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Publication numberUS20050026844 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/817,334
Publication dateFeb 3, 2005
Filing dateApr 2, 2004
Priority dateApr 3, 2003
Also published asCA2520763A1, EP1608319A2, EP1608319A4, US8455652, US20090326039, WO2004089296A2, WO2004089296A3
Publication number10817334, 817334, US 2005/0026844 A1, US 2005/026844 A1, US 20050026844 A1, US 20050026844A1, US 2005026844 A1, US 2005026844A1, US-A1-20050026844, US-A1-2005026844, US2005/0026844A1, US2005/026844A1, US20050026844 A1, US20050026844A1, US2005026844 A1, US2005026844A1
InventorsBruce Hammock, In-Hae Kim, Christophe Morisseau, Takaho Watanabe, John Newman
Original AssigneeRegents Of The University Of California
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Inhibitors for the soluble epoxide hydrolase
US 20050026844 A1
Abstract
Inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are provided that incorporate multiple pharmacophores and are useful in the treatment of diseases.
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Claims(94)
1. A method for inhibiting a soluble epoxide hydrolase, comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an inhibiting amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR1 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
2. A method for inhibiting a soluble epoxide hydrolase, comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an inhibiting amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
3. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, phenyl and naphthyl.
4. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—.
5. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)O—, —CH(OH)—, —OC(O)—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; m is 0 and L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene.
6. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; n and m are each 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR2, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
7. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; n is 0; m is 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR2, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
8. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein said compound has formula (II) wherein A1 is a dipeptide or dipeptide analog.
9. The method in accordance with claim 8, wherein A1 is a dipeptide having an N-terminal residue selected from the group consisting of Tyr, His, Lys, Phe and Trp, and a C-terminal residue selected from the group consisting of Ala, Arg, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr and Val.
10. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein m is 1 and P3 is selected from those groups that reduce metabolism by esterase dependent inactivation, beta-oxidation, P450-dependent omega hydroxylation or by inhibiting P450 omega hydroxylase.
11. The method in accordance with claim 2, wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, phenyl and naphthyl.
12. The method in accordance with claim 2, wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—.
13. The method in accordance with claim 2, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)O—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —OC(O)—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; m is 0 and L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, and substituted or unsubstituted arylene.
14. The method in accordance with claim 2, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)O—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —OC(O)—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; n and m are each 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, and substituted or unsubstituted arylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
15. The method in accordance with claim 2, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; n is 0; m is 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, and substituted or unsubstituted arylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
16. The method in accordance with claim 2, wherein m is 1 and P3 is selected from those groups that reduce metabolism by esterase dependent inactivation, beta-oxidation, P450-dependent omega hydroxylation or by inhibiting P450 omega hydroxylase.
17. A method for inhibiting a soluble epoxide hydrolase, comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an inhibiting amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
18. A method of treating diseases modulated by soluble epoxide hydrolases, said method comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
19. The method in accordance with claim 18, wherein said disease is selected from the group consisting of hypertension, inflammation, adult respiratory distress syndrome; diabetic complications; end stage renal disease; Raynaud syndrome and arthritis.
20. The method in accordance with claim 19, wherein said hypertension is selected from the group consisting of renal hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and hepatic hypertension.
21. The method in accordance with claim 19, wherein said inflammation is selected from the group consisting of renal inflammation, vascular inflammation, and lung inflammation.
22. A method of treating diseases modulated by soluble epoxide hydrolases, said method comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2 , —NHS(O) 2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
23. The method in accordance with claim 22, wherein said disease is selected from the group consisting of hypertension, inflammation, adult respiratory distress syndrome; diabetic complications; end stage renal disease; Raynaud syndrome and arthritis.
24. The method in accordance with claim 23, wherein said hypertension is selected from the group consisting of renal hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and hepatic hypertension.
25. The method in accordance with claim 23, wherein said inflammation is selected from the group consisting of renal inflammation, vascular inflammation, and lung inflammation.
26. A method of treating diseases modulated by soluble epoxide hydrolases, said method comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
27. The method in accordance with claim 26, wherein said disease is selected from the group consisting of hypertension, inflammation, adult respiratory distress syndrome; diabetic complications; end stage renal disease; Raynaud syndrome and arthritis.
28. The method in accordance with claim 27, wherein said hypertension is selected from the group consisting of renal hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and hepatic hypertension.
29. The method in accordance with claim 27, wherein said inflammation is selected from the group consisting of renal inflammation, vascular inflammation, and lung inflammation.
30. A method for reducing renal deterioration in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR22, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R1, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof, and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
31. The method in accordance with claim 30, wherein said renal deterioration is present in said subject afflicted with diabetes, hypertension or an inflammatory disorder.
32. A method for reducing renal deterioration in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
33. The method in accordance with claim 32, wherein said renal deterioration is present in said subject afflicted with diabetes, hypertension or an inflammatory disorder.
34. A method for reducing renal deterioration in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
35. The method in accordance with claim 34, wherein said renal deterioration is present in said subject afflicted with diabetes, hypertension or an inflammatory disorder.
36. A method for inhibiting progression of nephropathy in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of-C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR22, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R1, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
37. The method in accordance with claim 36 wherein the subject is (a) a person with diabetes mellitus whose blood pressure is 130/85 or less, (b) a person with metabolic syndrome whose blood pressure is 130/85 or less, (c) a person with a triglyceride level over 215 mg/dL, or (d) a person with a cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL.
38. A method for inhibiting progression of nephropathy in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
39. The method in accordance with claim 38 wherein the subject is (a) a person with diabetes mellitus whose blood pressure is 130/85 or less, (b) a person with metabolic syndrome whose blood pressure is 130/85 or less, (c) a person with a triglyceride level over 215 mg/dL, or (d) a person with a cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL.
40. A method for reducing blood pressure in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
41. The method in accordance with claim 40, said method further comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid.
42. The method in accordance with claim 41, wherein said cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid is administered with said compound having formula (I) or (II).
43. A method for reducing blood pressure in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
44. The method in accordance with claim 43, said method further comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid.
45. The method in accordance with claim 44, wherein said cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid is administered with said compound having formula (I) or (II).
46. A method of inhibiting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR22, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
47. A method of inhibiting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
48. A method of inhibiting the progression of obstructive pulmonary disease, an interstitial lung disease, or asthma in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
49. The method in accordance with claim 48, wherein said obstructive pulmonary disease is selected from the group consisting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
50. The method in accordance with claim 48, wherein said interstitial lung disease is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or is one associated with exposure to dust.
51. The method in accordance with claim 48, said method further comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid.
52. The method in accordance with claim 51, wherein said cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid is administered with said compound having formula (I) or (II).
53. A method of inhibiting the progression of obstructive pulmonary disease, an interstitial lung disease, or asthma in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
54. The method in accordance with claim 53, wherein said obstructive pulmonary disease is selected from the group consisting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
55. The method in accordance with claim 53, wherein said interstitial lung disease is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or is one associated with exposure to dust.
56. The method in accordance with claim 53, said method further comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid.
57. The method in accordance with claim 56, wherein said cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acid is administered with said compound having formula (I) or (II).
58. A compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
59. A compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl and combinations thereof, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic;
P1 is a primary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2 is a secondary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—;
P2a is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)— and —NHC(O)—;
P3 is a tertiary pharmacophore selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR1, —C(O)NHS(O)2R1, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl;
the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3;
L1 is a first linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, substituted or unsubstituted arylene and substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene;
L2 is a second linker selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof; and
A1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an amino acid, a dipeptide and a dipeptide analog.
60. The compound in accordance with claim 58, wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, phenyl and naphthyl.
61. The compound in accordance with claim 58, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)O—, —CH(OH)—, —OC(O)—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; n and m are each 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR2, wherein R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
62. The compound in accordance with claim 58, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; n is 0; m is 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR2, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
63. The compound in accordance with claim 58, wherein said compound has formula (II) wherein A1 is a dipeptide or dipeptide analog.
64. The compound in accordance with claim 58, wherein said compound has formula (II) wherein A1 is a dipeptide having an N-terminal residue selected from the group consisting of Tyr, His, Lys, Phe and Trp, and a C-terminal residue selected from the group consisting of Ala, Arg, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr and Val.
65. The compound in accordance with claim 59, wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, phenyl and naphthyl.
66. The compound in accordance with claim 59, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)O—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —OC(O)—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; n and m are each 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkylene, and substituted or unsubstituted arylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR2, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
67. The compound in accordance with claim 59, wherein the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; n is 0; m is 1; L1 is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkylene, and substituted or unsubstituted arylene; L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
68. The compound in accordance with claim 59, wherein-the compound has formula (I) wherein R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of C5-C12 cycloalkyl, wherein said cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic; P1 is selected from the group consisting of —NHC(O)NH—; P2 is selected from the group consisting of —O(CH2CH2O)q— and —C(O)O—; P3 is selected from the group consisting of C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl; m is 1 and q is 0 to 3; L1 is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkylene, and substituted or unsubstituted arylene; and L2 is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene.
69. A compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
70. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and a compound of claim 58.
71. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and a compound of claim 59.
72. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and a compound of claim 69.
73. A method for stabilizing biologically active epoxides in the presence of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of claim 58, sufficient to inhibit the activity of said soluble epoxide hydrolase and stabilize said biologically active epoxide.
74. A method for stabilizing biologically active epoxides in the presence of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of claim 59, sufficient to inhibit the activity of said soluble epoxide hydrolase and stabilize said biologically active epoxide.
75. A method for stabilizing biologically active epoxides in the presence of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
76. The method in accordance with claim 73, wherein said contacting is conducted in an in vitro assay.
77. The method in accordance with claim 73, wherein said contacting is conducted in vivo.
78. The method in accordance with claim 74, wherein said contacting is conducted in an in vitro assay.
79. The method in accordance with claim 74, wherein said contacting is conducted in vivo.
80. The method in accordance with claim 75, wherein said contacting is conducted in an in vitro assay.
81. The method in accordance with claim 75, wherein said contacting is conducted in vivo.
82. The method for reducing the formation of a biologically active diol produced by the action of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of claim 58, sufficient to inhibit the activity of said soluble epoxide hydrolase and reduce the formation of said biologically active diol.
83. The method for reducing the formation of a biologically active diol produced by the action of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of claim 59, sufficient to inhibit the activity of said soluble epoxide hydrolase and reduce the formation of said biologically active diol.
84. A method for reducing the formation of a biologically active diol produced by the action of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
85. The method in accordance with claim 82, wherein said contacting is conducted in an in vitro assay.
86. The method in accordance with claim 82, wherein said contacting is conducted in vivo.
87. The method in accordance with claim 83, wherein said contacting is conducted in an in vitro assay.
88. The method in accordance with claim 83, wherein said contacting is conducted in vivo.
89. The method in accordance with claim 84, wherein said contacting is conducted in an in vitro assay.
90. The method in accordance with claim 84, wherein said contacting is conducted in vivo.
91. A method for monitoring the activity of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of claim 58 sufficient to produce a detectable change in fluorescence of said soluble epoxide hydrolase by interacting with one or more tryptophan residues present in the catalytic site of said sEH.
92. A method for monitoring the activity of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of claim 59 sufficient to produce a detectable change in fluorescence of said soluble epoxide hydrolase by interacting with one or more tryptophan residues present in the catalytic site of said sEH.
93. A method for monitoring the activity of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, said method comprising contacting said soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound having the formula described in Tables 1-18 and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
94. The method in accordance with claim 92, wherein said compound has an aryl group present one or more components selected from the group consisting of R1, L2, P3 and A1.
Description
    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/460,559, filed Apr. 3, 2003, the content of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [[0002]]
    The U.S. Government has certain rights to the invention pursuant to contract ES02710 awarded by the National Institutes of Health.
  • REFERENCE TO A “SEQUENCE LISTING,” A TABLE, OR A COMPUTER PROGRAM LISTING APPENDIX SUBMITTED ON A COMPACT DISK.
  • [0003]
    NOT APPLICABLE
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs, EC 3.3.2.3) catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides or arene oxides to their corresponding diols by the addition of water (see, Oesch, F., et al., Xenobiotica 1973, 3, 305-340). EHs play an important role in the metabolism of a variety of compounds including hormones, chemotherapeutic drugs, carcinogens, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, and other harmful foreign compounds.
  • [0005]
    There are two well-studied EHs, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). These enzymes are very distantly related, have different subcellular localization, and have different but partially overlapping substrate selectivities. The soluble and microsomal EH forms are known to complement each other in detoxifying a wide array of mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic xenobiotic epoxides (see, Hammock, B. D., et al., COMPREHENSIVE TOXICOLOGY. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1977, 283-305 and Fretland, A. J., et al., Chem. Biol. Intereract 2000, 129, 41-59).
  • [0006]
    The sEH is also involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid (see, Zeldin, D. C., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1993, 268, 6402-6407), linoleic (see, Moghaddam, M. F., et al., Nat. Med. 1997, 3, 562-567) acid, and other lipid epoxides, some of which are endogenous chemical mediators (see, Carroll, M. A., et al., Thorax 2000, 55, S13-16). Epoxides of arachidonic acid (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs) are known effectors of blood pressure (see, Capdevila, J. H., et al., J. Lipid. Res. 2000, 41, 163-181), and modulators of vascular permeability (see, Oltman, C. L., et al., Circ Res. 1998, 83, 932-939). The vasodilatory properties of EETs are associated with an increased open-state probability of calcium-activated potassium channels leading to hyperpolarization of the vascular smooth muscle (see Fisslthaler, B., et al., Nature 1999, 401, 493-497). Hydrolysis of the epoxides by sEH diminishes this activity (see, Capdevila, J. H., et al., J. Lipid. Res. 2000, 41, 163-181). sEH hydrolysis of EETs also regulates their incorporation into coronary endothelial phospholipids, suggesting a regulation of endothelial function by sEH (see, Weintraub, N. L., et al., Am. J. Physiol. 1992, 277, H2098-2108). It has recently been shown that treatment of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) with selective sEH inhibitors significantly reduces their blood pressure (see, Yu, Z., et al., Circ. Res. 2000, 87, 992-998). In addition, male knockout sEH mice have significantly lower blood pressure than wild-type mice (see Sinal, C. J., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 40504-405010), further supporting the role of sEH in blood pressure regulation.
  • [0007]
    The EETs have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in endothelial cells (see, Node, K., et al., Science 1999, 285, 1276-1279 and Campbell, W. B. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2000, 21, 125-127). In contrast, diols derived from epoxy-linoleate (leukotoxin) perturb membrane permeability and calcium homeostasis (see, Moghaddam, M. F., et al.; Nat. Med. 1997, 3, 562-567), which results in inflammation that is modulated by nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 (see, Ishizaki, T., et al., Am. J. Physiol. 1995, 269, L65-70 and Ishizaki, T., et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 1995, 79, 1106-1611). Micromolar concentrations of leukotoxin reported in association with inflammation and hypoxia (see, Dudda, A., et al., Chem. Phys. Lipids 1996, 82, 39-51), depress mitochondrial respiration in vitro (see, Sakai, T., et al., Am. J. Physiol. 1995, 269, L326-331), and cause mammalian cardiopulmonary toxicity in vivo (see, Ishizaki, T., et al., Am. J. Physiol. 1995, 269, L65-70; Fukushima, A., et al., Cardiovasc. Res. 1988, 22, 213-218; and Ishizaki, T., et al., Am. J. Physiol. 1995, 268, L123-128). Leukotoxin toxicity presents symptoms suggestive of multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (see, Ozawa, T. et al., Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1988, 137, 535-540). In both cellular and organismal models, leukotoxin-mediated toxicity is dependent upon epoxide hydrolysis (see, Moghaddam, M. F., et al., Nat. Med. 1997, 3, 562-567; Morisseau, C., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 8849-8854; and Zheng, J., et al., Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 2001, 25, 434-438), suggesting a role for sEH in the regulation of inflammation. The bioactivity of these epoxy-fatty acids suggests that inhibition of vicinal-dihydroxy-lipid biosynthesis may have therapeutic value, making sEH a promising pharmacological target.
  • [0008]
    Recently, 1,3-disubstituted ureas, carbamates, and amides have been reported as new potent and stable inhibitors of sEH (FIG. 1). See, U.S. Pat. No. 6,150,415. Compounds 192 and 686 are representative structures for this type of inhibitors (FIG. 1). These compounds are competitive tight-binding inhibitors with nanomolar K, values that interact stoichiometrically with purified recombinant sEH (see, Morisseau, C., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 8849-8854). Based on the X-ray crystal structure, the urea inhibitors were shown to establish hydrogen bonds and to form salt bridges between the urea function of the inhibitor and residues of the sEH active site, mimicking features encountered in the reaction coordinate of epoxide ring opening by this enzyme (see, Argiriadi, M. A., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 10637-10642 and Argiriadi, M. A., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 15265-15270). These inhibitors efficiently reduced epoxide hydrolysis in several in vitro and in vivo models (see, Yu, Z., et al., Circ. Res. 2000, 87, 992-998; Morisseau, C., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 8849-8854; and Newman, J. W., et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 2001, 109, 61-66). Despite the activity associated with these inhibitors, there exists a need for compounds possessing similar or increased activities, with improved solubility to facilitate formulation and delivery.
  • [0009]
    Surprisingly, the present invention provides such compounds along with methods for their use and compositions that contain them.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0010]
    In one aspect, the present invention provides a method for inhibiting a soluble epoxide hydrolase, comprising contacting the soluble epoxide hydrolase with an inhibiting amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
    and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein the symbol R1 represents C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl or combinations thereof, wherein the cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic; the symbol P1 represents a primary pharmacophore selected from —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; the symbol P2 represents a secondary pharmacophore selected from —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; the symbol P2a represents —C(O)— or —NHC(O)—; the symbol P3 represents a tertiary pharmacophore selected from C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl or substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl. In the above formulae, the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3.
  • [0012]
    Turning next to the linking groups, the symbol L1 represents a first linker that is a substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene or C3-C6-cycloalkylene, or an arylene or heteroarylene group; the symbol L2 represents a second linker selected from substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof. The symbol A1 represents an amino acid, a dipeptide or a dipeptide analog.
  • [0013]
    In a related aspect, the present invention provides methods of treating diseases modulated by soluble epoxide hydrolases, the method comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from formulae (I) and (II), above.
  • [0014]
    In other aspects, the present invention provides methods of reducing renal deterioration in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of formulae (I) or (II), above.
  • [0015]
    In a related aspect, the present invention provides methods method for inhibiting progression of nephropathy in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of formulae (I) or (II), above.
  • [0016]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides for reducing blood pressure in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of formulae (I) or (II), above.
  • [0017]
    In a related aspect, the present invention provides methods of inhibiting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of formulae (I) or (II), above.
  • [0018]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides methods of inhibiting the progression of an obstructive pulmonary disease, an interstitial lung disease, or asthma in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of formulae (I) or (II), above. The obstructive pulmonary disease can be, for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (“COPD”), emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. The interstitial lung disease can be, for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or one associated with occupational exposure to a dust.
  • [0019]
    In yet another aspect, the present invention provides compounds having a formulae selected from (I) and (II) above, as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing one or more of the subject compounds.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0020]
    FIG. 1 provides structures of known sEH inhibitors having only a primary pharmacophore: 1-adamantyl-3-cyclohexylurea (192), 1-adamantyl-3-dodecylurea (686).
  • [0021]
    FIG. 2 provides a structural diagram defining the sEH inhibitors primary, secondary, and tertiary pharmacophores. The nomenclature used refers to the three pharmacophores and two substituents (R and R′ groups). The secondary and tertiary pharmacophores located in the R′ area are illustrated linearly from the primary pharmacophore. The secondary pharmacophore generally consists of a polar carbonyl group or a polar ether group. When the secondary pharmacophore is a carbonyl group, it is located about 7.5±1 Å from the carbonyl of the primary pharmacophore, with either side of the carbonyl (X and Y) being a CH2, O or NH. When the secondary pharmacophore is a ether group it is preferably located about 1 carbon unit further from the carbonyl of the primary pharmacophore. The tertiary pharmacophore is also a polar group located approximately 11 carbon units (17±1 Å) from the carbonyl of the primary pharmacophore with the Z group as an OH, or a substituted amine or alcohol or a heterocyclic or acyclic structure mimicing the terminal ester or acid.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 3 provides a hydrophobicity map of the mouse sEH substrate binding pocket co-crystalyzed with the inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl urea. A shading gradient indicates degrees of hydrophobicity. A series of hydrophilic residues were observed on the “top” side of the channel, while the “bottom” of the channel was very hydrophobic, with the exception of the catalytic aspartate (Asp333). This structural analysis indicated that a number of potential hydrogen bonding sites are observed in the substrate binding pocket of the soluble epoxide hydrolase, primarily located on the surface opposite Asp333 (the catalytic nucleophile which reacts with the substrate or binds to the primary pharmacophores).
  • [0023]
    FIG. 4 provides mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase protein sequence alignments (residue 1-340).
  • [0024]
    FIG. 5 provides mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase protein sequence alignments (residue 341-554).
  • [0025]
    FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating the metabolic stabilities of 1-adamantyl-3-dodecyl urea (686) and 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl urea (297) in rat hepatic microsomes. Microsomes were incubated with 1 μM 686 or 297 in the presence of an NADPH generating system. Data are expressed as mean ±SD of triplicate experiments.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 7 is a graph illustrating the metabolic stabilities of 686 and 687 in rat hepatic microsomes as described above.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 8 is a series of graphs illustrating the metabolic conversion of 1-adamantyl-3-dodecyl urea (686) in microsomal preparations from rat, mouse, and human hepatic tissues. The metabolites identified are the omega hydroxyl (686-M1), the omega aldehyde (686-M2), the omega acid (687), and a mixture of monohydroxy adamantyl omega hydroxylated compounds (686-M3). These structures are shown in Table 11.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 9 provides a mass spectrum showing collision induced dissociation of a dominant urinary metabolite of 1-adamantyl-3-dodecyl urea (686) and the 3-dodecanoic acid analog (687) suggesting that these compounds can ultimately enter beta-oxidation to produce chain shortened inhibitors.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 10 is a graph illustrating the blood concentration vs. time profiles of 687 after oral administration of 5 mg/kg of either 687 or 800 to mice. The ester compound delays the time to achieve the maximum circulating dose, and increases the maximum circulating concentration of 687 observed. This translates into a longer half-life for the inhibitor.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 11 is a graph showing the blood concentration vs. time profiles of 687 after single oral administration of either 687 or 800 to a human subject. While the time of maximum concentration appears similar in mice and humans (compare with FIG. 10), the maximum circulating concentration achieved was much higher in humans.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 12 provides a structural evaluation of conserved hydrogen bond donors in the sEH substrate binding pocket with linear distances to the primary pharmacophore noted and further illustrating the effect of functional group distances on interactions with the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 13 is a graph illustrating the relative substrate turnover/relative inhibitor potency as a function of terminal carboxyl distance to either substrate epoxide of inhibitor 3-position nitrogen.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 14 is a bar graph showing the levels of urinary octadecanoids (A) and urinary eicosanoids (B) in rats treated with angiotensin II in the presence of absence of 687.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [heading-0034]
    Abbreviations and Definitions:
  • [0035]
    “cis-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids” (“EETs”) are biomediators synthesized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.
  • [0036]
    “Epoxide hydrolases” (“EH;” EC 3.3.2.3) are enzymes in the alpha beta hydrolase fold family that add water to 3 membered cyclic ethers termed epoxides.
  • [0037]
    “Soluble epoxide hydrolase” (“sEH”) is an enzyme which in endothelial and smooth muscle cells converts EETs to dihydroxy derivatives called dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (“DHETs”). The cloning and sequence of the murine sEH is set forth in Grant et al., J. Biol. Chem. 268(23):17628-17633 (1993). The cloning, sequence, and accession numbers of the human sEH sequence are set forth in Beetham et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305(1):197-201 (1993). The amino acid sequence of human sEH is also set forth as SEQ ID NO:2 of U.S. Pat. No. 5,445,956; the nucleic acid sequence encoding the human sEH is set forth as nucleotides 42-1703 of SEQ ID NO:1 of that patent. The evolution and nomenclature of the gene is discussed in Beetham et al., DNA Cell Biol. 14(1):61-71 (1995). Soluble epoxide hydrolase represents a single highly conserved gene product with over 90% homology between rodent and human (Arand et al., FEBS Lett., 338:251-256 (1994)).
  • [0038]
    The terms “treat”, “treating” and “treatment” refer to any method of alleviating or abrogating a disease or its attendant symptoms.
  • [0039]
    The term “therapeutically effective amount” refers to that amount of the compound being administered sufficient to prevent or decrease the development of one or more of the symptoms of the disease, condition or disorder being treated.
  • [0040]
    The term “modulate” refers to the ability of a compound to increase or decrease the function, or activity, of the associated activity (e.g., soluble epoxide hydrolase). “Modulation”, as used herein in its various forms, is meant to include antagonism and partial antagonism of the activity associated with sEH. Inhibitors of sEH are compounds that, e.g., bind to, partially or totally block the enzyme's activity.
  • [0041]
    The term “composition” as used herein is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts. By “pharmaceutically acceptable” it is meant the carrier, diluent or excipient must be compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not deleterious to the recipient thereof.
  • [0042]
    The “subject” is defined herein to include animals such as mammals, including, but not limited to, primates (e.g., humans), cows, sheep, goats, horses, dogs, cats, rabbits, rats, mice and the like. In preferred embodiments, the subject is a human.
  • [0043]
    As used herein, the term “sEH-mediated disease or condition” and the like refers to a disease or condition characterized by less than or greater than normal, sEH activity. A sEH-mediated disease or condition is one in which modulation of sEH results in some effect on the underlying condition or disease (e.g., a sEH inhibitor or antagonist results in some improvement in patient well-being in at least some patients).
  • [0044]
    “Parenchyma” refers to the tissue characteristic of an organ, as distinguished from associated connective or supporting tissues.
  • [0045]
    “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease” or “COPD” is also sometimes known as “chronic obstructive airway disease”, “chronic obstructive lung disease”, and “chronic airways disease.” COPD is generally defined as a disorder characterized by reduced maximal expiratory flow and slow forced emptying of the lungs. COPD is considered to encompass two related conditions, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD can be diagnosed by the general practitioner using art recognized techniques, such as the patient's forced vital capacity (“FVC”), the maximum volume of air that can be forceably expelled after a maximal inhalation. In the offices of general practitioners, the FVC is typically approximated by a 6 second maximal exhalation through a spirometer. The definition, diagnosis and treatment of COPD, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis are well known in the art and discussed in detail by, for example, Honig and Ingram, in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, (Fauci et al., Eds.), 14th Ed., 1998, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 1451-1460 (hereafter, “Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine”).
  • [0046]
    “Emphysema” is a disease of the lungs characterized by permanent destructive enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles without obvious fibrosis.
  • [0047]
    “Chronic bronchitis” is a disease of the lungs characterized by chronic bronchial secretions which last for most days of a month, for three months a year, for two years.
  • [0048]
    As the names imply, “obstructive pulmonary disease” and “obstructive lung disease” refer to obstructive diseases, as opposed to restrictive diseases. These diseases particularly include COPD, bronchial asthma and small airway disease.
  • [0049]
    “Small airway disease.” There is a distinct minority of patients whose airflow obstruction is due, solely or predominantly to involvement of the small airways. These are defined as airways less than 2 mm in diameter and correspond to small cartilaginous bronchi, terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles. Small airway disease (SAD) represents luminal obstruction by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that increase airway resistance. The obstruction may be transient or permanent.
  • [0050]
    The “interstitial lung diseases (ILDs)” are a group of conditions involving the alveolar walls, perialveolar tissues, and contiguous supporting structures. As discussed on the website of the American Lung Association, the tissue between the air sacs of the lung is the interstitium, and this is the tissue affected by fibrosis in the disease. Persons with the disease have difficulty breathing in because of the stiffness of the lung tissue but, in contrast to persons with obstructive lung disease, have no difficulty breathing out. The definition, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung diseases are well known in the art and discussed in detail by, for example, Reynolds, H. Y., in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, supra, at pp. 1460-1466. Reynolds notes that, while ILDs have various initiating events, the immunopathological responses of lung tissue are limited and the ILDs therefore have common features.
  • [0051]
    “Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,” or “IPF,” is considered the prototype ILD. Although it is idiopathic in that the cause is not known, Reynolds, supra, notes that the term refers to a well defined clinical entity.
  • [0052]
    “Bronchoalveolar lavage,” or “BAL,” is a test which permits removal and examination of cells from the lower respiratory tract and is used in humans as a diagnostic procedure for pulmonary disorders such as IPF. In human patients, it is usually performed during bronchoscopy.
  • [0053]
    As used herein, the term “alkyl” refers to a saturated hydrocarbon radical which may be straight-chain or branched-chain (for example, ethyl, isopropyl, t-amyl, or 2,5-dimethylhexyl). This definition applies both when the term is used alone and when it is used as part of a compound term, such as “aralkyl,” “alkylamino” and similar terms. Preferred alkyl groups are those containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms. All numerical ranges in this specification and claims are intended to be inclusive of their upper and lower limits. Lower alkyl refers to those alkyl groups having 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
  • [0054]
    The terms “cycloalkyl” and “cycloalkenyl” refer to a saturated hydrocarbon ring and includes bicyclic and polycyclic rings. Preferred cycloalkyl and cycloalkenyl moities are those having 3 to 12 carbon atoms in the ring (e.g., cyclohexyl, cyclooctyl, norbornyl, adamantyl, and the like). Additionally, the term “(cycloalkyl)alkyl” refers to a group having a cycloalkyl moiety attached to an alkyl moiety. Examples are cyclohexylmethyl, cyclohexylethyl and cyclopentylpropyl.
  • [0055]
    The term “alkenyl” as used herein refers to an alkyl group as described above which contains one or more sites of unsaturation that is a double bond. Similarly, the term “alkynyl” as used herein refers to an alkyl group as described above which contains one or more sites of unsaturation that is a triple bond.
  • [0056]
    The term “alkoxy” refers to an alkyl radical as described above which also bears an oxygen substituent which is capable of covalent attachment to another hydrocarbon radical (such as, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, phenoxy and t-butoxy).
  • [0057]
    The term “aryl” refers to an aromatic carbocyclic substituent which may be a single ring or multiple rings which are fused together, linked covalently or linked to a common group such as an ethylene or methylene moiety. Similarly, aryl groups having a heteroatom (e.g. N, O or S) in place of a carbon ring atom are referred to as “heteroaryl”. Examples of aryl and heteroaryl groups are, for example, phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, diphenylmethyl, 2,2-diphenyl-1-ethyl, thienyl, pyridyl and quinoxalyl. The aryl and heteroaryl moieties may also be optionally substituted with halogen atoms, or other groups such as nitro, alkyl, alkylamino, carboxyl, alkoxy, phenoxy and the like. Additionally, the aryl and heteroaryl groups may be attached to other moieties at any position on the aryl or heteroaryl radical which would otherwise be occupied by a hydrogen atom (such as, for example, 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl and 4-pyridyl). Divalent aryl groups are “arylene”, and divalent heteroaryl groups are referred to as “heteroarylene” such as those groups used as linkers in the present invention.
  • [0058]
    The terms “arylalkyl”, “arylalkenyl” and “aryloxyalkyl” refer to an aryl radical attached directly to an alkyl group, an alkenyl group, or an oxygen which is attached to an alkyl group, respectively. For brevity, aryl as part of a combined term as above, is meant to include heteroaryl as well.
  • [0059]
    The terms “halo” or “halogen,” by themselves or as part of another substituent, mean, unless otherwise stated, a fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine atom. Additionally, terms such as “haloalkyl,” are meant to include monohaloalkyl and polyhaloalkyl. For example, the term “C1-C6 haloalkyl” is mean to include trifluoromethyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 4-chlorobutyl, 3-bromopropyl, and the like.
  • [0060]
    The term “hydrophobic radical” or “hydrophobic group” refers to a group which lowers the water solubility of a molecule. Preferred hydrophobic radicals are groups containing at least 3 carbon atoms.
  • [0061]
    The term “carboxylic acid analog” refers to a variety of groups having an acidic moiety that are capable of mimicking a carboxylic acid residue. Examples of such groups are sulfonic acids, sulfinic acids, phosphoric acids, phosphonic acids, phosphinic acids, sulfonamides, and heterocyclic moieties such as, for example, imidazoles, triazoles and tetrazoles.
  • [heading-0062]
    General:
  • [0063]
    The present invention derives from the discovery that 1,3-disubstituted ureas (or the corresponding amides or carbamates, also referred to as the primary pharmacophore) can be further functionalized to provide more potent sEH inhibitors with improved physical properties. As described herein, the introduction of secondary and/or tertiary pharmacophores can increase water solubility and oral availability of sEH inhibitors (see FIG. 2). The combination of the three pharmacophores (see the compounds of Table 15) provides a variety of compounds of increased water solubility.
  • [0064]
    The discovery of the secondary and tertiary pharmacophores has also led to the employment of combinatorial chemistry approaches for establishing a wide spectrum of compounds having sEH inhibitory activity. The polar pharmacophores divide the molecule into domains each of which can be easily manipulated by common chemical approaches in a combinatorial manner, leading to the design and confirmation of novel orally available therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases such as hypertension and vascular inflammation. As shown below (see Example 27 and FIG. 14), alterations in solubility, bioavailability and pharmacological properties leads to compounds that can alter the regulatory lipids of experimental animals increasing the relative amounts of epoxy arachidonate derivatives when compared either to their diol products or to the proinflammatory and hypertensive hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Since epoxy arachidonates are anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory, altering the lipid ratios can lead to reduced blood pressure and reduced vascular and renal inflammation. This approach has been validated in a patient approaching end stage renal disease (ESRD) where even a brief oral treatment with low doses compound 800 altered the serum profile of regulatory lipids in a positive manner. This resulted in reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, a dramatic reduction in blood urea nitrogen (an indicator of renal inflammation) and dramatically reduced serum levels of C reactive protein (a common indicator of vascular inflammation).
  • [0065]
    Without intending to be bound by theory, and with reference to FIGS. 2, 3, 4 and 5, it is believed that the left side of the primary pharmacophore or R (in FIG. 2) can be varied to obtain optimal properties as can the primary pharmacophore, which contains groups able to hydrogen bond to the catalytic aspartic acid on one side and the catalytic tyrosines on the other (see FIG. 3). The right side of the primary pharmacophore is effectively divided into 4 segments: a spacer separating the primary and secondary pharmacophore (termed L1 in the present invention), the secondary pharmacophore (termed P2 in the present invention) and a tertiary pharmacophore (P3) flanked by a spacer (L2) and finally a terminating group Z (collectively provided with the tertiary pharmacophore as P3). The spacer between the primary and secondary pharmacophores, is optimally 3 atom units in length, while the secondary pharmacophore can be, for example, a ketone, carbonate, amide, carbamate, urea, ether/polyether, ester or other functionality able to form a hydrogen bond with the enzyme approximately 7.5 angstroms from the carbonyl of the primary pharmacophore. The identified tertiary pharmacophore consists of a polar group located approximately six to eleven carbon units from the primary pharmacophore (see FIG. 2). A conserved asparagine residue (Asn471, see FIGS. 4 and 5) is thought to provide the site of interaction between the protein and the polar functionality located at this tertiary site. While, in the rodent a threonine (Thr468) is also in an appropriate position for hydrogen bonding, residue 468 is a methionine in the human enzyme (FIG. 5). As with the secondary pharmacophore, this group improves water solubility of sEH inhibitors as well as the specificity for the sEH, and a wide diversity of functionalities such as an ester, amide, carbamate, or similar functionalities capable of donating or accepting a hydrogen bond similarly can contribute to this polar group. For example, in pharmaceutical chemistry heterocyclic groups are commonly used to mimic carbonyls as hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. Of course the primary, secondary and tertiary pharmacophore groups can be combined in a single molecule with suitable spacers to improve activity or present the inhibitor as a prodrug.
  • [0066]
    FIG. 12 illustrates the binding interaction for structural evaluation of conserved hydrogen bond donors in the sEH substrate binding pocket with linear distances to the primary pharmacophore noted. The table below provides specific distances to residues provided in FIGS. 4 and 5.
    TABLE
    Linear distances of hydrophylic residues to the carbonyl carbon of the
    bound urea
    Distance
    Residue from Urea Carbon Conserved
    Asp333  4.7 Å +
    Tyr465 O  4.5 Å +
    Tyr381 O  4.6 Å +
    Trp334 NRing  7.1 Å +
    Gln382 N  8.2 Å +
    Tyr465 NBack Bone 10.5 Å +
    Thr468 14.9 Å Met in Human
    Asn471 N 15.2 Å +
    Asn471 O 16.7 Å +

