US 20050062583 A1
In the laser trimming of passive circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors and inductors, various trimming parameters must be selected. To select a parameter, such as a cut type or speed, a value of a parameter, such as the resistance or impedance of a resistor, of each of a plurality of elements is measured. The measured parameter value of each element is compared with a target value for the parameter to determine an offset value between the measured parameter value and the target value. The relevant trim parameters are then selected based on the determined offset values.
1. A method for laser trimming a circuit element, comprising:
identifying parameters associated with the element, including at least one of a paste composition from which the element is formed and a subsequent manufacture processing step to which the element is subjected; and
selecting a trim parameter based the identified parameters to reduce subsequent drift in element value.
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trimming the element in accordance with the selected trim parameter to change the actual value to be within the target range.
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13. A method for laser trimming a circuit element, comprising:
identifying parameters associated with the element that are substantial contributors to subsequent drift in element value, the identified parameters including at least one of a paste composition from which the element is formed, a subsequent manufacture processing step to which the element is subjected, a forming method of the element, a type of substrate on which the element is disposed, substrate mounting material, and surrounding materials proximate the element;
selecting a trim parameter based the identified parameters to reduce the subsequent drift in element value; and
trimming the element in accordance with the selected trim parameter.
14. The method of
determining an anticipated subsequent drift in element value based on the identified parameters;
wherein the element is trimmed to have a target value that is selected based on the anticipated subsequent drift.
15. The method of
16. The method of
This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/103,317, filed Mar. 22, 2002, which is herein incorporated in its entirety by reference.
The present invention relates to trimming elements formed on a panel or other work piece. More particularly the present invention relates to trimming elements, such as resistors, capacitors or other passive circuit elements, which may be later embedded in a layer of a multi-layer work piece, such as a printed circuit board (PCB).
Material processing is used to adjust the performance of electronic elements by removing or otherwise affecting a portion of the material of the electronic element to change the electrical characteristics thereof. It is known to change the electrical properties of passive and some active electronic elements by removing material therefrom. Methods of removing material include applying laser energy for vaporizing a portion of the material, applying laser energy for ablative removal of the material and applying laser energy to affect a photochemical reaction for removing and/or otherwise altering an electrical performance characteristic of the material. It is well known that the relative effect of these three processes depends on the energy density and wavelength of the laser, and the properties of the material illuminated by the laser.
Lasers are used to perform all of these material-processing techniques. Laser material processing is routinely performed using a position and power controlled laser beam that is directed to scan over a desired region of the material for processing. These techniques are used to process individual passive electronic elements such as resistors, capacitors and inductors, as well as to process electrical elements in microchips, e.g. for memory chip repair and/or for trimming electrical elements formed onto silicon or other crystalline substrates.
In particular, a laser beam is directed over a region of the electrical element to remove or trim material from the element. The trimming may affect the electrical performance of the element by reducing the volume of electrical material in the element or by altering a path of electron flow through the material, e.g. by creating a longer resistive path or even by creating an open circuit by completely removing a conductive path between two elements.
It is well known in the manufacturing of precision electrical resistors to laser trim each resistor to adjust its resistive value to fall within a desired range. It is also known to measure the resistive value during the laser trimming process and to continue to trim the resistor until the resistive value is acceptable.
According to conventional precision chip resistor manufacturing methods, it is desired that each of the resistor elements 120 formed on the ceramic substrate 110 have substantially the same resistance value within a narrow tolerance range. However, each resistor element 120, as applied to or formed onto the ceramic substrate 110 may have a resistance value that falls outside of the desired range due to uncontrollable aspects of forming the resistive elements onto the substrate. Accordingly it is known to trim each resistor using a laser-trimming device to adjust the resistance value, if needed, such that all of the resistor elements have a resistance value that is within the desired range. To trim each resistor element 120, the probes 140 are electrically contacted onto the measurement passive elements 130 and the initial resistance value is measured. A laser beam is then directed onto the resistor element being probed to make a trim cut which cuts through the resistor material to the ceramic substrate. The cut resistor has an increased electrical resistance as compared to the uncut resistor, as the cut reduces the cross-sectional area.
Various resistor trimming cuts are known, including a double plunge cut shown in
Once the trimming is complete, the panel 100 is diced up into sections with one resistive element 120 on each section and the resistive elements are incorporated into electrical circuits usually as surface mounted elements. Accordingly it is known in the prior art to manufacture individual resistors, which are trimmed before being incorporated into an electrical circuit or installed onto a PCB panel. These resistors may be surface mounted onto printed circuit boards (PCB's) such as computer mother boards, cell phone controllers, and the like, or the resistors may be used in transducers, testers, controllers or any other type of electrical device where a pre-measured pre-calibrated resistor may be required.
Similarly, many of the techniques described above are used during the manufacture of precision chip capacitors. In
One example of a precision chip element laser trimmer currently available is the GSI LUMONICS W770 Chip Element Trim System, manufactured and distributed by the assignee of the present invention.
In another example of the use of laser trimming, it is known to trim individual elements such as resistors, resistor networks, capacitors, inductors and integrated passive elements that are incorporated into a hybrid integrated circuit formed, for example, on a ceramic substrate. As described above, individual elements of the hybrid circuit may be probed to measure an electrical characteristic of the element and laser trimmed to adjust the electrical characteristic as required. The finished tested and trimmed circuits may then be sold for incorporation into another device, e.g. mounted onto a PCB, or the hybrid circuit module itself may comprise a special purpose device such as a sensor.
Examples of hybrid circuit trimming systems currently available for laser trimming resistors include the GSI LUMONICS W670 Thick Film Laser Trim System and W678 Thin Film Laser Trim Systems each manufactured and distributed by the assignee of the present invention.
In other examples of laser trimming, it is known to trim individual elements such as chip resistors, resistor networks and integrated passive elements that are incorporated into an integrated circuit formed, for example, on a silicon substrate or other semiconductor. As described above, individual elements of the circuit may be probed to measure an electrical characteristic of the element and laser trimmed to adjust the electrical characteristic as required. The finished tested and trimmed semiconductor circuits may then be sold for incorporation into another device, e.g. mounted onto a PCB, or the circuit chip itself may comprise a special purpose device such as a transducer.
It is also known to trim elements after an element has been surface mounted onto a PCB or otherwise incorporated into an electrical circuit. In this case, a completed and functional device may be probed to measure an electrical response to an electrical input stimuli and one of the circuit elements of the electrical circuit may be laser trimmed while the circuit is active, to change the circuit performance according to a desired circuit response.
