US 20050110672 A1
An inspection system that can detect contraband items concealed on, in or beneath an individual's clothing. The system employs mm wave radiation to detect contraband items. The system is described in connection with a check point security system that includes temperature controlled walls to enhance imaging of contraband items. Also, a mm wave camera is used in conjunction with a camera that forms visible images. To address privacy concerns of displaying images of people made with mm wave cameras that effectively “see through” clothes, the mm wave images are not displayed directly. Rather, computer processing produces indications of suspicious items from the underlying raw mm wave images. The indications of suspicious items are overlaid on the visible image.
1. A contraband detection system, comprising:
a) a first camera having a first field of view, the first camera having an output providing first image data representative of radiation in a first frequency band from items in the first field of view;
b) a second camera having a second field of view at least partially overlapping the first field of view, the second camera having an output providing second image data representative of radiation in a second frequency band, different from the first frequency band, representative of items in the second field of view; and
c) a display station coupled to the first camera and the second camera to receive the first image data and the second image data, the display station comprising at least one computer programmed to present a display of items in the first field of view using the first image data selectively overlaid with an indication of at least one item derived from the second image data.
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19. A method of operating a contraband detection system comprising:
a) imaging a person with a millimeter wave camera to produce millimeter wave image data and imaging a person with a second camera to produce visible image data;
b) processing at least the millimeter wave image data to identify a contraband item; and
c) when a contraband item is identified, displaying a visible image of the person using the visible image data overlaid with an indication of the contraband item.
20. The method of operating a contraband detection system of
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36. A contraband detection system comprising:
a) a heated structure;
b) a millimeter wave camera facing the heated structure.
37. The contraband detection system of
a) an exterior surface;
b) a heat generating member; and
c) a layer between the exterior surface and the heat generating member transparent to millimeter wave radiation.
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51. A method of operating a contraband detection system comprising:
a) providing a millimeter wave camera with a field of view;
b) illuminating the field of view with a millimeter wave signal having a plurality of spatially independent and quasi-random phase and amplitude components;
c) collecting image data with the millimeter wave camera; and
d) using the image data to determine whether contraband items are in the field of view.
52. The method of operating a contraband detection system of
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59. An airport security checkpoint comprising:
a) an enclosure having a millimeter wave camera imaging a field of view within the enclosure, the enclosure having a passage sized to allow a person to enter the field of view, the camera having a camera data output;
b) a baggage scanner having a scanner data output;
c) at least one computer having inputs coupled to the camera data output and the scanner data output, the at least one computer programmed to present, based on the camera data output and the scanner data output, a threat assessment for a passenger.
60. The airport security checkpoint of
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This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/510,438, entitled “DUAL IMAGE PLANE QUASIOPTICAL MMW ENHANCED CAMERA,” filed on Oct. 10, 2003, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/579,966, entitled “MMW CONTRABAND SCREENING SYSTEM,” filed on Jun. 15, 2004, which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.
1. Field of Invention
This invention relates to security systems and more specifically security systems that can detect concealed weapons, explosives or other types of contraband objects that may be carried by a person on, under, or within his clothing.
2. Discussion of Related Art
Because of the threat of terrorism, it is desirable to have a way to detect explosives, weapons or other contrabands concealed by individuals on their persons. The approaches traditionally used to inspect luggage or other containers for contraband are generally not suitable for detecting contraband concealed by individuals on their persons. Most known inspection techniques employ ionizing radiation to form images of items under inspection. Human operators or computer systems programmed with image analysis algorithms can study these images to detect contraband objects concealed within containers.
Because of health risks imposed by ionizing radiation, similar systems may not be used to detect contraband items concealed by people, for example, beneath their clothing. Even imaging systems that employ non-ionizing radiation are not desirable. Many people object to being irradiated, even if the level or frequency of the radiation is not associated with any known health risk.
