US 20050004558 A1
Implants and associated delivery systems for promoting angiogenesis in ischemic tissue are provided. The implants may be delivered percutaneously, thoracically or surgically and are particularly well suited for implantation into the myocardium of the heart. The implants are configured to be flexible so that they compress and expand with corresponding movement of the surrounding tissue into which they are implanted. The flow of blood into the implant and pooling of the blood in and around the implant leads to thrombosis and fibrin growth, a healing process that leads to angiogenesis in the tissue surrounding the implant. Additionally, the implants may contain an angiogenic substance or a thrombus of blood, preloaded or injected after implantation to aid in initiating angiogenesis.
1. A method of promoting angiogenesis in ischemic tissue comprising the steps of:
providing at least one flexible implant having first and second configurations and configured to move between the first and second configurations under the influence of the movement of surrounding tissue and defining a volume, at least while in the first configuration, that is in fluid communication with the surrounding tissue;
implanting at least one implant in an area of ischemic tissue.
2. A method of promoting angiogenesis as defined in
3. A method of promoting angiogenesis as defined in
4. A method of promoting angiogenesis as defined in
5. A method of promoting angiogenesis as defined in
6. A method as defined in
7. A method as defined in
8. A method as defined in
14. A method of promoting angiogenesis in the myocardium, comprising: generating thrombus in the myocardium to stimulate angiogenesis by placing at least one implant in the myocardium, wherein the implant is placed closer to the endocardium than to the epicardium.
This application is a divisional of application Ser. No. 09/164,163 filed Sep. 30, 1998.
This invention relates to methods and devices for inducing angiogenesis in ischemic tissue.
Tissue becomes ischemic when it is deprived of adequate blood flow. Ischemia causes pain in the area of the affected tissue and, in the case of muscle tissue, can interrupt muscular function. Left untreated, ischemic tissue can become infarcted and permanently non-functioning. Ischemia can be caused by a blockage in the vascular system that prohibits oxygenated blood from reaching the affected tissue area. However, ischemic tissue can be revived to function normally despite the deprivation of oxygenated blood because ischemic tissue can remain in a hibernating state, preserving its viability for some time. Restoring blood flow to the ischemic region serves to revive the ischemic tissue.
Although ischemia can occur in various regions of the body, often tissue of the heart, the myocardium, is affected by ischemia due to coronary artery disease, occlusion of the coronary artery, which otherwise provides blood to the myocardium. Muscle tissue affected by ischemia can cause pain to the individual affected. Ischemia can be treated, if a tissue has remained viable despite the deprivation of oxygenated blood, by restoring blood flow to the affected tissue.
Treatment of myocardial ischemia has been addressed by several techniques designed to restore blood supply to the affected region. Coronary artery bypass grafting CABG involves grafting a venous segment between the aorta and the coronary artery to bypass the occluded portion of the artery. Once blood flow is redirected to the portion of the coronary artery beyond the occlusion, the supply of oxygenated blood is restored to the area of ischemic tissue.
Early researchers, more than thirty years ago, reported promising results for revascularizing the myocardium by piercing the muscle to create multiple channels for blood flow. Sen, P. K. et al., “Transmyocardial Acupuncture—A New Approach to Myocardial Revascularization”, Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Vol. 50, No. 2, August 1965, pp. 181-189. Although others have reported varying degrees of success with various methods of piercing the myocardium to restore blood flow to the muscle, many have faced common problems such as closure of the created channels. Various techniques of perforating the muscle tissue to avoid closure have been reported by researchers. These techniques include piercing with a solid sharp tip wire, hypodermic tube and physically stretching the channel after its formation. Reportedly, many of these methods still produced trauma and tearing of the tissue that ultimately led to closure of the channel.
An alternative method of creating channels that potentially avoids the problem of closure involves the use of laser technology. Researchers have reported success in maintaining patent channels in the myocardium by forming the channels with the heat energy of a laser. Mirhoseini, M. et al., “Revascularization of the Heart by Laser”, Journal of Microsurgery, Vol. 2, No. 4, June 1981, pp. 253-260. The laser was said to form channels in the tissue were clean and made without tearing and trauma, suggesting that scarring does not occur and the channels are less likely to experience the closure that results from healing. U.S. Pat. No. 5,769,843 (Abela et al.) dicloses creating laser-made TMR channels utilizing a catheter based system. Abela also discloses a magnetic navigation system to guide the catheter to the desired position within the heart. Aita U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,380,316 and 5,389,096 disclose another approach to a catheter based system for TMR.
