US 20050056294 A1
A reconstituted tobacco sheet for use in a cigarette includes up to about 80% by weight of wood pulp, up to about 30% by weight of a binder, and up to about 80% by weight of tobacco. A humectant and a flavor may be included. The reconstituted tobacco sheet is used in elongated strips along the outer surface of a tobacco rod between the tobacco rod and an inner surface of an outer wrap of cigarette paper
1. A process for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet having a binder, comprising the steps of:
preparing a slurry containing a mixture of up to about 80% by weight tobacco, and up to about 30% by weight of said binder; and
coating a preformed reconstituted tobacco sheet, wherein said sheet contains up to about 80% wood pulp, with said slurry.
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cutting said sheet of reconstituted tobacco into longitudinal strips;
inserting a plurality of said longitudinal strips of said reconstituted tobacco into a cigarette adjacent a column of tobacco.
13. A process for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet comprising the steps of:
preparing a slurry including a binder, a humectant, tobacco, and a flavoring, said tobacco being up to about 80% by weight and dispersed in an aqueous solvent into said slurry, said binder being up to about 30% by weight and dispersed secondly into said slurry, said humectant being up to about 30% by weight and dispersed thirdly into said slurry, and then up to about 30% by weight of flavor being dispersed lastly into said slurry;
coating a preformed reconstituted tobacco sheet with said slurry;
cutting said sheet of reconstituted tobacco into longitudinal strips; and
inserting a plurality of said longitudinal strips of said reconstituted tobacco into a cigarette adjacent a column of tobacco.
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17. A cigarette comprising:
a tobacco column surrounded by an outer wrap paper; and,
a partial inner wrap material extending longitudinally of said tobacco column and disposed between said outer wrap, said partial inner wrap being one or more strips of a reconstituted tobacco sheet which is comprised of up to about 80% by weight of wood pulp, up to about 30% by weight of a binder, and up to about 80% by weight of tobacco, said partial inner wrap being coated with a coating comprising up to about 80% by weight tobacco and up to about 30% by weight of a binder.
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26. A reconstituted tobacco sheet, comprised of up to about 80% by weight of wood pulp, up to about 30% by weight of binder, and up to about 80% by weight of tobacco.
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37. A process for making a modified reconstituted tobacco sheet, comprising the steps of:
preparing a slurry containing tobacco particles and an aqueous solvent;
extracting said slurry at about 160° F. for about 30 minutes;
separating said slurry into an extract with water soluble compounds and solid portion;
mixing said solid portion with wood pulp, wherein said wood is up to about 80% by weight;
forming said solid portion into a reconstituted tobacco sheet over a Fourdriner paper machine wire;
centrifuging and concentrating said extract;
adding a first binder to said extract, wherein said first binder is up to about 30% by weight;
adding a humectant to said extract, wherein said humectant is up to about 30% by weight;
applying said extract to said reconstituted tobacco sheet and drying;
slitting said reconstituted tobacco sheet into elongated strips; and
inserting a plurality of said elongated strips into a cigarette adjacent a column of tobacco.
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This continuation-in-part application claims priority to and benefit from currently pending U.S. application Ser. No. 10/811,270, filed Mar. 26, 2004, which is a continuation-in-part of and claims priority to and benefit from currently pending U.S. application Ser. No. 10/299,231, filed Nov. 19, 2002, which are incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates to a process for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet and more particularly to a process for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet including a flavoring compound contained in a gel matrix within the reconstituted tobacco sheet and even more particularly to a paper process for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet including an alginate based compound.
In the manufacturing of smoking articles and particularly cigarettes, it is common to use in the tobacco blend a percentage of strips of reconstituted tobacco. The reconstituted tobacco is generally prepared from tobacco fines, veins, stems and other waste tobacco products which are further processed and formed into sheets, cut into strips and blended in with fresh cut tobacco. The amount of reconstituted tobacco used in a tobacco blend for a smoking article varies, but is generally less than 20%. Usually, reconstituted tobacco sheets made via the paper process are absent of additional binders, such as alginate, guar, xanthan, acacia, pectin, other gums, and modified cellulose compounds.