    *Note FIG. 12 distances are measured linearly from the carbonyl oxygen to the alternate pharmacophores.

    This Table measures 3 dimensional distances from carbonyl carbon of the primary pharmacophore to amino acids which could hydrogen bond with the inhibitor.
  • [0067]
    Methods of Inhibiting Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases:
  • [0068]
    In view of the above, the present invention provides, in one aspect, a method for inhibiting a soluble epoxide hydrolase, comprising contacting the soluble epoxide hydrolase with an inhibiting amount of a compound having a formula selected from the group consisting of:
    and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, wherein the symbol R1 represents C5-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl or combinations thereof, wherein the cycloalkyl portions are monocyclic or polycyclic; the symbol P1 represents a primary pharmacophore selected from —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —CH2C(O)NH—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; the symbol P2 represents a secondary pharmacophore selected from —C(O)—, —CH(OH)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —OC(O)O—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; the symbol P2a represents —C(O)— or —NHC(O)—; the symbol P3 represents a tertiary pharmacophore selected from C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R1, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl or substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl. In the above formulae, the subscripts n and m are each independently 0 or 1, and at least one of n or m is 1, and the subscript q is 0 to 3.
  • [0070]
    Turning next to the linking groups, the symbol L1 represents a first linker that is a substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, a substituted and unsubstituted C3-C6-cycloalkylene, a substituted or unsubstituted arylene or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene; the symbol L2 represents a second linker selected from substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene and combinations thereof. The symbol A1 represents an amino acid, a dipeptide or a dipeptide analog. Preferably, the compounds are other than 11-(3-cyclohexylureido)-undecanoic acid, 11-(3-cyclohexylureido)-undecanoic acid methyl ester, 11-(3-cyclohexylureido)-undecanoic acid amide, 12-(3-cyclohexylureido)-dodecanoic acid and 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid.
  • [0071]
    A number of embodiments are preferred within the above general description. In a first group of preferred embodiments, the compounds used are those of formula (I). Within this group of embodiments, R1 is selected from C5-C12 cycloalkyl, phenyl and naphthyl. More preferably, R1 is selected from C6-C10 cycloalkyl and phenyl. Most preferred are those embodiments in which R1 is cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, norbornyl, adamantyl, noradamantyl, and phenyl, wherein the phenyl group is either unsubstituted or substituted with from one to three substituents selected from halogen, lower alkyl, lower halo alkyl, lower alkoxy, C3-C5 cycloalkyl and cyano.
  • [0072]
    Returning to formula (I), P1 is preferably selected from —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—. Most preferably, P1 is —NHC(O)NH—.
  • [0073]
    Turning next to the first linking group, L1 is preferably selected from substituted and unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene, wherein the substituents are selected to impart desired properties to the overall composition. For example, in some embodiments in which R1 is a particularly hydrophobic residue, L1 may preferably have substituents that are hydrophilic to offset to some degree the lack of aqueous solubility normally associated with very hydrophobic compounds. As a result, in some embodiments, L1 will have one or two hydroxy moieties as substituents, preferably only one hydroxy moiety substituents. In other embodiments, L1 will be an alkylene or cycloalkylene linker having the length indicated above, wherein one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced with fluorine atoms to impart other attractive properties, such as facilitating the compound's use in stents so that it is slowly released from the stent to then inhibit the soluble epoxide hydrolase. Further preferred are those embodiments in which L1 is C2-C5 alkylene, more preferably C2-C4 alkylene, still more preferably C2-C3 alkylene, and most preferably an ethylene linkage. Where L1 is C3-C6 cycloalkylene, it is more preferably cyclohexyl that can be linked in a 1,3 or 1,4 manner. In certain particularly preferred embodiments, L1 is selected to provide spacing between the first pharmacophore carbonyl moiety (in P1) and the second pharmacophore carbonyl moiety (in P2) of about 7.5±2 angstroms and more preferably, about 7.5±1 angstroms.
  • [0074]
    The secondary pharmacophore, P2, when present (n is 1) is selected from —C(O)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —OC(O)O—, —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH—, —NHC(O)O—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—. More preferably, P2 is selected from —C(O)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —OC(O)O—, —OC(O)NH— and —C(O)NH—. Most preferably, P2 is selected from —C(O)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, and —C(O)O—.
  • [0075]
    The second linking group, L2 is selected from substituted and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkylene, substituted and unsubstituted arylene, and combinations thereof. For those embodiments in which a secondary pharmacophore (P2) is not present, the linking group L2 will be combined with L1 to provide spacing between the primary pharmacophore and the tertiary pharmacophore of about >6, and <12 carbon atoms. Accordingly, when L1 is an alkylene or part of a cycloalkylene linkage of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms, and P2 is not present, L2 will preferably be an alkylene linkage of from 2 to 8 carbon atoms, more preferably, 4 to 8 carbon atoms, and most preferably 5, 6, 7 or 8 carbon atoms. In some embodiments, L2 will comprise an arylene group, preferably a phenylene group that can be linked in a 1,2 or 1,3 or 1,4 manner, preferably in a 1,3 or 1,4 manner. As with L1, the alkylene portions of L2 can be substituted or unsubstituted. The substituents are selected as described for L1 above.
  • [0076]
    The tertiary pharmacophore, P3, is C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, —C(O)NHR1, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is a member selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C4 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C4 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl-alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl. In certain preferred embodiments, R2 is H, methyl, ethyl, propyl, allyl, 3-propynyl, butyl, 2-propyl, 1,1-dimethylethyl, 2-butyl, 2-methyl-1-propyl, adamantyl-methyl, benzyl, 2-chlorobenzyl and naphthylmethyl. In one group of preferred embodiments, P3 is —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is selected from hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, and unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl. Still more preferably, R1 is H, Me or Et. In particularly preferred embodiments, P3 is —C(O)OR2 and carboxylic acid analogs, wherein R2 is selected from hydrogen, Me or Et.
  • [0077]
    With the preferred groups provided above, certain combinations of preferred embodiments represent particularly preferred embodiments. While all combinations of the preferred groups represent additional embodiments of the invention, particularly preferred embodiments include those wherein P1 is selected from —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; m is 0 and L1 is selected from unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene. In another group of particularly preferred embodiments, P1 is selected from —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; P2 is selected from —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, —O(CH2CH2O)q—, —C(O)NH— and —NHC(O)—; n and m are each 1; L1 is selected from unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; L2 is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R1, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR1, wherein R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl or substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl. Still other particularly preferred embodiments are those in which the compound has formula (I), wherein P1 is selected from —NHC(O)NH—, —OC(O)NH— and —NHC(O)O—; n is 0; m is 1; L1 is selected from unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; L is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkylene; and P3 is selected from —C(O)NHR2, —C(O)NHS(O)2R2, —NHS(O)2R2, and —C(O)OR1, wherein R1 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl C1-C4 alkyl.
  • [0078]
    The most preferred compounds for use in this aspect of the invention are those compounds provided in the Tables below.
  • [0079]
    In another group of embodiments, the compounds used are those of formula (II). In this formula, R1, P1 and L1 have the meanings provided above with respect to formula (I). The symbol P2a represents a carbonyl moiety (—C(O)—) or an amide (—NHC(O)—) and the symbol A1 represents an amino acid, a dipeptide or a dipeptide analog, generally attached to P2a to form an amide linkage.
  • [0080]
    The compounds of formula (II), as noted above, contain an amino acid or dipeptide component which can be a dipeptide analog. The amino acid residues, by themselves or as part of a dipeptide, are denoted by single-letter or three-letter designations following conventional practices. The designations for gene-encoded amino acids are as follows (amino acid, one letter symbol, three letter symbol): Alanine, A, Ala; Arginine, R, Arg; Asparagine, N, Asn; Aspartic acid, D, Asp; Cysteine, C, Cys; Glutamine, Q, Gln; Glutamic acid, E, Glu; Glycine, G, Gly; Histidine, H, His; Isoleucine, I, Ile; Leucine, L, Leu; Lysine, K, Lys; Methionine, M, Met; Phenylalanine, F, Phe; Proline, P, Pro; Serine, S, Ser; Threonine, T, Thr; Tryptophan, W, Trp; Tyrosine, Y, Tyr; and Valine, V, Val. Commonly encountered amino acids which are not gene-encoded may also be used in the present invention. These amino acids and their abbreviations include omithine (Orn); t-butylglycine (t-BuG); phenylglycine (PhG); cyclohexylalanine (Cha); norleucine (Nle); 2-naphthylalanine (2-Nal); 1-naphthylalanine (1-Nal); 2-thienylaniline (2-Thi); N-methylisoleucine (N-Melle), homoarginine (Har), Nα-methylarginine (N-MeArg) and sarcosine (Sar). All of the amino acids used in the present invention may be either the D- or L-isomer. The L-isomers are preferred.
  • [0081]
    Preferred compounds of the invention are those in which A1 is an amino acid or a dipeptide. Preferably, the dipeptide has a Tyr, His, Lys, Phe or Trp residue directly attached to P2a.
  • [0082]
    Other preferred compounds for use in the present invention are those in which R1, P1 and L1 are selected from the preferred groupings as described above for formula (I). Particularly preferred compounds of formula (II) are those in which R1 is selected from C5-C12 cycloalkyl and phenyl. More preferably, R1 is selected from C6-C10 cycloalkyl and phenyl. Most preferred are those embodiments in which R1 is cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, norbornyl, adamantly or noradamantyl. P1 is preferably a urea (—NHC(O)NH—) or carbamate (—OC(O)NH—), more preferably a urea. L1 is preferably a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C5 alkylene, more preferably C2-C4 alkylene, still more preferably an ethylene or propylene linkage.
  • [0083]
    For those embodiments in which A1 is a single amino acid, A1 is preferably selected from Ala, Arg, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr and Val. More preferably, A1 is selected from His, Ile, Lys, Phe, Trp and Tyr in which the amino acid is linked to P2a in a manner to afford an amide linkage and terminal carboxylic acid group. Of course, one of skill in the art will appreciate that these amino acids are meant to refer to their corresponding methyl or ethyl esters, as well as their carboxamide derivatives (e.g., terminal —C(O)NH2). Most preferably, the compounds are those provided in Table 9.
  • [0084]
    For those embodiments in which A1 is a dipeptide, P2a is preferably attached to a Tyr, His, Lys, Phe or Trp residue, with the remaining amino acid being selected from the gene-encoded amino acids, their D-isomers or analogs thereof (e.g., hydroxy acids such as lactic acid and the like). Still more prefereably, A1 is selected from TyrAla, TyrArg, TyrAsp, TyrGly, TyrIle, TyrLeu, TyrLys, TyrMet, TyrPhe, TyrPro, TyrSer, TyrThr, TyrTrp, TyrTyr and TyrVal. More preferably, A1 is selected from TyrArg, TyrAsp, TyrMet, TyrPhe, TyrSer, TyrTrp, TyrTyr and TyrVal, in which the Tyr amino acid is linked to P2a in a manner to afford an amide linkage. As above, these dipeptides are also meant to refer to their corresponding methyl or ethyl esters, as well as their carboxamide derivatives (e.g., terminal —C(O)NH2). Most preferably, the compounds are those provided in Table 10.
  • [heading-0085]
    Assays to Monitor Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Activity:
  • [0086]
    Additionally, the present invention provides a variety of assays and associated methods for monitoring soluble epoxide hydrolase activity, particularly the activity that has been modulated by the administration of one or more of the compounds provided above.
  • [0087]
    In one group of embodiments, the invention provides methods for reducing the formation of a biologically active diol produced by the action of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, the method comprising contacting the soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of formula (I) or (II) above, sufficient to inhibit the activity of the soluble epoxide hydrolase and reduce the formation of the biologically active diol.
  • [0088]
    In another group of embodiments, the invention provides methods for stabilizing biologically active epoxides in the presence of a soluble epoxide hydrolase, the method comprising contacting the soluble epoxide hydrolase with an amount of a compound of formula (I) or (II), sufficient to inhibit the activity of the soluble epoxide hydrolase and stabilize the biologically active epoxide.
  • [0089]
    In each of these groups of embodiments, the methods can be carried out as part of an in vitro assay or the methods can be carried out in vivo by monitoring blood titers of the respective biologically active epoxide or diol.
  • [0090]
    Epoxides and diols of some fatty acids are biologically important chemical mediators and are involved in several biological processes. The strongest biological data support the action of oxylipins as chemical mediators between the vascular endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. Accordingly, the epoxy lipids are anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive. Additionally, the lipids are thought to be metabolized by beta-oxidation, as well as by epoxide hydration. The soluble epoxide hydrolase is considered to be the major enzyme involved in the hydrolytic metabolism of these oxylipins. The compounds of formula (I) and (II) can inhibit the epoxide hydrolase and stabilize the epoxy lipids both in vitro and in vivo. This activity results in a reduction of hypertension in four separate rodent models. Moreover, the inhibitors show a reduction in renal inflammation associated with the hypertensive models.
  • [0091]
    More particularly, the present invention provides methods for monitoring a variety of lipids in both the arachidonate and linoleate cascade simultaneously in order to address the biology of the system. A GLC-MS system or a LC-MS method can be used to monitor over 40 analytes in a highly quantitative fashion in a single injection. The analytes include the regioisomers of the arachidonate epoxides (EETs), the diols (DHETs), as well as other P450 products including HETEs. Characteristic products of the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and peroxidase pathways in both the arachidonate and linoleate series can also be monitored. Such methods are particularly useful as being predictive of certain disease states. The oxylipins can be monitored in mammals following the administration of inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase. Generally, EH inhibitors increase epoxy lipid concentrations at the expense of diol concentrations in body fluids and tissues.
  • [0092]
    Preferred compounds for use in this aspect of the invention are those inhibitors of formula (I) in which the primary pharmacophore is separated from a tertiary pharmacophore by a distance that approximates the distance between the terminal carboxylic acid and an epoxide functional group in the natural substrate.
  • [heading-0093]
    Methods of Treating Diseases Modulated by Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases:
  • [0094]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides methods of treating diseases, especially those modulated by soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The methods generally involve administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound having a formula selected from (I) and (II) above. The dose, frequency and timing of such administering will depend in large part on the selected therapeutic agent, the nature of the condition being treated, the condition of the subject including age, weight and presence of other conditions or disorders, the formulation being administered and the discretion of the attending physician. Preferably, the compositions and compounds of the invention and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are administered via oral, parenteral or topical routes. Generally, the compounds are administered in dosages ranging from about 2 mg up to about 2,000 mg per day, although variations will necessarily occur depending, as noted above, on the disease target, the patient, and the route of administration. Preferred dosages are administered orally in the range of about 0.05 mg/kg to about 20 mg/kg, more preferably in the range of about 0.05 mg/kg to about 2 mg/kg, most preferably in the range of about 0.05 mg/kg to about 0.2 mg per kg of body weight per day. The dosage employed for the topical administration will, of course, depend on the size of the area being treated.
  • [0095]
    It has previously been shown that inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (“sEH”) can reduce hypertension. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,351,506. Such inhibitors can be useful in controlling the blood pressure of persons with undesirably high blood pressure, including those who suffer from diabetes.
  • [0096]
    In preferred embodiments, compounds of formula (I) or (II) are administered to a subject in need of treatment for hypertension, specifically renal, hepatic, or pulmonary hypertension; inflammation, specifically renal inflammation, vascular inflammation, and lung inflammation; adult respiratory distress syndrome; diabetic complications; end stage renal disease; Raynaud syndrome and arthritis.
  • [heading-0097]
    Methods for Inhibiting Progression of Kidney Deterioration (Nephropathy) and Reducing Blood Pressure:
  • [0098]
    In another aspect of the invention, the compounds of the invention can reduce damage to the kidney, and especially damage to kidneys from diabetes, as measured by albuminuria. The compounds of the invention can reduce kidney deterioration (nephropathy) from diabetes even in individuals who do not have high blood pressure. The conditions of therapeautic administration are as described above.
  • [0099]
    Cis-epoxyeicosantrienoic acids (“EETs”) can be used in conjunction with the compounds of the invention to further reduce kidney damage. EETs, which are epoxides of arachidonic acid, are known to be effectors of blood pressure, regulators of inflammation, and modulators of vascular permeability. Hydrolysis of the epoxides by sEH diminishes this activity. Inhibition of sEH raises the level of EETs since the rate at which the EETs are hydrolyzed into DHETs is reduced. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that raising the level of EETs interferes with damage to kidney cells by the microvasculature changes and other pathologic effects of diabetic hyperglycemia. Therefore, raising the EET level in the kidney is believed to protect the kidney from progression from microalbuminuria to end stage renal disease.
  • [0100]
    EETs are well known in the art. EETs useful in the methods of the present invention include 14,15-EET, 8,9-EET and 11,12-EET, and 5,6 EETs, in that order of preference. Preferably, the EETs are administered as the methyl ester, which is more stable. Persons of skill will recognize that the EETs are regioisomers, such as 8S,9R- and 14R,15S-EET. 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14R,15S-EET, are commercially available from, for example, Sigma-Aldrich (catalog nos. E5516, E5641, and E5766, respectively, Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, Mo.).
  • [0101]
    EETs produced by the endothelium have anti-hypertensive properties and the EETs 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET may be endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Additionally, EETs such as 11,12-EET have profibrinolytic effects, anti-inflammatory actions and inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. In the context of the present invention, these favorable properties are believed to protect the vasculature and organs during renal and cardiovascular disease states.
  • [0102]
    It is now believed that sEH activity can be inhibited sufficiently to increase the levels of EETs and thus augment the effects of administering sEH inhibitors by themselves. This permits EETs to be used in conjunction with one or more sEH inhibitors to reduce nephropathy in the methods of the invention. It further permits EETs to be used in conjunction with one or more sEH inhibitors to reduce hypertension, or inflammation, or both. Thus, medicaments of EETs can be made which can be administered in conjunction with one or more sEH inhibitors, or a medicament containing one or more sEH inhibitors can optionally contain one or more EETs.
  • [0103]
    The EETs can be administered concurrently with the sEH inhibitor, or following administration of the sEH inhibitor. It is understood that, like all drugs, inhibitors have half lives defined by the rate at which they are metabolized by or excreted from the body, and that the inhibitor will have a period following administration during which it will be present in amounts sufficient to be effective. If EETs are administered after the inhibitor is administered, therefore, it is desirable that the EETs be administered during the period during which the inhibitor will be present in amounts to be effective to delay hydrolysis of the EETs. Typically, the EET or EETs will be administered within 48 hours of administering an sEH inhibitor. Preferably, the EET or EETs are administered within 24 hours of the inhibitor, and even more preferably within 12 hours. In increasing order of desirability, the EET or EETs are administered within 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, hours, 1 hour, or one half hour after administration of the inhibitor. Most preferably, the EET or EETs are administered concurrently with the inhibitor.
  • [0104]
    In preferred embodiments, the EETs, the compound of the invention, or both, are provided in a material that permits them to be released over time to provide a longer duration of action. Slow release coatings are well known in the pharmaceutical art; the choice of the particular slow release coating is not critical to the practice of the present invention.
  • [0105]
    EETs are subject to degradation under acidic conditions. Thus, if the EETs are to be administered orally, it is desirable that they are protected from degradation in the stomach. Conveniently, EETs for oral administration may be coated to permit them to passage the acidic environment of the stomach into the basic environment of the intestines. Such coatings are well known in the art. For example, aspirin coated with so-called “enteric coatings” is widely available commercially. Such enteric coatings may be used to protect EETs during passage through the stomach. A exemplar coating is set forth in the Examples.
  • [0106]
    While the anti-hypertensive effects of EETs have been recognized, EETs have not been administered to treat hypertension because it was thought endogenous sEH would hydrolyse the EETs too quickly for them to have any useful effect. Surprisingly, it was found during the course of the studies underlying the present invention that exogenously administered inhibitors of sEH succeeded in inhibiting sEH sufficiently that levels of EETs could be further raised by the administration of exogenous EETs. These findings underlie the co-administration of sEH inhibitors and of EETs described above with respect to inhibiting the development and progression of nephropathy. This is an important improvement in augmenting treatment. While levels of endogenous EETs are expected to rise with the inhibition of sEH activity caused by the action of the sEH inhibitor, and therefore to result in at least some improvement in symptoms or pathology, it may not be sufficient in all cases to inhibit progression of kidney damage fully or to the extent intended. This is particularly true where the diseases or other factors has reduced the endogenous concentrations of EETs below those normally present in healthy individuals. Administration of exogenous EETs in conjunction with an sEH inhibitor is therefore expected to be beneficial and to augment the effects of the sEH inhibitor in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
  • [0107]
    The present invention can be used with regard to any and all forms of diabetes to the extent that they are associated with progressive damage to the kidney or kidney function. The-chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. The long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputation, and Charcot joints.
  • [0108]
    In addition, persons with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of progression to type 2 diabetes, and therefore at higher risk than average for diabetic nephropathy. It is therefore desirable to monitor such individuals for microalbuminuria, and to administer an sEH inhibitor and, optionally, one or more EETs, as an intervention to reduce the development of nephropathy. The practitioner may wait until microalbuminuria is seen before beginning the intervention. As noted above, a person can be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome without having a blood pressure of 130/85 or higher. Both persons with blood pressure of 130/85 or higher and persons with blood pressure below 130/85 can benefit from the administration of sEH inhibitors and, optionally, of one or more EETs, to slow the progression of damage to their kidneys. In some preferred embodiments, the person has metabolic syndrome and blood pressure below 130/85.
  • [0109]
    Dyslipidemia or disorders of lipid metabolism is another risk factor for heart disease. Such disorders include an increased level of LDL cholesterol, a reduced level of HDL cholesterol, and an increased level of triglycerides. An increased level of serum cholesterol, and especially of LDL cholesterol, is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. The kidneys are also damaged by such high levels. It is believed that high levels of triglycerides are associated with kidney damage. In particular, levels of cholesterol over 200 mg/dL, and especially levels over 225 mg/dL, would suggest that sEH inhibitors and, optionally, EETs, should be administered. Similarly, triglyceride levels of more than 215 mg/dL, and especially of 250 mg/dL or higher, would indicate that administration of sEH inhibitors and, optionally, of EETs, would be desirable. The administration of compounds of the present invention with or without the EETs, can reduce the need to administer statin drugs (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) to the patients, or reduce the amount of the statins needed. In some embodiments, candidates for the methods, uses and compositions of the invention have triglyceride levels over 215 mg/dL and blood pressure below 130/85. In some embodiments, the candidates have triglyceride levels over 250 mg/dL and blood pressure below 130/85. In some embodiments, candidates for the methods, uses and compositions of the invention have cholesterol levels over 200 mg/dL and blood pressure below 130/85. In some embodiments, the candidates have cholesterol levels over 225 mg/dL and blood pressure below 130/85.
  • [heading-0110]
    Methods of Inhibiting the Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells:
  • [0111]
    In other embodiments, compounds of formula (I) or (II) inhibit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells without significant cell toxicity, (e.g. specific to VSM cells). Because VSM cell proliferation is an integral process in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, these compounds are suitable for slowing or inhibition atherosclerosis. These compounds are useful to subjects at risk for atherosclerosis, such as individuals who have had a heart attack or a test result showing decreased blood circulation to the heart. The conditions of therapeautic administration are as described above.
  • [0112]
    The methods of the invention are particularly useful for patients who have had percutaneous intervention, such as angioplasty to reopen a narrowed artery, to reduce or to slow the narrowing of the reopened passage by restenosis. In some preferred embodiments, the artery is a coronary artery. The compounds of the invention can be placed on stents in polymeric coatings to provide a controlled localized release to reduce restenosis. Polymer compositions for implantable medical devices, such as stents, and methods for embedding agents in the polymer for controlled release, are known in the art and taught, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,335,029; 6,322,847; 6,299,604; 6,290,722; 6,287,285; and 5,637,113. In preferred embodiments, the coating releases the inhibitor over a period of time, preferably over a period of days, weeks, or months. The particular polymer or other coating chosen is not a critical part of the present invention.
  • [0113]
    The methods of the invention are useful for slowing or inhibiting the stenosis or restenosis of natural and synthetic vascular grafts. As noted above in connection with stents, desirably, the synthetic vascular graft comprises a material which releases a compound of the invention over time to slow or inhibit VSM proliferation and the consequent stenosis of the graft. Hemodialysis grafts are a particularly preferred embodiment.
  • [0114]
    In addition to these uses, the methods of the invention can be used to slow or to inhibit stenosis or restenosis of blood vessels of persons who have had a heart attack, or whose test results indicate that they are at risk of a heart attack.
  • [0115]
    In one group of preferred embodiments, compounds of the invention are administered to reduce proliferation of VSM cells in persons who do not have hypertension. In another group of embodiments, compounds of the invention are used to reduce proliferation of VSM cells in persons who are being treated for hypertension, but with an agent that is not an sEH inhibitor.
  • [0116]
    The compounds of the invention can be used to interfere with the proliferation of cells which exhibit inappropriate cell cycle regulation. In one important set of embodiments, the cells are cells of a cancer. The proliferation of such cells can be slowed or inhibited by contacting the cells with a compound of the invention. The determination of whether a particular compound of the invention can slow or inhibit the proliferation of cells of any particular type of cancer can be determined using assays routine in the art.
  • [0117]
    In addition to the use of the compounds of the invention, the levels of EETs can be raised by adding EETs. VSM cells contacted with both an EET and a compound of the invention exhibited slower proliferation than cells exposed to either the EET alone or to the a compound of the invention alone. Accordingly, if desired, the slowing or inhibition of VSM cells of a compound of the invention can be enhanced by adding an EET along with a compound of the invention. In the case of stents or vascular grafts, for example, this can conveniently be accomplished by embedding the EET in a coating along with a compound of the invention so that both are released once the stent or graft is in position.
  • [heading-0118]
    Methods of Inhibiting the Progression of Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Interstitial Lung Disease, or Asthma:
  • [0119]
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, encompasses two conditions, emphysema and chronic bronchitis, which relate to damage caused to the lung by air pollution, chronic exposure to chemicals, and tobacco smoke. Emphysema as a disease relates to damage to the alveoli of the lung, which results in loss of the separation between alveoli and a consequent reduction in the overall surface area available for gas exchange. Chronic bronchitis relates to irritation of the bronchioles, resulting in excess production of mucin, and the consequent blocking by mucin of the airways leading to the alveoli. While persons with emphysema do not necessarily have chronic bronchitis or vice versa, it is common for persons with one of the conditions to also have the other, as well as other lung disorders.
  • [0120]
    Some of the damage to the lungs due to COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and other obstructive lung disorders can be inhibited or reversed by administering inhibitors of the enzyme known as soluble epoxide hydrolase, or “sEH”. The effects of sEH inhibitors can be increased by also administering EETs. The effect is at least additive over administering the two agents separately, and may indeed be synergistic.
  • [0121]
    The studies reported herein show that EETs can be used in conjunction with sEH inhibitors to reduce damage to the lungs by tobacco smoke or, by extension, by occupational or environmental irritants. These findings indicate that the co-administration of sEH inhibitors and of EETs can be used to inhibit or slow the development or progression of COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or other chronic obstructive lung diseases which cause irritation to the lungs.
  • [0122]
    Animal models of COPD and humans with COPD have elevated levels of immunomodulatory lymphocytes and neutrophils. Neutrophils release agents that cause tissue damage and, if not regulated, will over time have a destructive effect. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that reducing levels of neutrophils reduces tissue damage contributing to obstructive lung diseases such as COPD, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Administration of sEH inhibitors to rats in an animal model of COPD resulted in a reduction in the number of neutrophils found in the lungs. Administration of EETs in addition to the sEH inhibitors also reduced neutrophil levels. The reduction in neutrophil levels in the presence of sEH inhibitor and EETs was greater than in the presence of the sEH inhibitor alone.
  • [0123]
    While levels of endogenous EETs are expected to rise with the inhibition of sEH activity caused by the action of the sEH inhibitor, and therefore to result in at least some improvement in symptoms or pathology, it may not be sufficient in all cases to inhibit progression of COPD or other pulmonary diseases. This is particularly true where the diseases or other factors have reduced the endogenous concentrations of EETs below those normally present in healthy individuals. Administration of exogenous EETs in conjunction with an sEH inhibitor is therefore expected to augment the effects of the sEH inhibitor in inhibiting or reducing the progression of COPD or other pulmonary diseases.
  • [0124]
    In addition to inhibiting or reducing the progression of chronic obstructive airway conditions, the invention also provides new ways of reducing the severity or progression of chronic restrictive airway diseases. While obstructive airway diseases tend to result from the destruction of the lung parenchyma, and especially of the alveoli, restrictive diseases tend to arise from the deposition of excess collagen in the parenchyma. These restrictive diseases are commonly referred to as “interstitial lung diseases”, or “ILDs”, and include conditions such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The methods, compositions and uses of the invention are useful for reducing the severity or progression of ILDs, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Macrophages play a significant role in stimulating interstitial cells, particularly fibroblasts, to lay down collagen. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that neutrophils are involved in activating macrophages, and that the reduction of neutrophil levels found in the studies reported herein demonstrate that the methods and uses of the invention will also be applicable to reducing the severity and progression of ILDs.
  • [0125]
    In some preferred embodiments, the ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In other preferred embodiments, the ILD is one associated with an occupational or environmental exposure. Exemplars of such ILDs, are asbestosis, silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and berylliosis. Further, occupational exposure to any of a number of inorganic dusts and organic dusts is believed to be associated with mucus hypersecretion and respiratory disease, including cement dust, coke oven emissions, mica, rock dusts, cotton dust, and grain dust (for a more complete list of occupational dusts associated with these conditions, see Table 254-1 of Speizer, “Environmental Lung Diseases,” Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, infra, at pp. 1429-1436). In other embodiments, the ILD is sarcoidosis of the lungs. ILDs can also result from radiation in medical treatment, particularly for breast cancer, and from connective tissue or collagen diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis. It is believed that the methods, uses and compositions of the invention can be useful in each of these interstitial lung diseases.