It has been proposed to use millimeter waves (“mm waves”) to image people for contraband detection. However, mm wave cameras can produce images of people in which their clothes are not visible. Such a system may also be objectionable to the people who would be inspected by it.
It would be desirable to have an improved contraband detection system.
In one aspect, the invention relates to a contraband detection system having a first camera having a first field of view, the first camera having an output providing first image data representative of radiation in a first frequency band from items in the first field of view. The system includes a second camera having a second field of view at least partially overlapping the first field of view, the second camera having an output providing second image data representative of radiation in a second frequency band, different from the first frequency band, representative of items in the second field of view. A display station coupled to the first camera and the second camera receives the first image data and the second image data and is programmed with at least one computer programmed to present a display of items in the first field of view using the first image data selectively overlaid with an indication of at least one item derived from the second image data.
In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of operating a contraband detection system that includes imaging a person with a millimeter wave camera to produce millimeter wave image data and imaging a person with a second camera to produce visible image data; processing at least the millimeter wave image data to identify a contraband item; and when a contraband item is identified, displaying a visible image of the person using the visible image data overlaid with an indication of the contraband item.
In yet another aspect, the invention relates to a contraband detection system with a heated structure and a millimeter wave camera facing the heated structure.
In a further aspect, the invention relates to a method of operating a contraband detection system that includes providing a millimeter wave camera with a field of view; illuminating the field of view with a millimeter wave signal having a plurality of spatially independent and quasi-random phase and amplitude components; collecting image data with the millimeter wave camera; and using the image data to determine whether contraband items are in the field of view.
In a further aspect, the invention relates to an airport security checkpoint that has an enclosure having a millimeter wave camera imaging a field of view within the enclosure, the enclosure having a passage sized to allow a person to enter the field of view, the camera having a camera data output. The checkpoint also has a baggage scanner having a scanner data output; and at least one computer having inputs coupled to the camera data output and the scanner data output, the at least one computer programmed to present, based on the camera data output and the scanner data output, a threat assessment for a passenger.
The accompanying drawings are not intended to be drawn to scale. In the drawings, each identical or nearly identical component that is illustrated in various figures is represented by a like numeral. For purposes of clarity, not every component may be labeled in every drawing. In the drawings:
This invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and the arrangement of components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. The invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or of being carried out in various ways. Also, the phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The use of “including,” “comprising,” or “having,” “containing,” “involving,” and variations thereof herein, is meant to encompass the items listed thereafter and equivalents thereof as well as additional items.
Inspection system 100 includes a portal 110 and an operator inspection station 112. Portal 110 includes a doorway 114 through which a person 150 being screened enters the portal 110. Preferably, a similar sized opening is provided on the opposite side of portal 110 to allow the person to exit portal 110. However, it is possible that a portal could be constructed with a single opening, requiring the person to enter and exit the portal through the same opening. Two openings provide more convenient movement of individuals through portal 110. For example, individuals may line up for screening on one side of portal 110. People may pass continuously through the portal, with those cleared by the screening being allowed to pass the security checkpoint. Those not cleared by the screening may be diverted upon exiting portal 110 for further inspection or other steps to ensure they are not carrying contraband. Two openings also facilitates environmental control within portal 110, such that the inside of the portal is at the same temperature and/or relative humidity as the surrounding environment.
In use, a person 150 steps into the portal and stands in front of back wall 120. A visible image is formed of the person against back wall 120 and processed for display on operator station 112. At the same time, the system scans the region near to and over the surface of the person and measures the strength of the millimeter wave radiation emanating from the person and the nearby regions. Preferably, this radiation is presented in the form of a millimeter wave image. The measured values of the millimeter wave radiation are sent to operator station 112 where an embedded automatic target recognition algorithm may process the measured values to determine if contraband items are present on, in or under the clothing covering the individual being scanned.
Preferably, once the visible and passive millimeter wave images of the front of a person are formed, the person turns to allow images to be formed from different angles. For example the person may face back wall 120 for an image of the back of the person to be formed. Images may also be formed with a person's sides facing the camera.
