,.by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of water, between about 1 and about 4" per centby weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of waterglass, and between about one-tenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulicmineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of anaromatic compound containing at least 6 carbon atoms.

7. The process for the.production of porous building materials which comprises mixing a hydraulic mineral binding medium with between about 12 and about 60 per cent, by weight of said pound containing at least 6 carbon atoms.

9. As new articles of manufacture, porous building materials, comprising a set mixture of a hydraulic mineral binding medium, waterglass and between about one-tenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of an organic compound containing at least 6 carbon atoms.

10. As new articles of manufactin'e, porous building materials, comprising a set mixture of a hydraulic mineral binding medium, waterglass and between about one-tenth per cent and about '5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of an aromatic compound containingat least 6 carbon atoms.

11. As new articles of manufacture, porous builing materials, comprising a set mixture of a hydraulic mineral binding medium, waterglassand between about one-tenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of an'alkylated aromatic compound containing at least'6 carbon atoms.

12. As new articles of manufacture, porous building materials, comprising a set mixture 01' a hydraulic mineral binding medium, between about 1 and about 4 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of waterglass and between about one-tenth per cent and about 5, per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of an alkylated aromatic compound containing at least 6 carbon atoms.

13. As new articles of manufacture, porous building materials comprising a set mixture of a j hydraulic mineral binding medium, between about 1 and about 4 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of waterglass and between about one-tenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance of an alkylated naphthalene.

14. As new articles of manufacture, porous building materials, comprising a set mixture of a-hydraulic mineral binding medium, about 300 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of sand, between about 1 and.

about 4 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of waterglass, and between about one-tenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight of said hydraulic mineral binding medium, of a true sulphonic acid substance 0! an alkylated naphthalene.

15. As new articles of manufacture, porous' building materials, comprising a set mixture of cement, about 300 per cent, by weight of said cement, of sand, between about 1 and about 4 per cent,.by weight of said cement, .of-waterglass, and between about one-tenth per cent and about 5 per cent, by weight oisaid cement,-of a true sulphonic acidsubstance of an alkylated naphthalene; HANS WOLF.

HERMANN LEUCHS. HANS SAENGER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2593492 *Nov 17, 1948Apr 22, 1952Master Builders CoHydraulic cement composition and indurating composition therefor
US2614050 *Jan 13, 1947Oct 14, 1952Basic Refractories IncRefractory compositions
US2709661 *Oct 6, 1950May 31, 1955Hoechst AgProcess for the production of industrial slurries of reduced moisture content in relation to viscosity
US2827384 *Jun 21, 1955Mar 18, 1958Philadelphia Quartz CoWaterproof coatings and adhesives
US2934445 *Sep 6, 1957Apr 26, 1960Ass Portland CementPaints based on portland cement
US3000746 *Jun 26, 1957Sep 19, 1961Gen Aniline & Film CorpInhibition of false set in portland cement
US3390496 *Jun 21, 1966Jul 2, 1968Albert D. WeinerDisintegrating cementitious casting paste
US4042406 *Sep 8, 1976Aug 16, 1977Benjamin GrayBuilding material
Classifications
U.S. Classification106/603, 106/608, 516/14
International ClassificationC04B28/26
Cooperative ClassificationC04B28/26
European ClassificationC04B28/26