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Publication numberUS20050000390 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/492,125
PCT numberPCT/EP2002/011105
Publication dateJan 6, 2005
Filing dateOct 4, 2002
Priority dateOct 13, 2001
Also published asDE10150725A1, DE50214790D1, EP1434840A1, EP1434840B1, WO2003033634A1
Publication number10492125, 492125, PCT/2002/11105, PCT/EP/2/011105, PCT/EP/2/11105, PCT/EP/2002/011105, PCT/EP/2002/11105, PCT/EP2/011105, PCT/EP2/11105, PCT/EP2002/011105, PCT/EP2002/11105, PCT/EP2002011105, PCT/EP200211105, PCT/EP2011105, PCT/EP211105, US 2005/0000390 A1, US 2005/000390 A1, US 20050000390 A1, US 20050000390A1, US 2005000390 A1, US 2005000390A1, US-A1-20050000390, US-A1-2005000390, US2005/0000390A1, US2005/000390A1, US20050000390 A1, US20050000390A1, US2005000390 A1, US2005000390A1
InventorsClaus Nieendick, Josef Koester, Heike Kublik
Original AssigneeClaus Nieendick, Josef Koester, Heike Kublik
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Low-viscosity opacifiers free from anionic surface-active agents
US 20050000390 A1
Abstract
The invention relates to wax-based opacifier preparations containing (a) at least one amphoteric surfactant, (b) at least one fatty acid partial glyceride, (c) at least one fatty acid polyglycol ester and optionally (d) a polyol, with the proviso that the ratio by weight of (a) to (b) is between 10:1 and 4:1 and the ratio by weight of (b) to (c) is between 1:1 and 5:1 and the preparations are free from anionic surfactants.
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Claims(21)
1-13. (cancelled).
14. An opacifier composition comprising:
(a) an amphoteric surfactant;
(b) a fatty acid partial glyceride;
(c) a fatty acid polyglycol ester;
(d) a wax component; and
(e) optionally, up to about 10% by weight of a polyol, and wherein (a) and (b) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 10:1 to 4:1, and (b) and (c) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 1:1 to 5:1.
15. The composition of claim 14 wherein (a) and (b) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 7:1 to 5:1, and (b) and (c) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 2:1 to 4:1.
16. The composition of claim 14 wherein (a) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 1 to 25% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
17. The composition of claim 14 wherein (b) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 0.1 to 6% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
18. The composition of claim 14 wherein (c) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 0.1 to 6% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
19. The composition of claim 14 wherein (d) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 10 to 35% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
20. The composition of claim 14 wherein the composition has a solids content of from about 20 to 50% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
21. The composition of claim 14 wherein the composition has a viscosity of from about 2,000 to 6,000 mPas.
22. The composition of claim 14 wherein the composition has a particle size distribution such that at least 85% of the particles contained therein have a diameter of less than 15 μm.
23. The composition of claim 14 wherein particles present in the composition have a mean particle diameter of less than 12 μm.
24. A process for making an opaque composition comprising:
(a) providing an amphoteric surfactant;
(b) providing a fatty acid partial glyceride;
(c) providing a fatty acid polyglycol ester;
(d) providing a wax component;
(e) providing, optionally, up to about 10% by weight of a polyol; and
(f) mixing (a)-(e) to form the composition, and wherein (a) and (b) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 10:1 to 4:1, and (b) and (c) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 1:1 to 5:1.
25. The process of claim 24 wherein (a) and (b) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 7:1 to 5:1, and (b) and (c) are present in the composition in a ratio by weight of from about 2:1 to 4:1.
26. The process of claim 24 wherein (a) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 1 to 25% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
27. The process of claim 24 wherein (b) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 0.1 to 6% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
28. The process of claim 24 wherein (c) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 0.1 to 6% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
29. The process of claim 24 wherein (d) is present in the composition in an amount of from about 10 to 35% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
30. The process of claim 24 wherein the composition has a solids content of from about 20 to 50% by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
31. The process of claim 24 wherein the composition has a viscosity of from about 2,000 to 6,000 mpas.
32. The process of claim 24 wherein the composition has a particle size distribution such that at least 85% of the particles contained therein have a diameter of less than 15 μm.
33. The process of claim 24 wherein particles present in the composition have a mean particle diameter of less than 12 μm.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to opacifiers containing waxes, amphoteric surfactants, fatty acid partial glycerides, fatty acid polyglycol esters and optionally polyols in a certain ratio by weight, but no anionic surfactants, and to their use as opacifiers.

PRIOR ART

In the formulation of a number of surface-active household products, such as dishwashing detergents for example, or cosmetic preparations, such as hair shampoos for example, particular importance is attributed to the products being clear and not clouding, even in storage. In other cases, cloudy products with a shimmering effect known as pearlescence are required for the same purpose. A third group of products is made with a non-shimmering opaque whiteness using so-called opacifiers.

Opacifiers are fine-particle dispersions of polymers or solids which, apart from water and/or a polyol (for example glycerol), largely contain only a wax and a suitable emulsifier. Known opacifiers are mainly based on copolymers based on acrylic or methacrylic acid and styrene and are not biodegradable. German patent DE 19511572 C2 describes low-viscosity opacifier concentrates based on waxes, sugar surfactants and partial glycerides. Although these concentrates are readily biodegradable, they have high viscosities and are in need of improvement so far as their particle fineness is concerned. In addition, formulations containing sugar surfactants show relatively poor stability in storage at elevated temperature, particularly in regard to color quality and stability.

Accordingly, the problem addressed by the invention was to provide opacifier preparations or concentrates based on waxes which would be highly concentrated but which would have distinctly reduced mean particle sizes by comparison with the prior art. They would have relatively low viscosities so that they would be easy to process and would be biodegradable. In addition, the preparations according to the invention would produce more intense whiteness, but no pearlescence, in aqueous surfactant solutions and, by virtue of their particle size, would be sufficiently stable in storage, even at elevated temperatures.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to wax-based opacifier preparations containing

  • (a) at least one amphoteric surfactant,
  • (b) at least one fatty acid partial glyceride,
  • (c) at least one fatty acid polyglycol ester and optionally
  • (d) a polyol,
    with the proviso that the ratio by weight of (a) to (b) is between 10:1 and 4:1 and the ratio by weight of (b) to (c) is between 1:1 and 5:1 and the preparations are free from anionic surfactants.

In one particular embodiment of the invention, the ratio by weight of component (a) to component (b) is between 7:1 and 5:1 and the ratio by weight of component (b) to component (c) is between 2:1 and 4:1.

It has surprisingly been found that mixtures based on waxes with amphoteric surfactants, partial glycerides, fatty acid polyglycol esters and optionally polyols in a selected ratio by weight give products which have a particularly small mean particle sizes by comparison with the prior art. Accordingly, the required white opaque effect is also intensified by these particularly fine-particle preparations and no pearlescence is formed. In addition, these products have particularly low viscosities, are biodegradable, show good flow and pumping properties, are sufficiently stable in storage, even at temperatures above 30° C., and are compatible with cationic formulation components. These advantageous properties can only be achieved for opacifier systems free from anionic surfactants.