If the inspection system detects contraband carried on, under or inside the clothing of the person, an indication of the location of the contraband will be presented to an operator through operator interface 112. Where the system indicates contraband, the person may be denied passage through the checkpoint, searched or otherwise subject to other security screening. Information presented on operator interface 112 may guide the search, with the search starting in the area indicated to contain contraband, with a more complete body search being done second, if necessary or desirable. Alternatively, some other appropriate action may be taken, such as denying the person access to specific locations. The appropriate action taken in response to indications that people have concealed weapons or other contraband on their persons will depend on the intended use of the inspection system. Also, it is not necessary that images be presented to a human operator. Decisions about whether a person has concealed contraband may be made by a computer programmed to apply threat detection algorithms to the images obtained by inspection system 100.
In one embodiment, camera 240 forms an image of person 150 using visible light. However, a camera forming an image using infrared or other relatively short wavelength radiation may be used. Preferably, camera 240 forms a relatively high resolution image and may be, for example, a conventional CCD video camera. Camera 230 may be a millimeter wave imaging camera that takes radiometric samples of the passive millimeter wave radiation emanating over the spatial extent of the objects which it images. Millimeter wave refers generally to radiation that has a frequency between approximately 20 and 300 GHz (gigahertz). In one embodiment, camera 230 is sensitive to frequencies in a relatively narrow band of the millimeter wave spectrum. Preferably, camera 230 will be sensitive to either one band or more than one band of a band of frequencies somewhere in the range between approximately 20 GHz and 300 GHz. In one embodiment, camera 230 will operate in a band spanning some or all of the frequency spectrum between 90 GHz and 140 GHz. For example, camera 230 may be a 94 GHz millimeter wave imaging camera, with an instantaneous bandwidth of approximately 6 GHz, or camera 230 may have a plurality of radiometric receivers operating in discrete bands that are each about 6 GHz wide and where each receiver is centered at 3 to 5 discrete center frequencies between 20 and 300 GHz. For example, bands encompassing one or more of the frequencies 35 GHz, 94 GHz, 140 GHz and 220 GHz may be used.
Millimeter waves have relatively long wavelengths. Images formed with radiation of relatively long wavelength are inherently lower resolution than images formed with shorter wavelengths. The spatial resolution of millimeter wavelength images can be improved by increasing the diameter of the millimeter wave antenna used within the camera, but for practical implementations, the spatial resolution of the millimeter wave camera is relatively coarse as compared to a visible image taken with a standard video camera. Camera 230 has a spatial resolution lower than that of camera 240. For example, camera 230 may have a resolution of approximately one centimeter and form images containing approximately one thousand pixels. In contrast, camera 240 may form images with the resolution 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than camera 230.
Images formed by both cameras 230 and 240 are provided to a control system 250. Control system 250 is a computer data processing system, such as are widely used in inspection systems. In the illustrated embodiment, control system 250 processes the image data provided by camera 230, though the data may be processed in hardware located in any convenient spot and connected to portal 110 through a network. In processing the image data, control system 250 runs algorithms to detect whether person 150 is carrying contraband. Camera 230 and control system 250 may operate with one radiometric camera band or a plurality of radiometric camera bands over the range from 20 to 300 GHz. Several camera bands may be used simultaneously by the algorithms to enhance detection of certain types of contraband objects, or automatic threat detection algorithms may use data collected in certain bands to identify contraband objects that have material properties such that they emit or reflect relatively large amounts of radiation in that band.
If contraband is detected, an indication is provided at operator station 112. A visible image formed by camera 240 is displayed on the operator station 112. Overlayed on this visible image is an indication of contraband identified in the image formed by camera 230. Because the images formed by camera 230 and 240 can be related spatially, the position of the contraband detected from an image formed by camera 230 can be related to the image formed by camera 240.