Other electronic elements such as capacitors and inductors have also been trimmed using a laser to remove or otherwise affect a material that can change the capacitance or inductance, respectively, of the element. It is known to trim individual passive elements such as resistors, capacitors and inductors to achieve a desired resistance, capacitance or inductance. It is also known to trim passive elements in a passive network of elements for example to adjust the resistance of a pair of resistors connected in parallel or in series by trimming just one of the resistor elements.
As shown in
Passive electronic elements may electrically contact just the top conductive layer 190, as shown for the element 170 (called surface mount components), or a component may be mounted using one or more holes drilled completely through the printed circuit board (called through hole components), possibly connected to several conductive layers 190 depending on the individual circuit design. In this latter case, the element 180 includes conductive leads 210 that are inserted into through-holes 220 drilled or otherwise formed in the PCB blank prior to mounting the element 180. In any case, the elements are attached and electrically contacted to conductive layer(s) by soldering.
Thus according to the prior art, a finished PCB includes one or more conductive layers and one or more dielectric layers. The conductive layers are generally etched or otherwise formed into a pattern of conductive paths that interconnect to form electrical circuits. Conducting via holes are pre-formed through the one or more conductive and dielectric layers to allow a surface mounted element to form an electrical contact with one or more conductive layers. Thereafter, passive or active electronic elements of the circuits such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, chips, transistors, amplifiers, diodes, and the like, are surface mounted onto the PCB blank and soldered to contact one or more of the desired conductive layers. In many cases, the electrical elements are pre-trimmed to provide a specific electrical performance. However, in some cases, a surface mounted element may be trimmed after installation onto the PCB.
According to newly developed procedures for fabricating finished PCB's, some passive elements are being formed directly onto the conductive and or dielectric layers of a PCB panel such as is shown in
As shown, the substantially same circuit pattern 270 is repeated six times over the panel such that six separate circuits may be formed on the single panel 240. After completion, including the mounting of any surface mounted elements, the panel 240 may be diced up into six separate PCB's. Alternately, the panel 240 may comprise one large circuit board.
In the present example, a plurality of passive resistors 280 are formed directly onto the panel 240 by printing, painting or otherwise applying a resistive paste or film between selected conductive paths 260 of the circuit 270. Each resistor is in direct contact with the dielectric layer 250 and interconnects at least two isolated conductive paths 260. As an alternative process, a sheet of resistive or insulating material backed with a conductive layer is laminated as a continuous layer on the circuit board, and then the patterns are etched in the conductive/resistive or conductive/insulating structure to form resistors or capacitors. Both the printing and etching techniques for forming embedded passive elements are discussed in greater detail following a discussion of the present limitations of embedding passive elements in printed circuit boards.
All of the passive resistors 280 may be applied simultaneously such as through screen or template or they may be applied in several steps. After application, the resistive paste or liquid is cured by baking or another curing process to provide a finished resistor. In subsequent fabrication steps, one or more dielectric and conductive layers may be applied over the layer including the cured resistors just applied, as shown in
A significant benefit of the method of embedding passive elements into the PCB is that each embedded passive element eliminates a corresponding surface mounted passive element thereby providing more space on the surface for mounting other elements, or reducing the overall area of the finished circuit board. In addition, the cost of fabricating embedded resistors is lower than the cost of separately fabricating and then surface mounting surface mount resistors. The above process and benefits also apply to other embedded passive elements such as capacitors and inductors.
Another significant benefit of the method of embedding passive elements into the PCB is that the electrical performance of the associated circuits may be improved. Closer placement of the passive circuit elements to other passive and active circuit elements reduces the path length of the conductive interconnects between elements. Especially for circuits operating at high frequencies, short interconnects reduce the radiated electromagnetic fields and reduce parasitic capacitances and inductances present in the circuit.
Embedded elements are usually placed on layers close to the core material because this part of the panel provides the most stable surface during the build-up or lamination process. The initial placement of these elements occurs in the earlier stages of production of a PCB at which point the elements are on the top surface of the panel. After all of the passive elements are printed and cured, or etched, another layer, e.g. a copper or dielectric layer, is laminated over the layer to embed the passive elements.
A significant problem with the use of embedded passive elements is that the electrical characteristics of the deposited or etched elements are difficult to control and predict because of variables in the fabrication process. For many applications, it has not been possible to fabricate embedded elements with sufficient accuracy due to these limitations.
Accordingly, heretofore, embedded passive elements have been restricted to use in circuit paths that can tolerate a wide variation in resistor or other passive element values and manufacturers have been forced to use surface mounted passive elements whenever a narrow range of electrical performance is required of a particular circuit element. This has limited the use of embedded passive printed circuit boards in many critical performance systems.
The majority of the problems associated with embedding resistors within layers of a PCB panel relate to the typical materials used for the resistor elements, the substrate or mounting material, and any surrounding materials proximate to the resistor such as a dielectric layer laminated or coated on top of the resistor.
Two major groups of materials are currently used for embedded resistor elements in PCB panels. The first material group includes thin film resistors made from different metal-based alloys that are laminated or deposited on the board surface. The thickness of these resistors is usually less than 1 micron. The thickness and composition of the resistive layer determine the sheet resistance of the material. The sheet resistance, or resistivity, of the material is given in units of ohms per square. The thinner the material forming the resistive layer, the higher the sheet resistivity. At present, commercially available thin film resistors have a sheet resistivity within a range of 25 Ohms/square to 250 Ohms/square, although recent reports describe a 5 nm thick material with a sheet resistivity of 1000 Ohms/square (See Shipley Inc., Insite™ resistors, Ref. P. Chinoy, et al., CircuiTree Magazine, March 2002, p 78).
Two principal processes are used in the formation of thin film resistors. The first involves lamination of a continuous copper foil/metal alloy sheet, followed by photo-mask, expose, and etch steps to pattern both the copper and thin film material according to the circuit design. This is a fully subtractive process, since material is removed to form the circuit elements. A typical thin film resistor formed by this subtractive process is shown in
The second process involves an additive process of selective deposition, typically an electrochemical plating process, to form the resistive elements. As depicted in
In both processes, but especially in the second, the variation in thickness and composition of the resistive layer determines in most part the variation in sheet resistance of the material. Furthermore, in both processes, the geometry and dimensions of the film pattern between the copper pads, and the distance between the copper pads, determine the actual resistor value in Ohms. Some, but not all, of these variables can be controlled within reasonable tolerance limits during the PCB fabrication process. Thin film resistors deposited on PCB panels in production show variation in their values on the order of +/−10%.
