|Publication number||US20050033246 A1|
|Application number||US 10/913,565|
|Publication date||Feb 10, 2005|
|Filing date||Aug 5, 2004|
|Priority date||May 14, 2002|
|Also published as||CA2533204A1, EP1651094A2, EP1651094A4, US8703034, US20110316190, US20140224416, WO2005013803A2, WO2005013803A3, WO2005013803A9|
|Publication number||10913565, 913565, US 2005/0033246 A1, US 2005/033246 A1, US 20050033246 A1, US 20050033246A1, US 2005033246 A1, US 2005033246A1, US-A1-20050033246, US-A1-2005033246, US2005/0033246A1, US2005/033246A1, US20050033246 A1, US20050033246A1, US2005033246 A1, US2005033246A1|
|Inventors||Russell Ahlberg, Payam Adlparvar, Scott Taylor, Matthew Wixey, Daniel Martinez, John Brustad|
|Original Assignee||Ahlberg Russell E., Payam Adlparvar, Taylor Scott V., Wixey Matthew A., Daniel Martinez, Brustad John R.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (52), Referenced by (76), Classifications (22), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation-in-part application claiming the priority of provisional application Ser. No. 60/492,949, filed on Aug. 6, 2003, entitled “Surgical Device With Tack-Free Gel and Method of Manufacture,” and of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/776,387, filed on Feb. 10, 2004, entitled “Access Sealing Apparatus and Method,” which claims priority to PCT application Serial No. PCT/US02/15696, filed on May 14, 2002, entitled “Access Sealing Apparatus and Method,” and to provisional application Ser. No. 60/312,683, filed on Aug. 14, 2001, entitled “Access Sealing Apparatus and Method,” all of which are fully incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention generally relates to gels having tacky surfaces and, more specifically, to surface treatments which will render the gel tack-free.
2. Discussion of Related Art
A “gel” is often defined as a semisolid condition of a precipitated or coagulated colloid. Within this definition, gels can differ widely. On one end of the spectrum gels are more fluid in nature but have some solid properties. An example of such a gel might be a gel toothpaste. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the gels are considered solids with some fluid properties.
It is toward this end of the spectrum that gels are commonly used to facilitate load distribution. Gels enhance this function by offering a high degree of compliance which basically increases the amount of area available to support a load. With an increased area of support, the load is accommodated at a considerably reduced pressure. Particularly where the human body is involved, a reduced pressure is desirable in order to maintain capillary blood flow in body tissue. It is with this in mind that gels are commonly used for bicycle seats, wrist pads, insole supports, as well as elbow and shoulder pads.
While the advantageous properties of gels have made them candidates for many applications, one disadvantage has seriously limited their use. Most gels are extremely tacky. This characteristic alone makes them difficult to manufacture and aggravating to use.
Attempts have been made to produce gels that are naturally non-tacky. But such attempts unfortunately have resulted in an intolerable sacrifice of the advantageous properties. Attempts have been made to enclose the gels in a non-tacky pouch. This has also tended to mask the advantageous properties and to significantly increase manufacturing costs. Powders and lubricants have been applied to the tacky surfaces with results limited in both duration and effect.
Gels have also been of particular interest in the formation of seals where the high compliance and extensive elongation of the gel are of considerable value. Such is the case with seals used in trocars and other surgical access devices, where a seal must be formed both in the presence of a surgical instrument and in the absence of a surgical instrument.
In general, a trocar is a surgical device intended to provide tubular access for surgical instruments across a body wall, such as the abdominal wall, and into a body cavity, such as the abdominal cavity. Often, the body cavity is pressurized with a gas, typically carbon dioxide, to enlarge the operative volume of the working environment. Under these conditions, the trocar must include appropriate seals to inhibit loss of the pressurizing gas through the trocar. Thus, a zero seal must be provided to seal the working channel of the trocar in the absence of the instrument, and an instrument seal must be provided to seal the working channel in the presence of the instrument.
Most recently, both zero seals and instrument seals have been provided by a pair of rollers disposed on opposing sides of the working channel. The rollers have been formed of a gel material providing a high degree of compliance, significant tear strength and exceptional elongation. As noted, however, the best gel materials tend to exhibit surfaces that are very tacky. The use of a tacky gel can make the processes of manufacturing and using the gel seals extremely difficult. The disadvantages are increasing in this application, where a tacky gel also produces significant drag forces during instrument insertion. Furthermore, the tacky surfaces tend to draw and retain particulate matter during the manufacturing and handling processes. For these reasons it has been even more desirable to render the highly tacky gel surfaces non-tacky in the case of medical devices such as trocars.