Amphoteric Surfactants

The preparations according to the invention may contain amphoteric surfactants such as, for example, alkyl betaines, alkyl amidobetaines, aminopropionates, aminoglycinates, imidazolinium betaines and sulfobetaines. Betaines are preferably used. Betaines are known surfactants which are mainly produced by carboxyalkylation, preferably carboxymethylation, of aminic compounds. The starting materials are preferably condensed with halocarboxylic acids or salts thereof, more particularly with sodium chloroacetate, 1 mole of salt being formed per mole of betaine. The addition of unsaturated carboxylic acids, for example acrylic acid, is also possible. Particulars of the nomenclature and, in particular, the distinction between betaines and Agenuine amphoteric surfactants can be found in the article by U. Ploog in Seifen-Öle-Fette-Wachse, 198, 373 (1982). Other reviews of this subject have been published, for example, by A. O'Lenick et al. in HAPPI, Nov. 70 (1986), by S. Holzman et al. in Tens. Surf. Det. 23, 309 (1986), by R. Bibo et al. in Soap Cosm. Chem. Spec., Apr. 46 (1990) and by P. Ellis et al. in Euro Cosm. 1, 14 (1994). Examples of suitable betaines are the carboxyalkylation products of secondary and, in particular, tertiary amines corresponding to formula (I):


in which R1 stands for alkyl and/or alkenyl groups containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms, R2 stands for hydrogen or alkyl groups containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms, R3 stands for alkyl groups containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms, n is a number of 1 to 6 and X is an alkali metal and/or alkaline earth metal or ammonium. Typical examples are the carboxymethylation products of hexyl methyl amine, hexyl dimethyl amine, octyl dimethyl amine, decyl dimethyl amine, dodecyl methyl amine, dodecyl dimethyl amine, dodecyl ethyl methyl amine, C12/14 cocoalkyl dimethyl amine, myristyl dimethyl amine, cetyl dimethyl amine, stearyl dimethyl amine, stearyl ethyl methyl amine, oleyl dimethyl amine, C16/18 tallow alkyl dimethyl amine and technical mixtures thereof.

Other suitable betaines are carboxyalkylation products of amido-amines corresponding to formula (II):


in which R6CO is an aliphatic acyl group containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms and 0 or 1 to 3 double bonds, m is a number of 1 to 3, R4 represents hydrogen or C1-4 alkyl groups, R5 represents C1-4 alkyl groups, n is a number of 1 to 6 and X is an alkali metal and/or alkaline earth metal or ammonium. Typical examples are reaction products of fatty acids containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms, namely caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, isostearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, petroselic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, elaeostearic acid, arachic acid, gadoleic acid, behenic acid and erucic acid and technical mixtures thereof, with N,N-dimethyl aminoethyl amine, N,N-dimethyl aminopropyl amine, N,N-diethyl aminoethyl amine and N,N-diethyl aminopropyl amine which are condensed with sodium chloroacetate. It is preferred to use a condensation product of C8/18 cocofatty acid-N,N-dimethyl aminopropyl amide with sodium chloroacetate.

Other suitable starting materials for the betaines to be used in accordance with the invention are imidazolines corresponding to formula (III):


in which R7 is an alkyl group containing 5 to21 carbon atoms, R6 is a hydroxyl group, an OCOR5 or NHCOR5 group and m=2 or 3. Imidazolines are also known compounds which may be obtained, for example, by cyclizing condensation of 1 or 2 moles of fatty acid with polyfunctional amines, for example aminoethyl ethanolamine (AEEA) or diethylene triamine. The corresponding carboxyalkylation products are mixtures of different open-chain betaines. Typical examples are condensation products of the above-mentioned fatty acids with AEEA, preferably imidazolines based on lauric acid or—again—C12/14 cocofatty acid which are subsequently betainized with sodium chloroacetate.

Particularly suitable surfactants are the so-called betaines, such as the N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium glycinates, for example cocoalkyl dimethyl ammonium glycinate, N-acylaminopropyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium glycinates, for example cocoacylaminopropyl dimethyl ammonium glycinate, and 2-alkyl-3-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxyethyl imidazolines containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl or acyl group and cocoacylaminoethyl hydroxyethyl carboxymethyl glycinate. The fatty acid amide derivative known under the CTFA name of Cocamidopropyl Betaine is particularly preferred. Betaines distinguished by high purity are particularly preferred; in other words, low-salt betaines with a maximum salt content of 13% by weight, preferably 11% by weight and more particularly 7% by weight—based on active substance—are used. The corresponding salt is dependent on the production of the amphoteric surfactant; in the most common case, it is sodium chloride. In a particularly preferred embodiment, these betaines also have a low content of free fatty acids of at most 4% by weight and preferably at most 3% by weight, based on active substance.

The preparations according to the invention may contain the amphoteric surfactants in quantities of 1 to 25, preferably 5 to 20 and more particularly 10 to 15% by weight, based on the final composition.

Fatty Acid Partial Glycerides

Fatty acid partial glycerides, i.e. monoglycerides, diglycerides and technical mixtures thereof may still contain small quantities of di- and triglycerides from their production. The partial glycerides preferably correspond to formula (IV):


in which R8CO is a linear or branched, saturated and/or unsaturated acyl group containing 6 to 22 and preferably 12 to 18 carbon atoms, R9 and R10 independently of one another have the same meaning as R8CO or represent OH and the sum (m+n+p) is 0 or a number of 1 to 100 and preferably 5 to 25, with the proviso that at least one of the two substituents R9 and R10 represents OH. Typical examples are mono- and/or diglycerides based on caproic acid, caprylic acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, isotridecanoic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, isostearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, petroselic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, elaeostearic acid, arachic acid, gadoleic acid, behenic acid and erucic acid and technical mixtures thereof. Technical lauric acid glycerides, palmitic acid glycerides, stearic acid glycerides, isostearic acid glycerides, oleic acid glycerides, behenic acid glycerides and/or erucic acid glycerides which have a monoglyceride content of 50 to 95% by weight and preferably 60 to 90% by weight are preferably used. Relatively long-chain partial glycerides, for example based on oleic acid or stearic acid, especially mixtures of glycerides based on saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, are particularly suitable.

The preparations according to the invention may contain the fatty acid partial glycerides in quantities of 0.1 to 6, preferably 0.5 to 5 and more preferably 1 to 3% by weight, based on the final composition.

Fatty Acid Polyglycol Esters

Polyethylene glycol glyceryl fatty acid esters of fatty acids containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms and 3 to 40, preferably 4 to 10, polyethylene glycol units are preferably used as the fatty acid polyglycol esters.

The preparations according to the invention may contain the fatty acid polyglycol esters in quantities of 0.1 to 6, preferably 0.2 to 2 and more particularly 0.5 to 1% by weight, based on the final composition.