In the second material group, known as thick film resistors, resistors are formed from pastes deposited onto the PCB panel or a separate material layer. These pastes may be carbon or silver-filled epoxy mixtures or may have different compositions with resistive properties. Two basic processes are used. The first involves lamination following a high temperature cure of screen printed paste on a copper foil, and the second involves a low temperature cure of paste printed on the surface of patterned copper on a PCB dielectric substrate or panel. Thick film processes may involve pastes with sheet resistivity from 15 Ohms/square to 100 kOhm/square, with correspondingly wide variation in material composition.
In the first process, and according to processing instructions for DuPont™ materials (See William J. Borland and Saul Ferguson, Embedded passive elements, CircuiTree Magazine, March 2001, p. 94-106), thick film resistor paste is screen printed onto copper foil at the proper locations prior to firing in an oven in N2 atmosphere at 900° C. After that the pre-printed copper foil is laminated to the dielectric layer of the board, and the resistors are exposed through selective etching of the copper according to the circuit design.
In the second process, the wet resistor paste for embedded thick film resistors is typically screen-printed on the surface of patterned copper on a PCB dielectric substrate or panel 2010 as depicted in
As for thin film resistors, the final resistance of the as-formed thick film resistor is governed by composition of the cured resistive paste, the dimensions and geometry of the paste in length, width and thickness, and the distance between copper contact pads.
In production, the as-formed thick film resistor process typically provides a resistor with a distribution of +/−20% from the mean value. Additionally, the mean value may be shifted relative to the target as-printed value. The tolerance of as-formed thin film resistor values is better than that of the thick film resistors because better control of material composition and thickness is possible for the thin film materials and processes.
Thick film resistors, although prone to larger variation due to the effects described above, offer other advantages over thin film resistors including at present a much wider range of material resistivity and lower overall material, process, and implementation cost.
It is evident that in order to bring the as-formed resistor tolerances within +/−1% to +/−5% of the target value, trimming of the resistors, as described above, is required. This may be said for all types of both thin film and thick film devices, and as has been discussed above, the characteristics of each may be quite different. Typically, the trimming operation is performed after the resistors have been deposited and are located on the outside of the panel at that process step before lamination or other processes.
Conventional systems used for trimming chip resistors and hybrid circuits are designed to process substrates or panels up to about 8 inches by 8 inches, depending on the application. In addition, these substrates are typically manufactured of alumina ceramic and are temperature stable, rigid and free from distortion. There is now a need to perform such trimming on larger substrate sizes, such as 18 by 24, or even 24 by 36 inch panels for embedded passive applications. Furthermore, these substrates will typically be printed circuit boards that are flexible, affected by changes in temperature and prone to distortion in lamination or other thermal cycling steps.
Automation for handling of the typical smaller alumina substrates that are the usual base for discrete passive elements and hybrid circuits is a well developed area. Machines for trimming these types of components often include handlers that feed individual substrates from a stack into the trimming section of the machine before they are moved out to an unloading area. These machines transport the substrates only, and there is no allowance for significant substrate flexibility or distortion either in handling or automated vision alignment of the parts prior to the trimming process.
Within the printed circuit board industry, typical panel sizes range from 12 inches by 18 inches, to 18 inches by 24 inches, to 24 inches by 30 inches. These panels can be very flexible, and because the conductive layers can be fragile, so called slip sheets are often placed between panels when they are stacked. These slip sheets are usually thin sheets of plastic or paper. A variety of automated handling equipment is used to transport circuit boards, and to insert and remove slip sheets during conventional printed circuit board manufacturing. These handlers include combinations of conveyors, and lifting/shuttling equipment, typically using vacuum suction cups to pick up individual PCB panels or slip sheets.
A common PCB panel core substrate dielectric material is a glass or ceramic reinforced or filled epoxy resin. The common name used for this material is FR4, although many specific trade names exist for these materials. The initial copper conductor layers, upon which the embedded resistors may be placed, are located on and/or within this core. During PCB fabrication, the core is subjected to many process steps, many of them involving flexing during handling, cycles of large temperature and pressure swings such as lamination, liquid chemical baths such as etching and plating, etc. The epoxy material is prone to softening and creep at elevated temperatures, resulting in distortion of the panel. The epoxy material is also prone to moisture absorption, changing its thermal and electrical characteristics. In turn, resistors located on this core material are thus susceptible to stresses caused by flexing and dimensional changes in the substrate, thermal cycling, and moisture absorption, among other factors. All of these factors contribute to a possible change in the resistance of the element during the process steps required for PCB panel fabrication.
The laser trimming process, whereby material is melted, vaporized, ablated, or photo-chemically altered may affect the material properties of both the resistor and the core or covering materials, if present. The geometry of the resistive element is also typically substantially changed by the trimming process, which can in turn affect the electrical characteristics and behavior of the resistor during thermal cycles, chemical baths, and other processes. It is known both for resistors conventionally formed during chip resistor or hybrid circuit manufacture, and resistors formed on PCB substrates, that the overall stability of a resistor is affected by the trimming process. For the case of resistors formed on the surface of PCB panels, it has been found that short and long term drifts occur during and after laser trimming, and depend on the paste type used as the resistor material. Factors affecting the drift in resistance value after trimming include, but are not limited to: the paste material; the curing cycle parameters; the resistor size, thickness, and geometry; and the form and structure, or morphology, of the resistor surface. Each of these factors can also affect resistance value drifts during other steps of panel production.
Similar to the core materials, the outer layer laminate dielectric materials are typically composed of a polymer resin that is coated or laminated over the core. This layer may then also be proximate to and in contact with embedded resistors, resulting in further modification of the electrical, mechanical, and other properties of the resistors.
Factors that are known to contribute to resistance changes due to lamination include, but are not limited to: duration of heat applied to the panel during lamination or other steps; resistor properties changes due to heating; substrate properties changes due to heating; stresses in resistor and/or substrate that are released due to pressure/heat applied during different steps of lamination; and chemical reactions in the paste material as well as in the substrate material or both, or with interlayer, if present.