Additionally, there has been great concern for the reduction of the ignition propensity of smoking articles as there have been a substantial number of fires which have been attributed to burning cigarettes coming into contact with combustible or flammable materials. Therefore, there is a considerable effort being expended in the industry to provide smoking articles which provide a low ignition propensity smoking article. Many of these proposals include a modification of the wrapper for the smoking article. Particularly, coatings or additives have been made to wrappers for the smoking articles to reduce the porosity or to change the chemical properties of the wrapper.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel formulation for a reconstituted tobacco sheet and the process for making same.
It is also an object of the present invention to provide a smoking article, including a novel reconstituted tobacco sheet in one layer of a wrapper for the smoking article.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a novel formulation for a reconstituted tobacco sheet having an alginate based coating and the process or making same.
It is yet a further object of the present invention to provide a smoking article, including a novel reconstituted tobacco sheet having an alginate based coating in one layer of a wrapper for the smoking article.
The present invention provides a reconstituted tobacco sheet which includes up to about 80% by weight of tobacco; up to about 80% by weight of wood pulp, preferably up to about 60% by weight of wood pulp; up to about 30% by weight of a binder (e.g., alginate, guar, xanthan, acacia, pectin, other gums, and modified cellulose compounds), preferably up to about 20% by weight of a binder; and up to about 30% by weight of flavoring compounds, preferably about 3% to about 5% by weight of flavoring compounds.
Processes for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet are known in the art. The present invention provides a process for making a reconstituted tobacco sheet having a binder applied to the sheet to decrease sheet porosity, thereby lowering ignition propensity and cigarette burn rate. The binder may be alginate, guar, xanthum, acacia, pectin, other gums, and modified cellulose compounds. The resulting tobacco sheet with the applied binder is cut into lengths of preselected widths for use in a smoking article. In one embodiment, the strips are positioned longitudinally of the tobacco rod between the tobacco rod and an outer cigarette or smoking article wrapper.
Additional objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon consideration of the following detailed description including examples of the preparation of the reconstituted tobacco sheet of the present invention.
The aspects and advantages of the present invention will be better understood when the detailed description of the preferred embodiments is taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
A cigarette with burn rate modification is shown in
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As shown in the drawings, the construction of the cigarette with burn rate modification is a partial double wrap cigarette 10 depicted herein and utilizes a standard outer wrap cigarette paper 12 which, in a typical cigarette, is 27 mm wide. Placed along the interior of the outer wrap, as shown in
Alternatively, many different constructions may be utilized to provide the cigarette with burn rate modification as set forth herein. As may be understood, a single inner wrap layer or a plurality of inner wrap layers may be provided based upon the desired characteristics and burn rate modification. Thus, as previously mentioned, combinations of low porosity inner wrap segments and higher porosity outer wrap segments may be utilized to provide various linear burn rates which may be desirable. Thus, a typical linear burn rate of 6.0 mm per minute may be reduced as desired based upon a combination of porosity of outer wrap and partial inner wrap strips among other factors and may readily be reduced to below 4 mm/minute if needed. This includes formulation of single inner wrap strips of lower porosity or replacement of the inner wrap strips with various construction material including reconstituted tobacco, low porosity paper, reconstituted tobacco, a polymer based material, other paper or material. The inner wrap strips are coated with binders, such as alginates (e.g., sodium alginate), guar, xanthum, acacia, pectin, other gums, modified cellulose compounds or hydrocolloid-based compounds, which act as burn modifiers or inhibitors and which create at least one low diffusion area along the tobacco column. The binders decrease the porosity of the coated reconstituted tobacco sheet, which are used as inner strips, and provide adequate characteristics such that the entire combination of outer wrap porosity, tobacco packing density, inner strip burning characteristics, inner strip porosity, and other factors cause the cigarette to exhibit a desired burn rate.