Many attempts have been made to facilitate handling the rollers during manufacture and to lower instrument drag forces during use. For example, use of lubricants such as silicone oil, KY jelly, and Astroglide, have been applied to the surface to reduce tackiness. Unfortunately, these lubricants tend to dry out over time leaving the gel in its natural tacky state. Non-tacky gels have also been investigated. The non-tacky gels, however, are not particularly heat tolerant, as low amounts of heat can rapidly cause the materials to take a set and distort particularly under compressive loads. This can occur over an extended period of time, for example, even at normal room temperatures.
In accordance with the present invention, a gel material having all of the advantageous properties previously discussed is further blessed with a non-tacky surface that can be provided at the earliest possible opportunity, during the molding step of the manufacturing process. From the time when the molten gel material first achieves its solid characteristics, it is provided with a non-tacky surface. In the case of a trocar seal, significant drag forces are avoided during the process of instrument insertion. Moreover, the advantages of high compliance, significant tear strength, and exceptional elongation are maintained without any of the disadvantages associated with a tacky device.
In a first aspect of the invention, a process of making a tack-free gel is disclosed comprising the steps of providing a mold defining a mold cavity, the mold cavity comprising a plastic material; pouring or injecting a molten gel having a high molding temperature into the mold cavity; and forming the tack-free gel as a thin layer of plastic of the mold cavity is melted over the gel. More specifically, the forming step further comprises cooling the gel from the molten state to a solidified state. The mold providing step may further comprise the step of injecting or spraying the mold cavity with the plastic material. It is appreciated that the melting temperature of the plastic material is lower than the molding temperature of the gel and, in this aspect, the difference in the melting temperature of the plastic material and the molding temperature of the gel is in a range of about 20° F. to about 100° F. It should be noted that the higher the temperature differential, the greater the melting of the plastic material and the thicker the layer of the plastic material on the surface of the gel.
The mold may be formed of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and has a melting temperature of about 240° F. With the process of the invention, the heat of the molten gel at its molding temperature is transferred to the surface of the LDPE mold so as to melt a thin layer of the LDPE. The solidified gel may be a cylindrical shape having a first opposing end, a second opposing end and a cylindrical body. The mold may comprise a mold base having a plurality of mold holes forming a plurality of mold cavities, each of the mold holes comprising an axial pin to mold an axial hole through a center of the gel, an LDPE cylinder providing a predetermined inside diameter for the mold, and an LDPE disc mounted on the axial pin and disposed at the bottom of each mold cavity in the mold base. After each molding process, the LPDE cylinder may be replaced. The process of the invention may further comprise the step of dabbing at least one of the opposing ends in a low-friction powder such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and a lubricant. In another aspect, the mold may further comprise a mold top disposed axially of the mold base and comprises a plurality of holes forming a plurality of cavities, each of the mold top holes is adapted to receive the LDPE cylinder, and a second LDPE disc disposed at the top of each mold cavity of the mold top.
In another aspect of the invention, the plastic material may be formed from at least one of PVC, ABS, acrylic, polycarbonate, clear polycarbonate, Delrin, acetal, polypropylene and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The process of the invention may further comprise the step of tumbling or coating the gel in a lubricious material, applying a lubricious coating to the gel in a vacuum deposition process, dipping the gel in a lubricious material, or spraying the solidified gel with a lubricious material to further facilitate the non-tackiness surface of the gel. The lubricious material includes Parylene.
In yet another aspect of the invention, a process of making a tack-free gel by co-extrusion is disclosed comprising the steps of extruding an elongate sleeve formed of a plastic material around a molten gel having a high molding temperature, the elongate sleeve having an axis and a diameter; pressurizing the molten gel to control the diameter of the filled elongate sleeve; and cooling the filled elongate sleeve to form the tack-free gel. The plastic material of the elongate sleeve may be low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The process may further comprise the step of radially cutting the elongate sleeve into individual segments having predetermined lengths, and removing the gel by squeezing the sleeve and pulling the gel from the sleeve. With this aspect of the invention, the gel may have a cylindrical shape having a first opposing end, a second opposing end and a cylindrical body. The process may further comprise the step of dabbing at least one of the opposing ends in a low-friction powder, which may include at least one of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and a lubricant, tumbling or coating the gel in a lubricious material, applying a lubricious coating to the gel in a vacuum deposition process, dipping the gel in a lubricious material, or spraying the gel with a lubricious material. The lubricious material includes Parylene.