Although there has been some published recognition of the desirability of performing transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) in a non-laser catheterization procedure, there does not appear to be evidence that such procedures have been put into practice. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,429,144 Wilk discloses inserting an expandable implant within a preformed channel created within the myocardium for the purposes of creating blood flow into the tissue from the left ventricle.
Performing TMR by placing stents in the myocardium is also disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,810,836 (Hussein et al.). The Hussein patent discloses several stent embodiments that are delivered through the epicardium of the heart, into the myocardium and positioned to be open to the left ventricle. The stents are intended to maintain an open channel in the myocardium through which blood enters from the ventricle and perfuses into the myocardium.
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels in tissue, has been the subject of increased study in recent years. Such blood vessel growth to provide new supplies of oxygenated blood to a region of tissue has the potential to remedy a variety of tissue and muscular ailments, particularly ischemia. Primarily, study has focused on perfecting angiogenic factors such as human growth factors produced from genetic engineering techniques. It has been reported that injection of such a growth factor into myocardial tissue initiates angiogenesis at that site, which is exhibited by a new dense capillary network within the tissue. Schumacher et al., “Induction of Neo-Angiogenesis in Ischemic Myocardium by Human Growth Factors”, Circulation, 1998; 97:645-650. The authors noted that such treatment could be an approach to management of diffused coronary heart disease after alternative methods of administration have been developed.
The vascular inducing implants of the present invention provide a mechanism for initiating angiogenesis within ischemic tissue. The implants interact with the surrounding tissue in which they are implanted and the blood that is present in the tissue to initiate angiogenesis by various mechanisms.
Primarily, it is expected that the implants will trigger angiogenesis in the ischemic tissue by interacting in one or more ways with the tissue to initiate an injury response. The body's response to tissue injury involves thrombosis formation at the site of the injury or irritation. Thrombosis leads to arterioles and fibrin growth which is believed to ultimately lead to new blood vessel growth to feed the new tissue with blood. The new blood vessels that develop in this region also serve to supply blood to the surrounding area of ischemic tissue that was previously deprived of oxygenated blood.
The presence of the implants in the tissue, alone, may trigger a foreign body response leading to endothelialization and fibrin growth around the implant. However, the implants of the present invention are specially configured to interact with the surrounding tissue to induce angiogenesis by a variety of mechanisms.
Implant embodiments of the invention serve to initiate angiogenesis by providing a chamber or interior into which blood may enter and collect leading to thrombosis. The implants are configured to have a wall defining an interior, with at least one opening in the wall to permit passage of blood into and from the interior. The material and structure of the implants permits them to be flexible such that the implant compresses when the surrounding tissue contracts and the implant returns to an uncompressed configuration when the surrounding tissue relaxes. Cyclical compression and expansion of the implant in concert with the motion of the surrounding tissue creates a pumping action, drawing blood into the implant interior when expanded, then expelling the blood when the implant is compressed. One of the openings of the implant may include a check valve to control the flow of blood from the implant interior. Blood that enters the interior of the implant and remains, evenly temporarily, tends to coagulate and thrombose. Over time, continued pooling of the blood in the interior will cause thrombosis and fibrin growth throughout the interior of the implant and into the surrounding tissue. New blood vessels will grow to serve the new growth with oxygenated blood, the process of angiogenesis.
Some embodiments are configured to have a high degree of flexibility such that they collapse completely under the compressive force of surrounding tissue in contraction. The highly flexible implants are configured to return to their uncompressed, volume defining shape when the surrounding tissue relaxes. The reduction of the volume defined by the interior to practically zero provides significant volume change providing pronounced pumping action to maximize blood exchange through the interior. Thrombosis can occur naturally in the highly flexible embodiments despite the increased blood flow through the interior. However, the highly flexible embodiments are also well suited to pump out into surrounding tissue substances pre-installed within their interior.
Implant embodiments may further be prepared to initiate angiogenesis by having a thrombus of blood associated with them at the time of their implantation or inserted in the interior immediately following implantation. The thrombus of blood may be taken from the patient prior to the implant procedure and is believed to help initiate the tissue's healing response which leads to angiogenesis.