  • [0126]
    In another set of embodiments, the invention is used to reduce the severity or progression of asthma. Asthma typically results in mucin hypersecretion, resulting in partial airway obstruction. Additionally, irritation of the airway results in the release of mediators which result in airway obstruction. While the lymphocytes and other immunomodulatory cells recruited to the lungs in asthma may differ from those recruited as a result of COPD or an ILD, it is expected that the invention will reduce the influx of immunomodulatory cells, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and ameliorate the extent of obstruction. Thus, it is expected that the administration of sEH inhibitors, and the administration of sEH inhibitors in combination with EETs, will be useful in reducing airway obstruction due to asthma.
  • [0127]
    In each of these diseases and conditions, it is believed that at least some of the damage to the lungs is due to agents released by neutrophils which infiltrate into the lungs. The presence of neutrophils in the airways is thus indicative of continuing damage from the disease or condition, while a reduction in the number of neutrophils is indicative of reduced damage or disease progression. Thus, a reduction in the number of neutrophils in the airways in the presence of an agent is a marker that the agent is reducing damage due to the disease or condition, and is slowing the further development of the disease or condition. The number of neutrophils present in the lungs can be determined by, for example, bronchoalveolar lavage.
  • [0128]
    The conditions of therapeautic administration for all of these indications are as described above.
  • [heading-0129]
    Compounds for Inhibiting Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases:
  • [0130]
    In addition to the methods provided above, the present invention provides in another aspect, compounds that can inhibit the activity of soluble epoxide hydrolases. In particular, the present invention provides compounds having a formula selected from formulae (I) and (II) above. Preferably, the compounds are other than 11-(3-cyclohexylureido)-undecanoic acid, 11-(3-cyclohexylureido)-undecanoic acid methyl ester, 11-(3-cyclohexylureido)-undecanoic acid amide, 12-(3-cyclohexylureido)-dodecanoic acid and 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid.
  • [0131]
    Preferred compounds are those compounds described above as preferred for the recited uses.
  • [heading-0132]
    Methods of Preparation
  • [0133]
    The compounds of the present invention can be prepared by a variety of methods as outlined generally in the schemes below.
  • [heading-0134]
    Scheme 1—Introduction of a Secondary Pharmacophore (Ketone)
  • [0135]
    Scheme 1 illustrates general methods that can be used for preparation of compounds of the invention having a secondary pharmacophore that is a ketone functional group. While the scheme is provided for the synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-oxodecyl)urea, one of skill in the art will understand that a number of commercially available isocyanates could be used in place of 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate, and that shorter or longer analogs of ethyl 4-aminobutyric acid or hexylbromide could also be employed.
    Scheme 1: Synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-oxodecyl)urea (794): (a) Benzophenone imine, CH2Cl2, rt; (b) DIBAL, THF, −78° C.; (c) Mg/I2, hexylbromide, THF, rt; (d) acetic anhydride, DMSO, rt; (e) 1N HCl/dioxane, rt; (f) 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate, TEA, DMF, rt.
  • [0137]
    As shown in Scheme 1, ethyl 4-aminobutyrate hydrochloride (available from Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, Wis., USA) is combined with benzophenone imine at room temperature to provide intermediate (i). DIBAL reduction of the ester group provides an unisolated aldehyde moiety that is then reacted with a suitable Grignard reagent (prepared in situ) to provide intermediate alcohol (ii). Oxidation of the alcohol moiety to a ketone provides (iii) which can then be deprotected to form the amino-ketone (iv). Reaction of (iv) with a suitable isocyanate provides the target compound (794). Substitution of 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate with, for example, adamantyl isocyanate or cyclohexyl isocyanate (also available from Aldrich Chemical Co.) provides other preferred compounds of the invention.
    Scheme 2: Syntheses of 1-(aryl or alkyl)-3-(3-alkylated proply)ureas: (a) aryl or alkyl isocyanate, DMF, rt; (b) bromopentane, K2CO3, NaI, acetonitrile, reflux; (c) di-t-butyl dicarbonate, dioxane, 50° C.; (d) pentylamine, isobutyl chloroformate, NMM, DMF, rt; (e) 4M hydrochloric acid, dioxane; (f) 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate, TEA, DMF, rt.
  • [0139]
    As shown in Scheme 2, a variety of compounds having a secondary pharmacophore that is either an ester or amide functional group can be prepared. Beginning with 4-aminobutyric acid, treatment with a suitable cycloalkyl or aryl isocyanate provides the urea intermediates shown as (v), wherein R is 3-chlorophenyl, cyclohexyl or 1-adamantyl. Of course other suitable isocyanates can also be employed to provide desired urea intermediates. Esterification via alkylation of the carboxylic acid present in (v) with, for example, pentyl bromide provides the target compounds 767, 772 and 789. A variety of suitable alkyl halides can be used to prepare other compounds of the invention. The second path illustrated in Scheme 2 can be used to prepare compounds such as 768, as well as those compounds having a primary pharmacophore that is a carbamate. Accordingly, treatment of 4-aminobutyric acid with di-t-butyl dicarbonate provides the t-butyl carbamate acid (vi) that is converted to a desired amide (vii) using pentylamine, for example, in a mild procedure employing isobutyl chloroformate, and N-methyl morpholine (Removal of the carbamate protecting group (as it is used in this instance) followed by formation of a urea with a suitable isocyanate (shown here as 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate) provides the target compounds (e.g., 768).
    Scheme 3: Syntheses of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-alkylated ethyl)ureas: (a) 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate, DMF, rt; (b) heptanoic anhydride (761), chloroformic acid pentyl ester (760), or pentyl isocyanate (762), TEA, DMF, rt; (c) di-t-butyl dicarbonate, dioxane, rt; (d) heptanoic anhydride (765), chloroformic acid pentyl ester (777), or pentyl isocyanate (766), DMF, rt; (e) 4M HCl, dioxane; (f) 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate, TEA, DMF, rt.
  • [0141]
    Scheme 3 illustrates a variety of methods for introducing secondary pharmacophores that are esters, amide, ureas, carbonates and carbamates, from readily accessible starting materials. In A, ethanolamine is treated with a suitable isocyanate to introduce a primary pharmacophore that is a urea and form intermediate (viii). Treatment of (viii) with an anhydride, a chloro formic acid ester or an isocyanate provides compounds such as 761, 760 and 762, respectively. Similar methodology in employed in B, with the addition of protection/deprotection steps. Accordingly, ethylenediamine is monoprotected as a t-butyl carbamate. The free amine is then converted to a secondary pharmacophore that is an amide, carbamate or urea using reactants and conditions similar to those employed in “A” to provide intermediates (x). Deprotection of (x) and reaction with a suitable isocyanate provides the target compounds 765, 777 and 766. Again, use of isocyanates other than 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate leads to other compounds of the invention, while substitution of certain reactants used, for example, in the conversion of (ix) to (x) can provide still other compounds of the invention.
    Scheme 4: Syntheses of 1-(1-adamantyl)-3-(11-alkylated undecyl)ureas: (a) adamantyl isocyanate, chloroform, reflux; (b) alkyl or aryl halide, K2CO3, NaI, acetonitrile, reflux; (c) alcohol or amine, isobutyl chloroformate, TEA, DMF, rt; (d) t-butanol, EDCI, DMAP, methylene chloride, rt.
  • [0143]
    Scheme 4 illustrates pathways for the introduction of a tertiary pharmacophore that is an ester or an amide functional group. In each case, a carboxylic acid group is converted to the desired ester or amide. As shown in Scheme 4,12-aminododecanoic acid (Aldrich Chemical Co.) is converted to urea (687) upon treatment with adamantyl isocyanate. One of skill in the art will appreciate that a variety of alkyl, aryl and cycloalkyl isocyanates can be similarly employed to form other ureas as the primary pharmacophore. Similarly, 11-aminoundecanoic acid or another long chain amino fatty acid could be used in place of 12-aminododecanoic acid. The carboxylic acid moiety can then be esterified or converted to an amide moiety following standard procedures to provide, for example, 780-785, 788 and 800-804 (as esters) and 786, 787, 792 and 793 (as esters and amides).
  • [0144]
    The following examples are provided to illustrate the invention and are not intended to limit any aspect of the invention as set forth above or in the claims below.
  • EXAMPLES
  • [0145]
    All melting points were determined with a Thomas-Hoover apparatus (A. H. Thomas Co.) and are uncorrected. Mass spectra were measured by LC-MS (Waters 2790). 1H-NMR spectra were recorded on QE-300 spectrometer, using tetramethylsilane as an internal standard. Signal multiplicities are represented as signlet (s), doublet (d), double doublet (dd), triplet (t), quartet (q), quintet (quint), multiplet (m), broad (br) and braod singlet (brs). Synthetic methods are described for representative compounds.
  • [0146]
    Lower case bolded Roman numerals in the examples below refer to the corresponding intermediates in Schemes 1-4 above. Compounds numbers are also used as provided in the Schemes as well as in the Tables below.
  • Example 1
  • [heading-0147]
    Synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-oxodecyl)urea (794)
  • [0148]
    1.00 g (5.52 mmol) of benzophenone imine, 0.94 g (5.52 mmol) of ethyl 4-aminobutyrate hydrochloride, and 20 mL of methylene chloride were stirred at room temperature for 24 hr. The reaction mixture was filtered to remove NH4Cl and evaporated to dryness. The benzophenone Schiff base of ethyl 4-aminobutyrate (i) was extracted with ether (20 mL), and the ether solution was washed with water (20 mL), dried over sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with hexane and ethyl acetate (5:1) to give i (1.00 g, 61%) as an oil. To the solution of the benzophenone Schiff base (i) in 20 mL of tetrahydrofuran (THF) was added 3.7 mL of 1M diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL) solution in pentane (3.73 mmol) at −78° C. under nitrogen, and the reaction was stirred for 2 hr at the temperature. To 0.10 g of magnesium turning (4.07 mmol) and 12 (catalytic amount) in THF (10 mL) was added 0.48 mL of hexylbromide (3.39 mmol) at room temperature under nitrogen. After stirring for 1 hr, this reaction solution was added dropwise to the above reaction mixture at −78° C., and the solution was allowed to warm to room temperature with stirring. After stirring for 5 hr at room temperature, 10 mL of NaHCO3 aqueous solution was added to the reaction, then the alkylated alcohol (ii) was extracted with ether (20 mL), and the ether solution was washed with water (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated to give 0.26 g (60%) of the alcohol product (ii).
  • [0149]
    Acetic anhydride (2 mL) was added to a solution of ii (0.77 mmol) in 5 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature for 12 hr and concentrated. The residue was extracted with ether (20 mL), and the ether was washed with water (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated to provide 0.26 g (100%) of the ketone compound (iii). To a solution of iii in dioxane (5 mL) was added 1 mL of 1N HCl in dioxane at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hr and concentrated to give keto amine hydrochloride (iv). Then iv was dissolved in 5 mL of dimethylformamide (DMF) and treated with triethylamine (TEA, 0.27 mL, 1.95 mmol) and a solution of 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate (0.10 mL, 0.78 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) at room temperature. After stirring for 5 hr, the product was extracted with ether (30 mL), and the ether was washed with water (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (3:1) to afford 75 mg (30%) of 794. δ(CDCl3): 0.88 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.21-1.29 (6H, m), 1.53-1.58 (2H, m), 1.81 (2H, quint, J=6.9 Hz), 2.43 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 2.49 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.23 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 5.10 (1H, s), 6.93 (1H, s), 6.98-7.02 (1H, m), 7.10-7.23 (2H, m), 7.49 (1H, s), [M+H]+325.21
  • Example 2
  • [heading-0150]
    Synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(3-pentoxycarbonylpropyl)urea (767)
  • [0151]
    To a suspension of 4-aminobutyric acid (1.41 g, 13.7 mol) in DMF (25 mL) was added 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate (0.70 g, 4.56 mmol; cyclohexyl isocyanate for 772 and 1-adamantyl isocyanate for 789) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 hr. Then ethyl acetate (30 mL) and 1N HCl aqueous solution (30 mL) were added into the reaction, and the ethyl acetate layer dissolving the acid product was collected. The product was extracted with ethyl acetate (20 mL) two more times from the aqueous layer. The combined organic solution was dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated. The residue was purified using column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1) to give 0.88 g (75%) of urea acid (v). A mixture of v (0.50 g, 1.95 mmol), potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 0.54 g, 3.90 mmol), bromopentane (0.37 mL, 2.92 mmol), and sodium iodide (60 mg, 0.39 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 20 hr. Then the product was extracted with ether (20 mL), and the ether was washed with 1N NaOH aqueous solution (20 mL) and brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated to afford 0.59 g (92%) of 767. δ(CDCl3): 0.90 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.26-1.34 (4H, m), 1.62-1.65 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, quint, J=6.9 Hz), 2.41 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.30 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 4.08 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 4.96 (1H, s), 6.62 (1H, s), 7.01-7.04 (1H, m), 7.18-7.22 (2H, m), 7.47 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 326.90
  • [heading-0152]
    The following compounds were prepared in a similar manner:
  • [heading-0153]
    1-Cyclohexyl-3-(3-pentoxycarbonylpropyl)urea (772)
  • [0154]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.89 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.04-1.21 (2H, m), 1.29-1.43 (4H, m), 1.58-1.74 (6H, m), 1.82 (2H, quint, J=6.9 Hz), 2.37 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.17-3.24 (2H, m), 3.46-3.48 (1H, m), 4.07 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 4.29 (1H, s), 4.47 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 299.24
  • [heading-0155]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(3-pentoxycarbonylpropyl)urea (789)
  • [0156]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.92 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.29-1.43 (4H, m), 1.64-1.69 (m, 10H), 1.83 (2H, quint, J=6.9 Hz), 1.94-1.98 (6H, m), 2.06-2.09 (3H, m), 2.37 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.20 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 4.06-4.14 (3H, m), 4.30 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 251.26
  • Example 3
  • [heading-0157]
    Synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(3-pentylaminocarbonylpropyl)urea (768)
  • [0158]
    To a suspension of 4-aminobutyric acid (2.84 g, 27.5 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) was added TEA (3.86 mL, 27.5 mmol). To this mixture, di-t-butyl dicarbonate (2.00 g, 9.17 mmol) was added with stirring. The reaction mixture was heated to 50° C. for 12 hr, and then stirred with ice-cold dilute hydrochloric acid (15 mL) for 10 min. The t-butoxycarbonylated amino acid (vi) was immediately extracted with ether (2×30 mL). The organic extract was dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated to give 1.00 g (54%) of vi as an oil.
  • [0159]
    A solution of vi and 4-methyl morpholine (NMM, 0.54 mL, 4.92 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was treated at room temperature with isobutyl chloroformate (0.64 mL, 4.92 mmol). After 30 min, pentylamine (0.57 mL, 4.92 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 12 hr. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate (25 mL) and water (25 mL). The ethyl acetate layer was washed with 5% NaHCO3 (10 mL) and brine (20 mL) and dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated. The residue was chromatographed on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (2:1) to give 0.33 g (33%) of t-butoxycarbonylated amino amide (vii). To a solution of vii in dioxane (10 mL) was treated with 4M hydrochloric acid (2 mL) in dioxane, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Then the solvent was evaporated to dryness, and the residual solid was dissolved in DMF (10 mL) and treated with TEA (0.51 mL, 3.63 mmol) and 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate (0.15 mL, 1.21 mmol) at room temperature. After stirring for 5 hr, the product was extracted with ether (30 mL), and the ether was washed with water (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (3:1) to afford 0.39 g (100%) of 768. δ(CDCl3): 0.89 (t, 3H, J=6.9 Hz), 1.26-1.28 (4H, m), 1.46-1.50 (2H, m), 1.86 (2H, quint, J=6.9 Hz), 2.30 (t, 2H, J=6.9 Hz), 3.23 (t, 2H, J=6.9 Hz), 3.30 (t, 2H, J=6.9 Hz), 5.87 (1H, s), 6.06 (1H, s), 6.93-6.97 (1H, m), 7.12-7.23 (2H, m), 7.49 (1H, m), 7.73 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 326.16
  • Example 4
  • [heading-0160]
    Synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-hexylcarbonyloxyethyl)urea (761)
  • [0161]
    To a solution of 2-aminoethanol (2.98 g, 48.8 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) was added 3-chlorophenol isocyanate (2.50 g, 16.3 mmol) at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 hr at room temperature. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue was partitioned between ether (30 mL) and 1N hydrochloric acid (20 mL), and the ether layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1) to provide 1.49 g (40%) of urea alcohol (viii) as a white solid.
  • [0162]
    To a solution of viii (1.00 g, 4.60 mmol) and TEA (0.97 mL, 6.90 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) was added a solution of heptanoic anhydride (2.23 g, 9.20 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) at room temperature. The reaction was stirred for 12 hr, and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was partitioned between ether (30 mL) and cold 1N hydrochloric acid (20 mL). The ether layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated. The residual solid was purified using silica gel column chromatography (hexane:ethyl acetate=3:1) to afford 1.05 g (70%) of 761. δ(CDCl3): 0.87 (t, 3H, J=6.9 Hz), 1.20-1.29 (6H, m), 1.60-1.62 (2H, m), 2.22-2.29 (2H, m), 3.50-3.55 (2H, m), 4.09-4.20 (2H, m), 5.32 (1H, s), 7.01-7.06 (2H, m), 7.16-7.22 (2H, m), 7.40 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 327.15
  • [0163]
    Compounds 760 and 762 were prepared in the same manner as that used for compound 761 from chloroformic acid pentyl ester and pentyl isocyanate in place of heptanoic anhydride, respectively.
  • [heading-0164]
    1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-pentoxycarbonyloxyethyl)urea (760)
  • [0165]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.91 (t,3H, J=6.9 Hz), 1.25-1.36 (4H, m), 1.63-1.67 (2H, m), 3.55-3.60 (2H, m), 4.14 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 4.25-4.28 (2H, m), 5.11 (1H, s), 6.50 (1H, s), 7.02-7.05 (1H, m), 7.19-7.23 (2H, m), 7.42 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 329.09
  • [heading-0166]
    1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-pentylaminocarbonyloxyethyl)urea (762)
  • [0167]
    1δ(CDCl3): 0.87 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.30-1.33 (4H, m), 1.46-1.50 (2H, m), 3.12-3.19 (2H, m), 3.50-3.52 (2H, m), 4.17-4.20 (2H, m), 4.83 (1H, s), 5.47 (1H, s), 6.96 (1H, s), 6.98-7.02 (1H, m), 7.18-7.21 (2H, m), 7.44 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 328.20
  • Example 5
  • [heading-0168]
    Synthesis of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-hexylcarbonylaminoethyl)urea (765)
  • [0169]
    A solution of di-t-butyl dicarbonate (0.50 g, 2.29 mmol) in dioxane (20 mL) was added over a period of 1 hr to a solution of 1,2-diaminoethane (1.10 g, 18.3 mmol) in dioxane (20 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir for 22 hr and the solvent was evaporated to dryness. Water (30 mL) was added to the residue and the insoluble bis-substituted product was removed by filtration. The filtrate was extracted with methylene chloride (3×30 mL) and the methylene chloride evaporated to yield ix as an oil (0.35 g, 95%).
  • [0170]
    A solution of heptanoic anhydride (0.91 g, 3.75 mmol; chloroformic acid pentyl ester for 777 and pentyl isocyanate for 766) and ix (0.50 g, 3.13 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred for 2 hr at room temperature. Then the solvent was evaporated. The residue was partitioned between ether (30 mL) and water (30 mL). The ether layer was dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated. The residue was purified by using column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1) to get 0.57 g (67%) of alkylated N-t-butoxycarbonyl amine (x).
  • [0171]
    To a solution of x in dioxane (10 mL) was treated with 4M hydrochloric acid (2 mL) in dioxane, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Then the solvent was evaporated to dryness, and the residual solid was dissolved in DMF (10 mL) and treated with TEA (0.58 mL, 4.19 mmol) and 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate (0.32 g, 2.10 mmol) at room temperature. After stirring for 5 hr, the product was extracted with ether (30 mL), and the ether was washed with water (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1) to afford 0.68 g (100%) of 765. δ(CDCl3): 0.84 (t, 3H, J=6.9 Hz), 1.16-1.25 (6H, m), 1.55-5.61 (2H, m), 2.21-2.24 (2H, m), 3.31-3.40 (4H, m), 6.27 (1H, s), 6.90-6.95 (2H, m), 7.18-7.20 (2H, m), 7.56 (1H, s), 8.07 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 326.25
  • [heading-0172]
    The following compounds were prepared in a similar manner:
  • [heading-0173]
    1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-pentoxycarbonylaminoethyl)urea (777)
  • [0174]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.88 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.28-1.32 (4H, m), 1.44-1.49 (2H, m), 3.23-3.33 (4H, m), 3.95-3.97 (2H, m), 6.01 (1H, s), 6.34 (1H, s), 6.87-6.91 (1H, m), 7.18-7.26 (2H, m), 7.78 (1H, s), 8.21 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 328.22
  • [heading-0175]
    1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-pentylaminocarbonylaminoethyl)urea (766)
  • [0176]
    δ(Acetone): 0.87 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.27-1.30 (4H, m), 2.04-2.06 (2H, m), 3.02-3.05 (2H, m), 3.20-3.22 (2H, m), 5.74 (2H, s), 6.22 (1H, s), 7.23-7.29 (2H, m), 7.82-7.87 (2H, m), 8.67 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 327.10
  • Example 6
  • [heading-0177]
    Synthesis of 1-(1-adamantyl)-3-(12-dodecanoic acid)urea (687)
  • [0178]
    A mixture of 1-adamantyl isocyanate (1.30 g, 7.34 mmol) and 12-aminododecanoic acid (1.46 g, 6.77 mmol) in chloroform (30 mL) was refluxed for 10 hr. The solvent was removed by evaporation, and the residue was washed with ethyl acetate (20 mL) to provide 2.66 g (100%) of urea acid product as a white solid. δ(CDCl3): 1.20-1.36 (16H, m), 1.42-1.48 (2H, m), 1.57-1.65 (6H, m), 1.82-1.90 (6H, m), 1.94-1.98 (3H, m), 2.18 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 2.86-2.92 (2H, m), 3.45 (1H, bs), 5.43 (1H, s), 5.587 (1H, t, J=5.4 Hz), [M+H]+ 393.28, mp 140° C.
  • Example 7
  • [heading-0179]
    Synthesis of 1-(1-adamantyl)-3-(11-methoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (780)
  • [0180]
    To a mixture of compound 687 (0.15 g, 0.38 mmol), K2CO3 (64 mg, 0.46 mmol), and iodomethane (54 mg, 0.38 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was refluxed for 10 hr. Then the reaction mixture was filtered, and the filtrate was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated. The residue was purified using column chromatography on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (3:1) to afford 0.14 g (92%) of 780 as a white solid. δ(CDCl3): 1.19-1.34 (12H, m), 1.41-1.48 (2H, m), 1.58-1.62 (4H, m), 1.63-1.75 (6H, m), 1.93-2.00 (6H, m), 2.04-2.07 (3H, m), 2.30 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.12 (2H, m), 3.67 (3H, s), 4.00 (1H, s), 4.06 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 407.22, mp 75° C.
  • [0181]
    Compounds 784, 783, 781, 788, 800, 785, 802, 803, 804, and 782 were prepared in the same manner using corresponding halides in a range of 30-95% yield.
  • [heading-0182]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-ethoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (784)
  • [0183]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.21-1.38 (12H, m), 1.42-1.68 (15H, m), 1.96 (6H, bs), 2.06 (3H, m), 2.30 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.12 (2H, m), 3.97-4.01 (2H, bs), 4.12 (2H, q), [M+H]+ 421.46, mp 82° C.
  • [heading-0184]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-propoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (783)
  • [0185]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.94(3H,t,J=6.9 Hz), 1.19-1.34(12H,m), 1.41-1.48(2H,m), 1.58-1.62 (4H, m), 1.63-1.75 (8H, m), 1.93-2.00 (6H, m), 2.04-2.07 (3H, m), 2.30 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.12 (2H, m), 3.95-4.05 (4H, m), [M+H]+ 435.52, mp 86° C.
  • [heading-0186]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-allyloxycarbonylundecyl)urea (781)
  • [0187]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.19-1.34(12H,m), 1.41-1.48(2H,m), 1.58-1.73(13H,m), 1.93-2.00 (6H, m), 2.04-2.07 (3H, m), 2.33 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.12 (2H, m), 3.99 (1H, s), 4.04 (1H, s), 4.57-4.59 (2H, m), [M+H]+ 433.43, mp 81° C.
  • [heading-0188]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-propagyloxycarbonylundecyl)urea (788)
  • [0189]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.24-1.31(12H,m), 1.44-1.46(2H,m), 1.58-1.67(11H,m), 1.94-1.98 (6H, m). 2.05-2.07 (3H, m), 2.35 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.05-3.12 (2H, m), 3.99 (1H, s), 4.04 (1H, s), 4.67 (2H, s), [M+H]+ 431.67, mp 79° C.
  • [heading-0190]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-butoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (800)
  • [0191]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.95(3H,t,J=6.9 Hz), 1.23-1.35(12H,m), 1.44-1.52(4H,m), 1.57-1.61 (4H, m), 1.66-1.69 (6H, m), 1.96-2.00 (8H, m), 2.07-2.09 (3H, m), 2.30 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.09-3.13 (2H, m), 4.02-4.10 (4H, m), [M+H]+ 449.34
  • [heading-0192]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-iso-propoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (785)
  • [0193]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.19-1.26(18H,m), 1.41-1.48(2H,m), 1.58-1.62(4H,m), 1.63-1.75 (6H, m), 1.94-2.00 (6H, m), 2.03-2.07 (3H, m), 2.30 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.12 (2H, m), 3.67 (3H, s), 4.00 (1H, s), 4.06 (1H, s), 4.94-5.04 (1H, m), [M+H]+ 435.33, mp 90° C.
  • [heading-0194]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-sec-butoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (802)
  • [0195]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.89(3H,t,J=6.9 Hz), 1.19(3H,d,J=6.9 Hz), 1.23-1.35(12H,m), 1.44-1.50 (2H, m), 1.57-1.61 (4H, m), 1.66-1.72 (8H, m), 1.96-2.00 (6H, m), 2.07-2.09 (3H, m), 2.27 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.09-3.13 (2H, m), 4.00 (1H, s), 4.05 (1H, s), 4.91-4.96 (1H, m); and [M+H]+ 449.29, mp 65° C.
  • [heading-0196]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-isobutoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (803)
  • [0197]
    δ(CDCl3): 0.93(6H,d,J=6.9 Hz), 1.23-1.35(12H,m), 1.45-1.47(2H,m), 1.56-1.58 (4H, m), 1.65-1.68 (6H, m), 1.94-1.97 (7H, m), 2.06-2.08 (3H, m), 2.31 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.07-3.11 (2H, m), 3.85 (2H, d, J=6.9 Hz), 3.99 (1H, s), 4.03 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 449.32, mp 91° C.
  • [heading-0198]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-benzyloxycarbonylundecyl)urea (804)
  • [0199]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.24-1.28 (12H, m), 1.44-1.48 (2H, m), 1.63-1.68 (10H, m), 1.94-1.97 (6H, m), 2.05-2.07 (3H, m), 2.34 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.05-3.13 (2H, m), 4.04 (1H, s), 4.09 (1H, s), 5.12 (2H, s), 7.33-7.37 (5H, m), [M+H]+ 483.33, mp 49° C.
  • [heading-0200]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-(2-chlorobenzyl)oxycarbonylundecyl)urea (782)
  • [0201]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.24-1.28 (12H, m), 1.44-1.48 (2H, m), 1.63-1.68 (10H, m), 1.94-1.97 (6H, m), 2.05-2.07 (3H, m), 2.39 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.07-3.13 (2H, m), 4.00 (1H, s), 4.06 (1H, s), 5.23 (2H, s), 7.27-7.30 (3H, m), 7.39-7.42 (1H, m), [M+H]+ 517.05, mp 48° C.
  • Example 8
  • [heading-0202]
    Synthesis of 1-(1-adamantyl)-3-(11-(1-adamantyl)methyloxycarbonylundecyl)urea (786)
  • [0203]
    A solution of 687 (0.15, 0.38 mmol) and TEA (96 mg, 0.96 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was treated at room temperature with isobutyl chloroformate (52 mg, 0.38 mmol). After 30 min, a solution of adamantanemethanol (64 mg, 0.38 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 12 hr. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate (25 mL) and water (25 mL). The ethyl acetate layer was washed with 5% NaHCO3 (10 mL) and brine (20 mL) and dried over Na2SO4, and evaporated. The residue was chromatographed on silica gel eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (5:1) to give 72 mg (35%) of 786 as a white solid. δ(CDCl3): 1.23-1.33 (15H, m), 1.48-1.71 (21H, m), 1.90-1.96 (8H, m), 2.04-2.06 (3H, m), 2.31 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.05-3.12 (2H, m), 3.67 (2H, s), 4.00 (1H, s), 4.05 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 541.33, mp 68° C.
  • [0204]
    Compound 792, 793 and 787 were prepared in this manner using ethylamine, isopropylamine, and 1-naphthalenemethanol, respectively, instead of adamantanemethanol.
  • [heading-0205]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-ethylaminocarbonylundecyl)urea (792)
  • [0206]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.14 (3H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 1.24-1.31 (12H, m), 1.43-1.46 (2H, m), 1.58-1.66 (10H, m), 1.94-1.98 (6H, m), 2.05-2.07 (3H, m), 2.15 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.12 (2H, m), 3.25-3.13 (2H, m), 4.05 (1H, s), 4.12 (1H, s), 5.43 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 420.48, mp 119° C.
  • [heading-0207]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-isopropylaminocarbonylundecyl)urea (793)
  • [0208]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.14 (6H, d, J=6.9 Hz), 1.24-1.31 (12H, m), 1.43-1.46 (2H, m), 1.61-1.69 (10H, m), 1.94-1.98 (6H, m), 2.07-2.18 (5H, m), 3.07-3.13 (2H, m), 4.03-4.10 (2H, m), 4.14 (1H, s), 5.26 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 434.50, mp 115° C.
  • [heading-0209]
    1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-(1-naphthlyl)meth oxycarbonylundecyl)urea (787)
  • [0210]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.20-1.27 (12H, m), 1.43-1.46 (2H, m), 1.61-1.67 (10H, m), 1.96-2.06 (6H, m), 2.14-2.16 (2H, m), 2.35 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.06-3.10 (2H, m), 4.02(1H, s), 4.08 (1H, s), 5.57 (2H, s), 7.43-7.56 (4H, m), 7.84-7.87 (2H, m), 7.90 (8.02 (1H, m), [M+H]+ 533.59
  • Example 9
  • [heading-0211]
    Synthesis of 1-(1-Adamantyl)-3-(11-t-butoxycarbonylundecyl)urea (801)
  • [0212]
    To a solution of compound 687 (0.10 g, 0.25 mmol), N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, 10 mg, 0.13 mmol), and t-butanol (23 mg, 0.31 mmol) in methylene chloride (20 mL) was added 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI, 50 mg, 0.25 mmol) at room temperature. The mixture was stirred for 20 hr. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue was partitioned between ether (30 mL) and water (30 mL). The ether layer was dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated. Purification of the residue by silica gel column chromatography eluting hexane and ethyl acetate (3:1) provided 21 mg (18%) oft-butyl ester as a white solid.
  • [0213]
    δ(CDCl3): 1.23-1.35 (12H, m), 1.44-1.50 (2H, m), 1.57-1.61 (13H, m), 1.66-1.72 (6H, m), 1.96-2.00 (6H, m), 2.07-2.09 (3H, m), 2.27 (2H, t, J=6.9 Hz), 3.09-3.13 (2H, m), 3.96 (1H, s), 4.01 (1H, s), [M+H]+ 449.36, mp 150° C.
  • Example 10
  • [heading-0214]
    Synthesis of 4-(3-Cyclohexyl-ureido)-butyric acid (632).
  • [0215]
    To a cold solution of 4-aminobutyric acid (2.16 g, 21 mmol) and catalytic amount of DBU in 22 mL of 1.0 N NaOH, 2.5 g (20 mmol) of cyclohexyl isocyanate were added in one time. The mixture was strongly mixed at room temperature overnight. The reaction was then acidified with concentrated HCl. The formed white solid was collected by filtration. The mixture was purified by chromatography on a silica column (8×3 cm). Elution with a mixture 50:50:1 of hexane:ethyl acetate: acetic acid gave the pure targeted product. The resulting white crystal (3.46 g; yield: 76%) had a mp of 153.0-154.0° C. [M+H]+ 281.18
  • Example 11
  • [heading-0216]
    Synthesis of 2-[4-(3-Cyclohexyl-ureido)-butyrylamino]-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionic acid (632-Tyr).
  • [0217]
    To a solution of 632 (0.45 g, 2.0 mmol) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)-propyl) carbodiimide (0.5 g, 2.2 mmol) in 15 mL of DMF, 0.53 g (2.3 mmol) of tyrosine methyl ester and 2.4 mmol of diisopropylethylamine were added. The mixture was heated at 60° C. for 6 h. Then, 50 mL of 0.1 N NaOH were added and the mixture was left at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was then acidified with concentrated HCl and extracted twice with a 2:1 mixture of chloroform:methanol. The organic phases were pooled, dried and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on a silica column (5×4 cm). Elution with a 75:25:1 mixture of ethyl acetate:methanol:acetic acid yielded 140 mg (yield: 18%) of the target product as a brown oily liquid. LC-MS-ES negative mode: 390.3 (100%, [M−H]−), 290.9 (10%, (M−C6H10N]), 264.9 (5%, [M−C7H12NO]); positive mode: 392.5 (40%, [M+H]+), 264.95 (100%, [M−C7H10NO]+).
  • Example 12
  • [0218]
    This example provides assays and illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention having a secondary pharmacophore that is a carboxylic acid or carboxylic methyl ester functional group.
  • [0219]
    Enzyme Preparation
  • [0220]
    Recombinant mouse sEH and human sEH were produced in a baculovirus expression system and purified by affinity chromatography.34,35,36 The preparations were at least 97% pure as judged by SDS-PAGE and scanning densitometry. No detectable esterase or glutathione transferase activity, which can interfere with this sEH assay, was observed.37 Protein concentration was quantified by using the Pierce BCA assay using Fraction V bovine serum albumin as the calibrating standard.
  • [0221]
    IC50 Assay Conditions
  • [0222]
    IC50 values were determined as described by using racemic 4-nitrophenyl-trans-2,3-epoxy-3-phenylpropyl carbonate as substrate.37 Enzymes (0.12 μM mouse sEH or 0.24 μM human sEH) were incubated with inhibitors for 5 min in sodium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M pH 7.4, at 30° C. before substrate introduction ([S] 40 μM). Activity was assessed by measuring the appearance of the 4-nitrophenolate anion at 405 nm at 30° C. during 1 min (Spectramax 200; Molecular Devices). Assays were performed in triplicate. IC50 is a concentration of inhibitor, which reduces enzyme activity by 50%, and was determined by regression of at least five datum points with a minimum of two points in the linear region of the curve on either side of the IC50. The curve was generated from at least three separate runs, each in triplicate, to obtain the standard deviation (SD) given in Table 1 thru Table 4.
  • [0223]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 1, as described above.
    TABLE 1
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by 1-cyclohexyl-3-n-(substituted)al-
    kylureasa
    IC50 (μM)
    No. n Z Mouse sEH Human sEH
    625 1 H >500 >500
    549 1 CH3 33 ± 2 70 ± 6
    109 2 H 122 ± 2 358 ± 2
    635 2 CH3 2.5 ± 0.1 78 ± 4
    632 3 H >500 >500
    774 3 CH3 0.33 ± 0.03 6.2 ± 0.5
    884 4 H 0.25 ± 0.02 2.4 ± 0.1
    854 4 CH3 0.13 ± 0.03 5.0 ± 0.6
    56 5 H 90 ± 3 253 ± 8