In general, resistors made of high-resistivity paste show larger drifts and thermal effects compared to low-resistivity pastes. This is at least partially due to low thermal conductivity of the high-resistivity pastes because of the lower concentration of conductive material (carbon, for example).
Therefore, through all of the process steps involved in the fabrication of a finished PCB panel, there results a change, or drift, in the resistor value. It is known that the drift of resistance values for embedded resistors in PCB panels is larger in magnitude and less predictable than the drift that is conventionally associated with chip resistor or hybrid circuit manufacture, due to many factors including those described above. It is also now a requirement, however, that the tolerance of the resistance value of an embedded resistor with respect to its nominal target value is as tight as that for chip resistors used today, according to the requirements of the circuit.
The average or mean of absolute resistance values and the spread of these values about the mean are typically regarded as statistical quantities that are used to quantify the control possible over the resistor forming process, as well as the effects of the various drift mechanisms discussed above. The spread of values may be characterized by the standard deviation of a Gaussian distribution function fit to the data, where the term sigma or σ refers to one standard deviation. It is known from the art of laser trimming chip resistors that the wide 3σ distribution of +/−10% to +/−20% of the as-formed resistor values can be brought down to better than +/−1%.
Since typical laser trimming removes material and thus the resistance of an element can only be increased, the upper limit of the distribution of the pre-trimmed values should lie below the target value to achieve good yield within the target distribution (e.g., +/−1%) after trimming. The effects described previously that contribute to drift also contribute to drift of the resistance values after trimming, since subsequent processes such as lamination may occur. In this case both the final mean and standard distribution of the resistor values may differ from those immediately after trimming. From the descriptions above, it may also be seen that the drift effects on this distribution may be different for different resistor target values, for different resistor sizes and geometries, for different resistor and surrounding materials within a PCB, and for different process parameters used during the PCB panel fabrication.
As has been described above, there may exist several contributors to drift subsequent to trimming and up to final completion of the PCB panel, some not previously known in conventional chip resistor and hybrid circuit manufacture, and these effects may not be consistent for all resistive circuit elements associated with a PCB panel. The ability, then, to achieve narrow final resistor tolerances is thus not assured, compared to conventional chip resistor and hybrid circuit manufacture.
Accordingly, a need exists for an improved technique for trimming of resistors, or other passive circuit elements, embedded within a relatively large multi-layer PCB panel.
One embodiment of the present invention provides a method for laser trimming a circuit element. The method includes identifying parameters associated with the element that are substantial contributors to subsequent drift in element value. The identified parameters include, for example, at least one of a paste composition from which the element is formed, a subsequent manufacture processing step to which the element is subjected, a forming method of the element, composition of substrate on which the element is disposed, composition of substrate mounting material, surrounding materials proximate the element, and geometric parameters of the element. The method continues with selecting a trim parameter based the identified parameters to reduce the subsequent drift in element value, and then trimming the element in accordance with the selected trim parameter.
Subsequent manufacture processing steps can be, for example, at least one of lamination, curing, and drilling. In one particular case, the subsequent manufacture processing step includes applying a layer of dielectric and/or conductive material (e.g., copper) over at least a portion of the element, such as done during a lamination process that embeds the element into a work piece. The subsequent manufacture processing step may further include applying heat to the element and the one or more layers (e.g., as part of a lamination and/or curing process).
The method may further include determining an anticipated subsequent drift in element value based on the identified parameters. Here, the element is trimmed to have a target value that is selected based on the anticipated subsequent drift. The trim parameter can be, for example, at least one of a type of cut for trimming the element, laser wavelength, laser pulse energy, spot size, speed at which the cut is made, bite size of the trim, and laser beam repetition rate of emission.
The features and advantages described herein are not all-inclusive and, in particular, many additional features and advantages will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art in view of the drawings, specification, and claims. Moreover, it should be noted that the language used in the specification has been principally selected for readability and instructional purposes, and not to limit the scope of the inventive subject matter.
Embodiments of the present invention provide a system and method for performing drift-sensitive laser trimming of circuit elements formed on printed circuit boards or other substrates. Trimming of a circuit element is based on a target parameter value (such as a target resistance) and at least one other parameter that impacts how the target parameter value will drift after the laser trimming operation is performed. Thus, greater predictability for the final target parameter value (e.g., after all subsequent manufacturing processes have been performed) is enabled, and manufacturing throughput is improved.
Trimming System Overview
A panel includes at least one conductive path formed by the conductive layer thereof and the conductive path may form a portion of an electronic circuit to be fabricated in a finished circuit board fabricated from the PCB panel. The conductive path may comprise portions of a plurality of conductive layers formed onto a single panel, such as in a multi-layer PCB. A panel may be used as a substrate for forming a plurality of substantially identical circuits, formed in a repeated pattern on the panel as shown in
As shown in
The laser subsystem 530 may also include one or more laser subsystem controllers 526 for controlling the position, velocity and power output of the focused laser beam 522 during trimming and during periods when the laser is not trimming. In general, the lens 520 field of view is considerably smaller than the panel 540 size such that all of the elements within the lens 520 field of view are trimmed without moving the panel 540. The panel 540 is then moved with respect to the lens 520 field of view to position an untrimmed portion of the panel 540 in the lens 520 field of view for trimming. Preferably, the lens 520 is configured as a telecentric lens and the beam-deflecting device 524 is positioned substantially at a focal plane of the lens 520 so that the laser beam 522 impinges substantially normal or perpendicular to the surface to be trimmed over the entire field of view of the lens 520.
Accordingly, the laser subsystem 530 emits a trimming beam that is focused substantially at a surface of an untrimmed circuit element disposed on the panel 540 and has sufficient power to precisely remove or otherwise process the material of the untrimmed circuit element in a controlled manner. The position of the laser beam 522 emitted by the laser subsystem 530 can be changed to impinge on untrimmed elements anywhere within the field of view of the lens 520. The motion and modulation of the laser beam 522 is controlled by control signals issued by the laser subsystem controller 526 and the desired positions and motion characteristics of the laser are provided by signals received from a system controller 550 over a connection 532. The system controller 550 controls the operation of the entire trimming system 500. The system controller 550 includes at least one processor and memory. The system 500 also includes at least one memory 590 for storing programming and other data. Memory 590, as well as other memories described herein, can be any commonly available type memory, including, but not limited to, floppy disk, hard disk, and optical disk. As shown in
The controllable laser subsystem 530 may be of any type, but preferably includes a laser 521 that emits an energy beam at a wavelength that is compatible with the type of trimming or laser processing being performed. For example, if a dielectric material is primarily being trimmed, a CO2 laser emitting at a wavelength of approximately 10 um may be most suitable, and if a conductive layer is being trimmed, a solid state laser emitting at a wavelength of approximately 1.06 μm may be the best selection, and if the trimming is a photochemical process the laser wavelength may be visible or ultraviolet light such as approximately 533 nm and shorter. Selection of wavelength will be further discussed below.
