|Publication number||US20050049706 A1|
|Application number||US 10/941,620|
|Publication date||Mar 3, 2005|
|Filing date||Sep 14, 2004|
|Priority date||May 1, 2001|
|Also published as||DE60230739D1, EP1389978A1, EP1389978A4, EP1389978B1, EP2055267A2, EP2055267A3, EP2055267B1, US6790233, US6846327, US20020173850, US20030009225, US20110098818, US20130030531, WO2002087475A1|
|Publication number||10941620, 941620, US 2005/0049706 A1, US 2005/049706 A1, US 20050049706 A1, US 20050049706A1, US 2005049706 A1, US 2005049706A1, US-A1-20050049706, US-A1-2005049706, US2005/0049706A1, US2005/049706A1, US20050049706 A1, US20050049706A1, US2005049706 A1, US2005049706A1|
|Inventors||Darrel Brodke, Bret Berry, Ashok Khandkar, Ramaswamy Lakshminarayanan, Mahendra Rao|
|Original Assignee||Amedica Corporation, A Delaware Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (99), Referenced by (20), Classifications (92), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/137,108, filed Apr. 30, 2002, which in turn claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/287,824, filed May 1, 2001.
This invention relates generally to improvements in bone grafts such as spinal fusion cages of the type designed for human implantation between adjacent spinal vertebrae, to maintain the vertebrae in substantially fixed spaced relation while promoting interbody bone ingrowth and fusion therebetween. More particularly, this invention relates to an implantable bone graft such as a spinal fusion cage having an improved combination of enhanced mechanical strength together with osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, in a device that additionally and beneficially provides visualization of bone growth for facilitated post-operative monitoring.
Implantable interbody bone grafts such as spinal fusion devices are known in the art and are routinely used by spine surgeons to keep adjacent vertebrae in a desired spaced-apart relation while interbody bone ingrowth and fusion takes place. Such spinal fusion devices are also used to provide weight bearing support between adjacent vertebral bodies and thus correct clinical problems. Such spinal fusion devices are indicated for medical treatment of degenerative disc disease, discogenic low back pain and spondylolisthesis. These conditions have been treated by using constructs, typically made from metals such as titanium or cobalt chrome alloys such as used in orthopedic implants, and allograft (donor) or autograft (patient) bone to promote bone ingrowth and fusion.
Typical interbody spinal fusion devices, such as plugs for example, have hollow or open spaces that are usually filled with bone graft material, either autogenous bone material provided by the patient or allogenous bone material provided by a third party donor. These devices also have lateral slots or openings which are primarily used to promote ingrowth of blood supply and grow active and live bone. These implants may also have a patterned exterior surface such as a ribbed or serrated surface or a screw thread to achieve enhanced mechanical interlock between adjacent vertebrae, with minimal risk of implant dislodgement from the site. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,785,710; and 5,702,453. Typical materials of construction for such interbody spinal fusion devices include bio-compatible carbon fiber reinforced polymers, cobalt chrome alloys, and stainless steels or titanium alloys. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,425,772.
Most state-of-the-art spinal fusion implants are made from titanium alloy and allograft (donor) bone, and have enjoyed clinical success as well as rapid and widespread use due to improved patient outcomes. However, traditional titanium-based implant devices exhibit poor radiolucency characteristics, presenting difficulties in post-operative monitoring and evaluation of the fusion process due to the radio-shadow produced by the non-lucent metal. There is also clinical evidence of bone subsidence and collapse which is believed to be attributable to mechanical incompatibility between natural bone and the metal implant material. Moreover, traditional titanium-based implant devices are primarily load bearing but are not osteoconductive, i.e., not conducive to direct and strong mechanical attachment to patient bone tissue, leading to potential graft necrosis, poor fusion and stability. By contrast, allograft bone implants exhibit good osteoconductive properties, but can subside over time as they assimilate into natural bone. Further, they suffer from poor pull out strength resulting in poor stability, primarily due to the limited options in machining the contact surfaces. Allograft bone implants also have variable materials properties and, perhaps most important of all, are in very limited supply. A small but finite risk of disease transmission with allograft bone is a factor as well. In response to these problems some developers are attempting to use porous tantalum-based metal constructs, but these have met with limited success owing to the poor elastic modulii of porous metals.