Polyols

Polyols which are optional component in the context of the invention preferably contain 2 to 15 carbon atoms and at least two hydroxyl groups. Typical Examples are

    • glycerol;
    • alkylene glycols such as, for example, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, hexylene glycol and polyethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 100 to 1000 dalton;
    • technical oligoglycerol mixtures with a degree of self-condensation of 1.5 to 10 such as, for example, technical diglycerol mixtures with a diglycerol content of 40 to 50% by weight;
    • methylol compounds such as, in particular, trimethylol ethane, trimethylol propane, trimethylol butane, pentaerythritol and dipentaerythritol;
    • lower alkyl glucosides, particularly those containing 1 to 8 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, for example methyl and butyl glucoside;
    • sugar alcohols containing 5 to 12 carbon atoms, for example sorbitol or mannitol,
    • sugars containing 5 to 12 carbon atoms, for example glucose or sucrose;
    • amino sugars, for example glucamine.

Preferred polyols are glycerol and propylene glycol. They are used in quantities of 0 to 10% by weight, preferably 0.1 to 8% by weight and more particularly 1 to 5% by weight, based on the final composition.

Waxes

Basically, the choice of the waxes is not critical. Typical examples are alkylene glycol fatty acid esters, wax esters, hydrogenated triglycerides, saturated fatty alcohols containing 16 to 18 carbon atoms, ethylene oxide adducts with C16-18 fatty acids and/or paraffin waxes.

Alkylene Glycol Fatty Acid Esters

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the waxes used are alkylene glycol fatty acid esters corresponding to formula (V):
R11CO—O-[A]-O—R12  (V)
in which R11CO is an aliphatic acyl group containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms and 0 and/or 1, 2 or 3 double bonds, R12 has the same meaning as R11CO or is a hydroxy group and A is a linear or branched, optionally hydroxysubstituted alkylene group containing 2 to 5 carbon atoms.

These waxes are preferably esters of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol with caproic acid, caprylic acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, isotridecanoic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, isostearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, petroselic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, elaeostearic acid, arachic acid, gadoleic acid, behenic acid and erucic acid and technical mixtures thereof. The use of ethylene glycol distearate is particularly preferred.

The preparations according to the invention may contain the waxes, preferably alkylene glycol fatty acid esters, in quantities of 10 to 35, preferably 12 to 28 and more particularly 15 to 25% by weight, based on the final composition.

Commercial Applications

The opacifier preparations according to the invention have a solids content of preferably 20 to 50, more preferably 30 to 45 and most preferably 35 to 42% by weight, based on the final composition. Accordingly, the present invention also relates to their use as opacifiers, preferably in cosmetic preparations.

They are distinguished by low viscosities, preferably in the range from 2,000 to 6,000 mPas and more particularly in the range from 3,000 to 5,000 mPas (Brookfield: 23° C., spindle 5, 10 r.p.m.), by good flow and pumping properties and by particular particle fineness of the crystals in the dispersion. The particular particle fineness is produced by a particle size distribution where at least 85, preferably 90, more preferably 95 and most preferably 99.9% of the particles have a diameter of <15 μm. The mean particle diameter is preferably <12, more preferably <10 and most preferably <7 μm. The choice of fatty acid partial glycerides with a melting point above 30° C. and fatty acid polyol esters with a melting point below 25° C. has proved to be particularly suitable in regard to opacifying behavior and particle distribution.

Another advantage of the opacifier preparations according to the invention is their high stability to sedimentation in the event of prolonged storage. When used in quantities of 0.1 to 12, preferably 0.5 to 6 and more particularly 1 to 3.5% by weight in aqueous surface-active compositions, such as manual detergents for example, or in cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical preparations, such as for example hair shampoos, hair lotions, foam baths, shower baths, oral and dental care products, creams, gels, lotions, aqueous/alcoholic solutions, emulsions and the like, the opacifier preparations according to the invention produce a permanent, uniform and—compared with the prior art—particularly intensive white opaqueness without any pearlescence.

The choice of the surfactants in aqueous solutions of which the preparations according to the invention produce a white opaqueness is very important because the addition of anionic surfactants produces a distinct increase in viscosity and the required particle fineness and hence the particularly intensive white opaqueness fail to appear. Instead pearlescence is generally produced because relatively large particles are also present through the use of anionic surfactants. Accordingly, the opacifiers can only be used in aqueous solutions of nonionic and/or amphoteric or zwitterionic surfactants. They are preferably used in aqueous solutions containing amphoteric or zwitterionic surfactants.

The surfactant mixtures according to the invention may additionally contain other surfactants, oil components, emulsifiers, pearlescent waxes, consistency factors, thickeners, superfatting agents, stabilizers, polymers, silicone compounds, fats, waxes, lecithins, phospholipids, biogenic agents, UV protection factors, antioxidants, deodorants, antiperspirants, antidandruff agents, film formers, swelling agents, insect repellents, self-tanning agents, tyrosine inhibitors (depigmenting agents), hydrotropes, solubilizers, preservatives, perfume oils, dyes and the like as further auxiliaries and additives.

Surfactants

Nonionic and/or cationic surfactants may be present as surfactants. Typical examples of nonionic surfactants are fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers, alkylphenol polyglycol ethers, fatty acid polyglycol esters, fatty acid amide polyglycol ethers, fatty amine polyglycol ethers, alkoxylated triglycerides, mixed ethers and mixed formals, optionally partly oxidized glucuronic acid derivatives, fatty acid-N-alkyl glucamides, protein hydrolyzates (particularly wheat-based vegetable products), sugar esters, sorbitan esters, polysorbates and amine oxides. If the nonionic surfactants contain polyglycol ether chains, they may have a conventional homolog distribution, although they preferably have a narrow-range homolog distribution. Typical examples of cationic surfactants are quaternary ammonium compounds, for example dimethyl distearyl ammonium chloride, and esterquats, more particularly quaternized fatty acid trialkanolamine ester salts. The surfactants mentioned are all known compounds. Information on their structure and production can be found in relevant synoptic works, cf. for example J. Falbe (ed.), “Surfactants in Consumer Products”, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1987, pages 54 to 124 or J. Falbe (ed.), “Katalysatoren, Tenside und Mineralöladditive (Catalysts, Surfactants and Mineral Oil Additives)”, Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 1978, pages 123-217.

