|Publication number||US20050054457 A1|
|Application number||US 10/810,168|
|Publication date||Mar 10, 2005|
|Filing date||Mar 26, 2004|
|Priority date||Sep 8, 2003|
|Publication number||10810168, 810168, US 2005/0054457 A1, US 2005/054457 A1, US 20050054457 A1, US 20050054457A1, US 2005054457 A1, US 2005054457A1, US-A1-20050054457, US-A1-2005054457, US2005/0054457A1, US2005/054457A1, US20050054457 A1, US20050054457A1, US2005054457 A1, US2005054457A1|
|Inventors||Richard Eyestone, Nathan Hood, Alessandro Gabbi, John Farrington, Eric Cassady, Brian Maloney, Raymond Deragon, John Lupher, James Satterwhite|
|Original Assignee||Smartswing, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (147), Classifications (24), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This patent application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/501,044, entitled, “Method and System for Golf Stroke Analysis and Training,” and filed Sep. 8, 2003.
This disclosure pertains generally to a sport training system and, more particularly, to an intelligent sports club, bat or racket that takes quantitative measurements of a swing for real-time feedback and subsequent analysis and display.
Various inventions are described to assist golfers' efforts to improve their swing. One category of devices involves systems of restraints on the golfer's body or on the club to force the golfer into a more perfect swing. Restraint based systems operate on the premise that by forcing a golfer into a given stance or swing pattern, the golfer will inculcate the lesson as a form of muscle memory that can then be employed while golfing with a standard club. However, a golfer's natural tendency is to resist the restraint system and thereby learn a stance or swing pattern predicated on the presence of the restraint system. In the absence of the restraint system, the user's new stance or swing pattern is incorrect.
Other devices attempt to mechanically react to the swing with hinged clubs or moving weights. Mechanically reactive systems provide hinged or weighted systems that react to various qualities of a swing. For example, a hinged golf club is specified that stays rigid during the course of a good swing, but will collapse under the conditions of a poor club swing. These devices do not allow the golfer to train with a physically intact, standard golf club. Also, some of these devices do not allow for actually striking a golf ball during the swing. Once again, the golfer is learning swing habits divorced from requirements of swinging a standard golf club in a standard manner.
Another category of devices is electronic in nature and entirely external to the golf club, typically involving some type of swing motion capture. These systems typically employ arrays of sensors and cameras configured around the golfer. Visualization and analysis of individual frames, as well as slow motion animation of the golf swing are difficult with conventional video analysis because of the required high frame rates. Further, high frame rates require large amounts of data storage and processing power. In some instances, the users must also affix indicators or sensors on their person and/or their club. The inconvenience and complexity of these externally configured systems prevent this technology category from gaining widespread appeal in the golfing community. In addition, because of the nature of these systems, golfers are not able to play a round of golf while using these systems.
A class of electronic devices exists that requires users to mount the devices on the outside of the shaft of the club. The weight of these devices changes the club's swing characteristics and renders swing lessons less meaningful. The externally mounted devices significantly change the look of the club and may loosen or move on the shaft.
Another class of electronic devices exists that require users to mount devices on their person. For example, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,048,324, issued to Socci et al., the specification discloses headgear for detecting head motion and providing an indication of head movement. An object of this invention is to provide players with a device to teach proper ball striking in a variety of sports including golf by tracking head motion. Devices designed to exclusively monitor a subset of the golfer's motions do not adequately capture the various motions required for a human to hit a golf ball. Therefore, these devices cannot precisely predict the path of the golf club during a swing.
Lastly, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,648,769, issued to Lee et al., a device is disclosed to capture and analyze data related to a golf club swing. This device is comprised of electronic components in the distal end of the club shaft with additional circuitry in the head of the club. The presence of components in the modified golf club head degrades the users' experience by providing a different tone at ball strike. Furthermore, by locating critical components in the club head, the region of the club which experiences the highest rates of acceleration, the device is more susceptible to mechanical degradation and failure. The club requires a wired link to download swing data to a computing device. This wired link is cumbersome for users. Finally, the club provides feedback to the user regarding their swing only after data is downloaded to a computing device. This lack of real-time feedback, during the course of the swing, provides a less meaningful learning experience to the user.
