|Publication number||US20050016104 A1|
|Application number||US 10/496,831|
|Publication date||Jan 27, 2005|
|Filing date||Nov 27, 2002|
|Priority date||Nov 27, 2001|
|Also published as||WO2003046312A1|
|Publication number||10496831, 496831, PCT/2002/1605, PCT/AU/2/001605, PCT/AU/2/01605, PCT/AU/2002/001605, PCT/AU/2002/01605, PCT/AU2/001605, PCT/AU2/01605, PCT/AU2001605, PCT/AU2002/001605, PCT/AU2002/01605, PCT/AU2002001605, PCT/AU200201605, PCT/AU201605, US 2005/0016104 A1, US 2005/016104 A1, US 20050016104 A1, US 20050016104A1, US 2005016104 A1, US 2005016104A1, US-A1-20050016104, US-A1-2005016104, US2005/0016104A1, US2005/016104A1, US20050016104 A1, US20050016104A1, US2005016104 A1, US2005016104A1|
|Original Assignee||Seccombe Campbell John|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (3), Classifications (6), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to modular, prefabricated wall panels adapted to be assembled edge to edge for the construction of building walls. More particularly, the invention relates to such wall panels which include two containment sheets which are spaced apart and which are designed for the receipt of a poured in filling of concrete or like settable material.
Composite building walls which are formed on site by pouring a settable material (such as concrete) between two spaced containment sheets are known. The filling is necessarily dense to give substance to the finished wall and is necessarily fluid when being put in place. Thus the containment sheets are required to resist considerable hydrostatic pressure until such time as the filling material sets. As a result, some bulging of the containment sheets is inevitable and in prior art panels various approaches have been adopted in efforts to limit that bulging. These prior art approaches have met with limited success and have been objectionable for other reasons.
A previous modular wall panel comprises three, equal spaced apart, channel sectioned sheet-steel studs, with the channel webs lying in vertical planes extending transversely of the panel, and two fibre-cement sheets secured flatly against the channel flanges. Those fibre-cement sheets may function as wall cladding sheets and as the containment sheets for the concrete filling. Notwithstanding the additional support from the intermediate stud, the fibre-cement containment sheets have had to be thick and heavy to function satisfactorily. This adds to the weight of the panel and thus increases the difficulty of site assembly of the panels and of course the additional intermediate stud increases the cost of the panel.
It is also known to provide a modular panel with only two studs, one at or near each vertical edge of the panel and two sheet-steel containment sheets. In this instance, the containment sheets have been provided with two dove tail shaped, vertically extending stiffening ribs, intermediate vertical edges of the panel. The ribs in one containment sheet are in register with the ribs in the other, and tensile ties extend transversely of the panel from each rib in one sheet to the corresponding rib in the other. This reduces the weight of the unfilled panel by comparison with the panel mentioned above, but permits objectionable bowing of the containment sheets in horizontal planes. Usually, an external cladding sheet, for example plaster board, is applied to the ribs of at least one of the containment sheets, and is itself undesirably bowed. Further, it is difficult to fix the plaster boards to the filled ribs.
An aim of at least a preferred form of the invention is to provide a modular wall panel which is light weight when unfilled, relatively inexpensive to fabricate, is resistant to bowing of the containment sheets and may be handled and installed without having to be overly protected from minor surface damage likely to occur during those operations.
A modular wall panel comprising two containment sheets formed from sheet metal, and spacer means disposed between the containment sheets and fixed thereto so as to prevent separation of the containment sheets, the wall panel being arranged to be filled with a settable material and wherein, to resist hydrostatic pressure induced on filling the panel with the settable material, the containment sheets are profiled to have linear stiffening formations extending along the sheets in a first direction to resist outward bowing of the containment sheets in planes extending in the first direction, and the spacer means extend along the containment sheets in a direction transverse to the first direction so as to resist bowing of the containment sheets in planes extending in a second direction perpendicular to the first direction.
The linear stiffening formations may be corrugations, ribs or pleats or the like, such that a cross sectional profile of the containment sheet displays a regular wave form with crests and troughs displaced from the centre plane of the sheet. The wave form may be smoothly curved throughout or it may comprise straight portions meeting at relatively abrupt angles, or a combination of both these possibilities.
For descriptive convenience, further description of the panels according to the invention is made hereinafter as if the panels were in place in a conventional vertical wall extending upwardly from a horizontal floor, and the terms “horizontal” and “vertical” as applied to the panels and the panel components are used accordingly.
The construction of the spacer means may take various forms. In one embodiment, the spacer means are in the form of sheet metal studs, the studs are channel shaped and include a web and a pair of flanges. In one form, these flanges are generally linear. In that embodiment, fastener means fix the containment sheet to the flanges of the studs preferably adjacent the web so as to inhibit torsional strain at the junction of the flanges and the web.