Oil Components

Suitable oil components are, for example, Guerbet alcohols based on fatty alcohols containing 6 to 18 and preferably 8 to 10 carbon atoms, esters of linear C6-22 fatty acids with linear or branched C6-22 fatty alcohols or esters of branched C6-13 carboxylic acids with linear or branched C6-22 fatty alcohols such as, for example, myristyl myristate, myristyl palmitate, myristyl stearate, myristyl isostearate, myristyl oleate, myristyl behenate, myristyl erucate, cetyl myristate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl stearate, cetyl isostearate, cetyl oleate, cetyl behenate, cetyl erucate, stearyl myristate, stearyl palmitate, stearyl stearate, stearyl isostearate, stearyl oleate, stearyl behenate, stearyl erucate, isostearyl myristate, isostearyl palmitate, isostearyl stearate, isostearyl isostearate, isostearyl oleate, isostearyl behenate, isostearyl oleate, oleyl myristate, oleyl palmitate, oleyl stearate, oleyl isostearate, oleyl oleate, oleyl behenate, oleyl erucate, behenyl myristate, behenyl palmitate, behenyl stearate, behenyl isostearate, behenyl oleate, behenyl behenate, behenyl erucate, erucyl myristate, erucyl palmitate, erucyl stearate, erucyl isostearate, erucyl oleate, erucyl behenate and erucyl erucate. Also suitable are esters of linear C6-22 fatty acids with branched alcohols, more particularly 2-ethyl hexanol, esters of C18-38 alkyl hydroxycarboxylic acids with linear or branched C6-22 fatty alcohols (cf. DE 19756377 A1), more especially Dioctyl Malate, esters of linear and/or branched fatty acids with polyhydric alcohols (for example propylene glycol, dimer diol or trimer triol) and/or Guerbet alcohols, triglycerides based on C6-10 fatty acids, liquid mono-/di-/triglyceride mixtures based on C6-18 fatty acids (cf. EP 97100434), esters of C6-22 fatty alcohols and/or Guerbet alcohols with aromatic carboxylic acids, more particularly benzoic acid, esters of C2-12 dicarboxylic acids with linear or branched alcohols containing 1 to 22 carbon atoms or polyols containing 2 to 10 carbon atoms and 2 to 6 hydroxyl groups, vegetable oils, branched primary alcohols, substituted cyclohexanes, linear and branched C6-22 fatty alcohol carbonates, for example Dicaprylyl Carbonate (Cetiol® CC), Guerbet carbonates based on C6-18 and preferaly C8-10 fatty alcohols, esters of benzoic acid with linear and/or branched C6-22 alcohols (for example Finsolv® TN), linear or branched, symmetrical or nonsymmetrical dialkyl ethers containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms per alkyl group, for example Dicaprylyl Ether (Cetiol® OE), ring opening products of epoxidized fatty acid esters with polyols, silicone oils (cyclomethicone, silicon methicones) and/or aliphatic or naphthenic hydrocarbons, for example squalane, squalene or dialkyl cyclohexanes.

Emulsifiers

Suitable emulsifiers are, for example, nonionic surfactants from at least one of the following groups:

    • products of the addition of 2 to 30 moles of ethylene oxide and/or 0 to 5 moles of propylene oxide onto linear C8-22 fatty alcohols, C12-22 fatty acids and alkyl phenols containing 8 to 15 carbon atoms in the alkyl group and alkylamines containing 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the alkyl group;
    • alkyl and/or alkenyl oligoglycosides containing 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the alk(en)yl group and ethoxylated analogs thereof;
    • products of the addition of 1 to 15 moles of ethylene oxide onto castor oil and/or hydrogenated castor oil;
    • products of the addition of 15 to 60 moles of ethylene oxide onto castor oil and/or hydrogenated castor oil;
    • partial esters of sorbitan with unsaturated, linear or saturated, branched fatty acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms and/or hydroxycarboxylic acids containing 3 to 18 carbon atoms and addition products thereof with 1 to 30 moles of ethylene oxide;
    • partial esters of polyglycerol (average degree of self-condensation 2 to 8), trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, sugar alcohols (for example sorbitol), alkyl glucosides (for example methyl glucoside, butyl glucoside, lauryl glucoside) and polyglucosides (for example cellulose) with saturated and/or unsaturated, linear or branched fatty acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms and/or hydroxycarboxylic acids containing 3 to 18 carbon atoms and addition products thereof with 1 to 30 moles of ethylene oxide;
    • mixed esters of pentaerythritol, fatty acids, citric acid and fatty alcohol according to DE 11 65 574 PS and/or mixed esters of fatty acids containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms, methyl glucose and polyols, preferably glycerol or polyglycerol,
    • mono-, di- and trialkyl phosphates and mono-, di- and/or tri-PEG-alkyl phosphates and salts thereof,
    • wool wax alcohols,
    • polysiloxane/polyalkyl/polyether copolymers and corresponding derivatives,
    • block copolymers, for example Polyethylene Glycol-30 Dipolyhydroxystearate;
    • polymer emulsifiers, for example Pemulen types (TR-1, TR-2) from Goodrich;
    • polyalkylene glycols and
    • glycerol carbonate.

The addition products of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide onto fatty alcohols, fatty acids, alkylphenols or castor oil are known commercially available products. They are homolog mixtures of which the average degree of alkoxylation corresponds to the ratio between the quantities of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide and substrate with which the addition reaction is carried out. C12-18 fatty acid monoesters and diesters of addition products of ethylene oxide onto glycerol are known as refatting agents for cosmetic formulations from DE 2024051 PS.

Alkyl and alkenyl oligoglycosides, their production and their use are known from the prior art. They are produced in particular by reacting glucose or oligosaccharides with primary C8-18 alcohols. So far as the glycoside unit is concerned, both monoglycosides where a cyclic sugar unit is attached to the fatty alcohol by a glycoside bond and oligomeric glycosides with a degree of oligomerization of preferably up to about 8 are suitable. The degree of oligomerization is a statistical mean value to which the homolog distribution typical of such technical products corresponds.

Suitable sorbitan esters are sorbitan monoisostearate, sorbitan sesqui-isostearate, sorbitan diisostearate, sorbitan triisostearate, sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan sesquioleate, sorbitan dioleate, sorbitan trioleate, sorbitan monoerucate, sorbitan sesquierucate, sorbitan dierucate, sorbitan trierucate, sorbitan monoricinoleate, sorbitan sesquiricinoleate, sorbitan diricinoleate, sorbitan triricinoleate, sorbitan monohydroxystearate, sorbitan sesquihydroxystearate, sorbitan dihydroxystearate, sorbitan trihydroxy-stearate, sorbitan monotartrate, sorbitan sesquitartrate, sorbitan ditartrate, sorbitan tritartrate, sorbitan monocitrate, sorbitan sesquicitrate, sorbitan dicitrate, sorbitan tricitrate, sorbitan monomaleate, sorbitan sesquimaleate, sorbitan dimaleate, sorbitan trimaleate and technical mixtures thereof.

Addition products of 1 to 30 and preferably 5 to 10 moles of ethylene oxide onto the sorbitan esters mentioned are also suitable.

Typical examples of suitable polyglycerol esters are Polyglyceryl-2 Dipolyhydroxystearate (Dehymuls® PGPH), Polyglycerin-3-Diisostearate (Lameform® TGI), Polyglyceryl-4 Isostearate (Isolan® GI 34), Polyglyceryl-3 Oleate, Diisostearoyl Polyglyceryl-3 Diisostearate (Isolan® PDI), Poly-glyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate (Tego Care® 450), Polyglyceryl-3 Beeswax (Cera Bellina®), Polyglyceryl-4 Caprate (Polyglycerol Caprate T2010/90), Polyglyceryl-3 Cetyl Ether (Chimexane® NL), Polyglyceryl-3 Distearate (Cremophor® GS 32) and Polyglyceryl Polyricinoleate (Admul® WOL 1403), Polyglyceryl Dimerate Isostearate and mixtures thereof. Examples of other suitable polyolesters are the mono-, di- and triesters of trimethylol propane or pentaerythritol with lauric acid, cocofatty acid, tallow fatty acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, behenic acid and the like optionally reacted with 1 to 30 moles of ethylene oxide.

