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Publication numberUS20050045503 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/925,877
Publication dateMar 3, 2005
Filing dateAug 25, 2004
Priority dateAug 26, 2003
Also published asWO2005022325A2, WO2005022325A3
Publication number10925877, 925877, US 2005/0045503 A1, US 2005/045503 A1, US 20050045503 A1, US 20050045503A1, US 2005045503 A1, US 2005045503A1, US-A1-20050045503, US-A1-2005045503, US2005/0045503A1, US2005/045503A1, US20050045503 A1, US20050045503A1, US2005045503 A1, US2005045503A1
InventorsPatrick Wong, Jeff Crampton
Original AssigneePatrick Wong, Jeff Crampton
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Package closure device
US 20050045503 A1
Abstract
A convenient, effective closure device for use on packages such as those used to enclose games distributed on CDs, DVDs, or similar media. A preprinted edge label is selectively coated with adhesive and affixed to a package in such a manner that the package may not be opened without violating the edge label. To facilitate opening, a tear strip is at least in part defined by two rows of obtuse perforations. The obtuse perforations, or at least a subset of them, are formed to be of uniform size and shape of a pair of slits that intersect at their respective end points, forming the obtuse angle.
Images(7)
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Claims(16)
1. A package closure device, comprising:
a label having a package side and an exterior side; and
means for attaching the label to the package;
wherein the label forms a plurality of perforations; and
wherein the perforations in at least one subset of the plurality of perforations are formed as obtuse perforations.
2. The package closure device of claim 1, wherein the means for attaching is an adhesive applied to the package side of the label.
3. The package closure device of claim 2, wherein the adhesive is applied to the entire package side of the label.
4. The package closure device of claim 1, wherein substantially all of the perforations of in the plurality of perforations are formed as obtuse perforations.
5. The package closure device of claim 1, wherein the at least one subset of perforations are substantially identical to each other.
6. The package closure device of claim 5, wherein the substantially identical perforations are each oriented in the same manner.
7. The package closure device of claim 1, wherein the at least one subset of perforations are formed in a substantially linear pattern.
8. The package closure device of claim 7, wherein the substantially linear pattern is a straight line.
9. The package closure device of claim 7, wherein each perforation in the at least one subset are formed of two intersecting slits.
10. The package closure device of claim 9, wherein at least one slit of the two intersecting slits of each perforation is formed as a straight line.
11. The package closure device of claim 10, wherein the at least one slit of each perforation in the at least one subset is oriented so as to generally align with the substantially linear pattern of the subset.
12. A tamper-resistant package for enclosing an item, comprising:
a first package portion;
a second package portion that can be moved into a closed configuration adjacent to the first package portion so as to form an interior recess for receiving the item when it is enclosed in the package; and
at least one label for securing the first package portion and the second package portion when they are in the closed configuration;
wherein the label forms a plurality of perforations; and
wherein at least one subset of the perforations of the plurality of perforations are formed as obtuse perforations.
13. The tamper-resistant package of claim 12, further comprising a hinge connecting the first package portion to the second package portion and about which the second package portion is moved with respect to the first package portion to place the package in a closed configuration.
14. The tamper-resistant package of claim 13, wherein the at least one label is for securing the first package portion and the second package portion at a side of the package opposite the hinge when the package is in a closed configuration.
15. The tamper-resistant package of claim 12, wherein the at least one label comprises a plurality of labels.
16. The tamper-resistant package of claim 12, wherein the plurality of perforations form a first series of perforations and a second series of perforations that form a tear strip to be removed when the package is opened.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

The present invention claims the priority of provisional patent application 60/498,119, filed on Aug. 26, 2003, the contents of which are incorporated herein.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to tamper-resistant packaging for games that are distributed on media such as CDs or DVDs, and more specifically relates to a tamper-resistant package closure system uniquely configured to facilitate the opening of such a package in an intended manner with unnecessary tearing of the package or use of tools.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Computers, mobile phones, and other electronic devices are in widespread use today. Originally developed for business-related uses, the ubiquitousness of these devices provides nearly everyone with access to any number of package closure communications and electronic computing devices. The very popularity of these devices has, in turn, contributed to extensive efforts to make them more affordable and easier to use. These efforts have largely succeeded, meaning that a greater segment of the population has begun using these electronic devices for a wide variety of applications. The applications available for use on electronic devices vary widely. As mentioned above, many applications are for business and educational purposes. Increasingly popular, however, are games and other forms of amusement that can be played on the devices—whether or not the devices were originally intended for such use.