For a more complete understanding of the present disclosure, and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following brief descriptions taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals indicate like features.
Although described with particular reference to a golf club and more specifically to a driver, the claimed subject matter can be implemented in many types of devices. With reference to other golf clubs the claimed subject matter is applicable to all types of golf clubs, including irons, fairway woods, wedges, and putters. Another type of sports device that may benefit from the claimed subject matter is a racket. All racket sports include tennis, racquetball, squash and badminton. With minor software modifications to the disclosed embodiment, the advantages of real-time swing feedback, swing data storage, transmission, and advanced analysis can be extended to the players of racket sports. Further, additional embodiments may include bats such as those used in baseball, softball, t-ball, cricket, polo, etc. With minor software modifications to the disclosed embodiment, the advantages of real-time swing feedback, swing data storage, transmission, and advanced analysis could be extended to the players of bat sports.
An additional embodiment may be adapted for use with a video game controller or computer game controller. Real time data transmission from an instrumented game controller allows for real-life swing data to be directly fed into any sports video or computer game. In addition, the portions of the disclosed invention can be implemented in software, hardware, or a combination of software and hardware. The hardware portion can be implemented using specialized logic; the software portion can be stored in a memory and executed by a suitable instruction execution system such as a microprocessor, tablet personal computer (PC), or desktop PC.
Several exemplary objects and advantages of the claimed subject matter, described for the sake of simplicity only with respect to a golf club, are as follows:
Other aspects, objectives and advantages of the claimed subject matter will become more apparent from the remainder of the detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying figures.
IGC 18 includes a head 34 and a shaft 34, both of which are similar to shafts and heads on a typical golf club. Although illustrated as a driver, head 34 can be any type of golf club, including but not limited to, an iron, a wedge, a wood and a putter. As mentioned above, the claimed subject matter is not limited to golf clubs but can be applied to many types of bats, rackets and game controllers.
Attached to the top of shaft 34 is a grip 30, into which the claimed subject matter is incorporated. Grip 30 includes a Power On/Mute/Power Off button 20, a battery recharge connector 28, a battery recharge connector cover 22, a grip faceplate 24 and a Flag Swing button 26.
Power On/Mute/Power Off button 20 is pushed once to power on the IGC 18. Once the IGC 18 is powered on, button 20 is pushed to toggle on and off an audio feedback signal that indicates to a user when a particular swing has broken a plane representing a correct swing. To power off the IGC 18, button 20 is pushed in and held for four or more seconds.
Battery recharge connector 28 is a socket into which battery recharger 22 is inserted to charge a battery pack 68 (see
A Power/USB connection light emitting diode (LED) 42 provides indication of whether or not RF link box 38 is connected to power and computing system 48. A club detection data transfer LED 40 provides indication of whether or not RF link box 38 is in communication with IGC 18 by lighting up and provides indication of whether data is being transferred between IGC 18 and RF link box 38 by blinking. RF link box 38 is described in more detail below in conjunction with
Below grip faceplate 24 is an antenna board 50 that is employed in wireless communication between IGC 18 and RF link box 38 (
Exploded view 103 includes antenna board 50 and a full view of main board 52, both of which were introduced above in conjunction with
Club transceiver chip 78, which in this example is a 2.4 GHz transceiver, is responsible for wireless communication between IGC 18 (
Screw 56 extends through one wall of tube 54, through one tube insert 58, through main board 52, through second tube insert 58 and through the opposite wall of tube 54. Screw 56 serves as a main point of structural integrity within IMU 53. In other words, screw 56 and tube inserts 58 prevent the various components of assembly 105 from vibrating within tube 54.
IMU 53 employs three solid-state gyroscopes (not shown), such as Analog Devices' ADXRS300, to measure angular rates around axes Cx, Cy, and Cz (see
IMU 53 employs two dual-axis accelerometers (not shown), such as Analog Devices ADXL210e, to measure linear acceleration along axes Cx, Cy, and Cz. An accelerometer on main board 52 measures linear acceleration along Cx and Cz axes. An accelerometer on accel/gyro board 60 measures linear acceleration along Cy axis and duplicated data along the Cz axis. Although one embodiment uses only one channel of the Cz data, another embodiment may compare both channels of Cz data for such benefits as increased accuracy and/or signal noise reduction.