Another aspect of the invention is directed to a trocar being adapted to provide access for a surgical instrument through a body wall and into a body cavity, the trocar comprising a cannula having a proximal end and a distal end, a seal housing communicating with the cannula to define a working channel, a seal assembly disposed within the seal housing, at least one roller included in the seal assembly and having an axle supported by the seal housing, and the roller having a tack-free surface and properties for forming a zero seal in the absence of the instrument, and an instrument seal in the presence of the instrument. With this aspect, the roller is pivotal with the axle relative to the seal housing. The tack-free surface may be formed of LDPE, and the roller may further comprise a lubricious coating including at least one of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) low-friction powder or a lubricant including Parylene.
In a final aspect, a medical access device is disclosed comprising a tubular member having an elongate configuration, at least one wall defining with the tubular member a working channel sized and configured to receive an instrument, and a gel disposed in the working channel and being adapted to form a seal with any instrument disposed in the working channel, wherein the gel includes a non-tacky film to facilitate movement of any instrument through the working channel. It is appreciated that the film may be formed by a fluoropolymer including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The non-tacky film may be applied as a powder or as a tape over the gel. It is further appreciated that the gel and non-tacky film may have properties including an elongation up to about 1500 percent, and that the gel may be coated with a lubricant including Parylene.
These and other features of the invention will become more apparent with a description of the various embodiments and reference to the associated drawings.
The accompanying drawings, which are included in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate the embodiments of the invention and, together with the description, explain the features and principles of the invention. In the drawings:
A trocar is illustrated in
The gel materials contemplated for the rollers 21 and 23 typically have a high melting temperature and exhibit a tacky surface as previously discussed. These two properties, normally considered disadvantages, become advantages in a method of manufacture of the invention. In this case, the gel at a high molding temperature and liquid state, is brought into contact with a plastic molding material having a melting temperature less than the molding temperature of the gel 30.
A roller mold 25 is illustrated in
With the process of the invention, it is desirable that the melting temperature of the plastic material 26 be only slightly lower than the molding temperature of the gel 30. In one aspect, the differential in temperature is in a range of about 20° F. to about 100° F. It is anticipated that the higher this temperature differential, the greater the melting of the plastic material, thereby resulting in a thicker layer of the plastic material on the surface of the gel.
In one example, a gel can be chosen with a gel molding temperature of about 450° F. A mold 25 formed of a non-metal, plastic material such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) having a melting temperature of about 240° F. is particularly suited for this process. With the mold at room temperature, and the liquid gel heated to its molding temperature, the gel can be poured into the mold cavities. During and after this molding step, the heat of the liquid gel at its molding temperature is transferred to the surface of the plastic mold and in fact melts a thin layer of the LDPE. At this point, the mold 25 and gel 30 rapidly cool and the melted LDPE forms the thin layer 32 on the outer surface of the solidified gel 30. As the gel solidifies, its naturally tacky surface attracts and holds the thin LDPE layer 32 to the outer surface. This thin layer 32 of LDPE provides the resulting gel roller 21 with a non-tacky surface.
Using the mold formed entirely of the LDPE plastic will gradually increase the size of the mold cavities 27 as succeeding interior layers 32 of the LDPE are removed from the mold cavities 27. One way of addressing this problem is to provide a mold base 41 having a plurality of mold holes 43 as illustrated in
With this mold base 41 appropriately filled with the LDPE cylinders 47 and discs 50, the molten gel 30 can be poured into the top of each cylinder 47 to mold each roller 21 with a cylindrical outer surface 52 and an axial pin 45. In the manner previously discussed, the high temperature of the molten gel will melt a layer off the inside of the LDPE cylinder 47 and disc 50 to provide a non-tacky surface on each roller 21. One advantage provided by the method illustrated in
It will be noted that in the absence of an LDPE disc on the top of the mold cavity, one end 56 of the roller 21 will maintain its tacky properties. Although the single tacky end 56 may not be particularly detrimental in use, there are several methods that can be implemented to make the tacky end 56 less tacky. For example, this end 56 can be dabbed in a low friction powder 57, such as PTFE, as shown in
An alternative method for constructing the rollers 21, 23 with a non-tacky surface might involve the use of co-extrusion techniques. In such a process, illustrated in
Another process which might be used to eliminate the tacky ends of the roller 21, might be an injection molding process such as that illustrated in
The foregoing processes have been discussed with respect to a single plastic, namely low density polyethylene. It is apparent that other types of plastics might be similarly used to provide the desired non-tacky surface for the gel compounds. Other plastics which might be of advantage in this process could include for example, PVC, ABS, acrylic, polycarbonate, clear polycarbonate, “Delrin” (a trademark of Dupont), acetyl, polypropylene, and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Of this group of plastics, the HDPE appears to reduce the tackiness of the gel surface to the greatest extent.