Some of these applications are installed on the computer, mobile phone, or other device before the consumer even orders them. Other applications are made available for separate purchase, and a wide array of these additional applications are now available. Not unexpectedly, game applications are among the most widely sold, owing in part to the fact that users may only buy, for example, one or two word-processing or business applications, but on the other hand appreciate a great variety in the types of games that they play on their product.

Games that may be played on an electronic device are typically computer programs that may be copied onto a compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD), or some other storage media. CDs and DVDs are widely accepted and recognized. As a consequence, they often may be used to install or to play a game application on a wide variety of different computing devices, so long as the device is capable of reading instructions from the particular media purchased. For some other devices, only PCMCIA cards or similar storage media may be used. In some cases, the storage media will be unique to a particular type of device, meaning that the use of the game sold in such a manner is not interchangeable between different devices.

Some games may simply be installed on a device by inserting the media into an appropriate media reader, after which the storage media may be discarded or saved in case the installed game is for some reason deleted. In other cases, the media must be placed in a particular drive, slot, or other peripheral reading device so that the electronic device may refer to the instructions stored there from time to time during game play. Making the media necessary for game play increases the probability that consumers will not simply purchase one game and install copies of it on various electronic devices, thereby reducing the total sales of the games.

Whatever media is used, however, modern storage media tends to be compact and easily transportable. Unfortunately, this also means that the media could be easily purloined if displayed in an unsecure area of a retail outlet. In order to reduce theft, media are therefore often sold in somewhat larger, harder to conceal packages. While these boxes or packages are typically not extremely large themselves, they are large enough to be noticeable should a user try to conceal one in the palm of his hand or pants pocket.

To ensure that the storage media are not simply removed from the package in the store, or otherwise tampered with, various measures have been employed to make the packages they are sold in tamper-resistant. Note that herein the phrases “tamper-resistant” and “tamper-proof” may be used interchangeably, with the understanding that no package may practically be made completely un-openable. That is, when a package is referred to as tamper-resistant or tamper-proof, it is simply being described as relatively more difficult, or much more difficult to open, except in the intended fashion. It is not a requirement of the present invention that a package be unopenable in any undesirable way.

Media packages for games may come in a wide variety of styles, but certain package types are becoming popular. FIG. 1 is an illustration of a typical game package 100 shown in an open configuration. According to the design of FIG. 1, package 100 includes a first package portion 110 and a second package portion 120, which are joined together at hinge 115, so that the package may be opened and closed like a book. This “book” design has proven popular with retailers and consumers. The two portions of the package and the hinge may be separately formed and then assembled, but it is far more common that they would be made out of a single piece of material. The material may be paper or cardboard, but more likely will be made of a molded-plastic material. The plastic used in such packages will typically be strong enough that it may not be easily opened save for the intended fashion shown in FIG. 1.

In the package 100 of FIG. 1, first package portion 110 forms a recess 130 for receiving storage media 115, in this case, a CD 155 that will normally be mounted to the package wall (the mounting means is not relevant to the present invention and not shown in the illustration). Likewise, second package portion 120 includes a recess 140 for receiving a second CD 150. A third recess 160 is formed in second package portion 120 and may be used, for example, for containing game accessories, instruction booklets, or other items sold along with the game. It is not required, of course, that the recesses within the package be formed exactly as shown in FIG. 1, and they will normally be designed to accommodate the anticipated product that will be placed in them. Package 100 may, but does not necessarily, include an integrally-formed latch mechanism (not shown) to maintain the package in a closed configuration.