    aEnzymes (0.12 μM mouse sEH and 0.24 μM human sEH) were incubated with inhibitors for 5 min in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 30° C. before substrate introduction ([S] = 40 μM). Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.
  • [0224]
    As can be seen from the above table, the conversion of a carboxylic acid function to its methyl ester (549, 635, and 774) increased inhibition potency for both mouse and human sEHs. Moreover, the methyl ester of butanoic acid (774) showed 8-100 fold higher activity than the esters of acetic and propanoic acids (549 and 635) for both enzymes, indicating that a polar functional group located three carbon units (carbonyl on the fourth carbon, about 7.5 angstroms from the urea carbonyl) from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore can be effective for making potent sEH inhibitors of improved water solubility. In addition, the distance from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore to the secondary ester pharmacophore in compound 854 is about 8.9 Å showing that the secondary pharmacophore may be located about 7 Å to about 9 Å from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore group.
  • Example 13
  • [0225]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention having a secondary pharmacophore, with comparison to compounds having only a primary pharmacophore. As can be seen from the results in Table 2, the activity is relatively consistent.
  • [0226]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 2, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 2
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by 1-cycloalkyl-3-alkylureasa
    IC50 (μM)
    No. Structure Mouse sEH Human sEH
    772 0.05 ± 0.01 1.02 ± 0.05
    789 0.05 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01
    791 0.05 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01
    790 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    297 0.05 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01
    686 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01

