|Publication number||US20050065401 A1|
|Application number||US 10/990,453|
|Publication date||Mar 24, 2005|
|Filing date||Nov 16, 2004|
|Priority date||Jan 15, 2003|
|Also published as||EP1583460A2, EP1583460A4, US7637905, US7918845, US20040138525, US20040138529, US20050065397, US20050107663, US20050113640, US20110046441, WO2004064600A2, WO2004064600A3|
|Publication number||10990453, 990453, US 2005/0065401 A1, US 2005/065401 A1, US 20050065401 A1, US 20050065401A1, US 2005065401 A1, US 2005065401A1, US-A1-20050065401, US-A1-2005065401, US2005/0065401A1, US2005/065401A1, US20050065401 A1, US20050065401A1, US2005065401 A1, US2005065401A1|
|Inventors||Vahid Saadat, Richard Ewers, Eugene Chen, David Miller|
|Original Assignee||Usgi Medical Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (99), Referenced by (93), Classifications (26)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/346,709 (Attorney Docket No. 021496-000100US), filed Jan. 15, 2003, the full disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates generally to medical devices, systems and methods. More particularly, the present invention relates to devices, systems and methods for use in endoscopic or laparoscopic procedures.
Endoscopy is a form of minimally invasive procedure wherein the interior of the body is accessed and visualized through an orifice in the body, such as the esophagus or rectum. Such access allows a surgeon or physician to view and/or treat internal portions of the orifice or internal tissues or organs which are accessible through the orifice. These procedures may be for diagnostic purposes, such as visual inspection or the removal of a tissue sample for biopsy, or the procedure may be used for treatment purposes, such as the removal of a polyp or tumor or the restructuring of tissue. While these procedures can be done using regular open surgery, endoscopy usually involves less pain, less risk, less scarring, and faster recovery of the patient.
Endoscopy is typically performed with the use of an endoscope, a small circular tube containing optical components. Traditional endoscopes comprise a small diameter “snake-like” insertion tube having a distal end which is inserted into the orifice to the desired internal location. Fiber optics extend through the insertion tube and terminate at the distal end to allow axial viewing from the distal end. Images of the internal location near the distal end of the endoscope are transmitted to a video monitor for the physician to view. A control handle allows the endoscopist to control the direction of the scope and in some cases, permits the actuation of air, water and suction utilities that may be required for the endoscopy procedure.
Since endoscopes may be used to perform a treatment at an internal location, some endoscopes are equipped with a lumen through which a surgical instrument or tool may be passed. Generally, the lumen extends through the length of the insertion tube to the distal end so that the end effector of the inserted instrument protrudes from the distal end in the axial direction. Thus, the instrument is directed in parallel to the fiber optics so that the end effector is positioned along the line of view.
Such endoscopes have a number of constraints which limit their usefulness in performing diagnostic and surgical procedures. To begin, surgical instruments and tools are inserted axially through a working lumen in the endoscope. And, most of these endoscopes only allow axial and rotational movement of the tool beyond the distal end. This helps to maintain positioning of the tool within the field of view of the endoscope which is also directed axially. However, this limits the variety and complexity of procedures that may be performed. For example, procedures which involve tissue approximation pose great difficulty since only one portion of tissue may be grasped at a time and lateral, rather than axial, movement may be required. Although steering of an axially inserted tool may be possible near the distal end, such steering typically positions the end effector of the tool out of the field of view of the axially directed scope.
A similar minimally invasive procedure which overcomes some of these constraints is laparoscopy. In laparoscopy, the interior of the body is accessed and visualized through a small incision. When accessing the abdomen, the incision is usually made in the navel. Laparoscopy was initially used by gynecologists to diagnose and treat conditions relating to the female reproductive organs: uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It is now used for a wider range of procedures, including operations that in the past required open surgery, such as removal of the appendix (appendectomy) and gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy). Laparoscopy is performed with a device which allows the surgeon or physician to view and/or treat internal tissues or organs which are accessible through the incision. This device is the same or similar to an endoscope, sometimes referred to as a laparoscope. The device comprises a small diameter insertion tube having a distal end which is inserted into the incision to the desired internal location. Fiber optics extend through the insertion tube and terminate at the distal end to allow axial viewing from the distal end. Images of the internal location near the distal end are transmitted to a video monitor for the physician to view. Sometimes, access through an incision creates a shorter, straighter and more direct access path than through an orifice. Therefore, some laparoscopes may have a shorter and stiffer insertion tube than some endoscopes.