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As may be appreciated, extending the inner wrap layer substantially along the length of the tobacco column 13 such that they are co-axial provides a significant benefit over alternating rings which are perpendicular to the axis of the tobacco column 13. Such perpendicular rings which alternate along the length of the tobacco column may provide a non-linear burn rate of the tobacco column 13. Thus, in such a design where there are circumscribing rings around the tobacco column, the linear burn rate becomes variable between a low linear burn rate to a high linear burn rate depending upon the porosity of the paper at the point of the rings as opposed to the porosity of the non-adjusted paper between the rings. Such non-linear burn rate may in fact be undesirable in that continued free burning of the tobacco column between the rings for significant periods of time does not produce an appropriate burn rate modification which can be depended upon through the entire tobacco column length. Further, at points where the low porosity rings are present, a smoker may puff on the cigarette as the burning of the tobacco column passes over a low porosity ring. At such a point, it is thought that the deliveries of the cigarette may be altered significantly to increase the CO and other compounds provided as the cigarette burns over one of these rings. Thus, the partial double wrap inner layer of the present invention overcomes these problems by providing known standard deliveries over the entire length of the tobacco column while also modifying the burn rate along the entire co-axial length.
In the design of the cigarette with the burn rate modification 10 of the present invention, it may be desirable to incorporate the inner wrap layers, whether a plurality of strips or a single layer, away from the seam of the outer wrap 12. As is known in cigarette manufacturing, the seam 23, depicted in
The cigarette with burn rate modification of the present invention may be designed with variations in outer wrap and inner wrap paper characteristics. As previously explained, standard outer wrap designs are such that the typical outer wrap has a linear laid out width of 27 mm and generally a porosity of between 15 and 80 CORESTA units. As is generally understood, significantly decreasing the outer wrap porosity changes the deliveries and linear burn rate of the cigarette. Modification of the standard burn rate for a normal or typical cigarette may be obtained through addition of a partial inner wrap to the cigarette. The partial inner wrap may be a single inner wrap portion or may be a plurality of inner wrap strips as shown in the various figures. The partial inner wrap may have paper characteristics with a significantly reduced porosity such that the inner wrap paper exhibits a porosity of less than 8 CORESTA units. If a single inner wrap strip is utilized, the inner wrap layer may have a width of between 2-15 mm. The porosity of the inner wrap layer may be adjusted from any where to 0 to 8 CORESTA units.
A more comprehensive understanding of the invention can be obtained by considering the following examples. However, it should be understood that the examples are not intended to be unduly limitative of the invention.
Several product examples were made using the construction of a partial strip wrap or partial inner wrap cigarette using the inventive techniques and construction described herein. In the examples, a control cigarette was used having no partial inner wrap strips which exhibited a linear burn rate of between 4.3-4.7 mm/min. Different materials were utilized, as detailed in the chart below, for the partial inner wrap strips ranging from standard treated paper to band cast tobacco material.
Examples of cigarettes with two band cast inner wrap strips having a porosity of band cast material less than 5 CORESTA units:
Examples of cigarettes with two cigarette paper strips treated or covered with sodium alginate having a porosity of inner strip paper less than 5 CORESTA units:
Examples of cigarettes detailing smoke deliveries of two samples with band cast strips:
In the examples presented, it is apparent that the addition of the partial inner wrap to the cigarette had a definite impact on linear burn rate and self extinguishment as compared to the control cigarette. The linear burn rate for the cigarettes using the present invention was directly affected and evidenced a reduction in linear burn rate by up to 40 percent. Where inner wrap strips were utilized having a width of at least 4 mm, all test samples self extinguished. Narrower width strips had differing results which could be modified by using alternative additives or increasing the number of strips. References to the self-extinguishment of the cigarette on 10 layers are related to the NIST test for cigarette ignition propensity.