It should be noted that accelerometers can measure both linear acceleration and forces due to gravity. The ability to measure the effects of gravity allows for the resolution of a gravity vector that in effect tells IGC 18 which direction is down with respect to the surrounding world (see
Also included on main board 52 is a temperature sensor (not shown) for providing temperature compensation of data from the gyroscopes and accelerometers because the performance characteristics of the gyroscopes and accelerometers can be affected by temperature. A microprocessor (not shown), on main board 52, is employed as a central processing unit for IGC 18. The microprocessor controls the other components of board 52, collects sensor data, monitors system temperature, corrects sensor data for temperature related distortion, processes the corrected sensor data into position, velocity, and acceleration vectors, stores the corrected sensor data in flash memory (not shown) for later download, and performs real-time collision detection of IGC 18 with respect to the swing planes, explained below in conjunction with
Swing data is stored on 8 MB of serial flash memory (not shown) on main board 52. One embodiment of the claimed subject matter employs approximately 72 kB of memory per recorded swing therefore allowing over 100 swings to be stored on the flash memory before the flash memory is consumed. Another embodiment of the claimed subject matter may use higher quantities of memory that would allow for data captured for a higher number of swings. In addition, other embodiments may sample fewer data points per swing, thereby allowing for data to be captured from a higher number of swings. Furthermore, other embodiments may employ data compression algorithms to allow for more data to be captured from a higher number of swings.
Finally, battery standoff 64 provides separation between main board 52 and battery pack 68, which provides power for the components of IMU 53. Battery pack 68 is electrically coupled to z-gyro board 62, and therefore the other components of IMU 53, via battery pack wires 66. In this example, battery pack 68 consists of five (5) rechargeable metal hydride cells, although there are many possible configurations. The power supply sub-system, which includes battery pack 68 and a voltage regulator (not shown) on main board 52, generates voltage levels as required for device components, e.g. 1.8 V, 3.3 V and 5.0 V supplies.
During processing of data collected by ICG 18 both frames 107 and 109 are applicable. Frame 107 corresponds to a frame of reference for measurements taken by accelgyro board 60 and Z-gyro board 62 (
The claimed subject matter builds on the concept of a golfer keeping their swing within a region bounded by a “lower swing plane” and an “upper swing plane” (not shown). The lower swing plane passes roughly from the heel of golf club head 36 (
One task of the claimed subject matter is to accurately track the movement of IGC 18 through space over the duration of a swing of IGC 18, and to produce an audible alert if IGC 18 violates the lower or the upper swing plane. To accomplish this task, the IGC 18 uses inertial measurement unit 53 (
IMU 53 can also be termed a six degrees of freedom inertial measurement unit since it measures linear acceleration along axes Cx, Cy, and Cz (the first 3 degrees of freedom) and it measures angular rate (rotation speed) around axes Cx, Cy, and Cz (an additional 3 degrees of freedom). Using algorithms known to those well versed in the art of IMUs, the data from these six degrees of freedom yield the orientation and position of IMU 18 as a function of time relative to its initial position. Employing additional algorithms common to this field, the orientation and position of all elements of IGC 18 can be calculated given the orientation and position of the inertial measurement unit 53. Finally with some basic knowledge of a golfer's physical dimensions and common stance, IGC 18 determines whether or not a swing has remained within the region defined by the upper and lower swing planes.
The USB circuitry enables communication with computing device 48 via USB connector 44 and USB cable 46 (
Swing info header 84 includes a swing info identifier (ID), which uniquely identifies a particular swing, a club ID, which identifies a particular club used for the swing, a swing start timestamp, which stores a start time for the swing, a swing duration data element, which stores data on how long the swing took from beginning to end, a swing flagged data element, which indicates whether or not the user has indicated that the corresponding swing is of special interest for later use and analysis, and a temperature data element, which stores the ambient temperature from a temperature sensor on main board 52 (
Each swing data element 86 includes a swing info ID, which enables a particular swing data element 86 to be associated with a particular swing info header 84, a sequence number, which indicates an ordering of multiple swing data elements 84 associated with a particular swing info header 86, and various data elements corresponding to measurements taken from main board 52, accelgyro board 60 and Z-gyro board 62.