A typical titanium alloy spinal fusion device is constructed from a hollow cylindrical and externally threaded metal cage-like construct with fenestrations that allow communication of the cancellous host tissue with the hollow core, which is packed with morselized bone graft material. This design, constrained by the materials properties of titanium alloys, relies on bony ingrowth into the fenestrations induced by the bone graft material. However, the titanium-based structure can form a thin fibrous layer at the bone/metal interface, which degrades bone attachment to the metal. In addition, the hollow core into which the graft material is packed may have sub-optimal stress transmission and vascularization, thus eventually leading to failure to incorporate the graft. Mechanical stability, transmission of fluid stress, and the presence of osteoinductive agents are required to stimulate the ingrowth of vascular buds and proliferate mesenchymal cells from the cancellous host tissue into the graft material. However, most titanium-based spinal fusion devices in use today have end caps or lateral solid walls to prevent egress of the graft outwardly from the core and ingress of remnant disc tissue and fibroblasts into the core.
Autologous (patient) bone fusion has been used in the past and has a theoretically ideal mix of osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. However, supply of autologous bone material is limited and significant complications are known to occur from bone harvesting. Moreover, the costs associated with harvesting autograft bone material are high, requiring two separate incisions, with the patient having to undergo more pain and recuperation due to the harvesting and implantation processes. Additionally, autologous cancellous bone material has inadequate mechanical strength to support intervertebral forces by itself, whereby the bone material is normally incorporated with a metal-based construct.
Ceramic materials provide potential alternative structures for use in spinal fusion implant devices. In this regard, monolithic ceramic constructs have been proposed, formed from conventional materials such as hydroxyapatitie (HAP) and/or tricalcium phosphate (TCP). See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,037,519. However, while these ceramic materials may provide satisfactory osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, they have not provided the mechanical strength necessary for the implant.
Thus, a significant need exists for further improvements in and to the design of bone grafts such as spinal fusion implant devices, particularly to provide a high strength implant having high bone ingrowth and fusion characteristics, together with substantial radiolucency for effective and facilitated post-operative monitoring.
Hence, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved bone graft such as an interbody spinal fusion implant or cage made from a bio-compatible open pore structure, which has a radiolucency similar to that of the surrounding bone. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a substrate of high bio-mechanical strength for carrying biological agents which promote intervertebral bone ingrowth, healing and fusion. It is a further objective of the present invention to provide an interbody fusion device which has mechanical properties that substantially match that of natural bone.
In accordance with the invention, an improved bone graft such as a spinal fusion cage is provided for human implantation into the space between a pair of adjacent vertebrae, following removal of disc material between endplates of the adjacent vertebrae, to maintain the adjacent vertebrae in a predetermined and substantially fixed spaced relation while promoting interbody bone ingrowth and fusion. In this regard, the improved spinal fusion cage of the present invention is designed for use in addressing clinical problems indicated by medical treatment of degenerative disc disease, discogenic lower back pain, and spondylolisthesis.
The improved bone graft, as embodied in the form of the improved spinal fusion cage, comprises a substrate block formed from a bio-compatible material composition having a relatively high bio-mechanical strength and load bearing capacity. This substrate may be porous, open-celled, or dense solid. A preferred composition of the high strength substrate block comprises a silicon nitride ceramic material. The substrate block may be porous, having a porosity of about 10% to about 80% by volume with open pores distributed throughout and a pore size range of from about 5 to about 500 microns. When the substrate is porous, the porosity of the substrate block is gradated from a first relatively low porosity region emulating or mimicking the porosity of cortical bone to a second relatively higher porosity region emulating or mimicking the porosity of cancellous bone. In a second embodiment, the substrate block is a dense solid comprised of a ceramic, metal or polymer material. This dense solid substrate would then be attached to a second highly porous region emulating or mimicking the porosity of cancellous bone. Preferably, the porous region would be formed around the substrate.
In the method where a dense, solid material is used as the substrate block, the block will be externally coated with a bio-active surface coating material selected for relatively high osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, such as a hydroxyapatite or a calcium phosphate material. The porous portion is internally and externally coated with a bio-active surface coating material selected for relatively high osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, such as a hydroxyapatite or a calcium phosphate material. The porous region, however, may be in and of itself a bio-active material selected for relatively high osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, such as a hydroxyapatite or a calcium phosphate material.
