US 20050033446 A1
The methods, devices, and systems are provided for performing endovascular repair of atrioventricular and other cardiac valves in the heart. Regurgitation of an atrioventricular valve, particularly a mitral valve, can be repaired by modifying a tissue structure selected from the valve leaflets, the valve annulus, the valve chordae, and the papillary muscles. These structures may be modified by suturing, stapling, snaring, or shortening, using interventional tools which are introduced to a heart chamber. Preferably, the tissue structures will be temporarily modified prior to permanent modification. For example, opposed valve leaflets may be temporarily grasped and held into position prior to permanent attachment.
1. A method of modifying a heart valve of a patient, comprising:
advancing a catheter through the patient's vasculature into the heart from a vascular access point remote from the heart, the catheter having a structure releasably coupled thereto;
deploying the structure from the catheter on or near an annulus of the heart valve, the structure adapted to modify the annulus so as to reduce regurgitation in the heart valve; and
in combination with deploying the structure from the catheter on or near the annulus of the heart valve, holding leaflets of the heart valve together so as to reduce regurgitation in the heart valve.
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11. A method of modifying a heart valve of a patient, comprising:
advancing a catheter through the patient's vasculature into the heart from a vascular access point remote from the heart, the catheter having an annuloplasty device releasably coupled thereto;
implanting the annuloplasty device from the catheter at the heart valve to modify an annulus of the heart valve and reduce regurgitation in the heart valve;
in combination with implanting an annuloplasty device from the catheter at the heart valve, modifying a spatial relationship between a first valve leaflet and a second valve leaflet of the heart valve so as to reduce regurgitation in the heart valve.
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21. A method of modifying a heart valve of a patient, comprising:
effecting a geometric change in an annulus of the heart valve so as to reduce regurgitation in the heart valve; and
in combination with effecting a geometric change in an annulus of the heart valve, coapting leaflets of the heart valve so as to reduce regurgitation in the heart valve.
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27. A method of modifying a heart valve of a patient, comprising:
advancing a catheter through the patient's vasculature into the heart from a vascular access point remote from the heart, the catheter having an annuloplasty device releasably coupled thereto;
implanting the annuloplasty device at the heart valve to modify an annulus of the heart valve and reduce regurgitation in the heart valve;
in combination with implanting an annuloplasty device at the heart valve, holding leaflets of the heart valve together at one or more adjacent locations in a manner that reduces regurgitation in the valve.
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This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/635,776, filed Aug. 5, 2003, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/544,930, filed Apr. 7, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,629,534, which claimed the benefit under 35 U.S.C. 119(e) of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/128,690, filed on Apr. 9, 1999 under 37 CFR 1.78(a). The full disclosures of the aforementioned applications are incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to medical methods, devices, and systems. In particular, the present invention relates to methods, devices, and systems for the endovascular or minimally invasive surgical repair of the atrioventricular valves of the heart, particularly the mitral valve.
Mitral valve regurgitation is characterized by retrograde flow from the left ventricle of a heart through an incompetent mitral valve into the left atrium. During a normal cycle of heart contraction (systole), the mitral valve acts as a check valve to prevent flow of oxygenated blood back into the left atrium. In this way, the oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta through the aortic valve. Regurgitation of the valve can significantly decrease the pumping efficiency of the heart, placing the patient at risk of severe, progressive heart failure.
Mitral valve regurgitation can result from a number of different mechanical defects in the mitral valve. The valve leaflets, the valve chordae which connect the leaflets to the papillary muscles, or the papillary muscles themselves may be damaged or otherwise dysfunctional. Commonly, the valve annulus may be damaged, dilated, or weakened limiting the ability of the mitral valve to close adequately against the high pressures of the left ventricle.
The most common treatments for mitral valve regurgitation rely on valve replacement or strengthening of the valve annulus by implanting a mechanical support ring or other structure. The latter is generally referred to as valve annuloplasty. A recent technique for mitral valve repair which relies on suturing adjacent segments of the opposed valve leaflets together is referred to as the “bow-tie” or “edge-to-edge” technique. While all these techniques can be very effective, they usually rely on open heart surgery where the patient's chest is opened, typically via a sternotomy, and the patient placed on cardiopulmonary bypass. The need to both open the chest and place the patient on bypass is traumatic and has associated morbidity.
For these reasons, it would be desirable to provide alternative and additional methods, devices, and systems for performing the repair of mitral and other cardiac valves, particularly the tricuspid valve which is the other atrioventricular valve. Such methods, devices, and systems should preferably not require open chest access and be capable of being performed endovascularly, i.e., using devices which are advanced to the heart from a point in the patient's vasculature remote from the heart. Still more preferably, the methods, devices, and systems should not require that the heart be bypassed, although the methods, devices, and systems should be useful with patients who are bypassed and/or whose heart may be temporarily stopped by drugs or other techniques. At least some of these objectives will be met by the inventions described hereinbelow.
2. Description of the Background Art
Minimally invasive and percutaneous techniques for coapting and modifying mitral valve leaflets to treat mitral valve regurgitation are described in WO 98/35638; WO 99/00059; WO 99/01377; and WO 00/03759.
Dec and Fuster (1994) N. Engl. J. Med. 331:1564-1575 and Alvarez et al. (1996) J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 112:238-247 are review articles discussing the nature of and treatments for dilated cardiomyopathy.
Maisano et al. (1998) Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 13:240-246; Fucci et al. (1995) Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 9:621-627; and Umana et al. (1998) Ann. Thorac. Surg. 66:1640-1646, describe open surgical procedures for performing “edge-to-edge” or “bow-tie” mitral valve repair where edges of the opposed valve leaflets are sutured together to lessen regurgitation.
Mitral valve annuloplasty is described in the following publications. Bach and Bolling (1996) Am. J. Cardiol. 78:966-969; Kameda et al. (1996) Ann. Thorac. Surg. 61:1829-1832; Bach and Bolling (1995) Am. Heart J. 129:1165-1170; and Bolling et al. (1995) 109:676-683. Linear segmental annuloplasty for mitral valve repair is described in Ricchi et al. (1997) Ann. Thorac. Surg. 63:1805-1806. Tricuspid valve annuloplasty is described in McCarthy and Cosgrove (1997) Ann. Thorac. Surg. 64:267-268; Tager et al. (1998) Am. J. Cardiol. 81:1013-1016; and Abe et al. (1989) Ann. Thorac. Surg. 48:670-676.
Percutaneous transluminal cardiac repair procedures are described in Park et al. (1978) Circulation 58:600-608; Uchida et al. (1991) Am. Heart J. 121: 1221-1224; and Ali Khan et al. (1991) Cathet. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 23:257-262.
Endovascular cardiac valve replacement is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,840,081; 5,411,552; 5,554,185; 5,332,402; 4,994,077; and 4,056,854. See also U.S. Pat. No. 3,671,979 which describes a catheter for temporary placement of an artificial heart valve.
Other percutaneous and endovascular cardiac repair procedures are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,917,089; 4,484,579; and 3,874,338; and WO 91/01689.
Thoracoscopic and other minimally invasive heart valve repair and replacement procedures are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,855,614; 5,829,447; 5,823,956; 5,797,960; 5,769,812; and 5,718,725.
The present invention provides methods, devices, and systems for the endovascular repair of cardiac valves, particularly the atrioventricular valves which inhibit back flow of blood from a heart ventricle during contraction (systole), most particularly the mitral valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle. By “endovascular,” it is meant that the procedure(s) of the present invention are performed with interventional tools and supporting catheters and other equipment introduced to the heart chambers from the patient's arterial or venous vasculature remote from the heart. The interventional tools and other equipment may be introduced percutaneously, i.e., through an access sheath, or may be introduced via a surgical cut down, and then advanced from the remote access site through the vasculature until they reach the heart. Thus, the procedures of the present invention will generally not require penetrations made directly through the exterior heart muscle, i.e., myocardium, although there may be some instances where penetrations will be made interior to the heart, e.g., through the interatrial septum to provide for a desired access route. While the procedures of the present invention will usually be percutaneous and intravascular, many of the tools will find use in minimally invasive and open surgical procedures as well. In particular, the tools for capturing the valve leaflets prior to attachment can find use in virtually any type of procedure for modifying cardiac valve function.