Smoking Article Including Strips of Reconstituted Tobacco
The separate partial inner wrap strips 14 may be strips of reconstituted tobacco made in accordance with the specific formula and process for making same as discussed hereinafter. The outer wrap cigarette paper 12 may be a normal porosity paper which typically exhibits a porosity of 15-80 CORESTA units. As shown, two strips 14 of a reconstituted tobacco sheet are provided on opposite sides of the tobacco column 13 to provide a partial inner wrap layer. The partial inner wrap layer including the reconstituted tobacco strips 14 may extend substantially the length of and be co-axial with the tobacco column 13. In one embodiment, the strips are placed equidistant from each other such that the resulting cigarette burns evenly.
Preparation of a Reconstituted Tobacco Sheet Having Binder
The extract, meanwhile, can optionally be treated with particular adsorbents to selectively remove undesired constituents. The extract is then centrifuged and the adsorbent now containing the constituents is discarded. The extract is then concentrated. A first binder, such as alginate (e.g. sodium alginate), guar, xanthum, acacia, pectin, other gums, modified cellulose compounds, and hydrocolloid-based compounds is added to the extract. Also, a humectant, such as glycerin, can be added for sheet pliability and is generally added before the binder and before any additional flavorant. A desired flavoring can also be added to the extract.
The new extract mixture is then reapplied to the preformed reconstituted tobacco sheet. Optionally, a third binder mix solution, such as alginate (e.g., sodium alginate), guar, xanthum, acacia, pectin, other gums, modified cellulose compounds, and hydrocolloid-based compounds, can be size pressed and/or sprayed onto the reconstituted tobacco sheet. The reconstituted tobacco sheet can then be dried and slit into elongated strips of a desired width and wound onto a bobbin. The elongated strips can be used as longitudinally extending strips along the outer periphery of a tobacco rod and the inner surface of an outer paper wrap.
In a preferred mix, the tobacco is up to about 80% by weight; the wood pulp is up to about 80% by weight, preferably up to about 60% by weight; the binder is up to about 30% by weight, preferably up to about 20% by weight; and, if a flavoring is added, the flavoring will be up to about 30% by weight, preferably from about 3% to about 5% by weight.
The following examples demonstrate the procedure that was followed in preparing the reconstituted tobacco sheet having a binder for use in a smoking article.
In the process of making a reconstituted tobacco sheet, 500 pounds of a combination of tobacco and wood pulp (1:3 to 3:1 ratio) was extracted with 750 gallons of water in a mixing vessel, at 140° C. to 190° C. for 30 to 45 minutes. Following extraction, the mixture was separated into solids (fiber) and liquid (extract) streams via centrifugation, filtration, or pressing.
The liquid extract was concentrated by vacuum evaporation and mixed thoroughly with 60 pounds of glycerin. In a separate vessel, an alginate solution was prepared by thoroughly dispersing 40 pounds of sodium alginate in 135 gallons of water. The concentrated extract with glycerin was then thoroughly mixed with the alginate solution. Optionally, the liquid extract was gently agitated for 20 to 45 minutes with 75 pounds of a powdered solid adsorbent, such as bentonite (diatomaceous earth), carbon, cyclodextrin, cellulose acetate, or combinations thereof, to selectively remove nitrogen and other undesired components. After agitation, the adsorbent was separated and discarded from the extract via centrifugation. The extract was then concentrated and treated with glycerin and alginate as described above.
Meanwhile, the solid stream was put through a refiner to fibrillate the fibers into a tobacco-wood pulp. The pulp was then used to make base sheets over a Fourdriner paper machine wire and dried. Any of the two concentrated extracts as prepared above were then added back to the base sheets either via size pressing or spraying. The finished sheet was finally dried and slit into strips and wound onto bobbins to be used as split inner wraps.
Sheets were prepared and slit as described in Example 2, except that the alginate solution was added directly to the base sheet, instead of being mixed with the concentrated extract. Also, 25 pounds of precipitated chalk or chitosan (inorganic or organic inert fillers) were added to the refined pulp mixture before making base sheet over the Fourdriner machine wire. Other inert fillers include liposan and combinations of chalk, chitosan, and liposan.
It is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the specific examples shown, because the parameters set forth in the examples may be varied by appropriate changes of the amounts of the constituents within the reconstituted tobacco sheet mix used in the examples.