Although laparoscopes suffer from many of the same limitations as endoscopes, laparoscopy allows additional surgical instruments and tools to be inserted through separate incisions to perform procedures. Proper location of the incisions can allow instruments to be positioned in various directions. Therefore, movement and viewing is not limited to the axis of the laparoscope and simultaneous viewing of the tissues and the instruments may be more readily achieved during the procedure. However, these additional benefits are achieved at the cost of increased invasiveness. Access paths must be created for the instruments with the use of trocars requiring general anesthesia, risk of complications and infection, and increased overall recovery time for the access paths to heal. In addition, access may be difficult or contraindicated in some patients, particularly in the morbidly obese.
Thus, it would be desired to provide an improved methods, devices and systems to perform minimally invasive procedures. Particularly, methods, devices and systems which would provide the benefits of endoscopy, such as lower invasiveness and access to deeply internal locations, with the benefits of laparoscopy, such as the use of multiple instruments with movement and viewing along various axes. The devices and systems would be reliable, convenient and easy to use with improved outcomes for patients due to reduction in invasiveness and therefore risk, cost and recovery time. At least some of these objectives will be met by the invention described hereinafter.
The present invention provides systems, devices and methods for endoscopic procedures involving tissue manipulations beyond the capabilities of traditional endoscopic instruments. Embodiments of the systems include an elongated main body having a scope therethrough and at least one steerable tool arm which extends from the distal end of the main body. In preferred embodiments, the system includes two tool arms, each arm steerable to form a curve laterally outward which then bends laterally inward so that the arms form a an angular or boomerang shape. In addition, end effectors extend from the distal ends of each arm for use in manipulation of tissue. The angular shape brings the end effectors together in view of the scope for cooperative movements which are continuously visible by the surgeon through the scope. In addition, the tool arms may be steerable in any additional direction and may be rotateable to allow grasping, pulling, tugging, elevation and more complex manipulation of tissue. Thus, the systems and devices of the present invention provide many of the capabilities of open surgery or laparoscopic surgery with an endoscopic approach.
In a first aspect of the present invention, the tool arm(s) comprise a shaft having a proximal end and a deflectable or steerable distal end. In some embodiments, the steerable distal end will be laterally stabilized so that the distal end may be steered, i.e. bent or manipulated, within a plane but will resist deflection outside of the plane during use. The steering plane will generally be parallel to a central axis of the scope but may be rotated by rotation of the tool arm. In this way, the arm(s) will maintain stable positioning within the field of view of the scope and will resist accidental deflection outside of the field. It may be appreciated that the tool arm may also be translated axially within the stabilized plane while maintaining viewing within the field.
A preferred structure for achieving lateral stability comprises a plurality of adjacent links. Usually, the links are pivotally attached by hinged structures. In some embodiments, the hinged structures comprise pivot pins which are disposed parallel to one another and generally transverse to the stabilized plane in which the arm may be steered. In other embodiments, the hinged structures comprise male and female bearing surfaces which define axes, wherein the axes are disposed in parallel to limit deflection of the distal section to within the plane. A variety of other structures are also available to provide lateral stability, such as deployment frames, various shaped linkages connected by reinforcements or pullwires, and slotted tubes, to name a few.
Typically, the distal end includes at least two steerable sections, wherein a distal-most steerable section includes a tip section which curves in a first direction and wherein an intermediate steerable section includes a base which curves in the opposite direction, where both curves are in the stabilized plane. In some embodiments, the tip section curve has a radius which is greater than that of the curve of the base. To achieved such curvatures, the adjacent links may be shaped to allow substantially continuous deflection. Or, the adjacent links may be shaped so that the steerable distal end is deflectable to form a predetermined curvature wherein the arm is then restricted from further deflection.