Fats and Waxes

Typical examples of fats are glycerides, i.e. solid or liquid, vegetable or animal products which consist essentially of mixed glycerol esters of higher fatty acids. Suitable waxes are inter alia natural waxes such as, for example, candelilla wax, carnauba wax, Japan wax, espartograss wax, cork wax, guaruma wax, rice oil wax, sugar cane wax, ouricury wax, montan wax, beeswax, shellac wax, spermaceti, lanolin (wool wax), uropygial fat, ceresine, ozocerite (earth wax), petrolatum, paraffin waxes and microwaxes; chemically modified waxes (hard waxes) such as, for example, montan ester waxes, sasol waxes, hydrogenated jojoba waxes and synthetic waxes such as, for example, polyalkylene waxes and polyethylene glycol waxes. Besides the fats, other suitable additives are fat-like substances, such as lecithins and phospholipids. Lecithins are known among experts as glycerophospholipids which are formed from fatty acids, glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline by esterification. Accordingly, lecithins are also frequently referred to by experts as phosphatidyl cholines (PCs) and correspond to the following general formula:


where R typically represents linear aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals containing 15 to 17 carbon atoms and up to 4 cis-double bonds. Examples of natural lecithins are the kephalins which are also known as phosphatidic acids and which are derivatives of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoric acids. By contrast, phospholipids are generally understood to be mono- and preferably diesters of phosphoric acid with glycerol (glycerophosphates) which are normally classed as fats. Sphingosines and sphingolipids are also suitable.
Consistency Factors and Thickeners

The consistency factors mainly used are fatty alcohols or hydroxyfatty alcohols containing 12 to 22 and preferably 16 to 18 carbon atoms and in addition partial glycerides, fatty acids or hydroxyfatty acids. A combination of these substances with alkyl oligoglucosides and/or fatty acid N-methyl gluc-amides of the same chain length and/or polyglycerol poly-12-hydroxystearates is preferably used. Suitable thickeners are, for example, Aerosil types(hydrophilic silicas), polysaccharides, more especially xanthan gum, guar-guar, agar-agar, alginates and tyloses, carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxy-ethyl cellulose, also relatively high molecular weight polyethylene glycol monoesters and diesters of fatty acids, polyacrylates (for example Carbopols® and Pemulens [Goodrich] or Synthalens® [Sigma]; Keltrols from Kelco; Sepigels from Seppic; Salcares from Allied Colloids), polyacrylamides, polymers, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone, surfactants such as, for example, ethoxylated fatty acid glycerides, esters of fatty acids with polyols, for example pentaerythritol or trimethylol propane, narrow-range fatty alcohol ethoxylates or alkyl oligoglucosides and electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and ammonium chloride.

Superfatting Agents

Superfatting agents may be selected from such substances as, for example, lanolin and lecithin and also polyethoxylated or acylated lanolin and lecithin derivatives, polyol fatty acid esters, monoglycerides and fatty acid alkanolamides, the fatty acid alkanolamides also serving as foam stabilizers.

Stabilizers

Metal salts of fatty acids such as, for example, magnesium, aluminium and/or zinc stearate or ricinoleate may be used as stabilizers.

Polymers

Suitable cationic polymers are, for example, cationic cellulose derivatives such as, for example, the quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose obtainable from Amerchol under the name of Polymer JR 400, cationic starch, copolymers of diallyl ammonium salts and acrylamides, quaternized vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl imidazole polymers such as, for example, Luviquat® (BASF), condensation products of polyglycols and amines, quaternized collagen polypeptides such as, for example, Lauryidimonium Hydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Collagen (Lamequat® L, Grünau), quaternized wheat poly-peptides, polyethyleneimine, cationic silicone polymers such as, for example, Amodimethicone, copolymers of adipic acid and dimethylaminohydroxypropyl diethylenetriamine (Cartaretine®, Sandoz), copolymers of acrylic acid with dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (Merquat® 550, Chemviron), polyaminopolyamides as described, for example, in FR 2252840 A and crosslinked water-soluble polymers thereof, cationic chitin derivatives such as, for example, quaternized chitosan, optionally in microcrystalline distribution, condensation products of dihaloalkyls, for example dibromobutane, with bis-dialkylamines, for example bis-dimethylamino-1,3-propane, cationic guar gum such as, for example, Jaguar®CBS, Jaguar®C-17, Jaguar®C-16 of Celanese, quaternized ammonium salt polymers such as, for example, Mirapol® A-15, Mirapol® AD-1, Mirapol® AZ-1 of Miranol.

Suitable anionic, zwitterionic, amphoteric and nonionic polymers are, for example, vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymers, vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl acrylate copolymers, vinyl acetate/butyl maleate/isobornyl acrylate copolymers, methyl vinylether/maleic anhydride copolymers and esters thereof, uncrosslinked and polyol-crosslinked polyacrylic acids, acrylamido-propyl trimethylammonium chloride/acrylate copolymers, octylacryl-amide/methyl methacrylate/tert.-butylaminoethyl methacrylate/2-hydroxy-propyl methacrylate copolymers, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymers, vinyl pyrrolidone/dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate/vinyl caprolactam terpolymers and optionally derivatized cellulose ethers and silicones. Other suitable polymers and thickeners can be found in Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 108, May 1993, pages 95 et seq.

Silicone Compounds

Suitable silicone compounds are, for example, dimethyl polysiloxanes, methylphenyl polysiloxanes, cyclic silicones and amino-, fatty acid-, alcohol-, polyether-, epoxy-, fluorine-, glycoside- and/or alkyl-modified silicone compounds which may be both liquid and resin-like at room temperature. Other suitable silicone compounds are simethicones which are mixtures of dimethicones with an average chain length of 200 to 300 dimethylsiloxane units and hydrogenated silicates. A detailed overview of suitable volatile silicones can be found in Todd et al. in Cosm. Toil. 91, 27 (1976).

UV Protection Factors and Antioxidants

UV protection factors in the context of the invention are, for example, organic substances (light filters) which are liquid or crystalline at room temperature and which are capable of absorbing ultraviolet or infrared radiation and of releasing the energy absorbed in the form of longer-wave radiation, for example heat. UV-B filters can be oil-soluble or water-soluble. The following are examples of oil-soluble substances:

    • 3-benzylidene camphor or 3-benzylidene norcamphor and derivatives thereof, for example 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor as described in EP 0693471 B1;
    • 4-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, preferably 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester, 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoic acid-2-octyl ester and 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoic acid amyl ester;
    • esters of cinnamic acid, preferably 4-methoxycinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester, 4-methoxycinnamic acid propyl ester, 4-methoxycinnamic acid isoamyl ester, 2-cyano-3,3-phenylcinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (Octocrylene);
    • esters of salicylic acid, preferably salicylic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester, salicylic acid-4-isopropylbenzyl ester, salicylic acid homomenthyl ester;
    • derivatives of benzophenone, preferably 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzo-phenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4′-methylbenzophenone, 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone;
    • esters of benzalmalonic acid, preferably 4-methoxybenzalmalonic acid di-2-ethylhexyl ester;
    • triazine derivatives such as, for example, 2,4,6-trianilino-(p-carbo-2′-ethyl-1′-hexyloxy)-1,3,5-triazine and Octyl Triazone as described in EP 0818450 A1or Dioctyl Butamido Triazone (Uvasorb® HEB);
    • propane-1,3-diones such as, for example, 1-(4-tert.butylphenyl)-3-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,3-dione;
    • ketotricyclo(5.2.1.0)decane derivatives as described in EP 0694521 B1.