    aEnzymes (0.12 μM mouse sEH and 0.24 μM human sEH) were incubated with inhibitors for 5 min in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 30° C. before substrate introduction ([S] = 40 μM). Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.
  • [0227]
    As shown in the above table, the substitution at R1 with a cyclohexyl (772) or adamantyl (789) increased inhibitor potency 10-fold over the 3-chlorophenyl analog (767, see Table 3 below). Furthermore, these compounds functionalized with a polar group were as active and potent as non-functionalized lipophilic inhibitors (for example, 791, 790, 297, and 686) for both murine and human enzymes. Adding polar groups to compounds generally increases their water solubility, and this was the case when one compares compounds 772 or 789 to 791 and 790. In addition, stripping water of hydration out of the enzyme catalytic site requires about the same amount of energy that is gained by forming a new hydrogen bond between the inhibitor and the enzyme. Thus addition of polar groups which hydrogen bond to a target enzyme does not dramatically increase potency if the inhibitor is already potent. However, the presence of an additional polar group can be expected to dramatically increase specificity by decreasing hydrophobic binding to biological molecules other than the primary target (sEH). In this way combining several active pharmacophores into a single molecule often has a massive increase in specificity and biological activity in complex biological systems.
  • Example 14
  • [0228]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention having a secondary pharmacophore that is a ketone, amide, alcohol, carbonate, carbamate, urea, carboxylate ester functional group.
  • [0229]
    Based on the initial activity shown in Table 1, urea compounds were prepared having a polar carbonyl group located approximately 7.5 angstroms from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore to improve water solubility of lipophilic sEH inhibitors (192 and 686). The table below shows various functionalities such as ketone, ester, amide, carbonate, carbamate, and urea which contribute a carbonyl group, and are termed as the secondary pharmacophores. To determine the effect for each of the secondary pharmacophores, a 3-chlorophenyl group was held constant as one of substituents of the urea pharmacophore. The 3-chlorophenyl group is also particularly useful for monitoring chemical reactions quickly via chromatography. After optimizing the secondary pharmacophore, the aryl substituent can be replaced by a cyclohexyl, adamantyl or other group leading to more potent inhibitors.
  • [0230]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 3, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 3
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-alkylated
    ethyl)ureasa
    IC50 (μM)
    No. X Y Mouse sEH Human sEH
    794 CH2 CH2 0.41 ± 0.05 2.1 ± 0.2
    767 CH2 O 0.37 ± 0.04 2.1 ± 0.07
    768 CH2 NH 7.2 ± 0.9 32 ± 0.8
    761 O CH2 7.7 ± 0.6 26 ± 1
    760 O O 7.6 ± 0.3 22 ± 1
    762 O NH 5.3 ± 0.1 18 ± 0.9
    765 NH CH2 100 ± 10 >100
    777 NH O 78 ± 6 >100
    766 NH NH 110 ± 20 >100