In a second form, the studs include hollow flange elements which are integral with and spaced apart by the web. Preferably the flanges are positioned and shaped to reduce torsional strain at the junctions between the flange elements and the web.
In yet a further aspect, the invention provides a modular wall panel comprising two containment sheets formed from sheet metal and spacer means disposed between the containment sheets, the containment sheets being profiled to have linear stiffening formations extending in a first direction to resist outward bowing of the containment sheets in planes extending in the first direction, and wherein the spacer means are in the form of sheet metal studs, the studs being channel shaped and including a web and a pair of flanges which extend laterally from the web, and fasteners fixing the sheets to respective flange elements.
There are two classes of embodiments of the invention which incorporate the hollow flange elements. In the first, each stud may be a generally channel sectioned member wherein the hollow flange elements project from one face of the web, in which the width of the junction renders it very resistant to torsional strain. In a second of those classes, each stud may be in the nature of a hollow flanged I-beam of “dumbell” cross section, wherein the hollow flange elements are preferably circular or triangular in cross section and are symmetrical about the centre plane of the web, in which class the line of action of fastening means may be in substantial register with the centre plane of the web, so as to substantially eliminate torsional stress on the junction and therefore torsional strain of the junction.
Preferably the fastening means penetrates opposing walls of the respective hollow flange elements. This provides a firm affixture of the containment sheets to the studs and is one reason why studs of this particular cross sectional shape are preferred.
For preference, the hollow flange elements may be provided with openings along their length to enable, in use, filler material to enter and at least partially fill the hollow within the flange elements thereby to enhance soundproofing and fireproofing the wall panel.
In another form, the spacer means includes a plurality of spaced apart anchorage devices affixed to opposing faces of the containment sheets. Preferably each anchorage device on one sheet is in register with a corresponding anchorage device on the other sheet and a plurality of connector elements, wherein the anchorage device and the connector elements have cooperating coupling formations such that each connector elements may be coupled to an anchorage device on one containment sheet and the corresponding anchorage device on the other containment sheet. Preferably this is achieved by the connector element being moved endwisely of itself and of those corresponding anchorage devices to effect mutual engagement of their respective coupling formations.
In yet a further aspect, the invention provides a modular wall panel comprising two containment sheets, and a plurality of spacer means disposed between the sheets, the spacer means including a plurality of anchorage devices fixed to opposing faces of the containment sheets and a plurality of connector elements, each anchorage device on one sheet being in register with a corresponding anchorage device on the other sheet, and the anchorage devices and the connector elements having cooperating coupling formations such that each connector element may be coupled to an anchorage device on one containment sheet and the corresponding anchorage device on the other containment sheet so as to interconnect the anchorage devices, the panel being operative to adopt an assembled form where a cavity is formed between the sheets arranged to be filled with a settable material and the spacer means prevent separation of the containment sheets on filling of the cavity.
Preferably each anchorage device and each connector element is an elongated component extending substantially from one edge of a containment sheet to an opposite edge of the sheet. However, each such elongated anchorage device may be replaced in less preferred embodiments, by a row of spaced apart, short lengths of the elongated device. Thus, the term “anchorage device” as herein is to be construed not only a single elongated item but also a functionally equivalent row of spaced apart, shorter sections of such an item.
Preferably the linear stiffening formations extend horizontally in the finished panel, that is to say the first direction is horizontal. In that event, the second direction is vertical and the spacer means lie in vertical planes. That orientation is preferred as it facilitates the placement of the filling, in that the spacer means than present a minimum of obstruction to the flowing of filling material from the top to the bottom of the cavity between the containment sheets.
Preferably the wall panel further includes at least one rigid batten which is secured to an outer surface of one or both of the containment sheets. Preferably each rigid batten extends in the second direction perpendicular to the first direction.
In yet another form, the panel includes at least one pair of rigid battens. Each batten in the pair is disposed opposite one another on respective containment sheets and is tied together by tensile means to prevent separation of the battens to thereby resist bowing of the containment sheets in planes extending in the second direction.
In a further aspect, the invention relates to a building wall formed using the modular panels and to a method of making a building wall.
It is convenient to hereinafter describe an embodiment of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings. It is to be appreciated that the particularity of the drawings is to be understood as not superseding the generality of the preceding broad description of the invention.
In the drawings:
The panel 1 illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 6 includes five upright, substantially parallel, equally spaced apart, sheet-steel studs, namely end studs 7 and 8 and intermediate studs 9.