Without some closure device, however, regardless of the strength of its construction the package 100 of FIG. 1 can still be opened easily by not only the purchasing consumer, but also by a potential thief while the product is still in the retail outlet. To reduce the risk of theft, the package will also typically be sealed shut in some manner. There are a number of ways of accomplishing this objective, all with the natural goal of preventing unauthorized package opening, while still being not too difficult for a purchasing consumer to open. One common measure is to use an edge label that can be secured across both portions of the package, as shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 2 is an illustration of the game package 100 shown in a closed configuration. In this view, the top 230 of package 100 is visible, while bottom 240 is not. Hinge 115, which is also not visible in FIG. 2, runs along some or all of the back 245 of the package. A seam 220 created at the juncture of first portion 110 and second portion 120 runs along the package front 250, and along the left side 255 and the right side 260 (not shown) as well. Note that these facial designations are somewhat arbitrary, but are assigned here for convenience.

To prevent unauthorized opening of the package 100, label 200 forms a seal across seam 220, typically across the entire face 250. To fasten it in place, label 200 may be coated with an adhesive. The adhesive that is used to secure label 200 to package 100 is strong enough to prevent the label's easy removal, but may be of a nature that sufficient force may be applied to remove it intact. In addition, the entire assembly may be enclosed in a flexible clear plastic wrap (not shown) that would in practice have to be torn off or cut through in order to gain access to the label 200. The intent of this packaging system, as may be apparent, is to make more noticeable the active opening of the package in order to discourage unauthorized persons from doing so. When the package is purchased by a consumer, he will simply tear off the enclosing plastic wrap, if it is present, and either go through the effort to remove the label 200, or simply cut it with a knife or other sharp object.

In this regard, note that in addition to discouraging outright theft, the label 200 also serves another purpose. Namely, it provides evidence of the package's opening, evidence that is difficult to alter. In our modern retail environment, it is not unusual for consumers to return products that they have purchased in expectation of a refund of the purchase price. While many retailers, in the name of good customer relations, are happy to oblige, providing the goods are in a condition for resale, a game stored media such as a CD presents a different problem. Because CDs simply store digital data, consumers with the proper equipment can often sometimes copy the CDs with very little trouble. In doing so, they could return the game and avoid paying the purchase price while retaining the game. While it is possible, in some cases, to design the software stored on the media in such a way as to reduce this possibility, another strategy is simply to not permit consumers to return opened merchandise for a refund. If label 200 is constructed so that the package 100 may not be open without noticeably damaging the label, then it will be evident when the user has in fact opened the package and gained access to the media inside. In many cases, even if the label is intact, it will not be possible to replace it without a substantial alteration in its appearance so that it may be distinguished from a label that has not been removed.

Edge labels are often preprinted. They may present instructions on how to open the package or, more commonly, present the name of the game or other product, or of its manufacturer. Printing also prevents an unscrupulous consumer from easily replacing label (after it has been removed) with another one very similar in appearance to the original. To enhance this protection, holograms are sometimes employed. A hologram is an image that is produced using a specialty technique that lends the image a three-dimensional appearance. In FIG. 2 the area referred to as 210 represents how a hologram may be employed. Holograms do have an aesthetic quality, being attractive to the potential consumer. In the context of theft prevention, however, holograms are useful precisely because they are more difficult to reproduce than ordinary images. A person destroying the hologram that came with a particular label would therefore have a difficult time replacing the label with another one of like appearance. As can bee seen in FIG. 2, the hologram 210 is placed across the seam 220 in such a way that the product can not easily be opened without damaging or destroying the hologram.

The use of edge labels, with or without an enclosing plastic wrap, has been proven effective. There are still problems, however, associated with its application. At times, the labels are fairly difficult for even legitimate purchasers to remove, and as such present an irritating inconvenience to the consumer. In some ways, the more effective the label is at reducing the risk of theft, the more difficult it will be for the legitimate purchaser to remove. While a knife or other sharp object is quite effective at slicing through the label, one is not always available and even when it is, there is the risk of injury resulting to a purchaser who is not careful. This is especially a problem with games, which are always often purchased by young children who will frequently want to open the game as quickly as possible. Needed, therefore, is a system for applying a tamper resistant label to a package in such a manner that is attractive to consumers, but will at the same time providing a measure of security to the retailer. The present invention provides just such a solution.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the present invention, including its features and advantages, reference is made to the Detailed Description of the invention, together with the accompanying Drawings, of which:

FIG. 1 is an illustration of a tamper-resistant media package shown in an open configuration.