    aEnzymes (0.12 μM mouse sEH and 0.24 μM human sEH) were incubated with inhibitors for 5 min in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 30° C. before substrate introduction ([S] = 40 μM). Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.
  • [0231]
    When the left of the carbonyl (X) is a methylene carbon, the best inhibition was obtained if a methylene carbon (ketone, 794) or oxygen (ester, 767) is present in the right position (Y). The ester bond can be stabilized by stearic hindrance of the alcohol or acid moiety or both (805). The presence of nitrogen (amide, 768) reduced the activity. In compounds with an oxygen in the left of the carbonyl group, a >10-fold drop in activity was observed and there was not any change in the activity even if the right position, Y, was modified with a methylene carbon (ester, 761), oxygen (carbonate, 760), or nitrogen (carbamate, 762), respectively. All compounds (765, 777, and 766) with nitrogen in the left position had lower activities than 794 or 767. Comparing compounds 767 and 761, the presence of a methylene carbon around the carbonyl showed a very different effect on the inhibition activity. The compound with a methylene carbon in the left of the carbonyl (767) showed a 20-fold better inhibition than that in the right (761). While the rank-order potency of this inhibitor series was equivalent with mouse and human sEH, a 3-5-fold higher inhibition potency was observed for the murine enzyme.
  • Example 15
  • [0232]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention having no secondary pharmacophore, but having a tertiary pharmacophore that is an amide or a carboxylate ester functional group (with alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl and arylalkyl ester groups).
  • [0233]
    Compound 687, having a carboxylic acid group at the end of twelve carbon chain, was found to be an excellent inhibitor of both the mouse and human enzymes. Additionally, an ester found to be a suitable secondary pharmacophore. As a result, a variety of ester derivatives having a carbonyl group located eleven carbon units from the urea pharmacophore were synthesized and evaluated to examine contributions of a tertiary pharmacophore.
  • [0234]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 4, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 4
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by 1-(1-adamantyl)-3-(11-alkylated
    undecyl)-ureasa
    IC50 (μM)
    No. X R Mouse sEH Human sEH
    687 O H 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    780 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    784 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    792 NH 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    783 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    781 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    788 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    800 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    785 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    793 NH 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    801 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    802 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    803 O 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    786 O 0.07 ± 0.01 0.23 ± 0.02
    804 O 0.07 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01
    782 O 0.10 ± 0.01 0.29 ± 0.01
    787 O 0.09 ± 0.01 0.21 ± 0.01