Each of the studs is a length of a known structural channel member that may be roll-formed from a sheet-metal strip, for example a strip of steel coated with a protective coating of an alloy of aluminium and zinc. As may best be seen from
The panel also includes two sheet-steel containment sheets 15 secured to the studs 7, 8 and 9 by, for example, closely spaced self-tapping screws, pop rivets, or other conventional fastening means. The presently preferred option is self-drilling, self-tapping screws 16, positioned, as shown by their centre-lines in
Each containment sheet 15 is corrugated with the corrugations extending horizontally from one vertical edge of the sheet to the other, as indicated diagrammatically by the horizontal parallel lines appearing in
It will be noted that the stud 7 projects outboard of the adjacent vertical edges of the sheets 15 by a distance approximating one half of the width of the flanges of that stud.
It will also be noted that the stud is disposed inboard of the vertical edges of the sheets 15 adjacent to it to the same extent. This is a preferred, but not essential feature of the invention. It facilitates the location and alignment of adjacent panels during their assembly into a finished wall.
For preference battens, for example hat-sectioned, sheet-steel battens 17, are applied to the containment sheets 15 to facilitate the affixture of wall cladding sheets, for example, plaster board sheets, to the panels once they have been assembled into a wall.
Once two or more of the above-described panels have been assembled edge-to-edge in a building wall, concrete or the like may be poured into the cavity between the panels, to add substance to the wall, and render it more sound proof and more fire proof.
In some embodiments, to enhance the sound proofing and fire proofing of the panel, the hollow flange elements may be provided with openings along their length to enable concrete to enter and at least partially fill the hollow within the flange elements.
For preference the concrete filling is reinforced. To that end, a planar grid 18 of reinforcing rods may be provided, in the pre-fabricated panel. That grid may comprise horizontal rods 19 extending through clearance holes in the webs of the studs and held in place by down turned ends, as shown in
In those instances where the panel is to be incorporated in a multi-storey building and is called upon to support a concrete floor, and may be a superimposed similar panel, the reinforcement provided in the pre-fabricated panel may also comprise “starter” elements 21 intended to be embedded in the concrete of two pours and bridge the gap between them. In this instance those starter elements may be tubes affixed to an appropriate number of studs by saddles 22 and a fastener extending through a fastened end 23 into and through the web of the relevant stud.
The second embodiment differs in the construction of the sheet-steel stud, namely end studs 30 and 31 and intermediate studs 32.
The studs 30, 31 and 32 are formed as a simple channel section which comprise a web 33 and sheet flanges 34 which extend from edge margins of the web 33. Typically the studs 30, 31 and 32 are pressed or roll formed from sheet metal strip, for example a strip of steel coated with a protective coating of an alloy of aluminium and zinc.
The purpose of the studs 30, 31 and 32 is the same as studs 7, 8 and 9 as disclosed in the first embodiment and as such they are disposed in a similar manner relative to the containment sheets 15. The containment sheets 15 are secured to the studs 30, 31 and 32 via, for example closely spaced self-tapping screws, pop rivets or other conventional fastening means. As in the first embodiment, the preferred option is self-drilling, self-tapping screws 16. Preferably these screws are positioned to extend through the flanges 34 at a location which is immediately adjacent the web 33 of the respective stud. The advantage of this position is that the line of action of the fasteners 16 is close to the centre plane of the web 33 so as to substantially reduce torsional stress induced in the studs.
Similar to the first embodiment, the studs 30, 31 and 32 may include clearance holes in their webs to locate the planar grid 18 of reinforcing rods in the pre-fabricated panel. That grid may comprise horizontal rods 19 which extend through the clearance holes 35 and are held in place by downturned ends as shown in
In the third embodiment of
In the illustrated form, the two battens 17 are fixed together by tensile ties 41 and/or spacers 42 separating the containment sheets 15. Each tie may be an elongated bolt and nut combination, a threaded rod in combination with two nuts or other tensile elements. Each spacer may be a sheet-steel, angle section member or the like element able to withstand axial compression, and may be staked through the containment sheets into the battens. Preferably the spacer ends 43, apart from the self-nailing or staking formations, are profiled to correspond to the profile of the containment sheet so as to make substantially full line contact therewith.
Thus, in all instances, the containment sheets 15 and the battens 17 are held fixably together at a predetermined spacing and the battens serve to resist bowing of the containment sheets in vertical planes.
The end battens 17 register with the stud 31 and are applied to the containment sheets to facilitate the affixture of wall cladding sheets, for example, plaster board sheets, to the panels once they have been assembled into a wall.
In an alternative arrangement, not shown, the ties may also function as spacers. For example, they may comprise rods with intermediate abutments in contact with the inner surface of the containment sheets and end abutments, for example, rivet heads or push-on fixes, in contact with the outer surface of the battens. Conveniently those rods may be externally threaded and the abutment may be conventionally internally threaded nut engaged therewith.
Yet a further embodiment of the invention is disclosed with reference to FIGS. 11 to 15. Again the fourth embodiment of the invention includes many of the features of the earlier embodiments and like features have been given like reference numerals.