The beam-directing device 524 may comprise any scanning device for scanning a laser beam over a two dimensional region. In the present example, a pair of orthogonally mounted galvanometer mirror scanners, not shown, is provided between the laser 521 and the lens 520. Each galvanometer mirror scanner includes an angular position transducer for tracking the angular position of the mirrors and a servo driver for controlling the angular rotation of each deflecting mirror for directing the laser beam 522 to a desired position. In the present example, the laser subsystem controller 526 includes all driving controls for the laser and the beam deflector. However, these controls may be incorporated into the system controller 550 or further separated into additional controllers.
The trimming system 500 also includes an X-Y stage 542, upon which is mounted a panel fixture 510 which supports the panel 540 (sometimes referred to as the work piece), on which untrimmed circuit elements (e.g., similar to those shown in
In order to view the panel 540, a computer vision system, generally referred to by reference numeral 552, is provided. The vision system 552 comprises a video camera 554, and a video frame buffer and video image processing electronics 556, which may be incorporated within, or in communication with, the system controller 550. The vision system 552 is positioned to view the panel 540 through the lens 520 such that the video camera 554 captures images within the lens 520 field of view. The images, which may be captured at rates of about 30 frames per second to continuously update the image in the field of view, may be displayed on a video display device 558 for viewing by an operator, or the images may be captured, stored and analyzed by the video image processing electronics 556 or the electronic controller 550. The vision system 552 may be used to measure or otherwise determine a location of an element in the camera 554 field of view and in combination with the system controller 550 can be used to determine a location of any element or feature on the panel 540 according to known algorithms.
The vision system 552 may be used to select and or inspect circuit elements on the panel 540 or to capture images of one or more alignment targets or fiducials, e.g. on the panel 540 or on the X-Y stage 540 to provide information about the position of the panel 540. Images of the targets may be used to determine a position or angular orientation of the panel 540 with respect to a system reference position or orientation. In addition, video images of other alignment targets and or circuit elements may be used to determine a position of an object within the lens 520 field of view and to direct the laser beam 522 in accordance with the position of an object as determined by the vision system 552. The vision system 552 may also be used to detect if the correct panel 540 has been loaded onto panel fixture 510, if the untrimmed elements appear to be properly applied onto the panel 540 and if trimmed elements meet predefined trim criteria such as whether the trim cut is properly positioned with respect to any edges or other features of the circuit element being trimmed. In addition, the vision system 552 may be used to determine a position or condition of a measurement probe, which is described below. Accordingly, an error condition detected by the vision system 552 may be communicated to the system controller 550 where a logical decision can be made to either correct the error or to take some other automatic action in response to the error condition, including stopping the trim operation. The system 500 also includes one or more operator input devices such as a keyboard 559, mouse or control panel.
Probing and Measuring
To perform the necessary trimming of the untrimmed circuit elements, formed on the work piece during the fabrication process, the controller 550 issues control signals to the X-Y stage controller 544 directing the X-Y stage 542 to first position one or more circuits located on the panel 540 within the field of view of the lens 520. The trimming system 500 may also include, but does not require in all applications, an electrical measurement subsystem that can be used to probe the circuits before, and/or during, and/or after trimming. A probe card 560, shown in detail in
As shown in
The system 500, described above and shown in
Parameters associated with the laser subsystem 530 include a repetition rate of the laser 521. The repetition rate (R) defines a series of laser beam 522 pulses emanating from the laser 521 for a given unit of time. As shown in
Another parameter associated with the laser subsystem 530 is pulse energy (E). Pulse energy is defined as the energy of a single laser beam pulse. As shown in
Yet another parameter associated with the laser subsystem 530 is the diameter (D) at the work piece 540 of the laser beam 522 after passing through the scan lens 520. The beam diameter at the work piece is also known as spot size. This diameter is defined by the separation of the 1/e2 intensity points (e is Euler's constant, approximately 2.178). Conventionally, the diameter is held constant during any given trim processing operation, though diameters can be caused to vary among different trim processing operations.
Bite size is also a parameter associated with the laser subsystem 530. Bite size is an amount that the laser beam 522 is advanced on the work piece between pulses of the laser 521. The amount of movement of the laser beam 522 is typically on the order of microns (μm).
Still another parameter associated with the laser subsystem 530 is wavelength of the laser beam 522. Typically, a laser subsystem has a single laser having a given wavelength. Wavelength selection will be further discussed below.
Yet still another parameter associated with the laser subsystem 530 is cut type, introduced with reference to
Double plunge cuts, as depicted in
Parameters associated with the measurement of passive elements include the current and/or voltage used to measure a passive element before, during, and/or after a trimming operation. When low voltages and/or currents are used in measuring a passive element, the resultant measurement is often polluted with noise, which results in a less precise measurement. When higher voltages and/or currents are used in measuring a passive element, noise pollution is lessened. However, high voltage and/or current can affect desired properties of the passive element. For example, high current may affect the resistance of a resistor due to heat generated by the high current. And, high voltage may short a capacitor. Heating affects are more severe for embedded devices because of several factors, including low thermal conductivity of the substrates compared to the thermal conductivity of alumina, and the varied curing cycles that may be applied to cure multiple paste types in the case of thick film resistors.
Another parameter associated with measurement is probe type. Probe types can be varied to achieve better accuracy in measuring properties of a passive element. For example, in measuring the resistivity of a passive element one can choose a full Kelvin measurement in which four probes per passive element are utilized. That is, two sets of probes per passive element are utilized such that one set of probes is used to measure the resistivity of the element itself and the second set of probes is used to measure the resistivity of the probe contact itself. However, if probe contact is good, or if the resistance of the passive element is high compared to the resistance of the probe contacts, full Kelvin measurement is not required. Thus, only two probes would be required.