The atrioventricular valves are located at the junctions of the atria and their respective ventricles. The atrioventricular valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle has three valve leaflets (cusps) and is referred to as the tricuspid or right atrioventricular valve. The atrioventricular valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is a bicuspid valve having only two leaflets (cusps) and is generally referred to as the mitral valve. In both cases, the valve leaflets are connected to the base of the atrial chamber in a region referred to as the valve annulus, and the valve leaflets extend generally downwardly from the annulus into the associated ventricle. In this way, the valve leaflets open during diastole when the heart atria fill with blood, allowing the blood to pass into the ventricle. During systole, however, the valve leaflets are pushed together and closed to prevent back flow of blood into the atria. The lower ends of the valve leaflets are connected through tendon-like tissue structures called the chordae, which in turn are connected at their lower ends to the papillary muscles. Interventions according to the present invention may be directed at any one of the leaflets, chordae, annulus, or papillary muscles, or combinations thereof. It will be the general purpose of such interventions to modify the manner in which the valve leaflets coapt or close during systole so that back flow or regurgitation is minimized or prevented. While the procedures of the present invention will be most useful with the atrioventricular valves, at least some of the tools described hereinafter may be useful in the repair of other cardiac valves, particularly the aortic valve.
The methods of the present invention will usually comprise accessing a patient's vasculature at a location remote from the heart, advancing an interventional tool through the vasculature to a ventricle and/or atrium, and engaging the tool against a tissue structure which forms or supports the atrioventricular valve. By engaging the tool against the tissue structure, the tissue structure is modified in a manner that reduces valve leakage or regurgitation during ventricular systole. The tissue structure may be any of one or more of the group consisting of the valve leaflets, chordae, the valve annulus, and the papillary muscles. Optionally, the interventional tool will be oriented relative to the atrioventricular valve and/or tissue structure prior to engaging the tool against the tissue structure. The interventional tool may be self-orienting (e.g., pre-shaped) or may include active mechanisms to steer, adjust, or otherwise position the tool. Alternatively, orientation of the interventional tool may be accomplished in whole or in part using a separate guide catheter, where the guide catheter may be pre-shaped and/or include active steering or other positioning means. In all cases, it will usually be desirable to confirm the position prior to engaging the valve leaflets or other tissue structures. Such orienting step may comprise positioning the tool relative to a line of coaptation in the atrioventricular valve, e.g., engaging positioning elements in the valve commissures.
In a first aspect of the method of the present invention, the tissue structure comprises the valve leaflets and the engaging step comprises attaching one or more opposed points on or along the valve leaflets together. In the case of the bicuspid mitral valve, the attachment points may be located at or near the center of each leaflet, creating a generally symmetric structure with two openings, i.e., between the attachment point(s) and each of the two commissures. Alternatively, the attachment points may be close to each of the commissures. Both will effectively reduce the area in which the valve can open. In the case of the tricuspid valve, any two of the three leaflets can be partially or totally closed together or all three may be partially closed together.
In both cases, the attachment of the valve leaflets may be performed in a variety of ways, including suturing, clipping, stapling, riveting, gluing, fusing, or the like. While each of these approaches may differ significantly in the protocols and devices used for performing them, the end result will be the same, i.e., improved ability of the atrioventricular valve to close against the elevated pressures within the ventricle during systole. In order to improve apposition of the valve leaflets, it may be preferred to attach the leaflets at a point spaced inwardly from the free edge of the leaflet. Usually, the attachment point within the valve leaflet will be located from 1 mm to 4 mm inward from the free edge.
It will frequently be desirable to stabilize the interventional tool relative to the valve leaflets and other heart tissue structures at least some points during the interventional procedure. In a broad sense, such stabilization is intended primarily to couple motion of the interventional tool to the motion of the heart so that the tool may then engage the valve leaflets or other target tissue structures with minimum differential motion. The stabilization may be achieved either through the interventional tool or through a guide catheter or other platform which is used to deliver the interventional tool. In both cases, stabilization will usually be achieved by engaging a tissue structure of the heart, such as the interatrial septum, the atrial wall, the valve annulus, the valve chordae, the papillary muscles, or the like. For antegrade approaches, immobilization of either the guide catheter, the interventional tool, or both relative to the valve annulus or valve commissures will be particularly effective. For retrograde approaches, immobilization against the papillary muscles, the chordae, or the valve leaflets themselves may be particularly effective. Stabilization should be distinguished from valve capture which is usually performed after the interventional tool and/or guide catheter have been stabilized within the heart. Thus, the methods of the present invention may comprise up to four separate steps or phases prior to valve affixation. First, the interventional tool and/or guide catheter may be positioned, either actively or passively. Second, the interventional tool and/or guide catheter may be stabilized within the heart. Next, the interventional tool may be used to capture the valve leaflets. Then, prior to affixation, the valve leaflets may be positioned and, if necessary, repositioned in order to determine that a particular coaptation and affixation are capable of inhibiting the valve regurgitation. Finally, once adequate regurgitation inhibition has been confirmed, the valve leaflets may be affixed in any of the manners described below.
In a particular approach, the interventional tool may be stabilized by mechanically fixing the shape of the tool after the tool has been advanced to a position proximate the atrioventricular valve. For example, the interventional tool can comprise a plurality of linked elements which can be locked into place, e.g., a “goose-neck” device. Such mechanically lockable devices may be used by themselves or in conjunction with any of the other stabilization devices described herein.
When attaching portions of the valve leaflets together, it will frequently be desirable to temporarily capture the valve leaflets before implementing the final attachment step. For example, the leaflets can be captured using forceps or other graspers introduced as part of or separately from the interventional tool. After capturing the valve leaflets, flow through the valve can be observed by conventional cardiac imaging techniques, such as trans-esophegeal echocardiography (TEE), intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) or other ultrasonic imaging technique, fluoroscopy, angioscopy, catheter based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and the like. By thus observing the flow through the valves, and more importantly whether or not back flow or regurgitation continues or has been sufficiently inhibited, the desired attachment configuration for the leaflets can be determined. If continued regurgitation is observed, the valve leaflets may be repositioned and the presence or absence of regurgitation again determined. Such repositioning steps may be continued until a position is identified in which the regurgitation is sufficiently inhibited. Additionally, other considerations, such as position of the attachment within the leaflet, stress placed on the leaflet, and other factors can be visualized before deciding on the final attachment point(s). In a preferred example, the valve leaflets may be coapted by a grasping instrument which also has a fixation mechanism, such as stapling, suturing, clipping or riveting as previously described, so that once a desirable attachment configuration is temporarily achieved, the final attachment can be made using the same instrument. Grasping of the valve leaflets can be accomplished using articulated graspers, vacuum-assisted graspers, grasping pins, or other temporary attachment modes as described in more detail below. After the leaflets are in the desired configuration, they may be permanently secured together by any of the techniques described above.
In a second aspect of the method of the present invention, the tissue structure comprises the chordae and the engaging step comprises linking opposed chordae together, i.e., chordae attached to different valve leaflets. Usually, the chordae will be partially gathered or coupled together using a suture or other loop structure. In some instances it may be desirable to closely tie the chordae together at one or more locations.
In a third aspect of the method of the present invention, the tissue structure comprises the chordae and the engaging step comprises applying energy to shorten the chordae. Particular forms of heat energy, most particularly radiofrequency energy, have been found to be able to modify and shrink collagen so that supporting chordae may be tightened. By applying energy to shorten one or more of the chordae attaching either or both (or all three in the case of the tricuspid valve) valve leaflets, the flow through the atrioventricular valve can be modified and regurgitation minimized. In a preferred aspect of the present invention, the chordae will be initially grasped or captured and manipulated to temporarily apply tension to the valve leaflets. The effect of such temporary shortening can then be visually assessed and, if a desired improvement in valve performance is observed, energy can be applied to shorten the chordae. In many cases, however, it may be preferable to apply a clip, ring, suture loop, or other mechanical element to permanently twist, plicate, or otherwise shorten the chordae, as described elsewhere herein.