    aEnzymes (0.12 μM mouse sEH and 0.24 μM human sEH) were incubated with inhibitors for 5 min in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 30° C. before substrate introduction ([S] = 40 μM). Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.
  • [0235]
    While the presence of a polar group at the end of a shorter chain reduced inhibition potency for both enzymes (see Table 1), when the carboxylic acid was modified to esters with various aliphatic groups (780, 784, 783, 781, 788, 800, 785, 801, 802, and 803) inhibition potencies were as high as that of the acid (687) for both enzymes. Ethyl (792) and isopropyl (793) amide derivatives were also potent inhibitors. Compounds with methyl-branched aliphatic chains were also potent (785, 801, 802, 803, and 793). Still further, larger bulky group such as 1-adamantylmethyl (786), benzyl (804), 2-chlorobenzyl (782) or 2-naphthylmethyl (787) provided good levels of activity, although slightly reduced (1.5-3-fold) for both enzymes. These results identified an additional site within the sEH inhibitor structure which allows the inclusion of a third polar function, i.e. a tertiary pharmacophore.
  • Example 16
  • [0236]
    This example provides assays and illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention having a both a secondary and tertiary pharmacophore that is a carboxylic ester functional group.
  • [0237]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 5, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 5
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by 4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)butyryloxy
    compounds
    Mouse sEHb Human sEHb MP
    No. n TA a IC50 (μM) IC50 (μM) IC50 (μM) IC50 (μM) (° C.) cLog Pc
    857 1 8 0.05 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 0.39 ± 0.01 9 ± 2 123 0.98 ± 0.47
    876 2 9 0.05 ± 0.01 0.63 ± 0.02 0.54 ± 0.05 9 ± 2 95-97 1.27 ± 0.47
    858 3 10 0.05 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01 5.0 ± 0.1 89-91 1.55 ± 0.47
    877 4 11 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 1.5 ± 0.1 84-86 1.97 ± 0.47
    878 6 13 0.05 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.01 65-67 2.81 ± 0.47
    879 7 14 0.05 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.01 0.72 ± 0.01 58-59 3.22 ± .47
    880 9 16 0.05 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.03 0.10 ± 0.01 0.68 ± 0.01 60-61 4.06 ± 0.47
    881 10 17 0.05 ± 0.01 0.35 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.1 54-55 4.48 ± 0.47
    882 11 18 0.05 ± 0.01 0.63 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.01 1.8 ± 0.2 64-65 4.89 ± 0.47

    aThe total number of atoms extending from the carbonyl group of the primary urea pharmacophore, TA = n + 7

    bEnzymes (0.12 μM mouse sEH and 0.24 μM human sEH) were incubated with inhibitors for 5 min in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 30° C. before substrate introduction ([S] = 40 μM). Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.

    cLog P: calculated log P by Crippen's method by using CS ChemDraw 6.0 version
  • [0238]
    As can be seen from the above table, in increasing the distance between the secondary ester pharmacphore and the tertiary ester pharmacaphore (549, 635, and 774) increased inhibition potency for human sEHs but mouse EH activity remained relatively consistent.
  • Example 17
  • [0239]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention (formula (I)) having a secondary ether pharmacophore.
  • [0240]
    Adamantyl-urea compounds were prepared having a polar ether group located various distances from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore. These compounds were prepared to improve water solubility of lipophilic sEH inhibitors (192 and 686). As can be seen from the results in Table 6, the activity is relatively consistent.
  • [0241]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 6, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 6
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by alkyl ether derivatives
    IC50 (μM)a
    No. Structure Mouse sEH Human sEH
    866 0.06 ± 0.01 1.5 ± 0.2
    867 0.05 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.02
    868 0.05 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01
    869 0.05 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01
    870 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
  • [0242]
    As shown in the above table, these compounds functionalized with a single ether group could be as active and potent as non-functionalized lipophilic inhibitors (790, see Table 2 above) for both murine and human enzymes. Adding a polar ether group to these compounds increased their water solubility (compare compound 866-870 with 790). The distance from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore to the secondary ether pharmacophore in compound 869 is about 8.9 Å showing that the secondary pharmacophore may be located about 7 Å to about 9 Å from the carbonyl of the primary urea pharmacophore group.
  • Example 18
  • [0243]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention (formula (I)) having a secondary ether or polyether pharmacophore, with comparison to compounds further including a tertiary pharmacophore.
  • [0244]
    Because compounds having a ether secondary pharmacophore were found to be suitable inhibitors of both the mouse and human enzymes, a variety of polyether derivatives were synthesized and evaluated along with contributions of a tertiary pharmacophore. As can be seen from the results in Table 7, the activity is relatively consistent.
  • [0245]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 7, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 7
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by substituted ether derivatives
    IC50 (μM)a
    No. Structure Mouse sEH Human sEH
    908 0.05 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01
    913 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    940 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    941 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    950 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    951 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    952 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    950-1 R = isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, imidazole, phenyl
  • [0246]
    Compounds with from two to four ether groups (908, 950, and 952) had inhibition potencies that were as high as non-functionalized lipophilic inhibitors (790, see Table 2 above) for both murine and human enzymes, as well as increased water solubility and improved pharmacokinetics. Including a tertiary pharmacophore were also potent inhibitors but did not further increase their activity (compare compounds 913 and 940 with 908 and compound 951 with 950).
  • Example 19
  • [0247]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse and human soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention (formula (I)) having an arylene or cycloalkylene linker.
  • [0248]
    Because compounds having an alkylene linker between the primary and secondary pharmacophore were found to be excellent inhibitors of both the mouse and human enzymes, a variety of admantyl-urea derivatives having a phenyl or cyclohexyl spacer between a primary urea and secondary pharmacophore were synthesized and evaluated to examine the contributions of the linker.
  • [0249]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 8, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 8
    Inhibition of mouse and human sEH by substituted phenyl and cyclohexyl
    derivatives
    IC50 (μM)a
    No. Structure Mouse sEH Human sEH
    859 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    860 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    861 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    863 0.05 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01
    904 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
    909 0.05 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01
    909-1 n = 1, 2, 3, 4
    909-2 n = 1-10
  • [0250]
    Compounds with alkylene and arylene linker groups (859 and 861) had inhibition potencies that were higher than compounds with alkylene linkers (789, see Table 2 above, and 868, see Table 6 above) for both murine and human enzymes, independent of the topography (compare compound 859 with 860 and compound 861 with 863) or type of the secondary pharmacophore (compare compounds 860 and 863 with 909).
  • Example 20
  • [0251]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention (formula (II)) having a secondary pharmacophore, and further including a mono amino acid moiety. This example further illustrates the use of a combinatorial approach toward compound preparation and evaluation.
  • [0252]
    The utility of a combinatorial approach is illustrated by using the butanoic acid derivatives from Table 9 and Table 10 to form amide bonds with one or more natural or synthetic amino acids. This approach rapidly leads to a large number of compounds that are highly active and can be recognized by the intestinal peptide uptake system. As shown above, polar groups could be incorporated into one of the alkyl groups of the dialkyl-urea sEH inhibitors without loss of activity, when placed at an appropriate distance from the urea function. These modifications give the new inhibitors better solubility and availability. To expand this assessment of inhibitor structure refinement a semi-combinatorial approach was used with amino acids. Because amino acids are simple bifunctional synthons with a wide variety of side chains, mono and di-peptidic derivatives of 4-(3-cyclohexyl-ureido)-butyric acid 625 were synthesized. This parent compound (acid 625) was selected due to its low inhibition of sEH. Furthermore, to make the peptidic bond, reactants were used, such as 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)-propyl) carbodiimide, that themselves or their reaction product, such as 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino)-propyl urea, are not inhibitors of sEH. Therefore, any inhibition observed was derived from the targeted peptidic derivatives. This approach allows the preparation of compounds on an analytical scale (10 μmol) without purification of the products. The presence of the desired products was confirmed by LC-MS and the ratio of the LC-MS peak of the desire compounds with the starting material was used to estimate the reaction yield. Because each inhibitor presents a single carboxyl group for negative mode ionization, the estimation of yield is reasonably quantitative.
  • [0253]
    Syntheses of amino acid derivatives of 4-(3-cyclohexyl-ureido)-butyric acid (632) were performed at analytical scale. Reactions were performed in 2 mL glass vials for each amino acid. To 100 mL of a solution of 632 in DMF at 100 mM (10 μmol), 200 μL of a solution of 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)-propyl) carbodiimide in DMF at 100 mM (20 μmol) was added. After 15 minutes reaction at room temperature, 400 μL of amino acid methyl ester solution at 100 mM (40 μmol) in 90:10 DMF:1 N NaOH was added. The reaction was strongly mixed at 40° C. overnight. Three hundred microliters of 1 N NaOH was then added and allowed to react overnight at 40° C. Product formation was confirmed for each amino acid using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Reaction solutions were used directly for inhibitor potency measurement with a theoretical concentration of 10 mM.
  • [0254]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 9, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 9
    Inhibition of mouse sEH by mono-amino acid derivatives of 4-(3-cyclo-
    hexyl-ureido)-butyric acid (632).
    Mouse sEH
    MS m/z (Da) IC50
    R: Mth (M ± H)+− (μM)
    OH 228.1 Control >50
    Alanine 299.2 229.5 >50
    Arginine 384.3 385.8 >50
    Aspartate 344.2 344.7 >50
    Cysteine 331.2 332.8 >50
    Glutamate 357.2 358.7 >50
    Glycine 285.2 286.6 >50
    Histidine 365.2 366.6 1.9 ± 0.2
    Isoleucine 341.2 342.7 18 ± 3
    Leucine 341.2 342.7 >50
    Lysine 356.3 357.7 2.2 ± 0.5
    Methionine 359.2 360.7 >50
    Phenylalanine 375.2 376.7 5.6 ± 0.4
    Proline 325.2 326.7 >50
    Serine 315.2 316.7 >50
    Threonine 329.2 330.7 >50
    Tryptophane 414.2 415.8 1.6 ± 0.2
    Tyrosine 391.2 392.8 0.59 ± 0.03
    Valine 327.2 328.7 >50

    Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.
  • [0255]
    Significant improvement of the inhibition potency was observed for the aromatic derivatives (phenylalanine, tryptophane and tyrosine), histidine and lysine. Again, without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the specificity of the interaction of the enzyme with the five peptidic inhibitors listed results from specific pi-pi stacking between tryptophane 334 (Trp334) located in close proximity to the secondary pharmacophore, and the aromatic moieties with four of the five amino acids above. This interaction should alter the fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme. For the lysine derivative, because reaction can occur with the side chain amino group, the resulting product could resemble the alkyl derivatives synthesized above with the acid function playing the role of the third pharmacophore.
  • Example 21
  • [0256]
    This example illustrates the inhibition of mouse soluble epoxide hydrolases by compounds of the invention (formula (II)) having a secondary pharmacophore, and further including a dipeptide moiety.
  • [0257]
    Compounds in the amino acid derivative series, 625-Tyr, showed an inhibition potency in the hundreds of nanomolar range, prompting the evaluation of the effect of adding a second amino acid.
  • [0258]
    In a manner similar to that described above, syntheses of amino acid derivatives of 2-[4-(3-Cyclohexyl-ureido)-butyrylamino]-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionic acid (632-Tyr) that are examples of dipetide derivatives of 632 were done on an analytical scale. Synthesis was performed as described above for the derivatives of 632, simply substituting this compound by 632-Tyr. Product formation was confirmed by ESI-MS.
  • [0259]
    Assays were conducted with the compounds indicated in Table 10, according to established protocols (see, above).
    TABLE 10
    Inhibition of mouse sEH by mono-amino acid derivatives of 4-(3-cyclo-
    hexyl-ureido)-butyryl-tyrosine.
    MS m/z (Da) Mouse sEH
    (M − H): IC50 IC90
    R: Mth (M − H) m/z390.2 (μM)
    OH 391.5 390.2 Control 0.50 30
    Alanine 462.6 461.4 3 0.22 25
    Arginine 547.7 546.2 1 0.05 4.0
    Aspartate 506.6 505.3 1 0.05 1.6
    Glycine 448.5 447.3 1 0.06 6.5
    Isoleucine 504.6 503.2 3 0.07 12.5
    Leucine 504.6 503.5 6 0.07 16.0
    Lysine 519.7 518.4 0.5 0.05 6.3
    Methionine 522.8 521.2 2 0.05 2.0
    Phenylalanine 538.7 537.5 1 0.05 1.6
    Proline 488.6 487.4 1 0.06 6.3
    Serine 478.6 477.3 1 0.07 3.3
    Threonine 492.6 491.3 4 0.12 12.5
    Tryptophane 577.7 576.4 1 0.05 1.0
    Tyrosine 554.7 553.4 5 0.05 2.5
    Valine 490.6 489.4 2 0.05 3.1

    Results are means ± SD of three separate experiments.
  • [0260]
    Significant improvement of inhibition potency was observed for almost all the derivatives tested except for alanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine. These results indicate that the enzyme has a narrower specificity close to the catalytic center than toward the end of the active site tunnel. The inhibition potency found for the best dipeptidic derivatives are similar to those found for the corresponding alkyl inhibitors (see, C. Morisseau, et al., Biochem. Pharm. 63: 1599-1608 (2002)), indicating that such peptide-mimics are excellent inhibitors of sEH. Because of the presence of the amino acid derivatives in their structure, these compounds have excellent water solubility. Furthermore, because of the presence of active small peptide transport system in the gut, the dipeptidic urea derivatives will be absorbed in the gut by such systems as observed for several peptide derivative drugs (see, E. Walter, et al., Pharm. Res. 12: 360-365 (1995) and K. Watanabe, et al., Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25: 1345-1350 (2002)), giving these compounds excellent bioavailability.
  • Example 22
  • [0261]
    This example provides studies directed to the metabolic stability of certain inhibitors of sEH.
  • [0262]
    To evaluate the metabolic stability of these inhibitors, the microsomal and NADPH dependent metabolism of a number of potent sEH inhibitors was evaluated. The rates of metabolism among the compounds varied dramatically, however the appearance of an omega-terminal acid was observed for all inhibitors containing n-alkane substitutions. When tested, the potent alkyl derivatives (e.g. 686) are rapidly metabolized in microsomal preparations by P450 dependents processes (see FIG. 6), while the omega acid analogs (e.g. 687) were stable (see FIG. 7). The first step in the metabolic transformation of the n-alkyl to n-alkanoic acid derivatives is an NAPDH dependent process carried out by cytochrome P450 dependent omega hydroxylation in rodent and human hepatic tissue preparations (see FIG. 8). The metabolites identified along this metabolic route are provided in Table 11. When in vivo metabolism was evaluated, evidence for the beta-oxidation of the alkanoic acid derivatives was also found (see FIG. 9). Together, these data indicate that P450 omega hydroxylation can result in the rapid iii vivo metabolic inactivation and excretion of these inhibitors.
    TABLE 11
    Structure of metabolites formed from compound 686.
    No X Y
    686 H CH3
    686-M1 H CH2OH
    686-M2 H CHO
    687 H COOH
    686-M3 OH CH2OH
  • Example 23
  • [0263]
    This example provides the structures of compounds of the invention designed to slow esterase dependent inactivation, block beta-oxidation, block cytochrome P450 dependent omega hydroxylation, or inhibit cytochrome P450 omega hydrolase.
  • [0264]
    Beta-oxidation can be blocked in a variety of ways, for example with an alpha halogen or alpha branched alkyl group (806), cyclopropane (807) or aromatic groups (808), or by replacing the acid or ester functional groups with alternate functionalities, such as sulfonamides (809 and 810), which mimic ester and acid functional groups yet provide metabolic stability in vivo. Similarly in pharmacology heterocyclic groups are used for hydrogen bond donors and acceptors to mimic carboxylic acids and esters (811). In addition, P450 omega hydroxylation can be blocked by including acetylene (812), trifluoromethyl (813), or aryl (814) groups at the terminus of the alkyl chain. This series of inhibitors also illustrates that with both the secondary and tertiary pharmacophore, replacement can be made for the carbonyl with other functionalities as hydrogen bond donors and acceptors.
    TABLE 12
    Structures of sEH inhibitors designed to prevent beta-oxidation and
    P450 omega hydroxylation.
    No. Structure Action
    805 Retard esterase dependent inactivation
    806 Block beta-oxidation
    807 Block beta-oxidation
    808 Block beta-oxidation
    809 Block beta-oxidation
    810 Block beta-oxidation
    811 Block beta-oxidation Block P450 dependent omega hydroxylation
    812 Block beta-oxidation Inhibit P450 omega hydroxylase
    813 Block P450 dependent omega hydroxylation
    814 Block P450 dependent omega hydroxylation

