US 20050021216 A1 Abstract A probe having a pair of closely spaced electrodes is immersed in the lubricant and one electrode is excited with a relatively low voltage AC current. The frequency is swept over a range of about 1-10,000 Hertz and the current and phase angle measured at selected frequency intervals. The reactive (Z″) and resistive (Z″) impedances are computed for each current measurement and values of Z″ plotted as a function of Z′ as a Nyquist plot. The center of curvature of the plot between the origin and the minimum value of Z″ is located; and, the angle of depression of a line from the origin through the center of curvature ⊖ is determined from the plot. Samples of lubricant having known concentration of soot are measured and the angle ⊖ determined for each sample. The angle is then plotted as a function of soot concentration and a smooth curve fitted to the data plots. The curve may be programmed into a microcomputer to be used with the sensor for real time determination of soot concentration.
Claims(7) 1. A method of monitoring during real time operation the soot accumulation in diesel engine lubricant comprising:
(a) disposing a pair of electrodes in the engine lubricant and applying an alternating voltage to the electrode at different frequencies over a selected range and measuring the current magnitude and phase angle at each frequency and computing the resistive and reactive component of the impedance for each current measurement; (b) comparing the reactive component as a function of the resistive component of impedance and determining the location of the center of semicircular curvature between the origin and the low frequency minimum occurring value of reactive impedance; (c) delaying a specified time interval repeating steps a, b and c computing the angle of depression from the origin to the center of curvature. (d) determining the percentage of soot from one of (i) a comparison with known values of percentage soot versus depression angle (ii) a known relationship between percentage soot and depression angle; and, (e) providing an electrical signal indicative of soot reaching a selected level of concentration. 2. The method defined in 3. The method defined in 4. The method defined in 5. The method defined in 6. The method defined in 7. The method defined in Description The present invention relates to detecting the accumulation of soot or carbon particles in diesel engine lubricant. It has been found that recent reductions in mandated limits for vehicle engine exhaust emissions have required fitting diesel engines for use with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valves to dilute the fuel-air charge ratio. This has resulted in changes in combustion chemistry and an increase in the rate of build-up of soot blowing past the engine piston rings and contaminating the engine lubricant oil. The presence of soot above a threshold concentration has been found to render the engine lubricant unable to effectively perform its function and engine damage becomes imminent. Heretofore, available means for determining soot concentration in engine lubricant were laboratory techniques which required taking a sample of the engine oil to a laboratory for analysis and performing Thermo Gravimetric Analysis or using optical techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to determine the amount of soot present in the lubricant fluid. This has proven to be prohibitively costly and time consuming and thus virtually unworkable when it is necessary to monitor the oil condition of a diesel engine during operation in service. It is known to use Impedance Spectroscopy in monitoring the condition of engine lubricant fluid during real time operation in engines such as shown and described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,278,281, 6,377,052 and 6,380,746. The aforesaid technique utilizes differential Impedance Spectroscopy to detect depletion of the lubricant constituents added by the manufacturer during blending. However the impedance spectroscopy algorithms set forth in the aforesaid patents have been found unable to monitor soot in diesel engine lubricant. Thus, it has been desired to find a way or means of monitoring diesel engine lubricant during real time operation of the engine and in particular to monitor the concentration of soot. The present invention utilizes an electrical probe to provide an electrical signal indicative of the soot concentration in the lubricant fluid or oil of a diesel engine during real time operation by employing a novel procedure for analyzing the signal utilizing impedance spectroscopy. An electrical probe having a pair of electrodes is immersed in the lubricant in the engine sump and an alternating current of relatively low voltage of varying frequency is applied to the probe electrodes and the current and phase angle are measured at selected intervals over the range of frequencies. The resistive and reactive components of impedance are then computed and plotted in a Nyquist plot of reactive impedance versus resistive impedance. The center of curvature of the semicircular region of the plot between the origin and the minimum occurring value of reactive impedance is then determined. The angle of depression of the center of curvature from the origin below the X-axis is then computed and plotted for as a function of soot concentration for readings taken with samples of lubricant having a known concentration. An algorithm is then derived from the plot which may be programmed into an electronic controller for comparing the computed depression angle at any given instant with that of known values to determine the corresponding soot concentration at that time. The system of the present invention is indicated generally at The probe It will be understood that the probe It will be understood that the controller The AC voltage applied to the probe Referring to It will be noted from Although the invention has hereinabove been described with respect to the illustrated embodiments, it will be understood that the invention is capable of modification and variation and is limited only by the following claims. Referenced by
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