As illustrated in FIGS. 11 to 13, the panel comprises two containment sheets 15, each furnished with five anchorage devices 50 and five connector elements 51. All those components are preferable made of coated, sheet-steel.
As in the earlier embodiments, each containment sheet 15 is corrugated with the corrugations extending horizontally from one vertical edge of the sheet to the other. Each anchorage device 50 is generally angle-sectioned strip comprising an affixture flanges 52, whereby it may be fixed to a containment sheet 15 so that it extends substantially vertically from the bottom to the top of the containment sheet, and a hook sectioned coupling flange 53. The affixture flange 52 may be planar.
Alternatively it may be at least partly profiled to enable it to make area contact with the inner surface of the adjacent containment sheet 15. It will be noted that the rightmost anchorage devices 50 (as seen in
The anchorage devices 50 may be secured to the respective containment sheets 15 by any suitable fastening means. However for preference they are clinched to the sheets by row of clinches 54. That preference arises because of the speed with which multiple clinches may be applied by a continuous clinching apparatus.
Such an apparatus is described in some detail in the complete specification of Australian Patent No. 675590 (BHP Steel (JLA) Pty Ltd). Briefly stated such apparatus comprises a rotary die assembly 100 and a co-acting rotary punch 101, between which two workpiece sheets to be clinched together, in this instance a containment sheet 15 a affixture flange 52, are passed. The apparatus acts to cut two parallel slits in the sheets, depresses a centre part of the material between the slits until it is clear of the sheets, and then compresses the centre part to cause it to expand laterally so that it cannot thereafter return between the slits. Thus, continuous clinching lends itself to automatic operation, produces an effective affixture between the workpiece sheets and avoids the need for additional fastening devices.
Preferably, clinching apparatus used in the manufacture of panels according to the invention is a gang apparatus, able to clinch all of the anchorage devices to each containment sheet in a single pass.
Each connector element 51 comprises body strap 55 with hooked coupling flanges 56 extending along its vertical edges. It will be apparent that each connector element 51 may be moved endwisely of itself and of the corresponding anchorage devices 50 to cause their respective coupling flanges 56 and 53 to mutually engage, as may best be seen in
As in the earlier embodiments, once two or more of the above-described panels have been assembled edge-to-edge in a building wall and secured together by fasteners extending through overlapping portions of mating containment sheets and anchorage device affixture flanges, concrete or a like filler material may be poured into the cavity between the panels, to add substance to the wall, and render it more sound proof and more fire proof.
Preferably the body straps 55 of the connector elements 51 are pierced by one or more openings 57 to enable filling material to flow from one side of each connector element to the other.
The couplings between the anchorage devices 50 and the connector elements 51 preferably provide for some play to facilitate the insertion of the connector elements. For this reason the rectangular shape of the panel as seen in
The wall system 70 is designed to have good acoustic characteristics. This is achieved in part by the fact that the panel 1 is filled with concrete. However, to render the wall system 70 more soundproof, an additional metal cladding panel 72 is incorporated within wall system 70. The wall panel 72 is made from sheet metal and profiled to include a plurality of ribs 73 which extend vertically along the entire length of the panel 72.
The ribbed panel 72 is mounted parallel to the panel 1 but is spaced from the containment sheet 15 so as to provide an air gap 79 between the panel 72 and the containment sheet 15. As best illustrated in
The wall system 70 includes facing sheets 74, 75 which are typically formed from plaster board. On one side of the wall the facing sheet 75 is mounted directly to battens 17 which are mounted to the containment sheet 15 of the panel 1 as described earlier. On the other opposite side of the wall 70, the facing panel 74 is mounted directly on the ribs 73 of the metal panel 72.
The panel 72 also includes service holes 78 which extend through the opposing side walls of the individual ribs 73. In this way electrical and plumbing services can run horizontally through the service holes 78 or vertically within the cavity formed on the inner side of the ribs 73. In addition, whilst not shown, the panel 72 may incorporate insulation bonded to the inner side of the steel sheet.
An advantage of the wall system 70 is that it provides a high resistance to sound penetration in a relatively thin section wall. Typically the thickness of the wall system would be in the order of 200 mm, although it is to be appreciated that the dimensions could vary depending on the design requirements.
It is to be appreciated that variations and/or modifications may be made to the parts previously described without departing from the spirit or ambit of the invention.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7398856 *||Aug 24, 2005||Jul 15, 2008||Matthew Foster||Acoustical and firewall barrier assembly|
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|Cooperative Classification||E04B2/8635, E04B2/8647|
|European Classification||E04B2/86G, E04B2/86H|
|May 27, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BLUESCOPE STEEL LIMITED, AUSTRALIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SECCOMBE, CAMPBELL JOHN;REEL/FRAME:015814/0645
Effective date: 20040428