The thus-formed bone graft can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to suit different specific implantation requirements. Preferred shapes include a generally rectangular block with a tapered or lordotic cross section to suit the required curvature of the inter-vertebral space, in the case of a spinal fusion device. The exterior superior and inferior surfaces of the rectangular body may include ridges or teeth for facilitated engagement with the adjacent vertebrae. Alternative preferred shapes include a generally oblong, rectangular block which may also include serrations or the like on one or more exterior faces thereof, and/or may have a tapered or lordotic cross section for improved fit into the inter-vertebral space. A further preferred shape may include a crescent shape block which may also include serrations or the like on one or more exterior faces thereof, and/or may have a tapered or lordotic cross section for improved fit into the inter-vertebral space. The bone graft may desirably include notches for releasable engagement with a suitable insertion tool. In addition, the bone graft may also include one or more laterally open recesses or bores for receiving and supporting osteoconductive bone graft material, such as allograft (donor) or autograft (patient) material.
Further alternative bone graft configurations may include a dense substrate region substantially emulating cortical bone, to define a high strength loading bearing zone or strut for absorbing impaction and insertion load, in combination with one or more relatively high porosity second regions substantially emulating cancellous bone for contacting adjacent patient bone for enhanced bone ingrowth and fusion.
The resultant bone graft exhibits relatively high mechanical strength for load bearing support, for example, between adjacent vertebrae in the case of a spinal fusion cage, while additionally and desirably providing high osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties to achieve enhanced bone ingrowth and interbody fusion. Importantly, these desirable characteristics are achieved in a structure which is substantially radiolucent so that the implant does not interfere with post-operative radiographic monitoring of the fusion process.
In accordance with a further aspect of the invention, the bone graft may additionally carry one or more therapeutic agents for achieving further enhanced bone fusion and ingrowth. Such therapeutic agents may include natural or synthetic therapeutic agents such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), growth factors, bone marrow aspirate, stem cells, progenitor cells, antibiotics, or other osteoconductive, osteoinductive, osteogenic, or any other fusion enhancing material or beneficial therapeutic agent.
Other features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.
The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention. In such drawings:
As shown in the exemplary drawings, a radiolucent bone graft such as a spinal fusion cage referred to generally in
The preferred substrate composition comprises a relatively high strength block 16 (
Moreover, in the preferred form, the pores are arranged with a variable porosity gradient to define a first region of relatively low or reduced porosity (less than about 5%) substantially mimicking cortical bone structure and a second region of relatively large or increased porosity (ranging from about 30% to about 80%) substantially mimicking cancellous bone structure. In one preferred configuration, the outer or external surfaces of the reticulated substrate block comprise the first or low porosity region for improved load bearing capacity, while the interior surfaces of the substrate block comprises the second or high porosity region mimicking cancellous bone for enhance bone ingrowth and fusion.
This high strength substrate block is surface-coated internally and externally with a bio-active organic or inorganic surface coating material selected for relatively strong osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties to provide a nutrient rich environment for cellular activity to promote interbody bone ingrowth and fusion attachment. Preferred surface coating materials comprise a resorbable material such as hydroxyapatite or a calcium phosphate ceramic. Alternative glassy (amorphous) materials having a relatively rich calcium and phosphate composition may also be used, particularly wherein such materials incorporate calcium and phosphate in a ratio similar to natural bone or hydroxyapatite. Such glassy compositions may comprise a partially or fully amorphous osteoinductive material comprising a composite of a glass and osteoinductive calcium compound, with a composition varying from about 100% glass to 100% osteoinductive calcium compound. The surface coating may also comprise autologous bone marrow aspirates.
The resultant bone graft 10 thus comprises the substrate block formed from the high strength material having bio-mimetic properties and which is nonresorbable, or slowly or infinitely slowly resorbable when implanted into the patient, in combination with the bio-active surface coating which is comparatively rapidly resorbable to promote rapid and vigorous bone ingrowth activity.
The substrate block may also advantageously be coated or impregnated with one or more selected therapeutic agents, for example, such as autologous, synthetic or stem cell derived growth factors or proteins and growth factors such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP) or a precursor thereto, which further promotes healing, fusion and growth. Alternative therapeutic agents may also include an antibiotic, or natural therapeutic agents such as bone marrow aspirates, and growth factors or progenitor cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic cells, or embryonic stem cells, either alone or as a combination of different beneficial agents.