In a fourth aspect of the method of the present invention, the tissue structure comprises the valve annulus and the engaging step comprises circumferentially tightening or shortening the annulus. In a preferred technique, the annulus will be strengthened by positioning and attaching a supporting structure over the annulus in a manner broadly analogous to the open surgical placement of an annuloplasty ring. Alternatively, the annulus can be tightened by surgical plication techniques, or in some instances by shrinking tissue within the annulus by applying radiofrequency energy as generally described above in connection with shortening of the chordae.
In a fifth aspect of the method of the present invention, the tissue structure comprises the papillary muscles and the engaging step comprises capturing and drawing opposed points or portions of the papillary muscles together. This approach is similar in many respects to capture of the chordae, and will generally comprise suturing or otherwise forming a linkage between the opposed portions of the papillary muscles. As with the chordae, it will generally not be desirable to fully close the papillary muscles together, although in some instances such an approach may also find use.
In all the aspects of the method described above, the heart will usually remain beating while the interventional tool is engaged against the tissue structure. When the heart is beating, however, it may be desirable to temporarily stop valve action during at least a portion of the procedure, particularly to facilitate grasping of the valve leaflets when such a technique is being employed. The valve action can be slowed temporarily by decreasing the heart rate with intravenous infusion of a beta blocker, such as esmolol, or can be completely stopped for a brief time, e.g., five to ten seconds, by infusion of a drug, such as adenosine. Alternatively, the valve action can be stopped by temporarily raising the pressure in the associated ventricle to a pressure above that in the atrium during diastole. While the heart will continue to beat, the motion of the valve leaflets opening and closing will be stopped to facilitate grasping. As a further alternative, it will be possible to mechanically restrain the leaflets directly or by capturing the chordae, as described in more detail below. While such an approach may be effective for some purposes, the difficulty in capturing the valve leaflets initially may still be present.
While the methods of the present invention are particularly desirable since they permit interventions to occur without stopping the heart, they may also be used with patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Such cardiopulmonary bypass can be achieved by any presently available technique, including both conventional systems and recently developed endovascular bypass systems, such as those available from Heartport, Inc., Redwood City, Calif.
During the procedures performed while the heart is beating, it will often be desirable to stabilize the interventional tool against one or more cardiac structures prior to grasping the leaflets with the interventional tool. Such stabilization will lessen the relative motion between the tool and the structure. Stabilization mechanisms may be separate from or integral with any part of the system or device, including but not limited to guidewires, guiding catheters and interventional tools. Likewise, the stabilization mechanisms may provide one or more additional functions in the tissue modification procedure, such as steering, orientation assessment, grasping, coaptation, adjustment and fixation. Therefore, many components in the system may have dual purposes.
Coaptation may be performed by a number of methods, such as capturing the leaflets or by releasably capturing the chordae attached to each leaflet. An exemplary capture device will comprise a snare, or a pair of snares, which are advanced through the chordae to capture or entangle individual chordae. This snare or snares may then be tightened to draw the chordae partially together and limit valve motion, at least partially. After such coaptation is achieved, the valve leaflets, chordae, papillary muscles, or annulus may then be engaged and modified, e.g., the leaflets may be attached, using a separate interventional tool, as described above and elsewhere herein. Alternatively, it will be possible to form a permanent link, bridge, or capture of the chordae if the temporary coaptation appears sufficient to repair valve function. In some instances, it may be sufficient to simply detach the snare or other capture mechanism and leave it in place permanently. In other instances, it will be possible to exchange the snare for a more permanent attachment structure, such as a suture loop or metallic coil. For example, once the snare is in place, if the valve function is acceptably repaired, the snare may be drawn out from the chordae through the placement catheter, where the snare pulls a length of suture in the manner of a needle passing through tissue. The suture can then be tied or otherwise fastened to form a permanent capture loop for the chordae. Alternatively, a separate attachment structure, such as a metal coil, barb, malecot, or the like, may be advanced around the snared chordae to effect permanent capture, where a structure will be detached and left in place.
The methods described above may be performed using either antegrade or retrograde endovascular access through the vasculature. The following description will describe both antegrade and retrograde access approaches for gaining access to the mitral valve. Mitral valve access is generally more difficult than tricuspid valve access. In a retrograde approach, the interventional tool, optional guiding catheter, and any other supporting devices, will be introduced through distal arterial vasculature and over the aortic arch and into the left ventricle through the aortic valve. Typically, the aortic arch or via a brachial approach will be approached through a conventional femoral artery access route, but could also be approached through the brachial artery, axillary artery, or a carotid artery. When entering the left ventricle, the interventional tool will generally be directed downwardly and away from the mitral valve structure. Thus, the interventional tool will usually be curved or turned so that it approaches the mitral valve from below, usually through the chordae toward the valve annulus. For example, the interventional tool can enter the left ventricle through the aortic valve and then be deflected or otherwise steered to turn 90° to directly approach the mitral valve and chordae. Steering of the tool can be accomplished by deflecting a supporting catheter using pull wires, pre-formed curved catheters, or the like. In some instances, the papillary muscles could be more directly accessed since they generally lie below the aortic valve and inline with the tool as it enters the left ventricle.
Often, it will be desirable to position the interventional tool toward the target tissue structure using a preformed and/or steerable guide catheter. In a retrograde approach, the guide catheter may be placed from an access point, e.g., the femoral artery at the patient's groin, so that it passes over the aortic arch, through the aortic valve, and into the left ventricle where it will form an access path to the target tissue structure. When the tissue structure is the chordae or valve leaflets, the guide catheter will usually have to be curved or be everted or turned backward so that it can turn the interventional tool around. Additionally, it may be desirable to provide for stabilization of the distal end of the guide catheter. Stabilization may be provided by extendible elements, wires, cages, balloons, or other structures which engage the valve annulus, chordae or ventricular wall portions. Alternatively, two or more stabilizing extensions may be provided to project forwardly from the guide catheter and seat in the valve commissures to position and hold the guide catheter in place. Such extendible elements may also be used to stabilize guidewires, interventional tools and other types of catheter systems. Specific stabilization structures will be described in more detail below.
Access for an antegrade endovascular approach will be through the inferior vena cava or superior vena cava into the right atrium. Such antegrade access may, in itself, be sufficient to perform procedures on the tricuspid valve from the top of the valve. Such procedures, however, will not be described in detail herein. To access the mitral valve, it will be necessary to pass from the right atrium into the left atrium, typically by passing the tool through the interatrial septum. The interatrial septum may be endovascularly penetrated by conventional techniques, typically using a Brockenbrough needle, as described in the valvuloplasty literature. Once the interatrial septum has been penetrated, the interventional tool may be passed into the left atrium so that it approaches the mitral valve from the top. Such an approach will require that the access path turn downward, typically through an angle in the range from 0° to 120°.
The superior vena cava may be accessed through a variety of conventional peripheral access sites, such as the internal jugular vein, while the inferior vena cava may be accessed through the femoral vein. Such access may be performed percutaneously or by surgical cut down techniques.
As with the retrograde arterial approach, the antegrade venous approach may utilize placement of a guide catheter. With the use of a guidewire, the guide catheter will be configured to pass from the initial access location, through either the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava into the right atrium. The guide catheter will then be adapted to pass through an interatrial penetration and into the left atrium, where it will be pre-shaped or deflected to approach the mitral valve from the top. The guidewire, guide catheter and/or the interventional catheter which carries the interventional tool may be steerable and may optionally have stabilizing elements. For example, in this specific embodiment, the guide catheter may have two or more laterally extensible steering wires and/or a plurality of stabilizing arms which project forwardly and seat around the valve annulus or commissures to hold the guide catheter in place. The interventional tool may then be deployed through the guide catheter to perform the desired valve repair technique.