Other types of coatings can be applied to either a tacky or non-tacky surface of the roller 21. One highly lubricious coating is that manufactured and sold by Para Tech Coating, Inc. under the trademark “Parylene”. It has been found that this material can be applied to the surface of the roller 21 by processes including vacuum deposition in a chamber 81 (
Another apparatus and method for addressing the natural tacky properties of a gel seal is discussed with reference to
In this embodiment, the hand port 90 includes a rigid or semi-rigid base structure 96 in the form of a ring 98. A gel material 101, of the types previously discussed, can be molded into the ring 98 with portions 103 of the gel 101 defining a slit 105. This slit 105, which is of particular interest in one aspect of the invention, forms part of a working channel 107 that extends through the abdominal wall 92 and into the abdominal cavity 93.
In this embodiment, the ring 98 is similar to the cannula 14 and seal housing 16 discussed with reference to
A second seal 112 is formed between the gel material 101 and the ring 98 so there is no communication between the abdominal cavity 93 and regions exterior of the abdominal wall 92 as long as the slit 105 remains closed. In this manner, the hand port 90 functions as a zero seal in the absence of the surgeon's hand 94, or any other medical instrument.
The highly advantageous properties of the gel material 101 are particularly beneficial in the hand port 90, where they provide a high degree of compliance together with elongation or stretch as great as 1500 percent. Thus, the gel material 101 is ideally suited to form a zero seal in the absence of the surgeon's hand 94, or an instrument seal in the presence of the surgeon's hand 94. It can be seen that the gel material 101 is similar to that previously discussed with respect to the rollers 21 and 23 in
In order to address these tacky properties in the hand port 90, and also with respect to the trocar 10 of
One advantage associated with the PTFE film 114 is the adhesive properties which this material exhibits with respect to the gel material 101. Although not fully understood, it is believed that the mineral oil present in a typical gel 101 is highly attracted to the PTFE where it facilitates adhesion between the gel material 101 and the film 114.
Another advantage associated with the PTFE film 114 is associated with its stretchability or elasticity. While the film 114 is desirable to mask the tacky properties of the gel 105, it is important that the elongation properties of the gel be maintained. It has been found that the elongation of the gel material 101, up to 1500 percent, is generally matched by the elongation or stretchability of the PTFE film 114. Thus, the gel 101 and PTFE film 114 can be stretched about 1000 percent, and perhaps as much as 1500 percent, from an original state to a stretched state without breaking the film 114, and returned from the stretched state to the original state.
Although the PTFE film 114 masks the tacky properties of the gel, it is not necessarily lubricious. If this lubricious property is desired in addition to the non-tacky properties, the film 114 can be coated with a lubricant 116, such as the Parylene and other lubricants previously discussed.