FIG. 2 is an illustration of the package of FIG. 1 shown in a closed configuration and sealed accordingly to a closure system of the prior art.

FIG. 3 is an illustration of a package closure device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 4 is an illustration of the package-closure device of FIG. 3, installed on the media package of FIG. 1, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is an illustration of a portion of the package closure system of FIG. 3, showing the various features thereof depicted in greater detail.

FIG. 6 is an illustration of a tamper-resistant media package of alternate design, shown in an open configuration.

FIG. 7 is an illustration of the package-closure device of FIG. 3, installed on the media package of FIG. 6, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 8 is an illustration of the package closure device of FIG. 3 illustrating additional features according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 9 is an illustration of a tamper-resistant media package of another alternate design, shown sealed according to an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention is directed to a closure system for closing packages containing storage media on which games or other applications are frequently stored. The closure system of the present invention has several advantages, including a optimum balance between convenience from the consumer's point of view and tamper-resistance, which protects the interest of the retailer. The present invention is intended for use with plastic packaging (such as those shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the prior art), but might also be used with other types of packages as well.

FIG. 3 is an illustration of a package closure device according to an embodiment of the present invention. For convenience package-closure device 300 will often be referred to as a “label” (as was label 200 illustrated in FIG. 2), because it is sometimes printed with the name of the item being sold or other information. It is not necessary, however, that a preprinted label be used. Label 300 will ordinarily be formed of a thin, flexible plastic material. Label 300 is generally formed as a single piece of material, but for purposes of explaining the present invention it can nevertheless be thought of as divided into a number of sections or areas. In the embodiment of FIG. 3, label 300 is formed generally as a rectangle, but also includes a smaller rectangle formed as an extension at one end; pull tab 360. As shown in FIG. 3, pull tab 360 may be labeled with the word “PULL” in order to alert the consumer to its function. The lengthwise portion of label 300 adjacent to pull tab 360 may be referred to as tear strip 330. Tear strip 330 will ordinarily run the entire length of the label 330. Surrounding tear strip 330 are a first side 315 and a second side 325 of label 300. In this embodiment, first side 315 is separated from tear strip 330 by a first series of perforations 310, and likewise second side area 325 is separated from tear strip 330 by a second series of perforations 320.

Each of the perforations in the series of perforations 310 and 320 represent a recess or opening formed in label 300. In most embodiments, each perforation will be formed by an appropriately-shaped object that is used to penetrate label 300 from its exterior side 335 through to its interior side 345. (As interior side 345 will generally be the side facing the package, it will also be referred to as “package-side” 345.) Although the perforating tool will typically pass all of the way through label 300 when making the perforations, forming an opening from one side to the other, a partial-penetration technique may also be used if considered desirable. In either case, an elongated perforation will sometimes be referred to as a “slit”. Generally speaking, none of the material of Label 300 will be removed during the perforating process, although again this is not necessarily the case. Naturally, where label 300 is itself cut from a larger sheet of material, it can be cut and perforated in a single operation.

As should be apparent from the illustration of FIG. 3, in this embodiment the two series of perforations extending from a first end 304 of label 300 to a second end 306 forming the tear strip 330 are made so that when pull tab 360 is grasped by a consumer and pulled away from the package and in the direction of the opposite end 304 of label 300, the tear strip may easily be separated from first side 315 and second side 325. After performing this operation, the consumer will be able to open the package an obtain access to its contents.

Before explaining this in any more detail, it is also noted here that the label 300 also may include two additional features. The hologram 340 that will often be preprinted on the exterior surface 335 of label 300 is used, as explained above, to enhance the tamper-resistance of the label. Preferably, it is placed on label 300 at the end opposite pull tab 360, meaning if the hologram 340 is violated it will normally indicate that the package has been opened by a consumer. Also, it may be desirable to place a logo or other name in logo area 350. In this embodiment, logo 350 is printed only on tear strip 330, and will be removed when the package is opened by the consumer.