Systems according to the present invention comprise a guide catheter configured to pass from the remote vasculature of a patient to a position within the heart adjacent to a target atrioventricular or other cardiac valve. The systems further comprise an interventional catheter configured to pass through the guide catheter and to engage the atrioventricular or other cardiac valve and/or associated cardiac structures and an interventional tool on the interventional catheter adapted to modify the atrioventricular or other cardiac valve leaflets, valve annulus, valve chordae or papillary muscles to reduce regurgitation. In particular, the guide catheter can be configured for either an antegrade or retrograde approach to the mitral valve, as described above. The guide catheter may further comprise a stabilizing element for engaging tissue within the heart to reduce relative movement between the guide catheter and the tissue while the heart remains beating. The structure can be any of the cages, wires, or the like, which have previously been described in connection with the method. Additionally, the interventional catheter may also comprise a stabilizing element for engaging a tissue structure within the heart to reduce relative motion between the interventional catheter and the tissue. The stabilizing element can also be an expansible cage, steering wires, or the like and may include vacuum and/or surface finishes to enhancing coupling. Specific interventional tools include suturing devices, stapling devices, clip-applying devices, radiofrequency electrodes, surgical adhesive applicators, annuloplasty rings, and the like.
Both the interventional tool and the guide catheter may employ stabilizing mechanisms intended to engage a tissue structure within the heart to reduce relative movement between the interventional tool and/or guide catheter relative to the heart, and in particular relative to the atrioventricular valve. The stabilization mechanisms in both cases may be the same. Typically, the stabilization mechanisms will be adapted to engage at least one tissue structure selected from the group consisting of the interatrial septum, the atrial wall, the valve annulus, the valve commissures, the valve chordae, and the papillary muscles. For example, the stabilizing mechanism may comprise one or more extensible wires which are deployable radially outwardly to engage the tissue structure, such as the valve commissures. Alternatively, the stabilizing mechanism could comprise an expansible cage that can be deployed to occupy all or at least a major portion of the atrium above the atrioventricular valve. As a still further alternative, the stabilizing mechanism could be a pair of inflatable balloons which are spaced-apart and adapted to engage the interatrial septum when the interventional tool and/or guide catheter are passed therethrough.
In further specific aspects of the systems of the present invention, the interventional tool may comprise a valve leaflet capture device intended for temporarily holding the valve leaflets prior to modification, e.g., affixation. For example, the valve leaflet capture device may comprise a pair of extensible elements which may be advanced from a distal end of the interventional tool to engage and capture the two mitral valve leaflets or three aortic valve leaflets. The particular capture tools may grasp the leaflets by pinching, partially or fully penetrating or piercing, and/or suctioning the leaflets. The tools may comprise jawed devices, looped devices, coiled devices or pronged devices, or vacuum devices to grasp and hold the leaflets.
The present invention further provides methods for grasping an atrioventricular or other cardiac valve, particularly the mitral valve, to facilitate subsequent intervention or for other purposes. The grasping method comprises capturing chordae attached to at least one leaflet of the valve while the heart is beating. Capture of the chordae from beneath the valve can modify leaflet movement and improve valve function, optionally closing portions of opposed valve leaflets against each other. Usually, chordae attached to valve leaflets (or possibly three valve leaflets in the case of tricuspid valves) are captured simultaneously. For example, one or more snares, such as helical coils, can be advanced into the chordae to capture and immobilize portions thereof. Alternatively, a loop element can be advanced through the valve chordae and tightened in order to modify valve function. In some instances, capture of the chordae can be made permanent and will be sufficient to treat the underlying regurgitation. In other cases, capture of the chordae will be primarily for leaflet coaptation, and the leaflets will be affixed by a subsequent interventional step. Preferably, the subsequent interventional step is performed while the chordae remain captured. The chordae can then be released after the leaflets or other tissue structures have been modified.
The present invention still further provides a chordae capture catheter comprising a catheter body having a proximal end and a distal end. Means are provided at or near the distal end of the catheter body for capturing the chordae. A first exemplary means comprises one or more coils which are extensible from the distal end of the catheter and which engage and entangle the chordae when they are advanced therein. A second exemplary capture means comprises a loop element which is extensible from the distal end of the catheter and which is pre-formed to pass through the chordae on one or both, preferably both valve leaflets in order to draw the chordae together and modify valve function.
A further method according to the present invention for grasping an atrioventricular or other cardiac valve leaflets comprises capturing two valve leaflets separately and preferably sequentially. Such capture is effected by a leaflet capture catheter having at least three grasping jaws or prongs. A first valve leaflet is captured between a first pair of prongs, and second valve leaflet is captured between a second pair of prongs. Optionally, the two prong pairs can have a common center prong, typically where the center prong is fixed (immobile) and the two outer prongs pivot in order to provide a pair of adjacent jaw-type graspers. By separately and sequentially grasping the two leaflets, the leaflets can be held in a preferred apposition and the improvement in valve function observed. Alternatively, the leaflets may be grasped simultaneously. If the improvement is adequate, the valves can be permanently affixed in a separate step. Optionally, the leaflet capture catheter can include a device for fixing the valves, e.g., it can carry a clip which can be applied on to the valves as the capture catheter is withdrawn.
The present invention still further provides leaflet capture catheters suited for performing the method just described. The catheters comprise a catheter body having a proximal end and a distal end. A leaflet grasper is provided at or near the distal end of the catheter body and includes at least three prongs wherein at least two of the three prongs are pivotable so that they may be separately actuated to separately capture individual leaflets or simultaneously actuated to capture the leaflets together. Optionally, the catheters further comprise means for affixing the valve leaflets after they have been captured, preferably comprising a clip-applier.
The present invention further includes leaflet capture catheters and tools which utilize a vacuum for grasping the valve leaflets and manipulating the post leaflets into a desired apposition. Usually, the catheter will have at least two vacuum channels at a distal end where the channels are preferably separately positionable and independently actuable. In that way, at least two valve leaflets can be separately captured and positioned while the base catheter remains stationary. The catheter may be positioned in an antegrade or retrograde manner with the tool entering between the valve leaflets and optionally between the chordae. The tool and/or catheter may optionally further include modification devices, such as suture appliers, clip appliers, staplers, rivet appliers, adhesive applicators, heating elements for shortening the chordae, and others of the specific interventional tools described hereinafter. Likewise, the present invention further includes catheters and tools which include lumens for monitoring pressures within the chambers of the heart, and/or infusion of radiopaque contrast solution.
FIGS. 47A-D illustrate a pronged valve leaflet device which utilizes a pinching, partially penetrating or piercing method.
FIGS. 62A-D are schematic illustrations of fixation devices.
FIGS. 69A-C and 70A-B are schematic illustrations of clips used as fixation devices.
I. Cardiac Physiology
The left ventricle LV of a normal heart H in systole is illustrated in
Referring now to
Regurgitation also occurs in the patients suffering from cardiomyopathy where the heart is dilated and the increased size prevents the valve leaflets LF from meeting properly, as shown in
Mitral valve regurgitation can also occur in patients who have suffered ischemic heart disease where the functioning of the papillary muscles PM is impaired, as illustrated in
II. Interventional Approaches
The present invention treats cardiac valve regurgitation, particularly mitral valve regurgitation, by intervention at either of two locations. First, as shown in
A second and often preferred interventional point will be in the chordae, as shown in
III. Access to the Mitral Valve
Access to the mitral valve or other atrioventricular valve will preferably be accomplished through the patient's vasculature in a “percutaneous” manner. By “percutaneous” it is meant that a location of the vasculature remote from the heart is accessed through the skin, typically using a surgical cut down procedure or a minimally invasive procedure, such as using needle access through, for example, the Seldinger technique. The ability to percutaneously access the remote vasculature is well-known and described in the patent and medical literature. Depending on the point of vascular access, the approach to the mitral valve may be “antegrade” and require entry into the left atrium by crossing the interatrial septum. Alternatively, approach to the mitral valve can be “retrograde” where the left ventricle is entered through the aortic valve. Once percutaneous access is achieved, the interventional tools and supporting catheter(s) will be advanced to the heart intravascularly where they may be positioned adjacent the target cardiac valve in a variety of manners, as described elsewhere herein. While the methods will preferably be percutaneous and intravascular, many of the tools described herein will, of course, also be useful for performing open surgical techniques where the heart is stopped and the heart valve accessed through the myocardial tissue. Many of the tools will also find use in minimally invasive procedures where access is achieved thorascopically and where the heart will usually be stopped but in some instances could remain beating.