It will be understood that many other modifications can be made to the various disclosed embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For these reasons, the above description should not be construed as limiting the invention, but should be interpreted as merely exemplary of embodiments.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4230128 *||Mar 30, 1978||Oct 28, 1980||Aramayo Rene S||Catheter attachment for blood sampling|
|US5152053 *||Mar 7, 1991||Oct 6, 1992||Meurer Nonfood Product Gmbh||Apparatus for the production of a device for detaching portions of plate-like workpieces|
|US5206861 *||Aug 28, 1990||Apr 27, 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||System timing analysis by self-timing logic and clock paths|
|US5308336 *||Sep 28, 1982||May 3, 1994||Applied Medical Resources||Seal protection mechanism|
|US5350362 *||May 18, 1993||Sep 27, 1994||Stouder Jr Albert E||Selectable seal cannula|
|US5366478 *||Jul 27, 1993||Nov 22, 1994||Ethicon, Inc.||Endoscopic surgical sealing device|
|US5403290 *||Apr 20, 1992||Apr 4, 1995||Noble; Lisa W.||Gastric adapter/stopcock|
|US5423796 *||Oct 8, 1993||Jun 13, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Trocar with electrical tissue penetration indicator|
|US5496280 *||May 19, 1994||Mar 5, 1996||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Trocar valve assembly|
|US5514133 *||Aug 26, 1994||May 7, 1996||Golub; Robert||Access device for endoscopic surgery|
|US5522831 *||Jun 13, 1994||Jun 4, 1996||Dennis R. Sleister||Incising trocar and cannula assembly|
|US5538509 *||Jan 31, 1994||Jul 23, 1996||Richard-Allan Medical Industries, Inc.||Trocar assembly|
|US5538809 *||Jul 25, 1995||Jul 23, 1996||Varta Batterie Aktiengesellschaft||Automatic coupling system for traction batteries|
|US5554124 *||May 2, 1994||Sep 10, 1996||Alvarado; Alfredo||Universal gasket for laparoscopic cannula|
|US5569205 *||Jul 14, 1994||Oct 29, 1996||Hart; Charles C.||Multiport trocar|
|US5578016 *||Jul 25, 1995||Nov 26, 1996||Elcam Plastic Kibbutz Bar-Am||Stopcock|
|US5584847 *||Sep 15, 1994||Dec 17, 1996||Jean Cuilleron||Trocar for inserting endoscopy instruments into cavities|
|US5613954 *||Nov 21, 1994||Mar 25, 1997||Stryker Corporation||Laparoscopic surgical Y-tube cannula|
|US5662615 *||Sep 1, 1995||Sep 2, 1997||Blake, Iii; Joseph W.||Valve and valve cartridge for trocar|
|US5697913 *||Aug 9, 1996||Dec 16, 1997||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Trocar including cannula with stepped region|
|US5709671 *||Oct 16, 1995||Jan 20, 1998||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Trocar having an improved tip configuration|
|US5709864 *||Jul 28, 1994||Jan 20, 1998||Parfums Christian Dior||Cosmetic or pharmaceutical and particularly dermatological, composition containing an extract of tephrosia, particularly Tephrosia purpurea|
|US5720730 *||Sep 1, 1995||Feb 24, 1998||Blake, Iii; Joseph W.||Lubricated trocar valve|
|US5730728 *||Mar 23, 1995||Mar 24, 1998||3I Group Plc||Gas-tight seal|
|US5752938 *||Jun 7, 1995||May 19, 1998||Richard-Allan Medical Industries, Inc.||Seal for surgical instruments|
|US5772678 *||Oct 20, 1995||Jun 30, 1998||Inlet Medical, Inc.||Retractable disposable tip reusable trocar obturator|
|US5776112 *||Apr 8, 1997||Jul 7, 1998||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Trocar having an improved tip configuration|
|US5803921 *||Feb 20, 1995||Sep 8, 1998||Gaya Limited||Access port device for use in surgery|
|US5807338 *||Oct 20, 1995||Sep 15, 1998||United States Surgical Corporation||Modular trocar system and methods of assembly|
|US5820600 *||May 14, 1996||Oct 13, 1998||Innerdyne, Inc.||Adjustable introducer valve|
|US5843040 *||May 6, 1997||Dec 1, 1998||Dexide, Inc.||Surgical sleeve or cannula with rotating reducer|
|US5865807 *||Jul 23, 1997||Feb 2, 1999||Blake, Iii; Joseph W.||Seal for trocar|
|US5865812 *||Mar 19, 1997||Feb 2, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Fluid flow control apparatus for surgical cannulae|
|US5882348 *||Feb 3, 1997||Mar 16, 1999||Sorenson Critical Care, Inc.||Valved manifold|
|US5925041 *||Jun 18, 1997||Jul 20, 1999||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Monopolar electrosurgical trocar|
|US5941852 *||Jun 1, 1995||Aug 24, 1999||Imagyn Medical Technologies California, Inc.||Trocar assembly|
|US5980493 *||Aug 25, 1998||Nov 9, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Modular trocar system and methods and assembly|
|US6017356 *||Sep 19, 1997||Jan 25, 2000||Ethicon Endo-Surgery Inc.||Method for using a trocar for penetration and skin incision|
|US6030403 *||Mar 18, 1999||Feb 29, 2000||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Method and apparatus for applying electrical energy to medical instruments|
|US6036711 *||Feb 18, 1998||Mar 14, 2000||United States Surgical Corporation||Reusable cannula|
