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Publication numberUS20050090894 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/993,380
Publication dateApr 28, 2005
Filing dateNov 19, 2004
Priority dateJun 13, 1997
Also published asEP0884029A1, EP0884029B1, US6821292, US7108714, US7682384, US7942922, US7967852, US8372135, US8382820, US8486133, US8968385, US20020111669, US20030149474, US20070203570, US20080281406, US20080281407, US20080288050, US20080288051, US20080288052, US20080288053, US20080294241, US20080294243, US20080294244, US20080319537, US20090024198, US20090024207, US20100211152, US20100324661, US20100324662
Publication number10993380, 993380, US 2005/0090894 A1, US 2005/090894 A1, US 20050090894 A1, US 20050090894A1, US 2005090894 A1, US 2005090894A1, US-A1-20050090894, US-A1-2005090894, US2005/0090894A1, US2005/090894A1, US20050090894 A1, US20050090894A1, US2005090894 A1, US2005090894A1
InventorsJohn Pazienza, Peter Piferi, Gary Becker
Original AssigneePazienza John D., Piferi Peter G., Becker Gary J.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Crimpable intraluminal endoprosthesis having helical elements
US 20050090894 A1
Abstract
A stent having helical elements, a geometry for improved crimping, and a good stent-to-vessel ratio is disclosed. In one embodiment, the stent has a plurality of first helical segments and a plurality of second opposing helical segments. The first helical segments are comprised of a plurality of first expandable elements and the second helical segments are comprised of a plurality of second helical elements. The expandable elements are joined to each other by a plurality of struts. When the stent is crimped a portion of one of the first expandable elements nest within another portion of the same expandable element and a portion of two first expandable elements nestle between the same two portions of second expandable elements.
Images(8)
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Claims(7)
1-16. (canceled)
17. A stent having a generally cylindrical main body, the main body comprising:
a plurality of helical segments, at least one helical segment crossing another helical segment; and
wherein the stent has a crimped diameter and an expanded diameter that is 3-6 times the crimped diameter.
18. The stent of claim 17, wherein the helical segments contract and expand in a direction parallel to the circumference of the main body when the stent is crimped and expanded.
19-20. (canceled)
21. The stent of claim 18, wherein at least a portion of one helical segment nestles between two other helical segments when the stent is crimped and the stent is manufactured from a tube having a diameter of approximately between 0.03 to 0.500 inches.
22. The stent of claim 21, wherein the stent is manufactured by laser cutting the tube.
23-37. (canceled)
Description
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/267,778, filed on Feb. 9, 2001, which is hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference, and it is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/511,481, filed on Feb. 23, 2000, which is also hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference and which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/094,402, filed Jun. 10, 1998 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,117,165).
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0003]
    The present invention relates to intraluminal endoprosthetic devices known as stents. In particular, the present invention relates to stents having helical elements with a geometry that allows the stent to be readily crimped onto a delivery device.
  • [0004]
    2. Description of Related Art
  • [0005]
    Stents are prosthetic devices that are implanted in the lumen of a vessel inside the body to provide support for the vessel's wall. Structural support from stents is particularly important in angioplasty procedures. Typically, stents are implanted within a vessel system to reinforce vessels that are partially occluded, collapsing, weakened, or abnormally dilated. More generally, stents can be used inside any physiological conduit or duct, including—for example—arteries, veins, bile ducts, the urinary tract, alimentary tracts, the tracheobronchial tree, a cerebral aqueduct or the genitourinary system. Stents may be used in both humans and animals.
  • [0006]
    There are typically two types of stents: self expanding stents and balloon expandable stents. Self expanding stents automatically expand once they are released and assume a deployed, expanded state. A balloon expandable stent is expanded using an inflatable balloon catheter. The balloon is inflated to plastically deform the stent. Balloon expandable stents may be implanted by mounting the stent in an unexpanded or crimped state on a balloon segment of a catheter. The catheter, after having the crimped stent placed thereon, is inserted through a puncture in a vessel wall and moved through the vessel until it is positioned in the portion of the vessel that is in need of repair. The stent is then expanded by inflating the balloon catheter against the inside wall of the vessel. Specifically, the stent is plastically deformed by inflating the balloon so that the diameter of the stent is increased and remains at an increased state. In some situations, the vessel in which the stent is implanted may be dilated by the stent itself when the stent is expanded.
