US 20050061262 A1
A fuel mixture for a compression ignition device is provided, comprising a mixture of used oil and fuel material in a ratio that increases the fuel efficiency of the device in comparison to the efficiency of the device when operated without the used oil. In a fuel mixture according to the present invention, the amount of used oil in the mixture is not more than 60% by volume of the mixture, is in a general target range of 25% to 60% (by volume) and is preferably about 37% to about 42% by volume. Moreover, it is preferred that the used oil is filtered at a predetermined level. The preferred filter level is a 5-micron level, followed by a plurality of passes, at low speeds, through 10-micron paper filter.
1. A fuel mixture for a compression ignition device, comprising a mixture of used oil and fuel material in a ratio that increases the fuel efficiency of the device in comparison to the efficiency of the device when operated without the used oil.
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This application is related to and claims priority from Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/329,835, filed Oct. 16, 2001.
The present invention relates generally to a fuel mixture, and more particularly, to a fuel mixture for a compression ignition device.
The objective of the present invention is Energy Recovery. Since 1974 energy demand has risen to the point that it affects all energy users. In the industrial world there is a lot of waste that is not addressed. Used oil, e.g. used motor oil, currently has very little economical use. Used oil is known to have about 150,000 BTU per gallon. That is more than diesel, gasoline or jet fuel. The objective of the present invention is to be able to recover the energy of used oil in a way that is effective and economical. Such energy recovery can come, e.g., from used motor oil that is generally considered a waste product.
In the applicant's experience, used oil products currently are being incinerated or are being used as fuels for space heaters. Most generators pay to get rid of used oil which is considered waste product, and such waste product has relatively little economic value. The present invention recognizes that used oil based products have energy that could recovered, and be used for a higher economic value (e.g. as fuel for compression ignition devices.
The present invention addresses these problems by providing a fuel mixture that uses used oil to provide a fuel mixture for use with compression ignition devices (e.g. Diesel engines). The invention recovers energy from such used oil and puts that energy into a higher economic use, as a fuel for a compression ignition device.
Since the waste oil has energy that could be recovered and used for economical gain, the present invention puts such waste oil into a higher beneficial use for users of energy, by providing a fuel mixture that is particularly useful with existing compression ignition engines.
The problem is to make sure there is enough hydro-carbon available so the compression ignition takes place. Once the hydro-carbon is decreased, the engine is hard to start and a great loss of power is experienced. Using small amounts of oil does not make too much economic sense. The process of cleaning the oil from particles from the used oil is very important, because if a significant amount of particles are present in the mixture, the injection system will plug and fail. Significant amounts of particles can also create excessive wear, which is a problem for the injection pump. Thus, the invention provides for filtering the used oil such that the particles larger than a predetermined size are filtered out. If they are not, the fuel filters will plug the correct flow of fuel for the compression ignition device to function properly and to provide enough power. The filtering also keeps the fuel injectors from excessive wear and the ability to release the correct amount of fuel with the correct pressure and timing.
In this application, the term “used oil” is intended to mean oil or an oil mixture that is otherwise a waste product of a facility. Used oil also includes oil or an oil mixture that has been stored and not used during the period in which its use has been recommended (i.e. it is “too old”). Potential sources of used oil include maintenance shops, automotive facilities, restaurants, industrial facilities, etc.
At present, the preferred fuel mixture of the present invention uses less than 60%, (by volume) used motor oil, a general target range of 25%-60% used motor oil (by volume), and a preferred target range of between about 37% to 42% (by volume). The used oil is cleaned by one or more filtering steps, and is mixed with a conventional fuel material (e.g. Diesel fuel or jet engine fuel). With such a mixture, a Diesel engine for a vehicle may be harder to start than with a Diesel fuel alone, but will provide an increase of fuel mileage. With such a mixture, the engine should provide about a 10% increase in mileage.
If the mixture has greater than 60% used oil, there is likely to be a significant loss of power and the “hard to start” problem is likely to be acute. Thus, the present invention currently contemplates a mixture having a general target range of 25%-60% (by volume) used motor oil, and a preferred range of about 37% to about 42% used oil.