|US6090094 *||Oct 4, 1996||Jul 18, 2000||Microgroup, Inc.||Ball valves and uses thereof including endoscopic surgical instruments|
|US6217556 *||Mar 19, 1998||Apr 17, 2001||Allegiance Corporation||Drainage catheter|
|US6238373 *||Jun 28, 1999||May 29, 2001||General Electric Innovations, Inc.||Screw-type skin seal with inflatable membrane|
|US6319246 *||Nov 30, 1999||Nov 20, 2001||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Laparoscopic access port for surgical instruments or the hand|
|US7105009 *||Oct 16, 2002||Sep 12, 2006||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Access device maintenance apparatus and method|
|US7214185 *||Mar 20, 2000||May 8, 2007||Maclachlan & Donaldson||Surgical access device|
|US20030164571 *||Jan 22, 2003||Sep 4, 2003||Crump L. Scott||Inert gas curing process for in-mold coating|
|US20040015185 *||Sep 21, 2001||Jan 22, 2004||Ewers Richard C.||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US20040106942 *||Dec 2, 2002||Jun 3, 2004||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Universal access seal|
|US20050107816 *||Mar 4, 2002||May 19, 2005||Pingleton Edward D.||Bladeless obturator|
|US20050267419 *||Apr 5, 2005||Dec 1, 2005||Smith Robert C||Surgical hand access apparatus|
|US20060047284 *||Aug 25, 2004||Mar 2, 2006||Gresham Richard D||Gel seal for a surgical trocar apparatus|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7650887||Jun 3, 2003||Jan 26, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US7704207||Oct 12, 2006||Apr 27, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Circular surgical retractor|
|US7727146||Oct 12, 2006||Jun 1, 2010||Applied Medical Resources||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US7736306||Oct 12, 2006||Jun 15, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Hand access laparoscopic device|
|US7749415||Jul 6, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Method of making a hand access laparoscopic device|
|US7815567||Oct 12, 2006||Oct 19, 2010||Applied Medical Resources, Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor|
|US7867164||Sep 22, 2003||Jan 11, 2011||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor system|
|US7878974||Feb 1, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Hand access laparoscopic device|
|US7883461||Feb 8, 2011||Applied Medical Resources||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US7892172||Apr 27, 2010||Feb 22, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Circular surgical retractor|
|US7909760||Oct 12, 2006||Mar 22, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor with gel pad|
|US7913697||Mar 29, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US7951076||Oct 7, 2005||May 31, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access system|
|US7998068||Aug 16, 2011||Atropos Limited||Instrument access device|
|US8016755||Dec 3, 2010||Sep 13, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8021296||Jul 14, 2006||Sep 20, 2011||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor|
|US8070676||Dec 3, 2010||Dec 6, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8105234||Jan 27, 2009||Jan 31, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8109873||May 12, 2008||Feb 7, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical retractor with gel pad|
|US8157835||Jun 1, 2010||Apr 17, 2012||Applied Medical Resouces Corporation||Access sealing apparatus and method|
|US8187177||Nov 29, 2006||May 29, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US8187178||Jun 5, 2008||May 29, 2012||Atropos Limited||Instrument access device|
|US8226552||May 12, 2008||Jul 24, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical retractor|
|US8235054||Feb 22, 2011||Aug 7, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US8262568||Oct 13, 2009||Sep 11, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Single port access system|
|US8267858||Sep 18, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US8308639||Mar 17, 2011||Nov 13, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor with gel pad|
|US8313431||Oct 15, 2010||Nov 20, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor|
|US8317691||Apr 20, 2009||Nov 27, 2012||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor device|
|US8343047||Jan 22, 2009||Jan 1, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US8357086||May 3, 2012||Jan 22, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US8375955||Feb 5, 2010||Feb 19, 2013||Atropos Limited||Surgical procedure|
|US8377090||Aug 15, 2012||Feb 19, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Blunt tip obturator|
|US8382663||Oct 16, 2006||Feb 26, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical devices, systems and methods thereof having gel material, gel coatings, or gel lubricants|
|US8388526||Apr 23, 2008||Mar 5, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retraction apparatus and method|