A typical antegrade approach to the mitral valve is depicted in
As shown in
The antegrade approach to the mitral valve, as just described, is advantageous in a number of respects. For example, the use of the antegrade approach will usually allow for more precise and effective centering and stabilization of the guide catheter and/or interventional tool. Precise positioning, of course, facilitates accuracy in the tissue modification, particularly affixation of the valve leaflets or chordae. The antegrade approach also reduces the risk of damaging the subvalvular apparatus during catheter and interventional tool introduction and manipulation. Additionally, the antegrade approach eliminates the risks associated with crossing the aortic valve. This is particularly relevant to patients with prosthetic aortic valves which cannot be crossed. When employing chordal fixation, the tools can be placed very close to the free edge of the leaflet since they will be removed in a direction away from the chordae which are being fixed. Additionally, an antegrade approach allows more direct access to the valve leaflets unimpeded by presence of the chordae.
A typical retrograde approach to the mitral valve is depicted in
In some instances, a retrograde arterial approach to the mitral valve will be preferred due to its advantages. Use of the retrograde approach will eliminate the need for a trans-septal puncture. The retrograde approach is also more commonly used by cardiologists and thus has the advantage of familiarity. Additionally, the retrograde approach provides more direct access to the chordae.
The interventional tool(s) used for performing the valve or tissue modifications may be specifically designed for the approach or they may be interchangeable. For example, tools may be specifically designed for an antegrade or retrograde approach, or they may be designed to be used with either approach. In any case, tools may be used in any appropriate fashion to achieve a desired result. However, for the sake of clarity, a nomenclature has been developed to describe the common usage of such tools. Tools which perform the modification procedure while primarily residing primarily in the atrium are referred to as “atrial” tools. These utilize an antegrade approach. Tools which perform the modification procedure while primarily residing in the ventricle are referred to as “ventricular” tools, and likewise utilize a retrograde approach. Tools which cross over the valve to perform the modification procedure, residing in both the atrium and the ventricle, are referred to as “atrial-ventricular” tools, and may utilize either an antegrade or retrograde approach.
IV. Orientation Steering
Approaching the desired valve or tissue structure for effective treatment, as described above, requires proper orientation of the catheters, tools and devices used throughout the procedure. Such orientation may be accomplished by gross steering of the device to the desired location and then refined steering of the device components to achieve a desired result.
Gross steering may be accomplished by a number of methods. First, a steerable guidewire may be used to introduce a guide catheter, interventional tool and/or treatment device into the proper position. The guide catheter may be introduced, for example, using a surgical cut down or Seldinger access to the femoral artery in the patient's groin. After placing a guidewire, the guide catheter may be introduced over the guidewire to the desired position. Alternatively, a shorter and differently shaped guide catheter could be introduced through the other routes described above.
Second, a guide catheter may be pre-shaped to provide a desired orientation relative to the mitral valve. For example, as shown in
Third, the guidewire, guide catheter or interventional tool may be actively deflected, e.g., having push/pull wires which permit selective deflection of the distal end in 1, 2, 3, or 4 directions depending on the number of pull wires, having shape memory nitinol, or having balloons, wires, wire cages or similar mesh structures to direct the device away from a cardiac structure and therefore into a desired position, to name a few.
Either of the guide catheters 40 shown in FIGS. 9 or 10 may be provided with steering capabilities. For example, two or more adjustment wires 46 may be provided at the distal tip of the guide catheter 40 as shown in
Steering wires 50 on a guide catheter 40 may also be provided to engage opposed surfaces within the left ventricle LV, as shown in
As shown in
In some instances, it will be desirable to introduce interventional tools sequentially or simultaneously from both the antegrade and retrograde directions. While it will be possible to separately introduce guiding catheters and guidewires by the approaches described above, in at least some instances it may be preferable to pass a single guidewire between the vena cava and the right atrium, crossing the interatrial septum as previously described. The guidewire may then pass in an antegrade direction through the aortic valve, through the ascending and descending aorta, and then percutaneously out of the vasculature at a location remote from the heart, such as the femoral artery.
Location of a single guidewire in this manner provides a continuous “rail” through the heart, allowing placement of separate devices in both an antegrade and retrograde direction. Additionally, any interaction or cooperation between the devices is facilitated since they will necessarily advance toward one another in an alignment which is controlled and assured by the guidewire, e.g., when fully advanced any two devices will necessarily meet. Thus, one device would extend inward from the venous side of the heart in an anterior antegrade direction to the mitral valve, and a second device would enter through the arterial side of the heart in a retrograde direction. The two devices would then be precisely located relative to each other as they approach and optionally meet at or near the mitral valve. In a particular example, a stabilizing catheter could be introduced in a retrograde direction to approach the chordae and underside of the mitral valve leaflets to provide for temporary stabilization and/or leaflet coaptation, as generally described above. A catheter carrying a fixation device could then be advanced in an antegrade direction to approach the valve leaflets from above. The second device could then be separately actuated to affix the valve leaflets once the proper temporary stabilization has been achieved with the first device.
Fourth, the guidewire, guide catheter or interventional tool may be positioned with the use of a floating balloon. This may be most useful for use with an antegrade approach. The distal balloon of a balloon tipped guidewire or balloon tipped floppy catheter may be inflated and floated antegrade through the mitral valve. If the heart is slowly beating, blood will be flowing from the left atrium, through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. A floating balloon may be carried along this flow trajectory, carrying the guidewire or catheter with it. The balloon may then be deflated and newly placed guidewire or catheter may be utilized as desired.
Fifth, a hollow guidewire, guide catheter or interventional or other tool may be positioned with the use of a rigid, pre-shaped mandrel or insertable member. As shown in FIGS. 15A-D, the mandrel 600 may be comprised of wire, metal, plastic or any suitable material that may be formed to hold a desired shape 601, such as a bend or bump. The mandrel 600 may then be inserted into a lumen in a flexible structure 602 to be positioned. Such a structure may be a hollow guidewire, guide catheter, interventional tool or any other tool or component of a structure. As the shape 601 is advanced, the flexible structure 602 conforms to the shape 601 as it is passed through. This may be utilized to position a structure or component of a structure in a desired location for later steps in the procedure.
It may be appreciated that any of the devices, systems and methods used for gross steering may be also be applied to refined steering of the device or device components to achieve a desired result. In particular, it may be desired to independently or dependently manipulate components of the interventional tools throughout the procedure. Such steering may allow urging of the components relative to the leaflets, annulus, atrial wall or other specific cardiac structures. This may be achieved with any of the devices or methods described above.
V. Orientation Assessment
Proper orientation of the systems and devices is necessary for performing the valve or tissue modification. Both the orientation of the devices and the components of the devices, in relation to cardiac structures and to each other, are of concern. Cardiac structures to which orientation is desired may include the atrial walls, interatrial septum, valve annulus, valve leaflets, valve commissures, valve chordae, papillary muscles and ventricle walls, to name a few. Assessment of the orientation of the components and devices may be achieved by a number of mechanisms and methodologies.
First, orientation may be assessed by tactile feedback. Introduction and manipulation of the devices and components may allow them to contact cardiac structures or other devices. Such contact may guide the devices into proper position and relevant orientation. For example, it may be possible to tactilely sense the force of the distal end of a guidewire, catheter or interventional tool against the leaflets, commissures, annulus, chordae, papillary muscles, ventricular walls, and/or atrial walls, to name a few. The force may be translated along its length to its proximal end to provide feedback to the physician or operator. Similarly, sensors may be used to achieve a similar result. Additionally, the catheter or tool may have a lumen to allow for pressure monitoring. This may provide feedback throughout the procedure which may indicate the presence and level of mitral regurgitation.