Alternatively or in addition to a thrombus of blood, the implant devices may be preloaded with an angiogenic substance in a variety of ways to aid the process of angiogenesis in embodiments having a defined chamber or interior, the substance may be placed within the interior prior to implantation or injected after the implantation of the device. The substance may be fluid or solid. The blood flow into and interacting with the interior of the device will serve to distribute the substance through the surrounding tissue area because blood entering the device mixes with and then carries away the substance as it leaves the device. Viscosity of the substance and opening size through which it passes, determine the time-release rate of the substance.
Substances may be associated with the device, not only by being carried within their interiors, but also by application of a coating to the device. Alternatively, the substance may be dispersed in the composition of the device material. Alternatively, the implant may be fabricated entirely of the angiogenic substance. Recognizing that there are many ways to attach an angiogenic substance or drug to a device, the methods listed above are provided merely as examples and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Regardless of the method of association, the implants of the present invention interact with the surrounding blood and tissue to distribute the angiogenic substance into the ischemic tissue.
Additionally, each implant embodiment serves to provide a constant source of irritation and injury to the tissue in which it is implanted, thereby initiating the healing process in that tissue that is believed to lead to angiogenesis. As tissue surrounding the implant moves, such as the contraction and relaxation of muscle tissue, some friction and abrasion from the implant occurs, which injures the tissue. The injury caused by the outside surfaces of the implants to the surrounding tissue does not substantially destroy the tissue, but is sufficient to instigate an injury response and healing which leads to angiogenesis.
Structurally, the implant devices may be configured in a variety of shapes to carry out the objectives outlined above for initiating angiogenesis. Additionally, varying degrees of flexibility are acceptable for carrying out the implant function. By way of example, the implant device may comprise a capsule or tubular shaped device formed from a flexible material such as a polymer or superelastic metal alloy and having at least one opening to the device interior to permit blood to enter and exit.
One or more implants of the present invention may be applied to an area of ischemic tissue. By way of example, the implants may define a width of approximately 2 mm and a length corresponding to somewhat less than the thickness of the tissue into which it is implanted. It is anticipated that implants having a 2 mm wide profile would serve an area of ischemic tissue of approximately one square centimeter to adequately promote angiogenesis throughout the surrounding region of tissue yet avoid altering the movement of the tissue due to a high density of foreign objects within a small region.
The devices may be delivered to the intended tissue location percutaneously and transluminally, thoracically or surgically by a cut down method. In the case of implants placed within myocardial tissue of the heart, delivery systems are disclosed for percutaneously accessing the left ventricle of the heart and penetrating and delivering the implant into the myocardium.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a method of promoting angiogenesis within ischemic tissue.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a method of promoting angiogenesis by implanting a device within ischemic tissue.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a process of promoting angiogenesis within ischemic myocardial tissue of the heart.
It is another object of the invention to provide an implant suitable for implantation within tissue of the human body.
It is another objective of the present invention to provide an implant delivery system that is safe and simple to use while minimizing trauma to the patient.
It is another object of the invention to provide an implant that will irritate tissue that surrounds the implant to initiate a healing response that leads to angiogenesis.
It is another object of the invention to provide an implant that is configured to have associated with it an angiogenic substance that promotes angiogenesis within tissue surrounding the implant.
It is another object of the invention to provide an implant configured to interact with blood present in the tissue into which the implant is inserted.
It is another object of the invention to provide an implant that defines an interior into which blood can enter and thrombose.
It is another object of the invention to provide an implant to which a thrombus of blood or an angiogenic substance can be inserted before or after the implant has been inserted into tissue.
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the invention will be appreciated more fully from the following further description thereof, with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings wherein:
Blood flow, represented by arrows 20, is intended to enter and exit the implant as part of the function of the device. As shown in
While in the interior 14 of the implant, the trapped blood pools and tends to coagulate. The coagulated blood forms a thrombus that is believed to provide a mechanism for triggering angiogenesis. As the bolus of blood thromboses, fibrin and arterioles are formed. New blood vessels emerge in the new tissue growth to provide blood flow to the ischemic region. The new blood vessels, not only serve the site of new tissue formed by fibrin growth induced by the presence of the implant, but will also extend to surrounding areas of the myocardium.