The sequence of measurement, trimming, and measurement is yet another parameter. As described above, in a conventional order of operations, a passive element is measured, for example, for resistance, then trimmed to a target resistance value while measuring the resistance of the element with the measurement circuit, and finally, a confirmation resistivity measurement of the element is taken. That is, the element is trimmed till the measurements indicate that the target value has been achieved, and then a final confirmation measurement is taken to determine the trimmed value. Measurement will be further discussed below.
Parameters associated with the manufacture of the passive elements themselves include properties of materials selected to form the element, i.e., the different pastes types discussed above. Another parameter is the steps in the manufacturing process, i.e., lamination, curing, and drilling as also discussed above. These steps may affect the performance of the passive elements.
Yet another parameter is the physical geometry of the passive elements themselves, i.e., length, width, and thickness. By choosing different combinations of lengths, widths, and thickness, the properties, i.e., resistance, capacitance, or inductance, of passive elements are changed. Further, passive devices having the same properties, but different physical geometries, respond to trimming process operations differently. Trim parameters are chosen for each different combination of passive element properties to mitigate the effect of these properties both on the initial trimming, and in drifting of the trimmed values after subsequent process steps (for example lamination).
In order to prepare for trimming a panel 540, a job description is communicated to the system controller 550. The controller 550 at least includes a processing unit such as a microprocessor and a memory associated therewith, such as memory 590. The memory and microprocessor are used in combination to store program steps for running the system 500, for storing and analyzing measurement date collected from the measurement of elements by the probe card 560 and video data collected from the vision system 552.
The job description comprises a digital file having a description of the size of the panel to be trimmed, a position within the panel of each element to be trimmed, the dimensions of the element, e.g. length and width, a description of the type of element to be trimmed, e.g. resistor, capacitor or inductor, thin film, thick film, or the like, and a target value of the element after trimming, e.g. one resistor may have a target value after trimming of 100 ohms. In addition to the target value of each different element to be trimmed, the job description may also include a desired target value distribution after trimming, e.g. +/−1% or +/−5% and these values may be different for different elements. Other parameters that may also be included in the job file include, so called, design rules, that may define restrictions placed on the position and or size of a trim cut with respect to the element dimensions, e.g. one rule may be that a trim cut must not exceed ½ the width of an element. Other job description data may include details about the composition and the forming method of the elements to be trimmed, information about the substrate type and composition, information about the type of process that may be used after trimming and generally any other information about the panel and the elements to be trimmed that may be required to complete the trimming job or as will be discussed below, any information that may be used to optimize the trimming process.
In addition to the job file, a database of known information about trimming processes as they relate to various passive element types, to passive element and substrate types, to the performance of laser types, to wavelength, to trim speed, relating to the performance of various trimming cut types, to laser spot size and power, to measurement techniques and performance under various situations, passive element and substrate heating and cooling constants, characteristics of how passive element may change after trimming during subsequent lamination processes and generally any other information that may be usable to optimize the trimming process for the best result in the final panel 540. This database will be stored in the system memory and the information stored therein will be used by the system controller 550 to select a suitable trimming process as demanded by the particular parameters relating to each element to be trimmed.
As will be further described below under the heading Operation, the trimming system 500 is used to measure initial values of each element to be trimmed. This operation is done sequentially for each new area of the panel placed under the lens field of view. However, it is also possible to pre-measure the entire panel to record all of the element initial values. The left side of
A mean target value 1007B is depicted on the right side of
Any set of passive elements has a broad distribution of values, typically on the order of 10 to 50 percent, prior to trimming due to several reasons, typically related to the manufacturing process. As should be understood from the discussion in the Background section, there is often a local change of size of a given resistor printed on a substrate, such as a thickness. For large panels there is also a variance in other parameters within each panel, such as a distance between copper (conductive) traces, and thickness variation due to screen printing.
It is desirable to determine a trimming process or processes which will optimally bring the set of as applied passive element values very close to the desired target value such that all of the trimmed element values fall within the desired as trimmed spread 1005B. Each passive element is offset from the target value by an offset value 1020. As shown in
As will be further discussed below, for trimming elements on PCB's, the laser wavelength may be chosen based upon the transmission spectrum of the substrate. One typical example of wavelength selection is a Nd:YAG laser which gives 1064 nm light, which does not damage FR4 even at the intensities typically used for trimming. Power selection will be discussed in detail further below.
PCBs are known to distort due to shrinkage during the curing and/or lamination stages of manufacture, as discussed above. This causes a misalignment when passive elements are placed on pre-defined locations on the substrate.
Introduced above, passive elements are often formed by the use of pastes. In such situations, spatial offset can occur because pastes can shrink during the manufacture process, typically during curing. Furthermore, when multiple layers are screen printed, alignment of the screen material can be slightly different between paste layers, which also introduces a spatial offset.
Oftentimes spatial offset makes it difficult to trim a passive element due to adjacency of a passive element to copper traces or other circuit elements.
In a typical operational sequence, the system controller 550 will issue stage control signals to direct the X-Y stages 542 to move in X and Y directions required to position a selected portion of the panel 540 under the lens field of view. This step will usually include determining an actual position and orientation of the panel 540 on the fixture 510, using the vision system 552, so that the system controller 550 has a reference position and orientation of the panel 540. Once the actual position of the panel 540 is known, the system controller 550 will position one or more circuits within the field of view of the lens 520 for trimming the untrimmed circuit elements 578 that fall within the lens 520 field of view. The system controller 550 will also issue probe control signals directing the probe card 560 to contact the work piece with the probes 562. As shown in step 1401 of
The system controller 550 then determines if it is possible to trim a given passive element in view of the location of that element, the initial measured value of the element or other factors in step 1410. That is, as discussed in relation to
If the element can be trimmed, the system controller 550 compares the measured value of each circuit element prior to trimming with the desired target value of the element to determine an offset value. Based on the offset value and other factors, the system controller 550 determines the appropriate type of cut to achieve the target value and desired target value spread, based upon one or more of several factors. These factors include the geometry of the element, the passive element material type, the laser wavelength, power and spot size, the substrate type, element type and power requirements, step 1415.
For the required spread of the final resistance values (post trimming) of a resistor factor, if the as trimmed value of each resistor must be close to the target value, such as within one percent of the target value, then a double plunge cut or an L-cut can be selected because these cuts allow fine resistivity adjustments during the second trim cut which is usually slower while allowing a faster first trim cut to get the value close to the desired value. This selection optimizes the trim process by reducing the time required to make the full cut at a single slow speed. If the final value of the element does not need to be as close to the target value, such as within five percent of the target value, then a single plunge cut can be selected because it is a fast cut and can meet the desired outcome without slowing down to make fine resistivity adjustments.