Second, orientation may be assessed by visualization of the devices and components themselves. The components or the overall system may be modified for enhanced echogenic and/or fluoroscopic visibility. Echogenicity of a material in a blood medium is dependent on the difference in acoustic impedance (product of velocity of sound and density of the medium through which the sound wave is traveling) between the material and blood. Therefore, a thin polymer coating on the components or the overall system may provide modulation of the acoustic impedance at the interface of the component and blood, thereby improving echovisibility. Likewise, microscopic air bubbles trapped on the surface or embedded within the coating may also improve echovisibility. Similarly, fluoroscopic visibility may be improved with radiopaque coatings, radiopaque marker bands, or the like. Additionally, a lumen within the catheter or tool may be provided to inject radiopaque contrast solution to improve fluoroscopic visibility or surrounding tissues. In any case, such coatings, markings and fluids may provide visualization of the devices and components themselves or any structures or elements used throughout the treatment procedure. Similarly, angioscopic vision may be used to access the orientation throughout the procedure.
Third, one or more orientation elements may be used to assess orientation of the components and/or systems in relation to cardiac structures, specifically the target valve. Thus, orientation elements may be any structure or feature that provides information as to the orientation of the component, device or system of the present invention. The elements may be separate from or integral with any part of the system or device. They may be removably or fixedly mounted on the guidewire, guide catheter, interventional tool and/or other device. Likewise, the elements may be components or parts of components of the device which provide one or more additional functions in the tissue modification procedure, such as stabilization, grasping, coaptation, adjustment or fixation. Further the elements may be atrial, ventricular or atrial-ventricular devices such that they may or may not cross the valve in the orientation assessment process. In addition, such elements may be used to steer and/or orient the components and systems prior to or simultaneous with assessment.
Orientation elements may be in the form of propellers, wings, petals, arms, loops, and the like. One or more of these elements may be present, typically extending radially from a central shaft. When two elements are present, they are commonly placed 120 to 180 degrees apart around the central shaft; more than two elements are typically arranged in a radial pattern around the central shaft. In the preferred embodiments, the orientation elements are typically placed either perpendicular to the line of coaptation or following the line of coaptation. This may provide the most useful reference, however many other placement orientations may be used.
Examples of orientation elements placed perpendicular to the line of coaptation are depicted in
Examples of orientation elements placed along the line of coaptation are depicted in
In this example, the orientation element 620 is shown as an inflatable bladder coaxially attached to a distal central shaft 621. Such a bladder may be comprised of a compliant or noncompliant material, such as PET, PUR, Silicone, Chronoprene, or the like. The bladder material itself may be echo or fluorogenic, or it may be filled with an echo or fluorogenic liquid or suitable medium, such as carbon dioxide or agitated saline. In its inflated state, it is preferred that the bladder is wide or thick enough to so that the endview of the bladder is visible in a short axis view of the mitral valve, as shown in
In addition, as shown in
Fourth, orientation may be assessed by visualization of flow patterns resulting from system or component position with respect to cardiac structures. As mentioned, the heart may be slowly beating throughout the tissue modification procedure. As the heart beats, blood may be flowing from the left atrium, through the mitral valve, to the left ventricle. Visualization of these flow patterns using Color Doppler Echocardiography may allow inferences as to how systems or components are positioned. For example, as shown in
Before a valve or tissue modification or intervention is performed, it will usually be desirable to temporarily stabilize the interventional tool in relation to the a cardiac structure. By “stabilization” it is meant that the interventional tool will be somehow coupled to a cardiac structure so that any existing relative motion between the tool and the structure is lessened. Cardiac structures which may be utilized for coupling include the atrial walls, interatrial septum, valve annulus, valve leaflets, valve commissures, valve chordae, papillary muscles and ventricle walls, to name a few. Such stabilization is performed in order to facilitate a subsequent intervention. For example, an access catheter may be mechanically coupled to the valve or tissue surrounding the valve, such as the annulus or the chordae, and the interventional tool deployed from the catheter to perform a desired intervention, such as suturing, stapling, snaring, annuloplasty, RF tissue modification, or the like. The stabilization will usually be terminated after the particular valve modification is completed, but in some instances the stabilization could be terminated and redeployed multiple times at various points throughout the procedure.
The stabilization mechanisms may be separate from or integral with any part of the system or device. They may be removably or fixedly mounted on the guidewire, guide catheter, interventional tool and/or other device. Likewise, the elements may be components or parts of components of the device which provide one or more additional functions in the tissue modification procedure, such as steering, orientation assessment, grasping, coaptation, adjustment or fixation. Further the mechanisms may be atrial, ventricular or atrial-ventricular devices such that they may or may not cross the valve in the stabilization process. In particular, such mechanisms may be used to steer and/or orient the components and systems prior to or simultaneous with stabilization.
In the preferred embodiments, three general categories of stabilization mechanisms may be formed for descriptive purposes: 1) stabilization against the atrial septum, atrial walls or ventricle walls, 2) stabilization against the valve, and 3) stabilization against the chordae or papillary muscles. Stabilization against the atrial septum may be useful when approaching antegrade with atrial or atrial-ventricular devices. As previously described, an antegrade approach involves crossing from the right atrium RA to the left atrium LA by penetrating the interatrial septum IAS. This may be accomplished with a needle bearing catheter, which may then be exchanged for an introducer, guide catheter or similar catheter. Interventional tools may be introduced through this catheter for tissue modification treatment. To prevent movement of the catheter in an axial direction, a stabilization mechanism may be used to engage and lock the catheter to the interatrial septum. A preferred embodiment is shown in
Stabilization against the atrial septum may also be achieved by forming an introducer or guide catheter which is rigid through the interatrial septum and left atrium. Typically, such introducers or guide catheters are flexible along their length to facilitate introduction through the tortuous paths of the vascular system. In an antegrade approach as described, the catheter may be inserted through the interatrial septum with its distal end suspended in the left atrium. In the case of a flexible catheter, movements at the septum may not be translated linearly to the catheter tip. Therefore, there may be relative movement between the distal end and the portion passing through the septum. This may be reduced by coupling the distal end to the portion passing through the septum. In a preferred embodiment, the catheter shaft between and including the distal end and the portion passing through the septum may be made rigid. Referring to
Stabilization against the valve may be most useful when approaching antegrade with atrial or atrial-ventricular devices, however it may also be useful when approaching retrograde with ventricular or atrial-ventricular devices. When approaching antegrade, stabilization may be most easily achieved by coupling one or more components of the device to the atrial walls, valve annulus, valve leaflets, and/or valve commissures.
Coupling to the atrial walls may be accomplished by a number of stabilization mechanisms. In each embodiment, structures such as wires, ribbons, mesh, cages or balloons extend outwardly from the device, contacting and applying radial force to the atrial walls. Such contact may couple the movements of the atrium with the device for stabilization. A preferred embodiment is shown in
Coupling to the valve annulus may also be accomplished by a number of stabilization mechanisms, many of which include simultaneous coupling to other valve features, such as the leaflets and/or commissures. In preferred embodiments, such stabilization mechanisms may be comprised of loops, rings, wings, petals, arms, and the like. Coupling can be enhanced by varying surface friction and/or combining structures with vacuum. One or more of these mechanisms may be present, typically extending radially from a central shaft. When two elements are present, they are commonly placed 90 to 180 degrees, preferably 120 to 180 degrees, apart around the central shaft. More than two elements are typically arranged in a radial pattern around the central shaft. Structure, size, angle and arrangement may be adjustable to fit individual patient anatomy.