Suitable Water-Soluble Substances are

    • 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid and alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium, alkylammonium, alkanolammonium and glucammonium salts thereof;
    • sulfonic acid derivatives of benzophenones, preferably 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid and salts thereof;
    • sulfonic acid derivatives of 3-benzylidene camphor such as, for example, 4-(2-oxo-3-bornylidenemethyl)-benzene sulfonic acid and 2-methyl-5-(2-oxo-3-bornylidene)-sulfonic acid and salts thereof.

Typical UV-A filters are, in particular, derivatives of benzoyl methane such as, for example, 1-(4′-tert.butylphenyl)-3-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,3-dione, 4-tert.butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoyl methane (Parsole® 1789) or 1-phenyl-3-(4′-isopropylphenyl)-propane-1,3-dione and the eneamine compounds described in DE 19712033 A1 (BASF). The UV-A and UV-B filters may of course also be used in the form of mixtures. Particularly favorable combinations consist of the derivatives of benzoylmethane, for example 4-tert.-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoyl methane (Parsol® 1789) and 2-cyano-3,3-phenylcinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (Octocrylene) in combination with esters of cinnamic acid, preferably 4-methoxycinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester and/or 4-methoxycinnamic acid propyl ester and/or 4-methoxycinnamic acid isoamyl ester. These combinations are advantageously combined with water-soluble filters such as, for example, 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sufonic acid and alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium, alkylammonium, alkanolammonium and glucammonium salts.

Besides the soluble substances mentioned, insoluble light-blocking pigments, i.e. finely dispersed metal oxides or salts, may also be used for this purpose. Examples of suitable metal oxides are, in particular, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide and also oxides of iron, zirconium oxide, silicon, manganese, aluminium and cerium and mixtures thereof. Silicates (talcum), barium sulfate and zinc stearate may be used as salts. The oxides and salts are used in the form of the pigments for skin-care and skin-protecting emulsions and decorative cosmetics. The particles should have a mean diameter of less than 100 nm, preferably between 5 and 50 nm and more preferably between 15 and 30 nm. They may be spherical in shape although ellipsoidal particles or other non-spherical particles may also be used. The pigments may also be surface-treated, i.e. hydrophilicized or hydrophobicized. Typical examples are coated titanium dioxides, for example Titandioxid T 805 (Degussa) and Eusolex® T2000 (Merck). Suitable hydrophobic coating materials are, above all, silicones and, among these, especially trialkoxyoctylsilanes or simethicones. So-called micro- or nanopigments are preferably used in sun protection products. Micronized zinc oxide is preferably used. Other suitable UV filters can be found in P. Finkel's review in SÖFW-Journal 122, 543 (1996) and in Parfümerie und Kosmetik 3 (1999), pages 11 et seq.

Besides the two groups of primary sun protection factors mentioned above, secondary sun protection factors of the antioxidant type may also be used. Secondary sun protection factors of the antioxidant type interrupt the photochemical reaction chain which is initiated when UV rays penetrate into the skin. Typical examples are amino acids (for example glycine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophane) and derivatives thereof, imidazoles (for example urocanic acid) and derivatives thereof, peptides, such as D,L-carnosine, D-carnosine, L-carnosine and derivatives thereof (for example anserine), carotinoids, carotenes (for example α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and derivatives thereof, chlorogenic acid and derivatives thereof, liponic acid and derivatives thereof (for example dihydroliponic acid), aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (for example thioredoxine, glutathione, cysteine, cystine, cystamine and glycosyl, N-acetyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, amyl, butyl and lauryl, palmitoyl, oleyl, γ-linoleyl, cholesteryl and glyceryl esters thereof) and their salts, dilaurylthiodipropionate, distearyl-thiodipropionate, thiodipropionic acid and derivatives thereof (esters, ethers, peptides, lipids, nucleotides, nucleosides and salts) and sulfoximine compounds (for example butionine sulfoximines, homocysteine sulfoximine, butionine sulfones, penta-, hexa- and hepta-thionine sulfoximine) in very small compatible dosages (for example pmole to μmole/kg), also (metal) chelators for example α-hydroxyfatty acids, palmitic acid, phytic acid, lactoferrine), α-hydroxy acids (for example citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid), humic acid, bile acid, bile extracts, bilirubin, biliverdin, EDTA, EGTA and derivatives thereof, unsaturated fatty acids and derivatives thereof (for example γ-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid), folic acid and derivatives thereof, ubiquinone and ubiquinol and derivatives thereof, vitamin C and derivatives thereof (for example ascorbyl palmitate, Mg ascorbyl phosphate, ascorbyl acetate), tocopherols and derivatives (for example vitamin E acetate), vitamin A and derivatives (vitamin A palmitate) and coniferyl benzoate of benzoin resin, rutinic acid and derivatives thereof, α-glycosyl rutin, ferulic acid, furfurylidene glucitol, carnosine, butyl hydroxytoluene, butyl hydroxyanisole, nordihydroguaiac resin acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, trihydroxybutyrophenone, uric acid and derivatives thereof, mannose and derivatives thereof, Superoxid-Dismutase, zinc and derivatives thereof (for example ZnO, ZnSO4), selenium and derivatives thereof (for example selenium methionine), stilbenes and derivatives thereof (for example stilbene oxide, trans-stilbene oxide) and derivatives of these active substances suitable for the purposes of the invention (salts, esters, ethers, sugars, nucleotides, nucleosides, peptides and lipids).

Biogenic Agents

In the context of the invention, biogenic agents are, for example, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, tocopherol palmitate, ascorbic acid, retinol, bisabolol, allantoin, phytantriol, panthenol, AHA acids, amino acids, ceramides, pseudoceramides, essential oils, plant extracts and vitamin complexes.

Deodorants and Germ Inhibitors

Cosmetic deodorants counteract, mask or eliminate body odors. Body odors are formed through the action of skin bacteria on apocrine perspiration which results in the formation of unpleasant-smelling degradation products. Accordingly, deodorants contain active principles which act as germ inhibitors, enzyme inhibitors, odor absorbers or odor maskers. Basically, suitable germ inhibitors are any substances which act against gram-positive bacteria such as, for example, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and salts and esters thereof, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-urea, 2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxydiphenylether (triclosan), 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, 2,2′-methylene-bis-(6-bromo-4-chlorophenol), 3-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-phenol, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 3-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol, 3-iodo-2-propinyl butyl carbamate, chlorhexidine, 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide (TTC), antibacterial perfumes, thymol, thyme oil, eugenol, clove oil, menthol, mint oil, farnesol, phenoxyethanol, glycerol monocaprate, glycerol monocaprylate, glycerol monolaurate (GML), diglycerol monocaprate (DMC), salicylic acid-N-alkylamides such as, for example, salicylic acid-n-octyl amide or salicylic acid-n-decyl amide.