FIG. 5 is an illustration of a portion of the package closure device 300 depicted in FIG. 3, enlarged to show various features thereof in greater detail. In FIG. 5, the relationship between pull tab 360, tear strip 330, and the first series of perforations 310 and second series of perforations 320 may be seen in more detail. The shape of each individual perforation in the series of perforations may also be seen more clearly. In the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 5 each series of perforations includes a plurality of similarly-shaped perforations that have been oriented and aligned in a certain manner.

In this embodiment, the perforations in each (of the two illustrated) series of perforations are arranged so as to form a substantially straight line, which also delineates the sides of tear strip 330. Most, but not all of the perforations are shaped as an obtuse angle. In other words, with few exceptions, each perforation is formed of a first slit and a second slit that intersect at a respective end of each slit. For purposes of describing the present invention, an “obtuse perforation” will be a perforation that includes at least a first slit and a second slit that intersect forming an obtuse angle. Preferably, though not necessarily, this intersection will take place at respective endpoints of the two slits. In some embodiments, the obtuse perforation need not be limited to two slits, although these alternate embodiments are not shown in any of the figures.

At this point, it should be noted that the obtuse perforations illustrated in FIG. 5 have been found to advantageously facilitate removal of the tear strip 330, making the opening of packages such as package 100 more convenient. Closure devices configured in this manner have been found to advantageously permit efficient removal of the entire tear strip 330 without causing undue violation to the material of label 300 that forms first side 315 and second side 325. Other configurations, however, are possible. In addition, it may also be noted that in order to most advantageously form the tear strip 330, the series of perforations 310 is preferably substantially parallel to the second series of perforations 320. In addition, these two series of perforations will ordinarily each be a straight line, although again this is not strictly required. Curved lines (not shown) may be used, for example, on packages having an unusual contour.

In the embodiment of FIG. 5, the orientation of the individual perforations is also of significance. In this embodiment, one slit of each of the obtuse perforations is oriented in generally the same direction as is the series of perforations of which it is a part. In this embodiment, at least a subset of these aligned perforations are of substantially the same shape, meaning that the non-aligned slits of the perforations in the subset lie parallel with respect to each other.

In general, it may be noted that a series of perforations that help to form a tear strip on the label of a package closure device according to the present invention will include perforations that are mostly uniform in size, shape, and orientation. Complete uniformity, however, is not required. In fact, it may be desirable to form some of the perforations differently, for example those near the beginning or end of tear strip 330. In this case, only a “subset” of the perforations in the series of perforations are uniformly-shaped or arranged in a linear arrangement. Such a subset of perforations may include any number of individual perforations, not all of which may be adjacent to each other. Where more than one series of perforations is present, each may have a subset of uniform perforations, which may include perforations that are identical to perforations in other subsets, and which may in some embodiments by identically or analogously oriented.

FIG. 8 is an illustration of the package closure device 300 of FIG. 3 illustrating additional features according to an embodiment of the present invention. Exemplary dimensions are given to illustrate a label of size and shape useful in contemporary application, but no limitation on the use of other sizes and shapes is thereby implied. In this embodiment, it is specified that an adhesive is only selectively applied to package side 345 of label 300, although selective application is not a limitation of the present invention unless explicitly stated in reference to a particular embodiment.

Several applications of the package closure device of the present invention will now be illustrated and described. FIG. 4 is an illustration of the package-closure device 300 of FIG. 3, installed on the media package 100 of FIG. 1, according to an embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 4, package 100 is shown in a closed configuration similar to the illustration in FIG. 2. Again, first side 110 and second side 120 of Package 100 meet at the seam 220, forming the front 250 of package 100. In the closed configuration shown in FIG. 4, of course, the contents of package 100 are inaccessible to the consumer. This embodiment, label 300 is intentionally formed of a size and shape so that it will extend across the entire width of the package 100, that is, across front 250, including across seam 220. For added security, label 300 is also of sufficient size to extend on to the top 230 and bottom 240 of package 100. Preferably, tear strip 330 is positioned to be directly above seam 220.

In a preferred embodiment, the label 300 will normally occupy a majority of the surface area of front side 250 to which it is affixed, although this is not a requirement of the invention.