Alternatively or in addition to relying on pooling of blood in and around the implant, a thrombus of blood, previously removed from the patient's body may be inserted into the interior of the implant prior to implantation to help initiate the process of angiogenesis. The thrombus may be loaded into the capsule through a hypodermic needle and syringe inserted through an opening 20. The pre-loaded thrombus of blood permits the implant to initiate the angiogenesis process at a more advanced stage.
Alternatively or in addition to providing a thrombus of blood in the interior 14 of the implant, the blood may contact and mix with an angiogenic substance 24 previously placed in the interior 14 of the device. The angiogenic substance may be applied to a thrombus that is preloaded into the interior of the implant or may be loaded independently into the interior. The angiogenic substance may be delivered into the capsule with a hypodermic needle and syringe through an opening 20. In the case of a solid angiogenic substance, blood flow 20 entering the interior 14 would gradually erode the substance and carry it to the surrounding myocardial tissue 4 as part of the interchange of the blood with the device to provide a time released effect. The angiogenic substance may also be a fluid to mix more readily with blood flow and also to leech directly from the implant through openings 22. The angiogenic substance continuously mixes with and is carried by the blood into the surrounding myocardial tissue 4 in a controlled quantity dictated by the size of the implant openings 22 and the viscosity of the substance 24. By altering the opening 22 size and fluid substance viscosity, the flow rate of the substance into the surrounding tissue can be tailored. Angiogenic substances also may be associated with the implant either by coating the surfaces of the implant or by intermingling molecules of the substance through the pores of a porous material that is used to form the wall of the implant or of a porous material that is adhered to the surface of the implant.
As mentioned above the tissue healing process, including thrombosis and fibrin growth, is believed to induce the growth of new blood vessels in the healing tissue which extend through surrounding tissue. The implants of the present invention may be configured to further trigger a healing response in surrounding myocardial tissue 4 by having an outer surface 12 that is configured to irritate the tissue as it contacts the surface. The surface 12 may be roughened, characterized by small projections that abrade the surrounding myocardial tissue as it continuously moves against the surface of the implant. Thus the implant provides a mechanism for triggering ongoing injury and healing of the myocardium that ultimately leads to new blood vessel growth to supply blood to the injured areas.
The capsule 10 may be any shape capable of defining a chamber or interior. The example shown in
In another embodiment shown in
As with the less flexible capsule embodiment described above, the flexible capsule uses blood flow into the interior 14 to initiate mechanisms for angiogenesis. Blood flow 20 entering the capsule 10 through openings 22 while the capsule is in its uncompressed form has an opportunity to thrombose, a process which is believed to lead to angiogenesis as discussed above. The flexible capsule 10 may be preloaded with a thrombus of blood previously obtained from the patient or with an angiogenic substance 24, which can leach out from the implant to promote angiogenesis in surrounding tissue. The greater volume change provided by the flexible capsule implant between its compressed configuration and uncompressed configuration, provides substantial pumping action, making this embodiment particularly well suited for pumping a preloaded angiogenic substance into the surrounding tissue. As discussed above in connection with the less flexible capsule embodiment, a fluid angiogenic substance may be disposed within the interior 14 of the capsule and pumped out after implantation by the motion of the capsule and flow of blood through the interior causing the substance to exit the openings 22 of the capsule. Substance viscosity and opening size may be tailored to provide a specified release rate of the substance into the surrounding tissue.
As mentioned above, several of the implant devices may be placed within an area of ischemic tissue to promote angiogenesis over a broad area that is ischemic. In the case of ischemic myocardial tissue, multiple implants should be spaced sufficiently so that the aggregate effect of the presence of foreign bodies within the tissue does not adversely alter the muscle's flexibility and function. Implants on the order of 2 mm in diameter are believed to serve an ischemic area of about 1 square cm adequately without having an adverse effect on muscular function.
Although the depth level of the implants within the myocardium is not crucial, it is believed that placing the implants closer to the endocardial surface 6 will yield the best results. The rationale for this theory is based on observations that the myocardial muscle closer to the endocardial surface appears more active in creating the pumping movement along the myocardial layer than does the myocardial area closer to the epicardium. Placing the implants in an area higher muscle activity is believed to lead to a more pronounced angiogenic response to the presence of the implants. Though it is acceptable, it is not essential that a portion of the implant be exposed to the left ventricle. The entire implant may be submerged within the myocardium, interacting with the blood that is present within the tissue. For a myocardium having a thickness of 10 mm, implants having a length on the order of 5-8 mm should be suitable to carry out the objects of the invention.