    R1 and R2 = alkyl or aryl group,

    R3 = alkyl group (ethyl or butyl).
  • Example 24
  • [0265]
    This example illustrates a comparison of cyclohexyl and adamantyl groups in stability and solubility.
  • [0266]
    Another consistent observation during the metabolism studies was that the adamantyl substituent (both 192 and 686 substituted) provided compounds having improved stability (see FIG. 6). Surprisingly the adamantyl compounds were approximately 2× more soluble than the corresponding cyclohexyl derivatives (772 vs. 789, 791 vs. 790, and 297 vs. 686 see Table 2 for structures). Surprisingly, the LC-MS/MS analyses producing collision induced dissociation of compounds containing the adamantyl substituent provided extremely high abundance ions, which dramatically enhanced the analytical sensitivity for these inhibitors (see Table 13 below). This enhanced sensitivity is a distinct advantage for drug metabolism studies using either in vivo or in vitro systems. Moreover, adamantane represents the smallest diamond nucleus and the adamantyl substituents not only yield compounds of improved metabolic stability and pharmacokinetic parameters, but also compounds that are very easy to detect.
    TABLE 13
    Calibration curves and detections limit (DL) of inhibitors
    analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS.
    No. Structure Calibration curve r2 DL (ng/mL)
    686 y = 0.067x − 0.003 0.999 0.05
    687 y = 0.099x − 0.274 0.999 0.05
    297 y = 0.024x + 0.091 0.999 0.50
    425 y = 0.009x − 0.003 0.999 0.50
  • Example 25
  • [0267]
    This example provides the pharmacokinetic studies carried out using compounds of the present invention.
  • [0268]
    The pharmacokinetic properties of some of the most potent sEH inhibitors was evaluated following oral gavage in mice. As noted above, the use of 1-adamantyl urea inhibitors afforded exquisite sensitivity, allowing the determination of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters from serial blood samples collected from individual mice (see Table 14).
  • [0269]
    Animals. Male Swiss Webster mice, 6 weeks-old, were obtained from Charles River (CA, USA). After 1-2 week acclimation period, healthy animals were assigned to study groups based on body-weight stratified randomization procedure. The body weight of animals used in all the experiments ranged from 28 g to 38 g. Mice were maintained on a 12 h light/12 h dark cycle under controlled temperature and humidity conditions, and food and water available ad libid um.
  • [0270]
    Administration and measurement. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice used a 5 mg/kg dose of sEH inhibitors dissolved in corn oil and 4% DMSO administered orally. Serial tail bled blood samples (5-10 μL) were collected in heparinized 1.5 mL tubes at various time points (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 hr) after the administration for measuring parent compounds and their metabolites by using LC-MS/MS: a Waters 2790 liquid chromatograph equipped with a 30×2.1 mm 3 μm C18 Xterra™ column (Waters) and a Micromass Quattro Ultima triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (Micromass, Manchester, UK). To the collected samples were added 100 μL of distilled water, 25 μL of internal standard (500 ng/mL; 1-cyclohexyl-3-tetradecylurea, CTU), and 500 μL of ethyl acetate. Then the samples were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 min, and the ethyl acetate layer was dried under nitrogen. The residue was reconstituted in 25 mL of methanol, and aliquots (5 μL) were injected onto the LC-MS/MS system.
  • [0271]
    Pharmacokinetic studies using a human subject employed doses of 0.1-1.0 mg/kg of sEH inhibitors (800) or a 0.3 mg/kg dose of 687 dissolved in olive oil administered orally. Serial bled blood samples (3-50 μL) were collected from finger tips into 50 μL heparinized capillary tube at various time points (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hr) after administration. These samples were used to measure parent compounds and their metabolites using LC-MS/MS as described above for experiments with mice. Blood samples were added 400 μL of distilled water and 25 μL of internal standard (500 ng/mL CTU), and vortexed. The blood samples were then extracted with 500 μL of ethyl acetate twice and the ethyl acetate layer was dried under nitrogen. The residue was reconstituted in 25 μL of methanol, and aliquots (10 μL) were injected onto the LC-MS/MS system as described above. Biological end points came from clinical chemistry samples run at The University of California Davis Clinical Laboratory and a series of 6 inflammatory markers including C reactive protein were run blind at the University of California Davis Department of Nephrology.
  • [0272]
    Analysis. Pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using SigmaPlot software system (SPSS science, Chicago, Ill.). A one-compartment model was used for blood concentration-time profiles for the oral gavage dosing and fits to the following equation (see, Gibson, G. G. and Skett, P.: INTRODUCTION TO DRUG METABOLISM, SECOND ED., Chapman and Hall, New York 1994, 199-210):
    C=ae −bt
    The half-life (t1/2) for the elimination phase was calculated by the following equation:
    t 1/2=0.693/b
    The area under the concentration (AUC) was calculated by the following equation:
    AUC=a/b
    Where:
      • C=the total blood concentration at time t
      • a=the extrapolated zero intercept
  • [0278]
    b=the apparent first-order elimination rate constant
    TABLE 14
    Pharmacokinetic parameters of 1-(1-adamantyl)-3-(11-alkylated undecyl)ureasa
    Cmax b tCmax c AUCd t1/2 e
    No. R (ng/mL) (hr) (ng · hr/mL) (hr)
    686 CH3 19.8 1 47 2.3
    687 26.9 0.5 87 2.3
    780 144.3 0.5 168 1.3
    784 101.7 1 198 1.5
    783 62.6 1 137 1.6
    781 45.3 1 111 2
    788 39.6 1 130 2.9
    800 39.5 1 96 1.5
    785 29.6 2 84 1.9
    801 5.3 2 10 2.1
    802 13.1 2 47 3.8
    803 42.9 2 110 2.9
    804 42.3 1 141 3

    a5 mg/kg dosing of compounds were administered orally to male Swill Webster mice,

    bmaximum concentration,

    ctime of maximum concentration,

    darea under concentration,

    ehalf-life.
  • [0279]
    The ester compounds were generally hydrolyzed to the acid compound (687) when administered orally. As a result, the maximum concentration described in Table 14 represents the maximum concentration of 687 in the blood. An example of the time course of free acid appearance is shown in FIG. 10. When compound 687 was administered orally, it reached the maximum concentration (2-fold higher than 686) in 30 min, while compound 686 reached its maximum concentration in 2 hr (see Table 14). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) for 687 was 2-fold higher, indicating an improvement in oral bioavailability. The maximum concentrations of primary esters (780, 784, 783, 781, 788, 800, 803 and 804) esters were 1.5-5-fold higher than 687, and the AUC increased 1.2-2.3-fold for the ester compounds indicating higher bioavailabilities. On the other hand, secondary esters (785 and 802) showed similar maximum concentrations and bioavailabilities to those of 687 in mice, while the tertiary ester (801) displayed a 4-8-fold decrease in maximum concentration and bioavailability. Accordingly, the alkylation of a potent acid inhibitor (687) to form primary esters improves the oral availability of these inhibitors. Following these results, a preliminary investigation of the pharmacokinetics of compounds 687 and 800 in a human male was performed (see FIG. 11). The findings suggest that in general rodents provide a good model for pre-human trials.
  • Example 26
  • [0280]
    This example provides a table of structures for compounds of the invention having all three pharmacophores present.
    TABLE 15
    Structures of sEH inhibitors containing the primary, secondary, and tertiary pharmacophores.
    No. STRUCTURE
    1100
    1110
    1120
    1130
    1140
    1150
    1160
    1170
    1180
    1190
    1200
    1210

    Z = O or NH,

    R = alkyl group (ethyl or butyl)

    The primary urea pharmacophore can be varied (compound #) with amide or carbamate functionality to improve physical properties of sEH inhibitors as well: A and B=CH2, O, or NH, R2 and R3=H or methyl group, Y=CH2, O, or NH. The carbonyls can be replaced by heterocyclic or acyclic hydrogen bond acceptors and donators as shown in Table 12.
  • Example 27
  • [0282]
    This example shows the effect of sEH inhibitors on serum and urinary oxylipin profiles in rodents.
  • [0283]
    The described soluble epoxide inhibitors have been shown to modulate the relative abundance and amounts of epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids formed in treated animals. One such example of this alteration is provided in FIG. 14. In this example, hypertension was induced in one group of Sprague-Dawley rats by the infusion of angiotensin II (ANGII). A second group of rats received both ANGII and a subcutaneous injection of the model sEH inhibitor 1-adamantyl-3-(dodecanoic acid) urea (i.e. compound 687). Urine samples were collected for 24 hr post exposure to compound 687 and analyzed for linoleate (Panel A) and arachidonate (Panel B) derived epoxides and diols using LC/MS/MS. As shown in FIG. 14, ANGII exposure decreased the concentration of both linoleate (EpOMEs) and arachidonate (EETs) derived epoxides and increased arachidonate derived diols (DHETs) but not linoleate derived diols (DHOMEs). In the case of both lipid classes, treating animals with compound 687 resulted in an increase in urinary epoxides, as well as a decrease in diol concentrations.
  • Example 28
  • [0284]
    This example shows the effect of AUDA butyl ester (800) on blood urea nitrogen and C reactive protein in a patient with ESRD.
    TABLE 16
    Effect of AUDA butyl ester (800) on blood urea nitrogen and C reactive
    protein in patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD).*
    ESRD
    PARAMETER NORMAL RANGE ESRD +AUDA
    Sodium 135-145 mEq/L 135 137
    Potassium 3.3-5.0 mEq/L 5.8 4.9
    Urea nitrogen 8-22 mg/dL 53 40
    Creatinine 0.5-1.3 mg/dL 5.0 4.9
    Glucose 70-110 mg/dL 84 89
    Calcium 8.6-10.5 mg/dL 8.3 8.0
    Albumin 3.4-4.8 g/dL 4.0 4.1
    C-Reactive Protein mg/dL 0.59-0.62 <0.01
    (CRP){circumflex over ( )}
    Systolic <130 126+/−4.9 114+/14.9
    Diastolic <80 81+/−2.0 76+/−3.9

    *ESRD defined as 14 mL/min surface corrected creatinine clearance. Normal is 70-130.

    #The total dose of AUDA butyl ester is 0.5 mg/Kg-day taken in 3 equal doses of 2 ml olive oil at 8 hour intervals for 6 days prior to blood test.

    Normal values for C Reactive Protein are debated. Data indicated range of two samples for both trials. Limit of detection is 0.01.

    @The BUN averaged 47.2+/−3.8 (n = 13) for 30 months prior to the text and increased steadily over the 30 month period.

    +Resting blood pressure taken multiple times 2 weeks before (n = 6) and during the drug trial (n = 10).
  • Example 29
  • [0285]
    This example illustrates the effect of certain compounds of the invention on members of the arachidonic acid cascade.
  • [0286]
    For epoxy fatty acid hydrolysis, the soluble epoxide hydrolase prefers substrates with epoxide moieties that are more distant from the carboxyl terminal. Specifically the substrate preference decreases in the order of 14,15-EET>11,12-EET>8,9-EET>>>5,6-EET for the epoxides of arachidonic acid. Independently, the relative substrate turnover of the epoxy arachidonates were calculated at 0.1:8.1:14.3 when a 1:1:2 mixture of 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET fatty acid was hydrolyzed to 30% by rat renal cortex cytosol. By considering the primary pharmacophore of the urea to be a transition-state analog of epoxide hydrolysis, preferred inhibitors have now been developed which incorporate long aliphatic acids. These compounds are better substrate and transition state mimics than those incorporating shorter aliphatic acids. Accordingly, optimal soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors can be obtained by producing compounds with aliphatic acid substituents (i.e. a tertiary pharmacophore) which are separated from the primary pharmacophore by an equivalent distance as the terminal acid is separated from the epoxide in optimal substrates. Within the enzyme active site, epoxy fatty acids have been predicted to exist in an extended or pseudo-linear confirmation. Therefore, both the epoxy fatty acids and the aliphatic acid containing urea structures were approximated as two dimensional linear representations and measurements were made on each species. The critical measurements taken were distances (in angstroms) from the carboxylate hydroxyl to the urea carbonyl and the urea nitrogens.
  • [0287]
    The distance of the carboxylate to the urea function of 1-cyclohexyl-3-octanoic acid is similar to the distance of the epoxide to the carboxylate in 8,9-EET. Therefore, the calculated inhibitor potencies were normalized to this compound, resulting in a ranked inhibitor potency. We then correlated epoxide to carbonyl distance with respect to relative substrate turnover rate to establish a correlative regression. By plotting the relative inhibitor potency on this graph we find that the distances of the carboxyl to the N′-nitrogen correlate best with the carboxyl to epoxide oxygen distance. These data further highlight the similarity between inhibitor and substrate interaction with the soluble epoxide hydrolase.
  • [0288]
    Programs:
  • [0289]
    All structures were drawn and exported as MDL MOL files using ACD/ChemSketch v 4.55 (May 6, 2000) Advanced Chemistry Development Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Distance measurements were made on the corresponding MOL file image using ACD/3D v 4.52 (Apr. 10, 2000). Structural optimizations were not used.
  • [0290]
    Table 17 provides results for this analysis (see also, FIG. 13).
    TABLE 17
    Linear distances between the primary and secondary pharmacophores of a series of sEH
    inhibitors and their rank order potencies with the mouse (MsEH) and human sEHs (HsEH) are
    shown in comparison with the epoxide to free acid distances and relative turnover rate
    of the four arachidonic acid epoxides with the rat sEH.
    sEH Inhibitors Endogenous sEH Substrates
    N′to COOH (Å) MsEH HsEH Substrates OEp to COOH (Å) Relative EET Turnover
    —(CH2)5COOH 9.6 0.01 0.01 5,6-EET 8 0.1
    —(CH2)6COOH 10.9 0.1 0.1
    —(CH2)8COOH 12.4 1 1 8,9-EET 12.1 1
    —(CH2)11COOH 16.5 11 4.8 11,12-EET 16.4 8.1
    —(CH2)12COOH 17.8 10 10 14,15-EET 20.7 14.3
  • Example 30
  • [0291]
    The examples illustrates the effectiveness of selected compounds for the treatment of Raynaud syndrome.
  • [0292]
    The experimental design involved preparing the Vanicream solutions with ethanol with or without active compound, then covering the syringe barrels with aluminum foil. The compounds were applied in a bind fashion approximately 20 minutes before exposure and then the hands were exposed to cold for approximately 30 minutes and the results recorded. The following day the results were decoded. Treatments (left or right index finger) were random. Controls included prescription nitroglycerine cream (had a major effect in turning treated finger pink) and commercial lanoline based L-arginine hand warming cream (probably contains capsaicin)(had no effect on parameters listed below). The test compounds were dissolved in ethanol at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and this in turn mixed with commercial Vanicream at a 10:1 concentration to give 1 mg/mL final concentration of active ingredient in the Vanicream/ethanol mixture. Approximately 100 μL of cream (+/−sEH inhibitor) were applied to a single finger. The first two columns indicate that over a range of exposure conditions the results from the left and right hind were similar. The third and fourth columns indicate that the sEH inhibitor CDU reduces severity of Raynaud's symptoms and the fifth and sixth columns indicate the same conclusion for ADU. Since the experiment was run blind, the left and right index fingers were treated in a random fashion. For convenience the treatments are shown on the right in each case.
  • [0293]
    The scale used for the study is shown below:
      • 0—Finger feels warm when touched to neck
      • 1—Finger feels neutral when touched to neck
      • 2—Finger feels cool when touched to neck, red under fingernail, bleaches and turns back red when one presses on the nail
      • 2.5—Same as above but remains bleached under nail under pressure and reperfusion
      • 3—Finger white to first joint, when warmed it turns pink without going through blue phase
      • 4—Finger white to second joint
      • 5—Finger turns blue (note finger turns white, then blue and with longer exposure turns white again, giving an almost china plate appearance)
  • [0301]
    6—Finger white to base. Turns blue before turning red with warming.
    TABLE 18
    Effect of CDU & ADU on patient with Raynaud syndrome.
    No No CDU ADU
    treatment treatment Control (297) Control (686)
    2 2 6 2 6 3
    2 2.5 5 2 4 3
    0 1 3 2 4 2
    0 0 1 1 5 5
    1 1 4 2 3 3
    1 1 3 2 3 2
    1 1 6 2 3 3
    1 1 5 3 3 2.5
    1 1 6 2 4 2
    0 1 5 2
    0 1 6 2
    1 1 6 2
    2 2 6 2
    0 0 5 2
    4 2 6 2
    4 4 5 2
    4 4 5 2
    4 4 5 2
    2 2 6 6
    4 4
    4 4
    3 3
    4 4
    1 1
    4 4
    1 1
    3 3
    4 4
    4 4
    4 3
    2 2
    4 4
    4 3
    2 2
    4 4
    2 2
    2 2
    4 4
    6 6
    6 5
    6 5
  • [0302]
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Classifications
U.S. Classification514/1.5, 514/15.4, 514/6.9, 514/21.9, 514/16.6, 514/15.7
International ClassificationC07C275/42, C07C311/51, C07C311/05, A61K6/00, A61K, C07C275/26, C07C275/30, A61K31/4178, A61K38/05, A61K38/06, A61K31/365, A61K31/427, A61K31/381, A61K38/04, A61K31/4015, A61K31/422, A61K31/513, A61K38/08
Cooperative ClassificationC07C2101/14, C07C2101/02, C07D233/64, C07D233/24, C07C311/05, C07C275/26, C07C323/59, C07C311/51, C07C311/04, C07C2103/74, C07C275/30, C07C275/42, C07D207/16
European ClassificationC07D233/64, C07D207/16, C07C275/30, C07C323/59, C07C275/26, C07C275/42, C07C311/05, C07C311/51, C07C311/04, C07D233/24
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 25, 2004ASAssignment
Owner name: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, CALIF
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.;KIM, IN-HAE;MORISSEAU, CHRISTOPHE;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015724/0855;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040720 TO 20040723
Feb 16, 2010ASAssignment
Owner name: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH), U.S. DEPT. OF
Free format text: CONFIRMATORY LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:023938/0293
Effective date: 20080724