Means for selectively deflecting the distal section of the tool arm(s) often comprise at least one pullwire or one pushwire. Such pull or pushwires may be present in any quantity and arrangement. The means for selectively deflecting the distal section can further include at least one spring which is configured to straighten the distal section in opposition to the pullwire or pushwire.
In some embodiments, the tool arm includes an end effector disposed at its distal end. A wide variety of end effectors may be used depending on the procedure or tissue manipulations which are desired. For example, end effectors may include but are not limited to knives, needles, sutures, staplers, fasteners, clippers, electrosurgical or hemostatic cutters and coagulators, laser welders, cryosurgery instruments, secondary scopes, forceps, lasers hooks, tongs, graspers, retractors, probes, clamps, scissors, tissue approximation devices and suction applicators. Alternatively, the tool arm may include a tool deployment lumen through which a tool having an end effector may be passed. In these embodiments, the tool arm may include a steering cuff arranged for passage of the tool therethrough so that manipulation of the tool within the steering cuff steers the distal end of the tool arm. Thus, in either case, manipulation of the end effector and the tool arm may be interconnected.
In another aspect of the present invention, the elongated main body has a distal end, a proximal end, and an arm guide lumen extending through at least a distal section of the elongated main body. In preferred embodiments, the elongated main body has a viewing scope lumen extending therethrough and terminating in the distal tip. The arm guide lumens and the viewing scope lumen may be arranged in any suitable fashion within the main body. For example, when the elongated main body has a second arm guide lumen, the distal terminations of the two arm guide lumens and the one viewing scope lumen may be arranged in a generally triangular pattern on the distal tip of the main body. Alternatively, the lumens may be aligned, wherein the viewing scope lumen is disposed between the arm guide lumens.
Typically, at least the distal section of the elongated main body is steerable. In some embodiments, the elongated main body comprises a first section and a second section disposed proximally of the first section, and the first and second sections are independently lockable. Thus, the first section may be lockable while the second section remains steerable. Such steering may be achieved with means for selectively deflecting the second section within at least a single plane. This may include retroflexion wherein the distal end of the main body is directed toward the proximal end. In some embodiments, the distal section of the elongated main body comprises a plurality of adjacent links to allow for such steering.
Typically, at least the distal section of the elongated main body has a generally cylindrical exterior wherein the arm guide lumen does not extend out of the cylindrical exterior. And, the arm guide lumen terminates at a distal tip of the elongated main body so that the tool arm advances through the distal tip. Likewise, as mentioned previously, the elongated main body typically has a viewing scope lumen extending therethrough and terminating in the distal tip.
In yet another aspect of the present invention, the tool arms may have a distal end which is steerable by a variety of mechanisms. For example, the distal end may be comprised of a flexible tube having at least one pullwire attached thereto so that manipulation of the at least one pullwire deflects the steerable distal end. Or, the tool arm may have a steerable distal end which comprises a flexible tube having shape memory material so that emergence of the steerable distal end from the distal tip of the main body allows deflection of the steerable distal end to a shape memory position. Or, the tool arm may further comprise a deployment frame extending from the distal tip of the main body, the frame comprising at least two supports each attached to one of the at least two tool arms so that manipulation of the deployment frame deflects the attached tool arms.
In an additional embodiment of the present invention, the endoluminal tool deployment system may be comprised of an elongated main body having a distal end, a proximal end, and at least two arm guide lumens extending over or through at least a distal section of the elongated main body, wherein said arm guide lumens extend fully to a distal tip of the main body, and at least two tool arms adapted to extend through the arm guide lumens of the elongated main body, said tool arms emerging from the distal tip of the main body.
In still another aspect of the present invention, the endoluminal tool deployment system comprises an elongated main body having a distal end, a proximal end, and an arm guide lumen extending through at least a distal section of the elongated main body, wherein at least the distal section comprises a plurality of adjacent links. The system further includes a means for selectively deflecting the distal section within at least a single plane, and at least one tool arm adapted to extend through the arm guide lumen of the elongated main body.