An X-axis accelerometer data element corresponds to a measurement of movement in the Cx axis (
An X-axis gyroscope data element corresponds to a measurement of angular rotation around the Cx axis of IGC 18 taken by the gyroscope located on accel/gyro board 60. A Y-axis gyroscope data element corresponds to a measurement of angular rotation around the Cy axis of IGC 18 taken by the gyroscope located on main board 52. A Z-axis gyroscope data element corresponds to a measurement of angular rotation around the Cz axis of IGC 18 taken by the gyroscope located on Z-gyro board 62.
Swing path data model 82 illustrates one particular format for storing data generated by IGC 18. Those with skill in the computing arts should appreciate that there are other ways to store the data as well as other data, and corresponding data structures, employed by IGC 18 and SGSAT. For example, computing system 48, or in an alternative embodiment IGC 18, converts linear acceleration and angular rate measurements into orientation and position information, which also require particular data structures.
Analysis application 88 offers extensive golf swing related analytics using swing path data 82 (
Specific swing path data 82 records are displayed in a swing record panel 90. Swing record panel 90 also displays previously downloaded swing path data 82 records. Records 82 displayed in swing record panel 90 can be constrained and filtered using functionality located in a swing record filter panel 92. Swing record filter panel 92 enables a user of GUI 88 to limit displayed records by time stamp and other characteristics. Swing path data 82 records are selected by the user in swing record panel 90 and then loaded by the analysis application 88 into other constituent panels of analysis application 88.
Once a swing path data 82 record has been selected by the user, the user can view an animated reconstruction of the swing in swing viewing panels 94, 96, and 98. Analysis application 88 enables visualization and analysis of individual frames of the swing, of slow motion and real-time animation of the golf swing, and of pre-set key points of the swing such as at address, the top of the swing, ball impact, etc. Animation controls are located in a swing replay control panel 102. Pre-set key points of the golf swing are accessed through a swing key point control panel 104. The animated swing can be viewed from multiple, different simultaneous perspectives in panels 94, 96, and 98, for example front, side, and top-down.
The Analysis application 88 uses Inverse Kinematics to animate a human figure and give context to the golf swing visualization. A specific algorithm commonly referred to as Cy clic Coordinate Descent is used to allow the position and orientation of swing path data 82 records to drive the state of a simplified human skeleton viewable in swing viewing panels 94, 96, and 98. Another tool provided by analysis application 88 is the display of upper and lower swing planes during swing visualization.
Analysis application 88 provides the ability to compare a golfer's swing to a reference swing. This reference swing can be derived from several sources. For example, analysis application 88 can create an ideal reference swing based on a user's physical characteristics, a previously recorded swing from another golfer, such as a touring professional golfer, or the user can designate one of their best personal swings as the reference swing. The overlaying of a swing with a reference swing during replay and visualization provides additional analysis context and allows the golfer to analyze their swing for flaws and strengths.
Beyond visual analysis, analysis application 88 offers extensive primary analytics derived from a swing path data 82 record. These analytics are mainly presented in tabbed windows within the swing analytics panel 106 and within context sensitive analytics panel 100. Analytics include, but are not limited to, the following examples:
Additional analytics that combine information from multiple, primary analytics are available in analysis application 88. Examples of composite analytics include, but are not limited to, the following:
Analysis application 88 provides for data transmission with other installations (not shown) of analysis application 88 over the internet or other communication medium. The ability to share swing path data 82 records allows for one user to record data regarding their swing and then transmit the data to a second user for further visualization and analysis. The second user can annotate swing path data 82 records with comments and then transmit the annotated files to their originator. The ability to transmit annotated data between users allows for remote instruction and feedback.
In addition, RF link box 39 includes a display screen 116 and a control panel 72. Display screen provides portable access to analysis application 88 (
In an alternative embodiment, computing device 48 may be incorporated into a wearable computer and a display may be incorporated into a pair of glasses so that a user can receive nearly instantaneous feedback during a game or practice. Currently, such computing devices and displays are available on the market.