  • [0007]
    The Palmaz-Schatzt™ stent, which is disclosed in the Handbook of Coronary Stents by Patrick W. Serruys et al. (Martin Dunitz, LTD 1998), is an example of a balloon expandable stent that had been implanted in hundreds of thousands of patients. The Palmaz-Schatz™ stent, like other known stents, has certain limitations. These include, but are not limited to: (i) low stent-to-vessel ratio uniformity, (ii) comparative rigidity of the stent in a crimped as well as deployed state, and (iii) limited flexibility making delivery and placement in narrow vessels difficult. Stent-to-vessel ratio generally refers to the degree that the vessel wall is supported by the stent in its expanded state and preferably should be uniform throughout the length of the stent. Furthermore because the Palmaz-Schatz™ stent consists of one or more bridges that connect a number of consecutively slotted tubes, there are a number of bare areas in the vessel after the expansion of the stent. These shortfalls are common to many stents. Id. at 36.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention is directed to expandable stents that have geometries that allow them to be readily crimped onto a balloon delivery device. In one embodiment, the stent may be comprised of a plurality of first helical segment having a first helical angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the stent and a plurality of second helical segments that have a second helical angle. The helical segments are capable of expanding and contracting circumferentially, i.e., they expand or contract along the circumference of the stent. In this embodiment, when the stent is crimped, at least one portion of one first helical segment, along with at least one portion of a second first helical element, nestle between the same two portions of two separate second helical segments.
  • [0009]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, the stent is comprised of a plurality of first expandable elements and a plurality of second expandable elements. The first expandable element may have a segment that nests within another segment of the same first expandable element. In some embodiments, the first expandable elements are joined together by struts to form first helical segments and the second expandable elements are joined together by struts to form second helical segments. The first and second helical segments may have different helical angles or different pitches. In some embodiments, the first and second helical segments share common struts.
  • [0010]
    In some embodiments of the present invention, the stent may be comprised of a plurality of cells. Each cells may be comprised of first and second elements that are alternatively joined together (i.e., each first element is joined to two second elements and each second element is joined to two first elements to form a polygon). The polygon may be amorphous or may have a definite shape. When the stent is crimped a portion of each first of the elements that make up the cell nestles between portions of the second elements of the cell. In some embodiments, the first and second elements may touch each other when the stent is crimped. A plurality of struts joins the cells to form a stent body. In addition portions of a first element may nest within other portions of the same first element and a portion of a second element may also nest within a portion of the same first element.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0011]
    FIG. 1 is a three dimensional view of one embodiment of a stent according to the present invention.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 2 is planar view of a flattened portion of the circumference of the stent in FIG. 1.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 3 is a planar view of one element that makes us the stent body as shown in the planar view of FIG. 2.
  • [0014]
    FIGS. 4 a and 4 b are views of filament segments that comprise the element shown in FIG. 3.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 5 is a planar view of a second element that makes up the stent body shown in FIG. 2.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 6 is a planar view of the element of FIG. 3, when the stent is crimped.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 7 is a planar view of the elements of FIGS. 3 and 5, when the stent is crimped.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 8 a is a planar view illustrating a plurality of cells that may be joined together to make one embodiment of the stent of the present invention.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 8 b is an enlarged portion of one of the cells shown in FIG. 8 a.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 9 is a planar view of the cell of FIG. 8 a after the stent has been crimped.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 10 illustrates how certain first elements and certain second elements nestle when the stent is crimped.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0022]
    The present invention is directed to an expandable stent having a geometry that is well-suited for crimping the stent onto a delivery device. In some, but not necessarily all embodiments of the present invention, the stents may have an expanded diameter that is 3 to 6 times that of its crimped diameter. In addition, in some—but not necessarily all—embodiments the stent-to-vessel ratios may be better than 15%.