In a further aspect of the present invention, a method is provided for deploying one or more tools in an anatomical space. In a preferred embodiment, the method comprises introducing a distal end of a main body to said anatomical space, advancing a tool arm from a tool deployment lumen in said main body into said anatomical space, deflecting and positioning the tool arm to locate a distal tip thereof adjacent to a target location within the anatomical space, wherein a distal section of the arm is curved and laterally stabilized in a single plane, and advancing a tool through a lumen of the tool arm to the target location.
In some embodiments, deflecting and position comprises tensioning a plurality of adjacent hinged links within the distal section of the tool arm. The adjacent hinged links may be joined by hinge pins which are disposed perpendicularly to the single plane such that the pins stabilize the distal section and inhibit deflection outside of the single plane. The method may further comprise viewing the target location through a viewing scope disposed in the main body, wherein the tool arm extends axially from a distal tip of the main body from a location adjacent to the viewing scope.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description to follow, together with the accompanying drawings.
FIGS. 17, 17A-17C illustrate an embodiment of a tool arm which is steerable to a predetermined arrangement.
FIGS. 26, 27A-27B, 28A-28B illustrate embodiments of a steering cuff.
FIGS. 29, 29A-29D illustrate embodiments of a tool having an end effector in the form of various types of scissors.
An embodiment of a system 2 of the present invention is illustrated in
The main body 10 also includes at least one arm guide lumen 26 which extends over or through at least a distal section of the main body 10, typically along the majority of the length of the body 10 as shown. Here in
The system 2 also includes at least one tool arm 30, two are shown in
In this embodiment, the system 2 also includes at least one tool 40, two are shown in
As mentioned previously, the endoluminal tool deployment system 2 of the present invention may be used to access a various internal tissues or organs to perform a wide variety of surgical procedures.
It may be appreciated that the systems, methods and devices of the present invention are applicable to diagnostic and surgical procedures in any location within a body, particularly any natural or artificially created body cavity. Such locations may be disposed within the gastrointestinal tract, urology tract, peritoneal cavity, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, trachea, sinus cavity, female reproductive system and spinal canal, to name a few. Access to these locations may be achieved through any body lumen or through solid tissue. For example, the stomach may be accessed through an esophageal approach, the heart through a port access approach, the rectum through a rectal approach, the uterus through a vaginal approach, the spinal column through a port access approach and the abdomen through a port access approach.
A variety of procedures may be performed with the systems and devices of the present invention. The following procedures are intended to provide suggestions for use and are by no means considered to limit such usage: Laryngoscopy, Rhinoscopy, Pharyngoscopy, Bronchoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy (examination of the sigmoid colon, the sigmoid colon is the portion that connects the descending colon to the rectum; primarily for diagnostic purposes, however a biopsy procedure and trans anal micro surgery may be performed for removing tumors), Colonoscopy (examination of colon; for the removal of polyps and tumors or for biopsy), and Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) which enables the physician to look inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The procedure might be used to discover the reason for swallowing difficulties, nausea, vomiting, reflux, bleeding, indigestion, abdominal pain, or chest pain.
In addition, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be achieved which enables the surgeon to diagnose disease in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. In combination with this process endoscopic sphincterotomy can be done for facilitating ductal stone removal. ERCP may be important for identification of abnormalities in the pancreatic and biliary ductal system. Other treatments include Cholecystectomy (removal of diseased gallbladder), CBD exploration (for common bile duct stones), appendicectomy (removal of diseased appendix), hernia repair TAP, TEPP and other (all kinds of hernia), fundoplication and HISS procedures (for gastro esophageal reflux disease), repair of duodenal perforation, gastrostomy for palliative management of late stage upper G.I.T. carcinoma), selective vagotomy (for peptic ulcer disease), splenectomy (removal of diseased spleen), gastric restrictive and malabsorbtive procedures (for morbid obesity), upper and lower G.I. endoscopies (diagnostic as well as therapeutic endoscopies), pyloroplastic procedures (for children's congenital deformities), colostomy, colectomy, adrenalectomy (removal of adrenal gland for pheochromocytoma), liver biopsy, gastrojejunostomy, subtotal liver resection, gastrectomy, small intestine partial resections (for infarction or stenosis or obstruction), adhesions removal, treatment of rectum prolaps, Heller's Myotomy, devascularization in portal hypertension, attaching a device to a tissue wall and local drug delivery to name a few.