Access to ischemic tissue sites within a patient to deliver an implant may be accomplished percutaneously, surgically by a cut-down method or thoracically. However, the less invasive and traumatic percutaneous approach of delivering the implants is generally preferred. A percutaneous delivery device for delivering the capsule embodiments to the myocardium of the heart is shown in
To access the left ventricle of the heart percutaneously, a guide catheter (not shown) is first navigated through the patient's vessels to reach the left ventricle 2 of the heart 1. A barb tipped guidewire 34 may then be inserted through the guide catheter and into the ventricle where it pierces the myocardium 4 and becomes anchored within the tissue. After anchoring the guidewire, a steerable delivery catheter 36 may be advanced over the guidewire to become positioned within the ventricle for delivery of the implants. To facilitate delivery of multiple implants, the guidewire lumen of the delivery catheter 36 may be eccentrically located on the catheter 36. Therefore, when the catheter is rotated about the guidewire, the center of the catheter will rotate through a circular path as demonstrated in
A capsule delivery catheter 40 suitable for percutaneously delivering the capsule implants 10 into the myocardium is shown in
The capsule carrier 42 is shaped to have a concave cradle 50 suitable for pushing the capsule 10 through the lumen 41 of the capsule catheter during delivery. Extending distally past the cradle 50 on the capsule carrier is a piercing distal tip 48 that pierces the endocardium 6 at the selected site as the inner push tube 44 is moved distally. As shown in
The catheters and push tube described above may be fabricated from conventional materials known in the art of catheter manufacture. The push wire 52 also may be fabricated from conventional materials known in the guidewire art: stainless steel or a plastic material. The capsule carrier 42 may be fabricated from a rigid polymer or stainless steel and joined to the distal end of the push tube 44 by any conventional means of bonding. The cradle area 50 should be configured to nest and hold the capsule during delivery to permit passage of the push wire 52 through cradle port 51 so that the capsule can be pushed from the cradle into the myocardium. By way of example, the cradle 50 may have a concave, dish-like shape if intended to hold a spherical shaped capsule as has been described.
Another flexible implant embodiment is shown in
When the surrounding tissue is in a relaxed state, the flexible tube 60 maintains an uncompressed tubular shape that permits blood to enter the interior 66 through end openings 70 and side openings 72 of the sleeve 62. Blood within the interior 66 of the flexible tube 60 will tend to thrombose which leads to angiogenesis as described above in connection with the capsule embodiments. Additionally, as with the capsule embodiments, a thrombus of blood and/or angiogenic substance may be loaded into the flexible tube implant 60 to interact with blood flow 20 to further enhance the process of angiogenesis. Substances may be placed within the interior 66 of the tube 60 prior to implantation or after the tube has been implanted into the myocardium by inserting the substance through an opening 70. Alternatively, a coating containing an angiogenic substance may be applied onto the sleeve 62 or a substance may be embedded within the structure of the sleeve material. Compression of the flexible tube as shown in
As mentioned above in connection with the capsule embodiment, movement of the implant in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle also tends to initiate angiogenesis by irritating or slightly injuring the tissue. The flexible tube 60 forms a plurality of pleats 74 when it is compressed longitudinally as shown in
A percutaneous delivery device for implanting the flexible tube into myocardial tissue of the heart is shown in
The proximal crinkle tube 84, having a larger diameter than the distal crinkle tube presents a larger profile when collapsed into pleated form. The larger diameter crinkle tube is intended to collapse to a profile that is larger than the diameter of the tubular implant 60 so that during delivery the crinkle tube will butt against the proximal end of the tubular implant to provide a pushing force as it is inserted into the myocardial tissue 4.