|US8414487||Apr 9, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Circular surgical retractor|
|US8480575||Aug 28, 2012||Jul 9, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Single port access system|
|US8496581||Mar 15, 2012||Jul 30, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8517977||Oct 8, 2007||Aug 27, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Visual insufflation port|
|US8608768||Mar 2, 2012||Dec 17, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Blunt tip obturator|
|US8608769||Aug 3, 2012||Dec 17, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Bladeless optical obturator|
|US8636759||Mar 30, 2010||Jan 28, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Bladeless obturator|
|US8647265||Jan 14, 2011||Feb 11, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Hand access laparoscopic device|
|US8657740||Jan 27, 2010||Feb 25, 2014||Atropos Limited||Instrument access device|
|US8657741||Aug 15, 2011||Feb 25, 2014||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor|
|US8672839||Sep 13, 2011||Mar 18, 2014||Applied Medical Resource Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8703034||Aug 23, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Method of making a tack-free gel|
|US8721537||Jun 27, 2013||May 13, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Single port access system|
|US8734336||Apr 23, 2009||May 27, 2014||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor device|
|US8740785||Oct 19, 2010||Jun 3, 2014||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor system|
|US8758236||May 9, 2012||Jun 24, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US8870904||Mar 12, 2012||Oct 28, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Access sealing apparatus and method|
|US8888693||Jul 1, 2011||Nov 18, 2014||Atropos Limited||Instrument access device|
|US8894571||Apr 1, 2014||Nov 25, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Single port access system|
|US8911366||Jan 11, 2012||Dec 16, 2014||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8932214||May 11, 2011||Jan 13, 2015||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access system|
|US8940009||Nov 15, 2013||Jan 27, 2015||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Bladeless optical obturator|
|US8961410||Jan 6, 2012||Feb 24, 2015||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical retractor with gel pad|
|US8973583||Jun 26, 2012||Mar 10, 2015||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US8986202||Aug 8, 2011||Mar 24, 2015||Atropos Limited||Retractor|
|US9017254||Jan 7, 2014||Apr 28, 2015||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Hand access laparoscopic device|
|US9095300||Oct 18, 2012||Aug 4, 2015||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor device|
|US9101354||Aug 29, 2012||Aug 11, 2015||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US20040073090 *||Aug 6, 2003||Apr 15, 2004||John Butler||Wound retractor|
|US20040092795 *||Dec 10, 2002||May 13, 2004||Atropos Limited||Laparoscopic sealed access device|
|US20040092796 *||Sep 22, 2003||May 13, 2004||John Butler||Wound retractor system|
|US20040154624 *||Dec 16, 2003||Aug 12, 2004||Frank Bonadio||Surgical device|
|US20050020884 *||Aug 25, 2004||Jan 27, 2005||Hart Charles C.||Surgical access system|
|US20050148823 *||Oct 15, 2004||Jul 7, 2005||Trevor Vaugh||Surgical sealing device|
|US20050192483 *||Jul 30, 2004||Sep 1, 2005||Frank Bonadio||Device|
|US20050241647 *||Jun 3, 2003||Nov 3, 2005||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US20060084842 *||Oct 7, 2005||Apr 20, 2006||Hart Charles C||Surgical access system|
|US20060149137 *||Jan 5, 2005||Jul 6, 2006||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Easily placeable and removable wound retractor|
|US20060149306 *||Jan 12, 2006||Jul 6, 2006||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Sealed surgical access device|
|US20060161050 *||Dec 1, 2005||Jul 20, 2006||John Butler||A surgical sealing device|
|WO2007053798A2 *||Oct 16, 2006||May 10, 2007||Applied Med Resources||Surgical devices, systems and methods thereof having gel materials, gel coatings, or gel lubricants|
|International Classification||A61B17/34, A61B17/00, A61B17/22, B29C39/00, B29C39/12|
|Cooperative Classification||B29C39/025, A61B2017/22067, A61M3/0279, A61B17/3498, A61B17/3423, A61B2017/00469, A61B17/3462, B29C39/006, B29C39/123, B29C37/0067|
|European Classification||A61B17/34H, A61B17/34G4A, A61B17/34V, B29C39/00B2, B29C39/12B, B29C39/02B3|
|Aug 30, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: APPLIED MEDICAL RESOURCES CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:AHLBERG, RUSSELL E.;ADLPARVAR, PAYAM;TAYLOR, SCOTT V.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015090/0469;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040805 TO 20040818