II. Main Body
As mentioned previously, the system 2 of the present invention includes an elongated main body 10 having a proximal end 12 and a distal end 14 terminating in a distal tip 16. An embodiment of the main body 10 is illustrated in
Steering and locking may be achieved by any suitable mechanisms. In some embodiments, the shaft 20 comprises a multiplicity of nestable elements 260, as illustrated in
Generally, the adjacent surfaces 262, 264 are contoured to mate so that when the pullwires 96 are relaxed, surfaces 262, 264 can rotate relative to one another. This allows the shaft 20 to form curvatures throughout its length in any direction. Each pullwire 96 is fixed at its distal end to a specific element 260 along the shaft 20 or to the distal tip 16. When tension is applied to a specific pullwire 96, a curvature forms in the shaft 20 proximal to the fixation point, thus steering the shaft 20. The pullwires 96 may be arranged in various patterns to achieve steering in various directions. For example,
In this embodiment, the wall 21 extends continuously from the proximal end 12 to the distal end 14 with the first and second sections 90, 92 determined by the termination points of the pullwires 96 which extend therethrough. Alternatively, the first and section sections 90, 92 may be comprised of separate shafts which are coaxially positioned adjacent to one another.
In the embodiment illustrated in
In addition, liners 266 may be passed through any of the lumens of the stacked nestable elements 260. Such liners 266 form create a continuous lumen connecting the lumen holes of the nestable elements 260.
It may be appreciated that the shaft 20 of the main body 10 may have any structure suitable for delivering the tool arms 30 to the desired location within the body. Exemplary embodiments of such structures are described above and provided in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/281,462 filed Oct. 25, 2002, which is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 10/173,203, 10/173,227, 10/173,238 and 10/173,220, all of which were filed on Jun. 13, 2002 and herein incorporated by reference for all purposes. Also of interest and incorporated by reference for all purposes are co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 10/281,461 and 10/281,426 each filed on Oct. 25, 2002. In addition, it may be appreciated that the main body 10 may be comprised of a traditional endoscope or laparoscope through which one or more tool arms 30 may be passed. Exemplary embodiments of traditional endoscopes are provided in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,948,251; 4,036,218; 4,201,198; 4,224,929; 4,988,171; 5,020,539; 5,035,231; 5,068,719; 5,170,775; 5,172,225; 5,187,572; and 5,196,928, all of which are herein incorporated by reference for all purposes.
III. Tool Arms
As mentioned previously, system 2 also includes at least one tool arm 30, each arm 30 of which is insertable through a separate arm guide lumen 26 in the main body 10. As shown in
A. Distal End
As mentioned previously, in some embodiments, the arms 30 are deflectable to form a predetermined arrangement, such as previously illustrated in
The predetermined arrangement of
In some embodiments, the steerable distal end 34 includes both types of links, links which are steerable to a predetermined arrangement and links which are unrestrictedly steerable. For example,
It may be appreciated that the embodiments which include links may have any number of links. For example, the steerable distal end 34 may have two links 62 which are hinged together by a hinge structure 100. In this example, the shaft 36 would direct the first link 62 in a first direction and the hinge structure 100 would turn the distal tip 16 towards a second direction. The addition of more linkages 62 would create a smoother curve and/or allow multiple curves throughout the steerable distal end 34.
Although the previous embodiments of the tool arms 30 have been comprised of a plurality of adjacent links, it may be appreciated that the arms 30 may be comprised of material in any suitable form. For example, each arm 30 may be comprised of a polymeric tube which has been pre-shaped, such as by heat setting, to form a desired curvature. The polymeric tube is comprised of a material which is sufficiently flexible to allow straightening of the curve for delivery through the arm guide lumen 26 and adequately flexible to allow recoiling of the arm 30 to form the desired curvature upon emergence from the lumen 30.