  • [0023]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, as is shown in FIGS. 1 & 2, a stent is comprised of a main body section 100 having a longitudinal axis 1000. The stent shown in FIG. 1 is mounted on a carrier 616. The main body is comprised of a plurality of first helical segments 120 a and 120 b and a plurality of second helical segments 150 a and 150 b. The first helical segments form a helical angle α with respect to the longitudinal axis 1000 of the stent, resulting in the first helical segments having a first pitch. The second helical segments 150 a and 150 b form a helical angle θ with respect to the longitudinal axis 1000, resulting in the second helical segments having a second pitch. In some embodiments a varies between 20 and 50, and θ varies between 20 and 90. The first helical segments 120 a and 120 b and second helical segments 150 a and 150 b are circumferentially expandable, i.e., they are capable of expanding in a direction parallel to the direction of the circumference 200 of the stent. The helical segments 120 a, 120 b, 150 a, and 150 b also circumferentially contract when the stent is crimped.
  • [0024]
    As is discussed further below, in some embodiments, the first helical segments 120 a and 120 b may be comprised of a plurality of filament segments and likewise the second helical segments 150 a and 150 b may be comprised of a plurality of filament segments. In some embodiments the total length of the sum of all the filament segments comprising the first helical segment may be longer than the total length of the filament segments comprising the second helical segment. In some cases, the first and second helical segments may share common filament segments.
  • [0025]
    As is shown in FIG. 2, the first helical segments 120 a and 120 b are comprised of a plurality of first expandable elements 300, and the second helical segments are comprised of a plurality of second expandable elements 350. Two or more first expandable segments 300 are joined together by a plurality of struts 400 to form each of the first helical segments 120 a and 120 b. The same struts 400 also join two second expandable segments 350 to form the second helical segments 150 a and 150 b. The struts 400 may be an integral part of the first or second expandable element, or both.
  • [0026]
    As is shown in FIG. 3, in some embodiments, the first expandable elements 300 are comprised of a plurality of contiguous filament segments 700 a, 700 b, 710 a, 710 b and 720. In one embodiment, the filament segments 700 a, 710 a and 720 are joined together to form a generally R-shaped structure 730. (See FIG. 4). The filament that forms the head of the R, i.e. filament 710 a or 710 b, may be curved and have a radius r. The radius r may take many values, including but not limited to approximately 0.015 inches. As is shown in FIGS. 3, 4 a, and 4 b, the first expandable elements 300 may be comprised of a plurality of R-shaped structures 730 a and 730 b oriented inversely to one another and sharing a common filament segment 720.
  • [0027]
    In some embodiments, as is shown in FIG. 5, the second expandable elements 350 may be comprised of a plurality of contiguous filament segments 770 a, 770 b, 775 a, 780, and 775 b and may, for example, in some embodiments form a Z-shaped structure. For example, as is shown, filament 770 a may lie at an angle β with respect to filament 780 and segments 770 a and 770 b may be joined to the single segment 780 by curved segments 775 a and 775 b. In some, but not necessarily all, embodiments, 770 a and 770 b have the same dimensions, and 780 may be shorter. The angle β may also vary greatly, and in one embodiment ranges between 30 and 40, for example.
  • [0028]
    As is shown in FIG. 1, some embodiments of the present invention may have endzones 600 & 610 that straddle the main body 100. The endzones may have square outer edges 605 & 615. The endzones may be attached to the main body 100 with a plurality of second struts 450. (See FIG. 2). The second struts may have an orientation that differs from that of the other struts 400. For example, the second struts 450 may be parallel to the cylindrical axis 1000 of the stent, while the struts 400 may be oriented at an angle to the cylindrical axis of the stent.
  • [0029]
    The stents of the present invention provide a geometry that improves their crimpability. For example, one embodiment of the present invention may have a crimped diameter of less than 2.0 mm and an expanded diameter of 6.0-12.0 mm, or greater. The stent may be crimped onto a PTA Balloon at a diameter of 1.50 mm and it may be manufactured from a tube having a diameter of approximately 0.030 to 0.500 inches. Of course, other sized tube may be used. And stents may be manufactured in a wide variety of sizes for a wide variety of applications.