The resultant illustrative spinal fusion cage 10 exhibits relatively high bio-mechanical strength similar to the load bearing characteristics of natural bone. In addition, the spinal fusion cage 10 exhibits relatively strong osteoconductive and osteoinductive characteristics attributable primarily to the surface coating, again similar to natural bone. Importantly, the fusion cage 10 is also substantially radiolucent, so that the fusion cage does not interfere with post-operative radiological analysis of interbody bone ingrowth and fusion.
The relatively dense, high strength portion 16 is preferably formed in a manner and with exposed faces or ends 14 with which to withstand the axial loading of the spine. In the preferred embodiment as shown, the anterior and posterior walls of the device are formed as part of this high strength portion, each with exposed upper and lower ends or faces 14. This is done to allow the high strength region to interface with the cortical ring of the adjacent vertebral body 12. Additionally, a strut 22 of the high strength material extends between the anterior and posterior walls, which beneficially provides a load bearing structure capable of withstanding impaction and insertion loading in the anterior-posterior direction. Consequently, the relatively porous portion is formed in-between the dense anterior-posterior walls and around the central strut. The porous portion thereby forms the remainder of the device, including a large region of the superior, inferior, and lateral aspects. The porous portion, being less dense in nature than the high strength regions of the device, is increasingly radiolucent, thus allowing for assessment of bone growth and bony attachment to the adjacent vertebral body.
In all of the embodiments of
The improved bone graft such as the illustrative spinal fusion cage of the present invention thus comprises an open-celled substrate block structure which is coated with a bio-active surface coating, and has the strength required for the weight bearing capacity required of a fusion device. The capability of being infused with the appropriate biologic coating agent imparts desirable osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties to the device for enhanced interbody bone ingrowth and fusion, without detracting from essential load bearing characteristics. The radiolucent characteristics of the improved device beneficially accommodate post-operative radiological examination to monitor the bone ingrowth and fusion progress, substantially without undesirable radio-shadowing attributable to the fusion cage. The external serrations or threads formed on the fusion cage may have a variable depth to enable the base of the device to contact the cortical bone for optimal weight bearing capacity. In addition to these benefits, the present invention is easy to manufacture in a cost competitive manner. The invention thus provides a substantial improvement in addressing clinical problems indicated for medical treatment of degenerative disc disease, discogenic low back pain and spondylolisthesis.
The bone graft of the present invention provides at least the following benefits over the prior art:
A variety of further modifications and improvements in and to the spinal fusion cage of the present invention will be apparent to those persons skilled in the art. In this regard, it will be recognized and understood that the bone graft implant can be formed in the size and shape of a small pellet for suitable packing of multiple implants into a bone regeneration/ingrowth site. Accordingly, no limitation on the invention is intended by way of the foregoing description and accompanying drawings, except as set forth in the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3867728 *||Apr 5, 1973||Feb 25, 1975||Cutter Lab||Prosthesis for spinal repair|
|US4072532 *||Nov 20, 1975||Feb 7, 1978||Nasa||High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions|
|US4327449 *||Jun 26, 1980||May 4, 1982||Charnley Surgical Inventions Limited||Acetabular prosthesis|