In another embodiment, each arm 30 is comprised of a slotted tube, as illustrated in
In most embodiments, the distal ends of the tool arms are lockable to maintain a deflected position. Such locking may be achieved by any suitable mechanisms. When the tool arm is steerable by manipulation of pullwires or pushwires, the wires may be held in place to lock the distal end in a desired position. In embodiments comprising a multiplicity of nestable elements through which pullwires pass, the pullwires are typically used to hold the elements in nesting alignment and to provide steering and locking. By applying tension to the pullwires simultaneously, the elements may be compressed to a state in which they are locked by friction wherein the tension is held. Other locking mechanism may also be used. Further, the tool arms may be locked rotationally and axially within the main body to maintain positioning of the tool arm in relation to the main body.
As described previously, the shaft 36 of the tool arm 30 passes though the main body 10. In embodiments wherein the main body 10 is deflectable, the shaft 36 is also deflectable. However, although it is desired that the shaft 36 be laterally deflectable, it is also desired that the shaft 36 maintain axial rigidity. Any suitable construction may be used, including a braid reinforced torqueable tube. Additional embodiments are described below.
In another embodiment, illustrated in
In another embodiment, illustrated in
C. Proximal End
The proximal end 32 of the tool arm 30 may simply terminate in an endpiece or connector for passage of a tool 40 through its tool deployment lumen 38. However, the proximal end 32 may optionally include a steering cuff 35 for steering the tool arm 30, particularly for steering its distal end 34.
It may be appreciated that the embodiments of the steering cuff 35 depicted in
As mentioned previously, the system 2 also includes at least one tool 40. In some embodiments, the tool 40 may simply comprises an end effector 48 positioned at the distal end of the tool arm 30 wherein the end effector 48 is operated by manipulation of mechanisms which extend through the arm 30. In other embodiments, each tool 40 includes a distal end 42, a proximal end 44 and an elongate shaft 46 therebetween to allow passage through the tool deployment lumen 38 of the arm 30. The shaft 46 is typically desired to be a torque-stable tube comprised of any suitable material, such as a braid or coil-reinforced extrusion. In these embodiments, each tool 40 has an end effector 48 disposed at the distal end 42 and optionally a handle 50 at the proximal end 44 for manipulation of the end effector 48 from outside the body. Thus, the tool 40 is advanced so that the end effector 48 emerges from the distal end 34 of the arm 30.
A wide variety of end effectors 48 may be used depending on the procedure or tissue manipulations which are desired. For example, end effectors 48 may include but are not limited to knives, needles, sutures, staplers, fasteners, clippers, electrosurgical or hemostatic cutters and coagulators, laser welders, cryosurgery instruments, secondary scopes, forceps, lasers hooks, tongs, graspers, retractors, probes, clamps, scissors, tissue approximation devices and suction applicators.
The scissors 200 of
Embodiments of the tool 40 having an end effector 48 may be in the form of various shaped retractors. Examples of such retractors include an angled retractor 242, (
V. Auxiliary Lumens
As mentioned previously, lumens in addition to the scope lumen 24 and arm guide lumens 26 may be present within the main body 10 and may be considered auxiliary lumens 58. Such lumens 58 may be used for any purpose, such as irrigation, suction, insufflation, macerating, illuminating, grasping, or cutting to name a few, and are typically used in conjunction with the arms 30 and/or tools 40 inserted through the arms 30 or positioned at the ends of the arms 30.
In one embodiment, illustrated in
Alternatively, other tools may be passed through auxiliary lumens 58 for similar or other purposes. For example, a corkscrew device 320 (
It may be appreciated that tools 40 may alternatively be passed through an arm guide lumen 26 for use in conjunction with a tool arm 30 passed through another arm guide lumen 26. For example, as illustrated in
Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example, for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be obvious that various alternatives, modifications and equivalents may be used and the above description should not be taken as limiting in scope of the invention which is defined by the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||600/114, 600/104|
|International Classification||A61B1/018, A61B17/34, A61B1/313, A61B1/005|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B1/0057, A61B2017/00349, A61B2017/3445, A61B2017/003, A61B17/00234, A61M25/0043, A61B1/0055, A61B1/313, A61B1/018, A61M25/0105, A61B2019/5206, A61M25/0147, A61M2025/0096, A61B2017/00323, A61B2017/2906|
|European Classification||A61B17/00E, A61M25/00S, A61B1/005B6, A61B1/018, A61B1/313|