  • [0030]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, when the stent is crimped, a first portion of the first expandable element 300 nests within another portion of the same first expandable element 300. For example, as is shown in FIG. 6, portions of filament 710 a and 720 nest within a concave portion of filament 700 b. Likewise portions of filaments 710 b and 720 nest within a concave portion of filament 700 a.
  • [0031]
    In some embodiments of the present invention, when the stent is crimped, a portion of a second expandable element 350 nests within a portion of the first expandable element 300. For example, as is shown in FIG. 7, a portion of second expandable element 350 nests within a portion of element 300. Specifically, in this embodiment, which is illustrative and not exhaustive of the present invention, a portion of filament 770 b and 775 b nest within the concave portions of filament 710 a and 700 a. This example illustrates some, but not necessarily all, of the nesting features of the present invention
  • [0032]
    In some embodiments of the present invention, when the stent is crimped, portions from two separate first expandable elements 300 may nestle between the same portions of two separate second expandable segments 350. As is shown in FIG. 10, part of one first expandable element, namely filament 710 a and part of a second first expandable element 710 b, both of which comprise heads for R-shaped structures 730 a and 730 b (see also FIGS. 4 a and 4 b) nestle between filaments 775 a and 775 b, which are each part of a separate second expandable elements 350. FIG. 10 illustrates some, but not necessarily all, of the nestling features of the geometry of the present invention.
  • [0033]
    As is illustrated by FIGS. 10, 3, 4 a, 3 b, and 3, in some embodiments, not only is the filament 775 a part of one second expandable element 350 which is in turn part of a second helical segment 150 a, but also filament 710 a is part of one first expandable segment 300 which is in turn part of a first helical segment 120 a. Likewise, filament 775 b is part of different second expandable element 350, which is part of a second second helical segment 150 b and filament 710 b is part of a second first expandable element 300, which is in turn part of another helical segment 120 b. Thus, in one embodiment of the present invention portions of one first helical segment and portions of another first helical segment nestle, when the stent is crimped, between portions of two separate second helical segments.
  • [0034]
    As is shown in FIG. 8 a, the stent of the present invention, may in some embodiments, be comprised of a plurality of cells 500. In some embodiments, the cells 500 may be joined together by struts 400. Each cell 500 may be comprised of first elements 300 and second elements 350. In one embodiment, as is shown in FIG. 8 b, each first element 300 is joined to two second elements 350, and each second element 350 is joined to two first elements 300. This results in a polygon, which may take many forms or may be amorphous. As is shown in FIGS. 2 and 8 a, cells may be joined together so that the resulting stent has a plurality of helical segments, wherein at least one helical segment cross another. (See e.g. FIG. 2).
  • [0035]
    Cell geometry may be such that each cell expands at a relatively constant rate. For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8 a, each cell is comprised of a plurality of first expandable elements 300 and a plurality of second expandable elements 350. Each first element 300 is in turn comprised of a plurality of R-shaped elements 730 a and 730 b. The second expandable elements 350 in this illustrative embodiment are generally Z-shaped. During expansion, the R-shaped elements 730 a and 730 b expand at a slower initial rate than the Z shaped elements. By staggering or alternating circumferentially first elements 300 and second elements 350, the stent expands circumferentially in a uniform manner because each cell circumferentially expands uniformly, not withstanding that the elements 350 expand faster than the elements 300.