Examples of such embodiments are shown in
Similarly, the guide catheter 14 may have any number of stabilization elements, as illustrated in
Stabilization may also be achieved by applying radial pressure to the commissures. As shown in
A number of stabilization mechanisms apply both radial and axial pressure to the valve for stabilization. For example, the double-humped element, shown in
The last general category of stabilization mechanisms for descriptive purposes is stabilization against the chordae. Stabilization against the chordae may be most useful when approaching retrograde with ventricular or atrial-ventricular devices. Coupling to the chordae may be useful in stabilization for tissue modification to the valve, the chordae, the annulus or a combination of these. When modifying the valve, the contact with the valve structures (typically grasping of the valve leaflets) may still be necessary. However, when modifying the chordae, additional contact (such as grasping the chordae) may not be necessary since the stabilization methods may include this step. Therefore, stabilization against the chordae will be discussed in Section VIII Grasping.
Immobilization refers to substantially retarding or diminishing the motion of the cardiac structures or intermittently or temporarily stopping the cardiac cycle. This may be accomplished with a variety of methodologies. First, drugs may be injected to temporarily slow or stop the cardiac cycle. Such drugs may include but are not limited to esmolol, adenosine, isofluorane and transarrest mixture, with or without electrical pacing. Likewise, induced atrial fibrillation may interrupt the cardiac cycle.
Mechanical immobilization of the valve can be effected in a variety of ways. Most simply, valve action can be diminished or stopped by raising the pressure in the associated ventricle to a pressure above that in the atrium during diastole. For example, a suitable liquid can be infused into the ventricle to raise the intraventricular pressure, or the aortic valve could be temporarily incapacitated allowing aortic regurgitation and raising the ventricular diastolic pressure. Alternatively, interventional tools and/or catheters carrying such tools may simply be mechanically stabilized against the valve, valve annulus, valve commissures, ventricular wall, atrial wall, generally as described above.
Mechanical valve immobilization will usually involve more interaction with the valve than simple stabilization. Immobilization will usually involve either capture and immobilization of either or both valve leaflets (or all three valve leaflets in the case of a tricuspid valve) or capture and immobilization of the chordae. For example, balloons or mesh cages may be used and placed under one or both leaflets to hold them partially closed. By temporarily immobilizing or adjusting the valve action, such as changing the point of coaptation, it is possible to see if a particular modification will be sufficient to treat the regurgitation. For example, by temporarily grasping the valve leaflets at a particular point and holding the leaflets together, it can be determined whether a permanent suturing, stapling, or other affixation at that point will achieve a sufficient reduction in regurgitation. When the heart is beating, valve regurgitation can be examined in real time via conventional imaging techniques, such as TEE. If the temporary valve modification appears sufficient, it can then be made permanent using any one of a variety of interventional techniques.
Valve or tissue modifications or interventions most commonly require grasping a portion of the valve or tissue to be modified. Such grasping may be useful in adjusting tissues (such as coapting valve leaflets) for appropriate modification, checking the positioning of the tissues for improved biological function, and stabilizing or immobilizing the tissue for the modification procedure. As previously described, such grasping may also be useful to stabilize another tissue which will be modified in the procedure, such as the grasping the chordae to stabilize the valve for valve modification. Since the most common procedures may involve valve modification or chordal modification, grasping of these cardiac structures will be discussed. However, it may be appreciated that described grasping devices, systems and methods may apply to any cardiac or other structure.
A. Chordal Grasping
Grasping of the chordae may involve capturing and anchoring the chordae, as illustrated in
The coils 60 and 62 may then be brought together laterally preferably coapt the leaflets LF together by advancing a retaining ring 68 which is secured at the distal end of a deployment wire 70, as illustrated in
It will be appreciated that if a subsequent interventional step is required, it can be made from either an antegrade or retrograde approach. A variety of specific interventional techniques are described in detail hereinbelow.
An antegrade approach for deploying a single chordae snare 74 and optionally securing a suture loop about the captured chordae is illustrated in
An alternative technique for deploying suture to capture chordae CT is illustrated in
A chordae stabilization catheter 100 which is particularly suited for a retrograde approach is illustrated in
Referring now to
The catheter of
B. Valve Leaflet Grasping
Valve leaflet grasping may be accomplished using a number of methods, most commonly the following three: 1) pinching, 2) partially or fully penetrating or piercing, and 3) the use of suction or vacuum. Pinching involves grasping the surface or edge of the leaflet without penetrating the tissue. This may be accomplished by an antegrade or retrograde approach using atrial, ventricular or atrial-ventricular devices. It may be appreciated that although the following embodiments are examples which are described relative to a specific approach (antegrade or retrograde), each device or component may be used or adapted to be used in all approaches.
In preferred embodiments, depicted in
As shown in
Additional embodiments, depicted in
A valve or tissue structure may also be grasped by atraumatic partial or full penetration or piercing. This may be accomplished with a variety of grasping mechanisms. Preferred embodiments include one or more prongs extending from an interventional tool in an arrangement to grasp a specific structure. Specifically, three opposing prongs may extend from a grasping sheath with distal ends configured to pinch, partially penetrate or pierce. Such ends may be pointed or may be soft, as in the case of rounded, urethane coated or solder coated ends. Referring to
In addition to directly engaging the valve leaflets to effect stabilization and/or immobilization with the grasper devices described above, the present invention may also employ a catheter or other tool having vacuum or suction applicators to temporarily capture the valve leaflets. As shown in
VIII. Coaptation Adjustment and Evaluation
Once the valve leaflets, chordae or tissue structure is grasped by an interventional tool, the tissue may be manipulated to achieve a desired result, such as improvement in valve function. Such manipulation may occur during the grasping step, or it may require a separate step following grasping. In the case of leaflet modification, valve leaflets may be coapted or brought together and held in a preferred apposition. The valve function may then be evaluated for indications of improved valve function, such as reduced regurgitation. If further improvement is desired, the valve leaflets may be additionally manipulated or adjusted. Adjustment should primarily occur in a superior/inferior (up/down) motion in order to bring the leaflets to a final positioning where regurgitation is minimized. During adjustment, one or both leaflets may be released and recaptured with new positioning. After the final evaluation, the valve leaflets may be fixated in the desired position by an appropriate fixation device. In the case of chordae shortening or other tissue modification, similar steps may be taken.
IX. Tissue Modifications
Repair of atrioventricular or other cardiac valves according to the present invention is effected by modifying the valve or a supporting tissue structure in some way to affect blood flow through the valve during a phase of the cardiac cycle, for example to permit blood flow through the valve during diastole when the associated ventricle is filling with blood but which inhibits or prevents blood regurgitation back through the valve during systole. A number of techniques for modifying the valve closure by capturing or grasping the chordae attached to each valve leaflet have been described above. These techniques are often used just for valve grasping and/or coaptation and adjustment prior to a separate valve modification step, but they may also be made permanent to provide the final valve modification. Other techniques for more directly modifying the leaflets or other supporting structures of the atrioventricular valves will be described in this section. These techniques may be utilized either with or without the valve grasping and/or coaptation and adjustment techniques described above. For purposes of simplicity, however, the following methods will generally be described without specifically illustrating such grasping, coapting and adjustment approaches, focusing primarily on the methods and devices involved with fixation. In addition, it may be appreciated that although the following embodiments are examples which are described relative to a specific approach (antegrade or retrograde), each device or component may be used or adapted to be used in all approaches. Further, although devices and methods are described for fixating specific tissues, such as valve leaflets or chordae, such devices and methods may be used for any cardiovascular tissues and the like.