|US4695282 *||Jan 23, 1986||Sep 22, 1987||Osteonics Corp.||Acetabular cup assembly with selective bearing face orientation|
|US4743256 *||Jan 22, 1987||May 10, 1988||Brantigan John W||Surgical prosthetic implant facilitating vertebral interbody fusion and method|
|US4759766 *||Sep 9, 1987||Jul 26, 1988||Humboldt-Universitaet Zu Berlin||Intervertebral disc endoprosthesis|
|US5098449 *||Feb 19, 1991||Mar 24, 1992||The Dow Chemical Company||Self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic with crystalline grain boundary phase, and a method of preparing the same|
|US5152791 *||Feb 18, 1992||Oct 6, 1992||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Prosthetic artificial bone having ceramic layers of different porosity|
|US5158726 *||Mar 28, 1991||Oct 27, 1992||Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited||Process for production of ceramic shaped product having granule layer on the surface and ceramic implant material|
|US5192327 *||Mar 22, 1991||Mar 9, 1993||Brantigan John W||Surgical prosthetic implant for vertebrae|
|US5314477 *||Mar 4, 1991||May 24, 1994||J.B.S. Limited Company||Prosthesis for intervertebral discs and instruments for implanting it|
|US5401269 *||Mar 10, 1993||Mar 28, 1995||Waldemar Link Gmbh & Co.||Intervertebral disc endoprosthesis|
|US5425772 *||Sep 20, 1993||Jun 20, 1995||Brantigan; John W.||Prosthetic implant for intervertebral spinal fusion|
|US5459766 *||Apr 1, 1994||Oct 17, 1995||U.S. Philips Corporation||Digital phase-locked loop|
|US5462563 *||Sep 20, 1994||Oct 31, 1995||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Orthopaedic implant|
|US5464440 *||Nov 13, 1992||Nov 7, 1995||Lucocer Aktiebolag||Porous implant with two sets of pores|
|US5549704 *||Mar 30, 1995||Aug 27, 1996||Sutter; Franz||Universal joint prosthesis|
|US5556815 *||Sep 26, 1995||Sep 17, 1996||Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft||High temperature resistant silicon nitride ceramic|
|US5609635 *||Jun 7, 1995||Mar 11, 1997||Michelson; Gary K.||Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US5697980 *||Jun 2, 1995||Dec 16, 1997||Mitsubishi Chem Corp||Artificial filling and prosthetic material|
|US5702449 *||Jun 7, 1995||Dec 30, 1997||Danek Medical, Inc.||Reinforced porous spinal implants|
|US5776199 *||May 2, 1997||Jul 7, 1998||Sofamor Danek Properties||Artificial spinal fusion implants|
|US5782832 *||Oct 1, 1996||Jul 21, 1998||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Spinal fusion implant and method of insertion thereof|
|US5785710 *||Jun 7, 1995||Jul 28, 1998||Sofamor Danek Group, Inc.||Interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US5826586 *||Jan 21, 1997||Oct 27, 1998||Smith & Nephew, Inc.||Methods for producing medical implants with roughened, particulate-free surfaces|
|US5861041 *||Apr 7, 1997||Jan 19, 1999||Arthit Sitiso||Intervertebral disk prosthesis and method of making the same|
|US5871547 *||Aug 16, 1996||Feb 16, 1999||Saint-Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corp.||Hip joint prosthesis having a zirconia head and a ceramic cup|
|US5879404 *||Apr 21, 1997||Mar 9, 1999||Biomet Limited||Acetabular cups and methods of their manufacture|
|US5879407 *||Jul 17, 1997||Mar 9, 1999||Waggener; Herbert A.||Wear resistant ball and socket joint|
|US5888222 *||Oct 9, 1997||Mar 30, 1999||Sdgi Holding, Inc.||Intervertebral spacers|
|US5888223 *||Jun 9, 1998||Mar 30, 1999||Bray, Jr.; Robert S.||Anterior stabilization device|
|US5888226 *||Nov 12, 1997||Mar 30, 1999||Rogozinski; Chaim||Intervertebral prosthetic disc|
|US5899939 *||Jan 21, 1998||May 4, 1999||Osteotech, Inc.||Bone-derived implant for load-supporting applications|
|US5904720 *||Aug 12, 1997||May 18, 1999||Johnson & Johnson Professional, Inc.||Hip joint prosthesis|
|US5908796 *||May 1, 1998||Jun 1, 1999||Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc.||Dense silicon nitride ceramic having fine grained titanium carbide|
|US6013591 *||Jan 16, 1998||Jan 11, 2000||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Nanocrystalline apatites and composites, prostheses incorporating them, and method for their production|