Label 300 is typically affixed to package 100 with using some form of adhesive applied to package side 345 of label 300. This adhesive may be applied to the entire package side 345, which may be convenient for application. In another embodiment, the adhesive may be selectively applied (as illustrated in FIG. 8) if desired for a particular application. Selective application may, for example, facilitate easy removal of the tear strip 330.

In another embodiment, alternate means of attaching label 300 to package 100 may also be used, in lieu of, or in addition to, and adhesive applied to the package side 345 of label 300. For example, strips of adhesive tape (not shown) could be used to anchor each side of label 300 to the top 230 and bottom 240, respectively, of package 100. Label 300 could also extend completely around package 100, and be affixed to itself at the extreme ends of label 300, again using adhesive, tape, or both, or even a mechanical fastener (also not shown).

Although extended across the front 250 of package 100 in FIG. 4, alternate or additional placement is possible. For example, label 300 could extend across left side 255 (perhaps more toward the front 250 than towards the back 245). Or a plurality of labels could be employed. In one alternate embodiment (not shown), multiple labels could even be used to permit selective access to different portions of a package (also not shown) that could be opened in more than one way.

Package closure labels according to the present invention could also be applied to differently-shaped packages. For example, FIG. 6 is an illustration of a media package that closes in a somewhat different manner than package 100 of FIGS. 1, 2, and 4. In FIG. 6, package 600 includes a right side portion 640 and a left side portion 650. A recess 620 in the body 610 of package 600 may hold a disk 630 or other game media. In the closed configuration, shown in FIG. 7, recess 620 of package 600 is entirely concealed by right side portion 640 and left side portion 650, which are operable along hinges 645 and 655, respectively. The two sides meet at seam 645, and as can be seen in FIG. 7, are secured with label 300.

In yet another embodiment, shown in FIG. 9, label 300 is applied not in a single plane, but in two planes formed by right side portion 910 and left side portion 920, which close about hinges 915 and 925 to cover a recess (not shown) formed in body 930 of package 900. This package may be used, for example, for housing items somewhat larger than CDs.

The previous descriptions are of preferred examples for implementing the invention, and the scope of the invention should not necessarily be limited by this description. The scope of the present invention is defined by the following claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7744131 *Oct 5, 2007Jun 29, 2010Corporate Express Us Inc.One-piece label with integral tear strip
US7753797 *Mar 17, 2006Jul 13, 2010IgtSecurity methods and apparatus for a tangible medium containing wagering game outcomes
US8033473Apr 20, 2007Oct 11, 2011Visa U.S.A. Inc.Packaging for a portable consumer device
US8152645May 20, 2009Apr 10, 2012IgtRemote gaming environment
US8292072 *Dec 7, 2010Oct 23, 2012Travel Tags, Inc.Durable packaging assembly for media devices
US8365979 *Nov 6, 2009Feb 5, 2013Novavision, Inc.Tamper evident label
US8366531 *Jan 17, 2006Feb 5, 2013IgtMethods and systems for determining and selling wagering game outcomes to be viewed remotely
US8616215 *Nov 9, 2005Dec 31, 2013Startbox, LlcSystem and method for preventing wrong-site surgeries
US8784175Jan 30, 2013Jul 22, 2014IgtMethods and systems for determining and selling wagering game outcomes to be viewed remotely
US20100176020 *Jan 12, 2010Jul 15, 2010Tek Packaging LLCPackaging with perforated opening strip
US20100181371 *Nov 6, 2009Jul 22, 2010Novavision, Inc.Tamper evident label
WO2008130444A1 *Nov 7, 2007Oct 30, 2008Chris BrittPackaging for a portable consumer device
Classifications
U.S. Classification206/308.2, 206/807, 206/1.5
International ClassificationG06F, B65D85/57, B65D55/06
Cooperative ClassificationB65D55/06
European ClassificationB65D55/06
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 29, 2004ASAssignment
Owner name: NOKIA CORPORATION, FINLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WONG, PATRICK;CRAMPTON, JEFF;REEL/FRAME:015317/0449
Effective date: 20040917