Suitable enzyme inhibitors are, for example, esterase inhibitors. Esterase inhibitors are preferably trialkyl citrates, such as trimethyl citrate, tripropyl citrate, triisopropyl citrate, tributyl citrate and, in particular, triethyl citrate (Hydagen® CAT). Esterase inhibitors inhibit enzyme activity and thus reduce odor formation. Other esterase inhibitors are sterol sulfates or phosphates such as, for example, lanosterol, cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol sulfate or phosphate, dicarboxylic acids and esters thereof, for example glutaric acid, glutaric acid monoethyl ester, glutaric acid diethyl ester, adipic acid, adipic acid monoethyl ester, adipic acid diethyl ester, malonic acid and malonic acid diethyl ester, hydroxycarboxylic acids and esters thereof, for example citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid or tartaric acid diethyl ester, and zinc glycinate.

Suitable odor absorbers are substances which are capable of absorbing and largely retaining the odor-forming compounds. They reduce the partial pressure of the individual components and thus also reduce the rate at which they spread. An important requirement in this regard is that perfumes must remain unimpaired. Odor absorbers are not active against bacteria. They contain, for example, a complex zinc salt of ricinoleic acid or special perfumes of largely neutral odor known to the expert as “fixateurs” such as, for example, extracts of ladanum or styrax or certain abietic acid derivatives as their principal component. Odor maskers are perfumes or perfume oils which, besides their odor-masking function, impart their particular perfume note to the deodorants. Suitable perfume oils are, for example, mixtures of natural and synthetic fragrances. Natural fragrances include the extracts of blossoms, stems and leaves, fruits, fruit peel, roots, woods, herbs and grasses, needles and branches, resins and balsams. Animal raw materials, for example civet and beaver, may also be used. Typical synthetic perfume compounds are products of the ester, ether, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol and hydrocarbon type. Examples of perfume compounds of the ester type are benzyl acetate, p-tert.butyl cyclohexylacetate, linalyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate, linalyl benzoate, benzyl formate, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, styrallyl propionate and benzyl salicylate. Ethers include, for example, benzyl ethyl ether while aldehydes include, for example, the linear alkanals containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms, citral, citronellal, citronellyloxyacetaldehyde, cyclamen aldehyde, hydroxycitronellal, lilial and bourgeonal. Examples of suitable ketones are the ionones and methyl cedryl ketone. Suitable alcohols are anethol, citronellol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol and terpineol. The hydrocarbons mainly include the terpenes and balsams. However, it is preferred to use mixtures of different perfume compounds which, together, produce an agreeable fragrance. Other suitable perfume oils are essential oils of relatively low volatility which are mostly used as aroma components. Examples are sage oil, camomile oil, clove oil, melissa oil, mint oil, cinnamon leaf oil, lime-blossom oil, juniper berry oil, vetiver oil, olibanum oil, galbanum oil, ladanum oil and lavendin oil. The following are preferably used either individually or in the form of mixtures: bergamot oil, dihydromyrcenol, lilial, lyral, citronellol, phenylethyl alcohol, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, geraniol, benzyl acetone, cyclamen aldehyde, linalool, Boisambrene Forte, Ambroxan, indole, hedione, sandelice, citrus oil, mandarin oil, orange oil, allylamyl glycolate, cyclovertal, lavendin oil, clary oil, β-damascone, geranium oil bourbon, cyclohexyl salicylate, Vertofix Coeur, Iso-E-Super, Fixolide NP, evernyl, iraldein gamma, phenylacetic acid, geranyl acetate, benzyl acetate, rose oxide, romillat, irotyl and floramat.

Antiperspirants reduce perspiration and thus counteract underarm wetness and body odor by influencing the activity of the eccrine sweat glands. Aqueous or water-free antiperspirant formulations typically contain the following ingredients:

    • astringent active principles,
    • oil components,
    • nonionic emulsifiers,
    • co-emulsifiers,
    • consistency factors,
    • auxiliaries in the form of, for example, thickeners or complexing agents and/or
    • non-aqueous solvents such as, for example, ethanol, propylene glycol and/or glycerol.

Suitable astringent active principles of antiperspirants are, above all, salts of aluminium, zirconium or zinc. Suitable antihydrotic agents of this type are, for example, aluminium chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate, aluminium dichlorohydrate, aluminium sesquichlorohydrate and complex compounds thereof, for example with 1,2-propylene glycol, aluminium hydroxyallantoinate, aluminium chloride tartrate, aluminium zirconium trichlorohydrate, aluminium zirconium tetrachlorohydrate, aluminium zirconium pentachlorohydrate and complex compounds thereof, for example with amino acids, such as glycine. Oil-soluble and water-soluble auxiliaries typically encountered in antiperspirants may also be present in relatively small amounts. Oil-soluble auxiliaries such as these include, for example,

    • inflammation-inhibiting, skin-protecting or pleasant-smelling essential oils,
    • synthetic skin-protecting agents and/or
    • oil-soluble perfume oils.

Typical water-soluble additives are, for example, preservatives, water-soluble perfumes, pH regulators, for example buffer mixtures, water-soluble thickeners, for example water-soluble natural or synthetic polymers such as, for example, xanthan gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone or high molecular weight polyethylene oxides.

Film Formers

Standard film formers are, for example, chitosan, microcrystalline chitosan, quaternized chitosan, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymers, polymers of the acrylic acid series, quaternary cellulose derivatives, collagen, hyaluronic acid and salts thereof and similar compounds.

Antidandruff Agents

Suitable antidandruff agents are Pirocton Olamin (1-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-2-(1H)-pyridinone monoethanolamine salt), Baypival® (Climbazole), Ketoconazol® (4-acetyl-1-{4-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) r-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxylan-c-4-ylmethoxyphenyl}-piperazine, ketoconazole, elubiol, selenium disulfide, colloidal sulfur, sulfur polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate, sulfur ricinol polyethoxylate, sulfur tar distillate, salicylic acid (or in combination with hexachlorophene), undecylenic acid, monoethanolamide sulfosuccinate Na salt, Lamepon® UD (protein/undecylenic acid condensate), zinc pyrithione, aluminium pyrithione and magnesium pyrithione/dipyrithione magnesium sulfate.

Swelling Agents

Suitable swelling agents for aqueous phases are montmorillonites, clay minerals, Pemulen and alkyl-modified Carbopol types (Goodrich). Other suitable polymers and swelling agents can be found in R. Lochhead's review in Cosm. Toil. 108, 95 (1993).

Insect Repellents

Suitable insect repellents are N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, pentane-1,2-diol or Ethyl Butylacetylaminopropionate.