|US6033738 *||Jun 24, 1998||Mar 7, 2000||Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd.||Method for producing water-repellent articles, water-repellent articles obtained thereby, and solution for forming water-repellent film|
|US6037519 *||Oct 20, 1997||Mar 14, 2000||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Ceramic fusion implants and compositions|
|US6039762 *||Jun 11, 1997||Mar 21, 2000||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Reinforced bone graft substitutes|
|US6039763 *||Oct 27, 1998||Mar 21, 2000||Disc Replacement Technologies, Inc.||Articulating spinal disc prosthesis|
|US6090144 *||May 12, 1998||Jul 18, 2000||Letot; Patrick||Synthetic knee system|
|US6110205 *||Jun 22, 1998||Aug 29, 2000||Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung||Implant material having an excipient/active compound combination|
|US6113638 *||Feb 26, 1999||Sep 5, 2000||Williams; Lytton A.||Method and apparatus for intervertebral implant anchorage|
|US6136029 *||Oct 1, 1997||Oct 24, 2000||Phillips-Origen Ceramic Technology, Llc||Bone substitute materials|
|US6149686 *||Oct 16, 1996||Nov 21, 2000||Sulzer Spine-Tech Inc.||Threaded spinal implant with bone ingrowth openings|
|US6149688 *||Sep 29, 1997||Nov 21, 2000||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Artificial bone graft implant|
|US6261586 *||Aug 31, 1999||Jul 17, 2001||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Bone graft composites and spacers|
|US6277149 *||Jun 8, 1999||Aug 21, 2001||Osteotech, Inc.||Ramp-shaped intervertebral implant|
|US6296667 *||Oct 1, 1997||Oct 2, 2001||Phillips-Origen Ceramic Technology, Llc||Bone substitutes|
|US6302913 *||May 24, 1995||Oct 16, 2001||Implico B.V.||Biomaterial and bone implant for bone repair and replacement|
|US6346123 *||Mar 14, 2000||Feb 12, 2002||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Ceramic fusion implants and compositions|
|US6371988 *||Jan 18, 2000||Apr 16, 2002||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Bone grafts|
|US6376573 *||Jun 7, 1996||Apr 23, 2002||Interpore International||Porous biomaterials and methods for their manufacture|
|US6398811 *||Jun 1, 2001||Jun 4, 2002||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Composited intervertebral bone spacers|
|US6517580 *||Mar 9, 2000||Feb 11, 2003||Scient'x Societe A Responsabilite Limited||Disk prosthesis for cervical vertebrae|
|US6527810 *||Dec 21, 2000||Mar 4, 2003||Wright Medical Technology, Inc.||Bone substitutes|
|US6610097 *||Jan 25, 2002||Aug 26, 2003||Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.||Prosthetic cup assembly which includes components possessing self-locking taper and associated method|
|US6613091 *||Feb 11, 2000||Sep 2, 2003||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Spinal fusion implants and tools for insertion and revision|
|US6736849 *||Mar 29, 2002||May 18, 2004||Depuy Products, Inc.||Surface-mineralized spinal implants|
|US6740118 *||Jan 9, 2002||May 25, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Intervertebral prosthetic joint|
|US6743256 *||Oct 11, 2001||Jun 1, 2004||Michael D. Mason||Graftless spinal fusion device|
|US6758849 *||Aug 18, 2000||Jul 6, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6790233 *||Apr 30, 2002||Sep 14, 2004||Amedica Corporation||Radiolucent spinal fusion cage|
|US6818020 *||Jun 13, 2003||Nov 16, 2004||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Non-oxidizing polymeric medical implant|
|US6846327 *||Apr 30, 2002||Jan 25, 2005||Amedica Corporation||Radiolucent bone graft|
|US6881229 *||Jun 13, 2002||Apr 19, 2005||Amedica Corporation||Metal-ceramic composite articulation|
|US6908484 *||Mar 6, 2003||Jun 21, 2005||Spinecore, Inc.||Cervical disc replacement|
|US6989030 *||Nov 9, 2000||Jan 24, 2006||Japan Tissue Engineering Co., Ltd.||Transplant material and method for fabricating the same|
|US6994728 *||Feb 11, 2004||Feb 7, 2006||Spinecore, Inc.||Cervical disc replacement method|
|US6994729 *||Feb 11, 2004||Feb 7, 2006||Spinecore, Inc.||Cervical disc replacement|