The crinkle tubes are compressed and expanded by moving the push wire 88 longitudinally with respect to the push tube 82. The distal end of the distal crinkle tube 86 is heat bonded to the distal end of the push wire 88. The proximal end 94 of the distal crinkle tube 86 is bonded to the distal end 90 of the push wire 88 and the proximal end 96 of the distal crinkle tube is bonded to the distal end 98 of the proximal crinkle tube 84. The proximal end 98 of the proximal crinkle tube 84 is bonded to the distal end 100 of the push tube 82. The crinkle tubes are collapsed to their larger profile by pulling the push wire 88 proximally and pushing the push tube 82 distally, drawing their distal ends together, to apply an axial compressive load upon both crinkle tubes simultaneously, collapsing them. The crinkle tubes return to their reduced profile by pulling them taut which is accomplished by moving the push wire distally and the push tube proximally.
Using the delivery system 60, a tubular implant is placed over the distal crinkle tube 86 while the tubes are in a taut low profile configuration. The push tube and pull wire are moved relative to each other to compress both crinkle tubes simultaneously causing the pleats of the distal crinkle tube 86 to engage the inside surface 69 of the tubular implant. The pleats 92 of the proximal crinkle tube 84 bunch up proximal to the tubular implant 60 and present a profile that is larger than the diameter of the tube to provide a backstop to prevent proximal movement of the implant on the delivery system during implantation into the tissue 4. The distal crinkle tube 86 also serves to hold the tubular implant 60 in place on the delivery device during implantation by virtue of the frictional engagement created between the pleats 92 of the crinkle tube and the interior surface of the implant 69. Alternatively, as is described below with regards to other implant embodiments, the delivery device may comprise a single, distal crinkle tube that engages the interior of the implant to locate the implant on the delivery catheter.
With the crinkle tubes in their compressed configuration, tubular implant secured over the distal crinkle tube, the delivery device 80 is advanced distally to the intended location on the endocardial surface 6. Both a push tube 82 and push wire 88 are advanced distally in unison to pierce the endocardium 6 with the sharp distal tip 90 of the push wire 88 as shown in
Another flexible implant embodiment which is formed from a porous material is shown in
The porous material provides flexibility to the implant, permitting it to be compressed with contractions of the surrounding tissue and permitted to expand to an uncompressed configuration when the tissue relaxes. As with the previous embodiments, it is expected that, once implanted in the ischemic tissue blood flow 20 will enter the ends 95 of the implant while it is in its uncompressed configuration, as shown in
Not only does the interior 93 of the implant provide a location for holding an angiogenic substance, but the entire open cell structure of the implant provides a network of small spaces defined by the open cells, which may hold a liquid or solid substance that can leach out from the implant or become mixed with blood entering the interior 93, which serves to carry the substance into the surrounding myocardial tissue 4 as blood flow 20 exits the implant. The network of open spaces defined by the foam material also provides numerous friction contact points that will irritate surrounding tissue with relative movement of the implant with respect to the tissue. It is expected that the numerous irritation points will result in numerous nucleation points where angiogenesis will begin.
The porous implant 91 may be delivered to the intended tissue location by the methods described above. Specifically, as shown in
The proximal end 116 of the crinkle tube is mounted to distal end of the push tube 106 and the proximal end 118 of the crinkle tube is bonded to the piercing distal end 112 of push wire 108 that is slidable within the push tube 106. Compressive force is applied by moving the push tube 106 distally while drawing the push wire 108 proximally, bringing their distal ends together to collapse the crinkle tube 110. With the implant 91 positioned over the crinkle tube in the collapsed configuration, the folds 114 of the crinkle tube hold the implant, not only by engaging the inside surface 99 of the implant, but also by bunching and creating a stop at the proximal end 116 of the crinkle tube 110 against which the implant can rest during insertion into the myocardium 4. In this configuration, the delivery catheter 104 is moved distally so that the piercing tip 112 of the push wire 108 penetrates the endocardial surface 6 of the myocardium 4.
As described above, the implant may be inserted so that its proximal end 120 is flush with the endocardial surface 6 or so that the implant 91 is completely within the myocardium 4 and not open to the left ventricle as is shown in
Another flexible implant embodiment is shown on its associated delivery device in
From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that the invention provides an implant and delivery system for promoting angiogenesis within ischemic, viable tissue. The invention is particularly advantageous in promoting angiogenesis within ischemic myocardial tissue of the heart. The implants are simple and readily insertable into the intended tissue location with a minimum of steps. The delivery systems are simple to operate to implant the devices quickly.
It should be understood, however, that the foregoing description of the invention is intended merely to be illustrative thereof and that other modifications, embodiments and equivalents may be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from its spirit.