  • [0036]
    As is shown in FIG. 9, when a stent according to the present invention is crimped, each cell circumferentially contracts. In this embodiment, which is included herein for illustrative purposes only and is not exhaustive of the present invention, when the stent is crimped, one portion of a first expandable element (e.g. at least portions of filaments 710 a and 720) nests within another portion of the same first expandable element (e.g. at least portions of filament 700 b) and portions of two separate first expandable elements 300 (e.g., filaments 710 a and 710 b) nestle between two separate second expandable elements 350. When the stent is expanded each cell expands uniformly along line 200, which is the circumferential dimension of the stent. (See FIG. 1). The second expandable elements 350 open at a faster rate than the first expandable elements 300, but since the first expandable elements are oriented diagonally, as are the second expandable elements, the right portion 2000 of the cell 500 expands at the same rate as the left portion 3000 of the cell 500. (See FIG. 9).
  • [0037]
    The foregoing embodiments and description is intended to illustrate the various and broad-ranging features of the present invention and is not intended to limit the scope or spirit of the present invention. The present invention may be embodied in numerous forms other than those specifically described above. For example, and without limitation, the first elements 300 and the second elements 350 may take numerous forms and shapes other than those shown. This may result in a first helical segment having a total filament length that is greater than or less than that of a second helical element. In addition, the stents of the present invention may be manufactured from materials with techniques that are readily known in the art, such as for example, by laser cutting tubes, which are manufactured from appropriate stent materials. Thus, although the embodiments described herein refer to different elements and segments within the same stent, those skilled in the art will recognize that the stent of the present invention may be comprised of a single continuous piece of material or it may be comprised of multiple disparate filaments or segment pieces joined together by well-known techniques.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7335225May 31, 2002Feb 26, 2008Boston Scientific Scimed, IncStent configurations
US7537607Dec 21, 2001May 26, 2009Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Stent geometry for improved flexibility
US7951187Feb 25, 2008May 31, 2011Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Stent configurations
US8128678 *Sep 2, 2009Mar 6, 2012Cook Medical Technologies LlcStent having less invasive ends and improved radial force
US8923972Jul 25, 2007Dec 30, 2014Vascular Dynamics, Inc.Elliptical element for blood pressure reduction
US9125567Sep 29, 2009Sep 8, 2015Vascular Dynamics, Inc.Devices and methods for control of blood pressure
US9125732 *Feb 18, 2011Sep 8, 2015Vascular Dynamics, Inc.Devices and methods for control of blood pressure
US9457174Dec 4, 2014Oct 4, 2016Vascular Dynamics, Inc.Elliptical element for blood pressure reduction
US9550048May 26, 2011Jan 24, 2017Vascular Dynamics, Inc.Elliptical element for blood pressure reduction
US9592136Nov 27, 2013Mar 14, 2017Vascular Dynamics, Inc.Devices and methods for control of blood pressure
US20020151962 *May 31, 2002Oct 17, 2002Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Stent configurations
US20030120334 *Dec 21, 2001Jun 26, 2003Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Stent geometry for improved flexibility
US20080167706 *Feb 25, 2008Jul 10, 2008Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.stent configurations
US20090248140 *May 26, 2009Oct 1, 2009Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Stent geometry for improved flexibility
US20110077729 *May 5, 2010Mar 31, 2011Vascular Dynamics Inc.Devices and methods for control of blood pressure
US20110166640 *Sep 2, 2009Jul 7, 2011Cook Medical Technologies LlcStent having less invasive ends and improved radial force
US20110178416 *Feb 18, 2011Jul 21, 2011Vascular Dynamics Inc.Devices and methods for control of blood pressure
US20110213408 *Sep 29, 2009Sep 1, 2011Vascular Dynamics Inc.Devices and methods for control of blood pressure
US20110230953 *May 26, 2011Sep 22, 2011Yossi GrossElliptical element for blood pressure reduction
Classifications
U.S. Classification623/1.15
International ClassificationA61F2/06, A61F2/90, A61F2/84
Cooperative ClassificationA61F2002/91541, A61F2002/91558, A61F2002/9155, A61F2002/91583, A61F2/915, A61F2002/91508, A61F2230/0013, A61F2002/91525, A61F2002/91516, A61F2002/91533, A61F2/91, A61F2/88
European ClassificationA61F2/91, A61F2/915
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Sep 21, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: ORBUSNEICH MEDICAL, INC., FLORIDA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ORBUS MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:018285/0822
Effective date: 20060814