|US6997954 *||Feb 11, 2004||Feb 14, 2006||Spinecore, Inc.||Cervical disc replacement method|
|US6997955 *||Feb 11, 2004||Feb 14, 2006||Spinecore, Inc.||Cervical disc replacement|
|US7051417 *||Mar 25, 2004||May 30, 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Method for forming an orthopedic implant surface configuration|
|US7066961 *||Nov 12, 2002||Jun 27, 2006||Gary Karlin Michelson||Spinal implant|
|US7105030 *||Jul 9, 2001||Sep 12, 2006||Hayes Medical, Inc.||Implant with composite coating|
|US7115143 *||May 17, 2000||Oct 3, 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Orthopedic implant surface configuration|
|US7166129 *||Aug 3, 2001||Jan 23, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for forming a spinal implant surface configuration|
|US20020062154 *||Sep 21, 2001||May 23, 2002||Ayers Reed A.||Non-uniform porosity tissue implant|
|US20020143403 *||Jan 2, 2002||Oct 3, 2002||Vaidyanathan K. Ranji||Compositions and methods for biomedical applications|
|US20030009225 *||Apr 30, 2002||Jan 9, 2003||Khandkar Ashok C.||Radiolucent bone graft|
|US20030050709 *||Feb 25, 2002||Mar 13, 2003||Ulrich Noth||Trabecular bone-derived human mesenchymal stem cells|
|US20030153984 *||Jun 13, 2002||Aug 14, 2003||Amedica Corporation||Metal-ceramic composite articulation|
|US20040024462 *||Apr 14, 2003||Feb 5, 2004||Ferree Bret A.||Spacerless artificial disc replacements|
|US20040133281 *||Dec 15, 2003||Jul 8, 2004||Khandkar Ashok C.||Total disc implant|
|US20040143332 *||Oct 31, 2003||Jul 22, 2004||Krueger David J.||Movable disc implant|
|US20040172135 *||Oct 14, 2003||Sep 2, 2004||St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc.||Artificial vertebral disk replacement implant with crossbar spacer and method|
|US20040176772 *||Feb 18, 2004||Sep 9, 2004||Rafail Zubok||Instrumentation and methods for use in implanting a cervical disc replacement device|
|US20040176845 *||Feb 11, 2004||Sep 9, 2004||Rafail Zubok||Cervical disc replacement|
|US20040220679 *||May 1, 2003||Nov 4, 2004||Diaz Robert L.||Hybrid ceramic composite implants|
|US20040225365 *||Feb 6, 2004||Nov 11, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Articular disc prosthesis for transforaminal insertion|
|US20050055098 *||Sep 3, 2004||Mar 10, 2005||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Artificial spinal discs and associated implantation and revision methods|
|US20050060040 *||Sep 9, 2004||Mar 17, 2005||Benoist Girard Sas||Prosthetic acetabular cup and prosthetic femoral joint incorporating such a cup|
|US20050079200 *||Sep 10, 2004||Apr 14, 2005||Jorg Rathenow||Biocompatibly coated medical implants|
|US20050177238 *||Jan 20, 2005||Aug 11, 2005||Khandkar Ashok C.||Radiolucent bone graft|
|US20050177240 *||Jun 10, 2004||Aug 11, 2005||Jason Blain||Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation|
|US20050216092 *||Mar 23, 2004||Sep 29, 2005||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Constrained artificial implant for orthopaedic applications|
|US20060052875 *||Sep 8, 2005||Mar 9, 2006||Amedica Corporation||Knee prosthesis with ceramic tibial component|
|US20060142862 *||Feb 15, 2005||Jun 29, 2006||Robert Diaz||Ball and dual socket joint|
|USRE39196 *||Jan 11, 2002||Jul 18, 2006||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Nanocrystalline apatites and composites, prostheses incorporating them, and method for their production|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7682540||May 8, 2008||Mar 23, 2010||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Method of making hydrogel implants|
|US7875075 *||Sep 26, 2006||Jan 25, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Hybrid intervertebral spinal fusion implant|
|US7910124||Feb 7, 2005||Mar 22, 2011||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Load bearing biocompatible device|
|US7918876||Mar 24, 2004||Apr 5, 2011||Theken Spine, Llc||Spinal implant adjustment device|
|US7998212||Sep 26, 2006||Aug 16, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Transforaminal hybrid implant|