Self-Tanning Agents and Depigmenting Agents

A suitable self-tanning agent is dihydroxyacetone. Suitable tyrosine inhibitors which prevent the formation of melanin and are used in depigmenting agents are, for example, arbutin, kojic acid, coumaric acid and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

Preservatives

Suitable preservatives are, for example, phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde solution, parabens, pentanediol or sorbic acid and the other classes of compounds listed in Appendix 6, Parts A and B of the Kosmetikverordnung (Cosmetics Directive).

Perfume Oils

Suitable perfume oils are mixtures of natural and synthetic perfumes. Natural perfumes include the extracts of blossoms (lily, lavender, rose, jasmine, neroli, ylang-ylang), stems and leaves (geranium, patchouli, petitgrain), fruits (anise, coriander, caraway, juniper), fruit peel (bergamot, lemon, orange), roots (nutmeg, angelica, celery, cardamom, costus, iris, calmus), woods (pinewood, sandalwood, guaiac wood, cedarwood, rosewood), herbs and grasses (tarragon, lemon grass, sage, thyme), needles and branches (spruce, fir, pine, dwarf pine), resins and balsams (galbanum, elemi, benzoin, myrrh, olibanum, opoponax). Animal raw materials, for example civet and beaver, may also be used. Typical synthetic perfume compounds are products of the ester, ether, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol and hydrocarbon type. Examples of perfume compounds of the ester type are benzyl acetate, phenoxyethyl isobutyrate, p-tert.butyl cyclohexylacetate, linalyl acetate, dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate, linalyl benzoate, benzyl formate, ethylmethyl phenyl glycinate, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, styrallyl propionate and benzyl salicylate. Ethers include, for example, benzyl ethyl ether while aldehydes include, for example, the linear alkanals containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms, citral, citronellal, citronellyloxyacetaldehyde, cyclamen aldehyde, hydroxycitronellal, lilial and bourgeonal. Examples of suitable ketones are the ionones, α-isomethylionone and methyl cedryl ketone. Suitable alcohols are anethol, citronellol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol and terpineol. The hydrocarbons mainly include the terpenes and balsams. However, it is preferred to use mixtures of different perfume compounds which, together, produce an agreeable fragrance. Other suitable perfume oils are essential oils of relatively low volatility which are mostly used as aroma components. Examples are sage oil, camomile oil, clove oil, melissa oil, mint oil, cinnamon leaf oil, lime-blossom oil, juniper berry oil, vetiver oil, olibanum oil, galbanum oil, ladanum oil and lavendin oil. The following are preferably used either individually or in the form of mixtures: bergamot oil, dihydromyrcenol, lilial, lyral, citronellol, phenylethyl alcohol, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, geraniol, benzyl acetone, cyclamen aldehyde, linalool, Boisambrene Forte, Ambroxan, indole, hedione, sandelice, citrus oil, mandarin oil, orange oil, allylamyl glycolate, cyclovertal, lavendin oil, clary oil, β-damascone, geranium oil bourbon, cyclohexyl salicylate, Vertofix Coeur, Iso-E-Super, Fixolide NP, evernyl, iraldein gamma, phenylacetic acid, geranyl acetate, benzyl acetate, rose oxide, romillat, irotyl and floramat.

Dyes

Suitable dyes are any of the substances suitable and approved for cosmetic purposes as listed, for example, in the publication “Kosmetische Fäbemittel” of the Farbstoffkommission der Deutschen Forschungs-gemeinschaft, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1984, pages 81 to 106. These dyes are normally used in concentrations of 0.001 to 0.1% by weight, based on the mixture as a whole.

The total percentage content of auxiliaries and additives may be from 1 to 50% by weight and is preferably from 5 to 40% by weight, based on the particular formulation. The preparations may be produced by standard hot or cold processes and are preferably produced by the phase inversion temperature method.

EXAMPLES

The wax, the fatty acid polyol esters (c), partial glycerides (b) and the amphoteric surfactants (a) were mixed in various ratios by weight and the particle fineness was determined by determining the particle size distribution in μm and the mean particle diameter in μm by laser diffraction (Mastersizer 2000; see product specification of MALVERN INSTRUMENTS GmbH, Herrenberg, Germany). Viscosity was measured by the Brookfield method (23° C., spindle 5, 10 r.p.m., mPas). The results are set out in Table 1.

TABLE 1
Cosmetic preparations (quantities in % by weight active substance,
based on the final composition)
Composition (INCI) 1 2 3 4 C1 C2 C3 C4
Wax 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25
Cutina ® AGS
Ethyleneglycol
Distearate
Cocoamidopropyl 10 12 14 15 10 10 10 12
Betaine (a)
Cetiol ® HE (c) 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0
PEG 7 Glyceryl
Cocoate
Monomuls ® 90- 1.0 1.25 0.5 1.0
O18 (b)
Glyceryl Oleate
Monomuls ® 90- 1.5 2.5 1.3 0.9
L12 (b)
Glyceryl Laurate
Cutina ® GMS (b) 1.0 1.25 3.5 1.0
Glyceryl Stearate
Sodium lauryl 2.5
ether sulfate + 2
EO
Glycerol 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Benzoic acid 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Water to 100
Ratio by weight a:b 6.6:1 6:1 5.6:1   5:1 7.6:1  11:1 2.5:1 6:1
Ratio by weight b:c   3:1 2:1   4:1 2.5:1 1.2:1   4:1 2:1
Viscosity 3000 4000 4000 5000 9000 5000 14000 16000
Particle size
distribution
 <15 μm 99.9 98 98 99.9 58 76 68 55
15-20 μm 0.1 2 2 0.1 35 21 24 35
 >20 μm 7 3 8 10
Mean particle 5.5 6 6.5 5.0 14 13 15 16
diameter
Appearance Opaque Opaque Opaque Opaque Pearl- Pearl- Pearl- Pearl-
escent escent escent escent

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7776811Jul 24, 2006Aug 17, 2010Honeywell International Inc.Cleaner composition, article and method
US20110139170 *Jun 16, 2011Thomas HippeNon-sulfate mild surfactant system for skin and hair cleaning
CN101766973BJan 7, 2009Jun 13, 2012湖北大学Symmetric cationic surfactant and preparation method thereof
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Classifications
U.S. Classification106/502, 424/59, 424/70.21, 510/416, 514/286, 510/119, 510/130
International ClassificationA61K47/10, C11D3/18, A61K8/39, A61K47/18, A61K47/34, A61K47/14, B01F17/34, C11D3/20, A61Q19/00, B01F17/22, B01F17/28, A61K9/10, B01F17/00, C11D1/94, C11D1/90, A61K8/44, A61K8/37, C11D1/66
Cooperative ClassificationB01F17/0085, C11D1/667, C11D1/90, A61K8/375, C11D3/18, B01F17/0042, C11D3/0089, C11D1/74, A61K8/39, A61K8/442, A61Q19/00, C11D3/2065, C11D1/94
European ClassificationB01F17/00Z, C11D3/20B3, A61K8/39, B01F17/00K, A61K8/37C, C11D1/94, A61Q19/00, A61K8/44D, C11D3/18, C11D3/00B18
Legal Events
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Jul 8, 2004ASAssignment
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Nov 11, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: COGNIS IP MANAGEMENT GMBH, GERMANY
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Effective date: 20041231