From step 201, control proceeds immediately to an “Initialize SGSAT” step during which process 200 initializes the central processing unit (CPU), memory, buttons 20 and 26 and temperature sensor of IGC 18. In addition, process 200 initiates a beep from sounder 76 (
Following step 203, control proceeds to a “Wait For Input or Event” step 205 during which IGC 18 is in a “Doze” state. In this state, IGC 18 performs periodic checks for the presence of RF link box 38, to determine whether or not IGC 18 should transition to an “At Address” state and to determine if power on/mute/power off button 20 has been depressed for a period of four (4), indicating that the user wishes to return IGC 18 to the Off state. These periodic checks are illustrated by a transition of control by process 200 through a “Link Box Detected?” step 207, an “Address Detected?” step 211 and an “Off Signal Detected?” step 215. In Doze state and during the periods between At Address checks, most IMU 53 (
In the absence of detected events, as indicated by the “No” paths of steps 207, 211 and 215, the transition through steps 207, 211 and 215 occurs every 100 ms. During step 207, IGC 18 powers up club transceiver chip 78 (
During step 211, process 200 takes acceleration readings from Cz and Cx axes (
During step 215, IGC 18 determines whether or not power on/mute/power off button 20 has been pressed for a sustained period of time, e.g. four (4) seconds. If not, then control returns to 205 and processing continues as described above.
If power on/mute/power off button 20 has been pressed for a sustained period of time, then control proceeds to a “Power Down” step 217, during which IGC 18 takes actions necessary to return to the Off state in which, as described above, IGC 18 is in a very low power mode where all components are off and the central processing unit (CPU) clock is stopped. Finally, control proceeds from step 217 to an “End Operate IGC” step 229 in which process 200 is complete.
It should be noted that, although process 200 is described here as a “polling” process, process 200 could also be engineered as an event or interrupt driven process. Those with skill in the computing arts should appreciate the both the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches.
Step 209 starts in a “Begin Process Link Box” step 231 and proceeds immediately to a “Request for Data?” step 233 during which process 200 determines whether or not the signal from RF link box 38 is a data download request. If so, control proceeds to a “Download Data” step 235 during which IGS 18 enters a “RF Download” state and transmits stored swing path data 82 (
Once data 82 has been downloaded, control proceeds to an “End Process Link Box” step 249 in which step 209 is complete. In addition, IGA 18 returns to the Doze state.
If process 200 determines in step 233 that the signal from RF link box 38 is not a data download request, then control proceeds to an “Upgrade Firmware?” step 237 during which process 200 determines whether or not the signal from RF link box 38 is a request to upgrade the flash memory and/or the memory of the microcontroller located on main board 52 (
Finally, if in step 237, process 200 determines that the RF signal is not a RF update request, then control proceeds to step 249 and processing continues as described above.
After each sample, control proceeds to a “Sufficient Rotation” step 253 during which IGC 18 calculates the rotational rate of the club around the Cx axis and thereby determines whether or not IGC 18 has started swinging. If the rotation rate does not exceed the threshold, then control proceeds to a “Timeout” step 257 during which IGC 18 determines whether or not IGC 18 has been at the At Address state for longer than a predetermined amount of time. If so, control proceeds to an “End Process Swing” step 269 in which step 213 is complete. If the predetermined period of time has not been exceeded, then control returns to step 251 and IGC 18 waits for another sample.
If, in step 255, the rotation rate around the Cx exceeds the set threshold rate, IGC 18 enters a “Swinging” state and control proceeds to a “Sample Sensors” step 259. During step 259, IGC 18 samples all gyroscopes and accelerometers and stores the swing generated sensor data 82 to flash memory. As explained above in conjunction with
The described embodiment of the claimed subject matter employs a fixed sampling rate, i.e. 2 kHz. Therefore, given the initial timestamp and a fixed time between samples, a swing path can be chronologically recreated. IGC 18 also monitors its position with respect to the upper and lower swing planes. While in the Swinging state, if club head 36 (
After each sampling interval, control proceeds from step 259 to a “Time Exceeded?” step 261 during which process 200 determines whether more time has elapsed than necessary to complete a swing of IGC 18. If so, control proceeds to a “Write Data” step 265 during which the data samples captured during iteration through step 259 are copied to and stored in a memory. IGC 18 then returns to a Doze state and control proceeds to an “End Process Swing” step 269 in which step 213 is complete.