|US8556972||Jul 1, 2010||Oct 15, 2013||Sevika Holding AG||Monolithic orthopedic implant with an articular finished surface|
|US8728166||Jan 14, 2011||May 20, 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Hybrid intervertebral spinal fusion implant|
|US8764832 *||Sep 26, 2006||Jul 1, 2014||Warsaw Orhtopedic, Inc.||Anterior hybrid implant|
|US8771354||Oct 26, 2011||Jul 8, 2014||George J. Picha||Hard-tissue implant|
|US8852280 *||Sep 27, 2007||Oct 7, 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Intervertebral implant|
|US20050071003 *||Oct 14, 2004||Mar 31, 2005||Ku David N.||Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel|
|US20050106255 *||Oct 14, 2004||May 19, 2005||Ku David N.||Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel|
|US20050273178 *||Feb 7, 2005||Dec 8, 2005||Boyan Barbara D||Load bearing biocompatible device|
|US20050278025 *||Jun 10, 2004||Dec 15, 2005||Salumedica Llc||Meniscus prosthesis|
|US20090088849 *||Sep 27, 2007||Apr 2, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Intervertebral Implant|
|US20110125284 *||Sep 8, 2008||May 26, 2011||University Of Bath||Improvements in or Relating to Joints and/or Implants|
|US20120065733 *||Sep 13, 2010||Mar 15, 2012||Brian Howard Wieder||Inter-vertebral implant having drain cavities therethrough|
|US20120116457 *||May 10, 2012||Limited Liability Company;||Stabilizer for assisting stabilization of a spinal implant and method of using the stabilizer|
|US20120123544 *||Nov 16, 2010||May 17, 2012||Sean Suh||Intervertebral Spacer and Method of Installation Thereof|
|WO2012099852A1 *||Jan 17, 2012||Jul 26, 2012||Cibor, Inc.||Reinforced carbon fiber/carbon foam intervertebral spine fusion device|
|U.S. Classification||623/17.11, 623/23.6, 623/23.5|
|International Classification||A61F2/30, A61L27/10, A61F2/28, A61F2/44, A61L27/56, A61L27/30, A61L27/38, A61F2/46, A61L27/32, A61F2/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2230/0063, A61F2002/30677, A61F2230/0028, A61F2002/30166, A61F2002/30179, A61F2002/30329, A61L27/365, A61F2002/30789, A61L27/3847, A61F2230/0026, A61F2310/00239, A61F2230/0019, A61F2002/30271, A61F2230/0058, A61F2002/30968, A61L27/10, A61F2002/30011, A61F2002/4623, A61F2310/00976, A61L27/3804, A61F2002/30261, A61F2002/30896, A61F2/447, A61F2310/00203, A61F2002/30153, A61F2/30767, A61F2002/30891, A61L27/56, A61F2002/30016, A61F2230/0082, A61F2310/00928, A61L27/30, A61L27/32, A61F2002/3028, A61F2310/0097, A61L2430/38, A61F2002/30892, A61F2002/30266, A61F2/4611, A61F2002/3092, A61F2002/4627, A61F2002/30235, A61F2002/30774, A61F2230/0069, A61L27/3608, A61F2002/30733, A61F2002/30064, A61F2/442, A61F2/446, A61F2002/4648, A61F2002/3085, A61F2310/00796, A61F2250/0019, A61F2250/0023, A61F2002/4629, A61F2002/4475, A61L2430/02, A61F2002/2835, A61F2002/3082, A61F2220/0025, A61F2002/30158, A61F2002/30616, A61F2002/30777, A61F2002/30827, A61F2002/30881, A61F2002/30822, A61F2002/30224|
|European Classification||A61L27/36B2, A61L27/38B, A61L27/38D2B, A61L27/36F2B, A61F2/44F2, A61F2/46B7, A61F2/30L, A61L27/56, A61F2/44F6, A61L27/30, A61L27/10, A61L27/32|
|Nov 10, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AMEDICA CORPORATION, UTAH
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BRODKE, DARREL S.;BERRY, BRET M.;KHANDKAR, ASHOK C.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015350/0787;SIGNING DATES FROM 20041019 TO 20041102
|Apr 12, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ZIONS FIRST NATIONAL BANK,UTAH
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:AMEDICA CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:024213/0710
Effective date: 20100407
Owner name: ZIONS FIRST NATIONAL BANK, UTAH
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:AMEDICA CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:024213/0710
Effective date: 20100407
|Dec 19, 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AMEDICA COPRORATION, UTAH
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:ZIONS FIRST NATIONAL BANK;REEL/FRAME:029503/0591
Effective date: 20121217