A. Fixation of Valve Leaflets
Suture can be delivered through the valve leaflets and then tied in a manner analogous to an open surgical procedure. In one embodiment, a suturing tool 200, shown in
The need to place and draw long lengths of suture through the valve leaflets can, however, be deleterious to the fragile leaflet structures. Thus, alternative needle and suture devices which rely on mechanical fasteners in relatively short suture lengths may be preferred. In one embodiment, a hollow suturing coil 1300, shown in
Once the coil 1300 has advanced to a desired location, the toggle rod 1305 may be secured against a leaflet LF to hold the suture 1302 in place. At this point, the coil 1300 may be removed by retracting the coil 1300 in a reverse corkscrew fashion, as depicted in
Alternatively, referring to
In order to assure that the valve leaflets are in a proper orientation prior to needle advancement, the valve leaflets may be coapted and observed using any of the techniques described previously. After the needle has been advanced through the leaflets LF, a deployment sleeve 230 is advanced to release the slideable anchoring catheter 228 from the needle and advance it toward an underside of the valve leaflet LF. As the anchor 228 approaches the valve leaflet, tension on the suture 220 will pull the distal anchor 226 from the needle. The deployment sleeve 230 can be advanced sufficiently to draw the two anchors 226 and 228 together on opposite sides of the valve leaflets, as seen in
The anchors 226 and 228 shown in
Additional expansible anchors may be seen in
Yet another form of detachable anchor attached to a length of suture is illustrated in
Referring now to
Referring now to
In addition to sutures and suture-based devices, as just described, opposed points on the valve leaflets and/or chordae can be attached with a variety of staples and tissue-penetrating fasteners. The staples and other fasteners can be delivered through guide catheters, generally as described above, and may be positioned during or after valve grasping, coaptation and adjustment, also as described above.
Referring now to
In addition, two part snaps, rivets and staples may be used to hold leaflets in place by locking together. This may be achieved by a number of device designs. Preferred embodiments involve two disks 850, pledgets, or the like, placed on opposite sides of tissues or leaflets LF to be bound together, as shown in
An additional embodiment of a two part rivet-like stapling mechanism is illustrated in
In addition to rivets, snaps, pins and the like, coils may be used in a similar manner to fix valve leaflets in a desirable arrangement, as shown in
As a further alternative, a cinch-type fastener 360 may be positioned in a loop through opposed valve leaflets LF, as shown in
Further, a variety of penetrating and non-penetrating clips, barbs, grappling hooks, and the like, may be used to fasten valve leaflets in a desired configuration. As previously described as a means to grasp the free ends of the valve leaflets in a pinching manner, a pair of flat coils may also be used as a fixation device. As previously shown and described in relation to
Likewise, a variety of barb-like structures may be used in a similar fashion to fasten valve leaflets in a desired configuration. Referring to
In addition to fixation, clips may be used to draw leaflets together in a suitable coaptation configuration. While temporarily holding two or more leaflets in a desired configuration, such as with grasping tools, a clip may be deployed to maintain the desired position or to further manipulate the leaflets. For example, a clip 940 may be mounted on a delivery catheter or interventional tool 942, as shown in
Inward forces may also be applied by components of an interventional tool, such as a by graspers. Graspers, as previously described, are devices which grasp and hold tissues (such as coapting valve leaflets) for appropriate modification, such as fixation. Thus, graspers are most likely in place while a fixation device is deployed and positioned. Referring to
Because of the fragility of the tissue in the valve leaflets, it will sometimes be preferred to utilize methods or devices which do not completely pierce or penetrate the tissue. For example, leaflets may be fused together in a desired coaptation position by applying laser, RF, microwave or ultrasonic energy at specified coaptation points. In addition or alternatively, external clips which are partially penetrating or non-penetrating may be used. A variety of deformable and elastic clips can be utilized, and clips will usually be deployed in a retrograde fashion so that an opening in the clip can be placed over the undersides of the adjacent valve leaflets.
A preferred clip-applying catheter 380 in is depicted in
B. Shortening of the Chordae
In addition to suturing, fastening, and otherwise physically attaching portions of the valve leaflets and/or chordae together, valve leaflet closure can be improved by shrinking portions of either or both of the chordae attached to the two valve leaflets. An exemplary catheter 400 having an energy-applying coil 402 at its distal end is shown in
In addition to the use of energy for shortening chordae, the chordae can be plicated using mechanical plication devices 420, as illustrated in
The intravascular approaches of the present invention, particularly the antegrade approaches, can also be used to place supporting rings and devices around the atrioventricular valve annulus. Such devices can provide support which is analogous to that provided by annuloplasty rings implanted in open surgical procedures. In one approach, an elastic annuloplasty ring can be delivered through the guide catheter in a collapsed fashion, deployed to open over the annulus, and then stitched or stapled in place using appropriate catheters.
A first exemplary annuloplasty ring 500 can be deployed using a catheter 502 positioned through a guide catheter 14, as generally shown in
Alternatively, an annuloplasty ring 520 can be delivered on a balloon catheter 522 as shown in
As an alternative to placement of discrete annuloplasty rings, the valve annulus can be reinforced and tightened by placing a plurality of anchors, such as staples 540 about the annulus of the mitral valve, as shown in
As yet a further alternative, the valve annulus can be plicated by positioning a plurality of staples about the annulus, as shown in
X. Device Embodiments
The following three device embodiments depict complete device designs utilizing a variety of the specific components described above and/or new component designs to accomplish similar objectives.
A. Atrial Device
Referring again to
After both leaflets have been grasped, tension in the steering wires 1022 is released and the conduit 1008 is advanced over the grasping sheaths 1020. Such advancement draws the sheaths 1020, and grasped leaflets, together for coaptation. After coaptation, the mitral valve regurgitation is evaluated to determine if the locations which are grasped are appropriate for fixation. If the grasping points are not appropriate, the leaflets may be released and regrasped individually or simultaneously by the above described methods. If the grasping points are appropriate, the preferred embodiment allows for exchange of the guidewire, located in the guidewire lumen 1011, for a fixation device. The fixation device may use, for example, staples, sutures, clips, rivets, coils, fusing devices, zippers, snares, clamps, hooks, chordal fixation or shortening devices to repair the mitral valve regurgitation. Specifically, the fixation device may be the hollow suturing coil 1300 shown previously in FIGS. 49A-C. As shown in
The above described components may be manipulated and controlled by a handle 1026 connected to the proximal end 1006 of the catheter shaft 1002, as shown in
B. Atrial-Ventricular Device
Referring to FIGS. 87A-C, the atrial-ventricular device 1100 may be used with a typical antegrade approach to the mitral valve MV, as previously described and depicted in
The above described components may be manipulated and controlled by a handle 1126 connected to the proximal end 1106 of the catheter shaft 1102, as shown in
C. Ventricular Device
It is desired to position the distal end 1204 of the device 1200 beneath the mitral valve leaflets ALF, PLF with the upper jaw 1210 in the open configuration. The lower jaw 1212 is to be proximal to the anterior leaflet ALF and the upper jaw 1210 is to be distal of the posterior leaflet PLF, as shown in
To aid in positioning the device 1200, a balloon wire 1250 may be used. The balloon wire 1250 may first be inserted through the aortic valve AV, advanced down to the apex of the ventricle and then back upwards towards the mitral valve MV behind the posterior leaflet PLF. Once positioned, the balloon 1252 may be inflated to assist in holding the position stationary. A cuff wire 1260 may then be inserted through the aortic valve AV. The cuff wire 1260 may track along the balloon wire 1250 by means of a locking ring 1262. The cuff wire 1260 may track down to the apex of the ventricle and then back upwards toward the mitral valve MV. Once the cuff wire 1260 is advanced to a desirable position, the locking ring 1262 may be actuated to lock the cuff wire 1260 to the balloon wire 1250. A typical means of actuation is by inflation of the locking ring. 1262. The ventricular device 1200 may then be tracked over the cuff wire 1260 to the desired position, as shown in
Once positioned, the upper jaw 1210 may be closed against the lower jaw 1212 such that the leaflets are grasped between them. It is often desirable to adjust or manipulate the leaflets once they are grasped. Manipulation should occur only in a superior/inferior (up/down) motion in order to bring the leaflets to a final position where regurgitation is minimized. The lower jaw 1212 may be fitted with a travel mechanism for extending or retracting the jaw 1212. This would move one leaflet up or down with respect to the other leaflet. Once the leaflets are sufficiently adjusted, fixation may occur in any manner previously described. In a preferred embodiment, fixation may achieved through the lower jaw 1212, as depicted in
Although the forgoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example, for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be obvious that various alternatives, modifications and equivalents may be used and the above description should not be taken as limiting in scope of the invention which is defined by the appended claims.