For the amount offset of the measured value for the target value factor, if the offset value is large, then the serpentine cut can be selected. The serpentine cut is a fast cut that quickly removes material at a number of positions to greatly increase the resistivity of a resistor. If the offset is within a medium range, then the double plunge cut, L-cut, or single plunge cut can be selected because any of these cuts are optimal. If the offset amount is small, for example, within five percent of the target value, then either a single plunge cut or slow double plunge cut can be selected.
For the geometry of the element, if the length of the element is several times longer than the size of the laser beam diameter (spot size), then an L-cut or a double plunge cut can be selected. If the length of the element is small in comparison to the spot size, then it is difficult to make an L-cut or a double plunge cut due to a lack of material to ablate. In such a case, a single plunge cut can be selected. Thus in accordance with the invention, the system controller 550 may make a first selection of cut type based on the measured offset value and the required spread about the target value. However, in a second consideration, the system controller 550 may change the cut type selection based on a second criteria e.g., the element geometry because the element length is insufficient to perform a serpentine or L-cut. Also as a result of this analysis, the system controller 550 may determine that there is no set of criteria that can trim the element and the element may be rejected as untrimmable.
For the power requirements of the element factor, if it is necessary for the element to conduct high current, which requires that the element dissipate a large amount of power (in the form of heat), then an L-cut can be chosen. If the element is a low current conducting element, then either a single plunge cut, double plunge cut, or serpentine cut can be selected.
Alternatively, instead of examining requirements for individual elements as a basis for determining cut type, a group of elements can be examined as a whole. In such a case, the offset distribution of that group from a target value can be examined, or the geometry of the elements within that group can be examined. A rule associated with group characteristics is then applied for determining a single cut type for the entire group. This has the benefit of better performance compared to just a uniform cut type over entire panel 540. This alternative has an lower level of complexity and a smaller time penalty then assigning different cut types for each element in the group.
Following determination of cut type, operations proceed as depicted in
At step 1601, the substrate type and/or other substrate parameters are input to the system controller 550. Based upon resistance of the substrate type to damage from the laser, a laser pulse energy is selected, step 1605. The selected pulse energy will be the maximum pulse energy, or close thereto, which will not damage the substrate, yet yield the highest speed and best trimming performance. For example, a relatively easily damaged substrate, such as FR4 glass reinforced epoxy, would result in a low pulse energy being selected. On the other hand, a more damage resistant substrate, such as alumina or other ceramic, would result in selection of a higher pulse energy being selected. For example, for a FR4 substrate, a 20 kHz repetition rate with a 1 watt average power could be selected, and for an alumina substrate, a 30 kHz repetition rate with a 4 watt average power could be selected.
At step 1610 passive element parameters are input into the system controller 550, or may already be stored in the system database as discussed above. These parameters include how laser energy is conducted (in the form of heat) through the passive element. This parameter is dependent upon the type of paste used to form the element. Other parameters associated with the passive element are the geometry of the element as well as post lamination drift of the element. These parameters may be used to select bite size, spot size, and repetition rate, which one or more together determine trim (cut) speed step 1615. The selection may be based on previously tested and quantified trim processes and the resulting element values in the final PCB after post trimming lamination and processing.
For resistors, a higher resistance paste typically has a larger temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR). Accordingly, if too much heat is introduced to a resistor formed from such a paste, the measurement of the resistance during the trimming process will by skewed by the heating caused by the laser power. Thus, a higher resistivity paste would require a lower trimming speed, the trimming speed being a combination of bite size, spot size, and laser repetition rate. The lower trim speed delivers less thermal energy per unit time. Conversely, a lower resistivity paste has smaller (TCR), which allows a faster trimming speed without seeing a bias on the measurement caused by the heating by the trimming laser of the resistor formed from such a paste.
The geometry of a passive element includes the thickness of the element. For a given trimming speed, to effectively remove thicker material, a greater average power, governed by pulse energy and repetition rate, is required as compared to thinner material. Other geometric aspects, such as the length or width of an element also affect the average power required for a given trimming speed.
Based upon measurements of post lamination PCB element values, trimming parameters can be selected such that trimming speed is varied to balance drift in component values caused by subsequent lamination or other processes in completing the manufacture of the PCB. The drift after lamination for a given cut type is measured, and then the trim parameters are changed. Then, another measurement is taken to see how the adjustment(s) affect post-lamination drift. Based upon the results of multiple such adjustments, optimized trim parameters are selected. It should be noted that this determination is not made based upon a single panel, but rather how a passive element type responds to lamination and trimming, and based on this collected group of responses, the trim parameters are adjusted to achieve the best possible results. The affects of these adjustments on the post-lamination drift ideally will be recorded in a database, perhaps stored in memory 590, to simplify the selection of trim parameters for optimizing the trimming process for other PCB designs.
The trim process can be adjusted to minimize the subsequent drift of the trimmed elements. By properly adjusting the trim process, the accuracy of trimmed passive circuit element values following the lamination process that embeds such elements into a work piece, can be substantially improved.
Depending on the drift characteristics of the resistor paste, one trim process may give better overall trim accuracy than another trim process. For example, the preferred trim process might provide a better balancing of the drift contribution from the trim process with that from the resistive paste. The drift optimization is factored in with other operational requirements, such as overall speed of the trimming, to determine the optimum trimming process.
As noted above, one important trim process factor is the rate of heat deposition by the laser beam. More particularly, by reducing the heat input to the passive circuit element during trimming, post lamination drift will also be reduced.
Additionally, different trim types, such as double plunge cuts or L cuts, also have different drift characteristics. Accordingly, by changing the type of cut being utilized for the trimming of the element, the post lamination drift will also be reduce.
The following Table I presents several possible scenarios showing how changes in the trim process will effect post lamination drift. It should be noted that the drift values in Table I are hypothetical and presented only to enhance the readers understanding of the present invention. It will be recognized by those skilled in the art that actual drift values can be easily measured and used in applying the invention as described herein to a particular trimming job.
As discussed above, conventionally the trimming process factors have been selected to optimize the speed at which the trimming is performed. However if, for example, the trimming process for case 1 were optimized for speed, the desired final resistor tolerance would not have been achievable.