Regarding the effect of temperature on the ratio of used oil to fuel, cooler temperatures (e.g. below 70 degrees F.) allow a higher percentage of used oil. Warmer temperatures (e.g. above 95 degrees F.) allow the use of a lower percentage of used oil.
Number 2 Diesel from almost any source can be used as the fuel that is mixed with the used oil. However under very cold conditions (i.e. below freezing), Number 1 Diesel fuel would be preferred over Number 2 Diesel. Additionally, up to 10% (by volume) gasoline is believed useful in very cold conditions.
In order to keep the fuel injection pump and fuel injectors healthy with a minimum amount of wear, a mixture of up to 2 cans (300 ml) of LUBRO MOLY and 1 pint of Marvel Mystery oil per 40 gallons of fuel mixture of the invention is suggested.
The used oil used in the mixture according to the present invention includes almost all types of used oils that would be generally generated at a motor service shop. The used oil can also include different grades of oil and transmission fluids. Water is the only item that is not desired. Since water is heavier than oil, it could be easily separated from the mixture. For example, since water is significantly heavier than used motor oil, the water can be separated from the used oil by settling (for about ˝ day) and then draining the separated water from the used oil. Alternatively, the water can be separated by a water separator filter such as a “RACOR” filter, produced by RACOR, of Fresno, Calif.
Since jet fuel is very close to diesel it can be used. Jet fuel has slightly less energy and is a little lighter than diesel fuel, and should mix very well with used oil. For valve engines the jet fuel does not have the oiling required to keep the valves from burning up. By mixing the used oil with the jet fuel, in about the same relative proportion to which the used oil is mixed with diesel fuel, the valve problem is addressed. The jet fuel used in such a mixture can be provided, e.g., from the residue of commercial airliners.
Filtering the used oil is preferably done by a combination of filters and of filtering steps. Since used motor oil is inherently dirty, filtering is provided to protect components of the engine, including but not limited to the fuel injection system and reciprocating parts of the engine, as will be readily appreciated by those in the art. It is preferred that the used oil be filtered several times before the oil is used in a fuel mixture. One type of filter comprises stainless steel mesh that is cleanable with solvent or water. A primary filter is the type of wire mesh used as a window screen. The preferred primary filter can be, e.g. a 35-micron stainless steel mesh. It may be desirable to filter the used oil more once with the primary filter. The mixture is then run through a 5-micron stainless steel mesh filter. The speed at which the used oil can be run through the 35-micron and 5 micron steel mesh filters can be relatively fast (e.g. about 10 gallons per minute (gpm)). Finally, the mixture is preferably run through a 10-micron cellulose based (e.g. paper filter) twice at slower speeds to remove particles that might slip through the stainless steel filters. An example of such a paper filter is a NAPA filter 4347, with a filter speed of about 4 gpm.
After it is filtered, the oil is then mixed at a given percentage into a vessel with diesel (or jet engine) fuel. Some stirring is helpful. This is usually done with a circulation pump. All the additives that will help keep the fuel injection pump lubed are preferably added to the mixture. Ten minutes of pumping with a 10-gpm pump in a 50-gallon tank is sufficient. The material will stay mixed for several days. Standard procedure is to pump mix a few minutes before fueling a vehicle is desired.
Thus, as seen from the foregoing description, the present invention provides a fuel mixture for a compression ignition device, comprising a mixture of used oil and fuel material in a ratio that increases the fuel efficiency of the device in comparison to the efficiency of the device when operated without the used oil. In a fuel mixture according to the present invention, the amount of used oil in the mixture is not more than 60% by volume of the mixture, has a target range of 25% to 60%, and under the current formulation a preferably target range of about 37% to 42% by volume. Moreover, it is preferred that the used oil is filtered to remove particles larger than 5 microns.
As described above, the present invention relates to a fuel mixture for a compression ignition device. The principles of the present invention are described above in connection with a fuel mixture for a diesel engine. However, it will be clear to those in the art that the principles of the present invention can be used to create a fuel mixture for other types of compression ignition devices.