If, in step 261, process 200 determines that the swing has not exceeded the maximum allowable time, then control proceeds to an “Insufficient Rotation?” step 263 during which process 200 determines whether or not IGC 18 is moving sufficiently fast to still be considered in the process of a swing. IGC 18 determines the end of the swing by monitoring the moving average of rotation vector magnitude. The magnitude of the rotation vector is calculated by taking the square root of the sum of the squared values of angular rate around the Cx, Cy, and Cz axes. If the moving average falls below a set threshold the swing is declared complete and control proceeds to Write Data step 265 and processing continues as described above. If, in step 263, process 200 determines the swing is still active, i.e. the moving average is above the threshold, then control returns to step 259 and more data samples are collected as described above.
Following updating of the user profile in step 303, if performed, control proceeds to a “Application Patch Required?” step 305 during which process 300 determines whether or not a later version of analysis application 88 is available for download. If an application patch is available, control proceeds to a “Download Application Patch” step 307 during which the corresponding patch is downloaded and applied to analysis application 88. Those with skill in the computing arts should know of different methods of notifying an application that an upgrade is available and of applying the patch to analysis application 88.
If an application patch is either unavailable in step 305 or downloaded and applied in step 307, control proceeds to a “Firmware (FW) Patch Available?” step 309 during which process 300 determines whether or not a later version of process 200 (
If a firmware patch is either unavailable in step 309 or downloaded and applied in step 311, control proceeds to a “Collect IGC Data” step 313 during which analysis application 88 signals IGC 18 via RF link box 38 and collects any data collected by IGC 18. Step 313 corresponds to Request For Data? step 233 and Download Data step 235 of process 200. In other words, step 313, executed on computing device 48, causes IGC 18 to execute steps 237 and 239.
From step 313, control proceeds to a “Share Swing Data? step 315 during which process 300 determines whether or not there is a signal to export user profile and/or swing data to another application. If such a signal is present, then control proceeds to an “Export Swing Data” step 317 during which user profile and/or swing data is transmitted to another SGSAT application. As explained above in conjunction with
If there is either no signal to export in step 315 or data is exported in step 317, control proceeds to a “Display Data” step 319 during which process 300 via analysis application 88 provides the user with visual feedback. Two examples of visual feedback include, but are not limited to, swing analytics and swing visualization. Swing analytics includes such information as the quality of impact with a golf ball, the corresponding geometric planes of the swing, a projected distance, the consistency among multiple swings and other advanced analytics. Swing visualization includes such information as multiple views of a particular swing, replay of a swing at various speeds and the viewing of specific segments of a swing.
Finally, control proceeds to an “End Display Data” step 339 in which process 300 is complete.
All references, including publications, patent applications, and patents, cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each reference were individually and specifically indicated to be incorporated by reference and were set forth in its entirety herein.
The use of the terms “a” and “an” and “the” and similar referents in the context of describing embodiments of the invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. The terms “comprising,” “having,” “including,” and “containing” are to be construed as open-ended terms (i.e., meaning “including, but not limited to,”) unless otherwise noted. Recitation of ranges of values herein are merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range, unless otherwise indicated herein, and each separate value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., “such as”) provided herein, is intended merely to better illuminate embodiments of the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention unless otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element as essential to the practice of the invention.
Preferred embodiments of this invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventors for carrying out the invention. Variations of those preferred embodiments may become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. The inventors expect skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventors intend for the invention to be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.
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|U.S. Classification||473/221, 473/151, 473/233, 473/131|
|International Classification||A63B15/00, A63B69/36, A63B69/00, A63B24/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A63B69/0015, A63B2024/0012, A63B2225/20, A63B2071/0625, A63B2220/40, A63B2225/50, A63B2243/0016, A63B69/3614, A63B2071/0627, A63B2243/0083, A63B15/00, A63B69/38, A63B2243/0004, A63B69/0002|
|European Classification||A63B15/00, A63B69/36C2|
|Aug 2, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SMARTSWING, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:EYESTONE, RICHARD D.;HOOD, NATHAN J.;GABBI, ALESSANDRO U.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015684/0729
Effective date: 20040331