In case 2 or case 3, certain somewhat optimized trimming process factors for mitigating drift might have been selected by chance. For example, if there was some other reason to select a particular cut type, that cut might provide some optimization. However, even if this were the case, additional speed or yield improvements may still be achievable by selecting the best trim type or by optimizing another trimming process factor, such as the heat input by the laser beam to the element during trimming, to increase the process margin.
Case 5 is a particularly interesting example of an implementation in which no drift is allowed after lamination. As shown, initial indications are that untrimmed resistors have negative drift of about 4% after lamination. Laser trimmed resistors have positive, e.g. 4% to 8%, post-lamination drift. Thus, by choosing the correct trimming parameters the final drift can be reduced to substantially 0%.
It will be recognized that the trimming may be performed in multiple phases. That is, all passive elements may first be subjected to a rough trimming and then be subjected to a fine trimming after the rough trimmed elements have cooled.
Following determination of trim (cut) speed (bite size, spot size, and repetition rate) in step 1615, operations continue with
With reference to
As shown in
Another choice that can be made at the system design level is the wavelength of the laser to avoid damage to the substrate over an acceptable range of laser intensities. Note that laser intensity is defined as the pulse energy divided by the beam area, and divided by the pulse duration. Beam area is the area enclosed by the laser spot size at the work piece. Pulse duration is variable between laser designs, but is not generally adjustable independent of pulse energy. An acceptable intensity range should be above the threshold for removing material, while remaining below the threshold for damaging the substrate. Dependent upon what the substrate is, a different wavelength may be ideal. Most desirable is the largest separation between the ablation threshold for the passive element material and the damage threshold to the substrate. Ideally, a wavelength will be chosen that gives the biggest possible separation between these two thresholds. Many conventional application wavelengths around 1 micron are suitable, but depending on the substrate material and the passive element material, wavelengths as long as 1.5 μm and as short as 0.25 μm may be appropriate for different combinations of substrate material and passive element material.
Choosing the wavelength correctly and choosing the pulse energy versus spot size correctly will yield the maximum possible process window in terms of acceptable variations in pulse energy for thickness before damage occurs or before there is a loss of control in the trimming process.
There are two factors which variable cut width addresses. The first is the ability to accommodate variations in material thickness. To achieve a constant trim, it is important to cut completely through the material, and if pulse energy is set too low, some cuts will not be complete cuts. Also, if the pulse energy varies because of normal laser power fluctuations, a complete cut may not be achieved. Secondly, it is important to control the cut width to achieve good electrical properties independent of whether the cut is complete. There may be some situations where an insufficiently wide kerf results in unpredictable changes in the passive element after lamination because of bridging or re-flow of the material after the actual trimming is complete.
Thus, by controlling the pulse energy while maintaining a constant spot size, the kerf size can be controlled, while avoiding damage to the substrate. Further, by selecting an appropriate laser wavelength, a maximum possible contrast between the ablation threshold and substrate damage threshold can be achieved.
For thin film or thick film resistors, this process can be shortened. A sample of resistors, either on a panel basis, or on a batch basis, are measured prior, during, and after trimming. The most optimum trim parameters (cut type, laser pulse energy, spot size, bite size, and/or repetition rate) to achieve target values are determined from this sample. Once the parameters are determined, they are applied to the remaining resistors without any measuring at all.
As shown in
In cases in which the distribution width of the resistors before trimming is not acceptable, a further measurement and trimming step can be taken to narrow the spread. After determining a trimming process that consistently provides the desired target value and spread, as described above, the remaining resistors are measured to determine how much individual correction is required. Then, using interpolated parameters, the remaining resistors are trimmed. As an example of interpolation, the length of the second cut for a double plunge type trim can be increased in proportion to the measured offset from the target resistance. This has the benefit of adjusting for some variations in the geometry of individual resistors before trimming so that a narrow distribution is achieved, which is shown in
After all parameters have been determined, the system controller 550 will then issue laser module control signals directing the laser beam delivery module 530 to first emit a laser light beam 522 along a first path to make one or more trim operations on a first of the untrimmed circuit elements 578 within the field of view, to then emit the laser light beam along a second path to make one or more trim operations on a second of the untrimmed circuit elements within the field of view, and to continue changing the path of the laser light beam until all of the other untrimmed circuit elements 578 within the field of view of the lens 520 are trimmed.
It will be recognized that the trimming may be performed in multiple phases. That is, all untrimmed circuit elements 578 within a field of view of the lens 520 may first be subjected to a rough trimming and then, without further movement of the panel fixture 510, be subjected to a fine trimming by the laser beam delivery assembly 530. Moreover, it will be recognized that more than one measurement circuit 572 may be provided for measuring any of resistance, capacitance or inductance and that the untrimmed circuit elements 578 may have a plurality of desired resistance, capacitance and inductance target values. In addition it will be recognized that a plurality of probe cards 560 may also be sequentially or simultaneously positioned over the field of view of the lens 520 to probe different circuit elements 578. This may be especially true if the circuit elements 578 are densely distributed and more than one probe card 560 may be used to probe different groups of circuit elements 578.
When all of the elements within the field of view of the lens 520 are trimmed to the desired values, the system controller 550 issues stage control signals directing movement of the panel fixture 510 to locate the next untrimmed area of the of the panel 540 within the field of view of the lens 520 for trimming. This process is repeated until all of the untrimmed circuit elements 578 on the panel 540 have been trimmed, or until a desired subset of circuits numbering less than the total number of circuits on the panel have been trimmed. If all of the desired untrimmed circuit elements 578 on the panel 540 have been trimmed, the controller 550 issues control signals to either stop the system 500 for manual removal of the panel 540 or to mechanically remove the trimmed panel 540 from the panel fixture 510 using an automatic panel handler, and to load a new untrimmed panel 540 onto the panel fixture 510.
It will also be recognized by those skilled in the art that, while the invention has been described in terms of one or more preferred embodiments, it is not limited thereto. Various features and aspects of the above described invention may be used individually or jointly. Further, although the invention has been described in the context of its implementation in a particular environment and for particular purposes, e.g. trimming of passive elements, those skilled in the art will recognize that its usefulness is not limited thereto and that the present invention can be beneficially utilized in any number of environments and implementations. Accordingly, the claims set forth below should be construed in view of the full breadth and spirit of the invention as disclosed herein.