In the example shown in
Despite the fact that front wall 220 is emitting radiation 222 which can interact with person 150 or back wall 120, radiation 222 does not have a significant effect on the image formed by camera 230. Back wall 120 includes materials that absorb millimeter wave radiation. Thus, any radiation 222 reflected back to camera 230 is of very low intensity. Though radiation 222 has a higher peak intensity than radiation 210 or 212, the intensity of radiation 222 is so low in absolute terms that it has no significant effect on the temperature of person 150 or back wall 120 when absorbed.
As will be described below, back wall 120 and front wall 220 are in some embodiments heated to produce radiation at a Blackbody temperature in excess of 90 degrees Fahrenheit. However, as will be described below, the walls are constructed such that heating of the walls does not significantly increase the air temperature inside portal 110. Further, portal 110 can be built to include an air circulation system, such as is illustrated by fan 231. A ventilation system can be used to control the environment experienced by the person 150 within portal 110 to maintain it at a temperature that is below the Blackbody radiating temperatures of the walls. The temperature of the air inside the booth need not be the same as the internal temperature of the walls, which determines the amount of Blackbody radiation emitted.
Radiation such as 222 emanating from front wall 220 reflects from concealed object 260, such as is illustrated by radiation 264. The radiation from concealed object 260 will be a combination of radiation 262 and 264. Radiation 264 will be at a measurably different Blackbody temperature than radiation from person 150 and back wall 210. Thus, even if person 150 does not appear in an image formed by camera 230, contraband objects carried on the person 150 will appear in the image.
The appearance of objects in the image formed by millimeter wave camera 230 can be used as an indication of contraband objects concealed on person 150. Even if the object 260 is obscured by clothing on person 150, camera 230 may still detect radiation 264 from object 260. Clothes normally worn by people tend not to either reflect or attenuate millimeter waves except by a small amount and therefore have almost no effect on the image formed by camera 230.
The system preferably does not directly display images of a person formed from a mm wave camera scan. Doing so creates privacy concerns. Because the mm wave camera effectively “sees through” clothes, an image formed with the mm wave camera resembles a picture of a person taken without clothes. Thus, detecting contraband in a mm wave image but displaying an indication of the contraband in connection with a visible light image addresses potential privacy concerns as well as presenting the information in a format readily understandable to the human operator of the inspection system.
In the scenario shown in
Image processing algorithms may be used to filter the images formed by camera 230 such that only items in the image of sufficient size to represent contraband items appear in the image. In addition, boundary detection algorithms may be applied to the image formed by camera 230 to highlight objects such as contraband 260. Further, region identification algorithms may be employed to better distinguish between contraband items imaged by camera 230 and image effects or noise. Further image processing may be applied. For example, object or shape recognition algorithms may be applied to further increase the probability that pixels in the image are actually the result of items carried by person 150. Furthermore, multiple decision surfaces based upon evaluations in a plurality of camera bands may be used to form a final decision surface. This procedure would further enhance detection probability and decrease false alarm rate.
Controller 250 may also include automatic object detection algorithms. In one contemplated embodiment, if controller 250 detects an object within the millimeter wave image formed by camera 230, it will signal to an operator that person 150 needs to be searched to verify whether the person was carrying concealed contraband. When controller 250 detects in the image formed by camera 230 an object that could represent a weapon or other contraband, it will cause a search indicator to appear on the operator interface.
The wall may include a structural member as a base. In
A thermally insulative material is attached to the base member. In
In the embodiment shown in
A heat spreader 418 may optionally be used in connection with heating blanket 416. Heat spreader 418 is a sheet of material that has high thermal conductivity, such as an aluminum sheet. The heat spreader will be at a relatively uniform temperature even if heating blanket 416 heats unevenly such that some portions of heating blanket 416 are hotter than others.
The wall also includes a region of material that will absorb millimeter waves in the frequency range which camera 230 may detect. Absorber material 420 may, for example, be a carbon-loaded foam or a reticulated foam absorber material. Any stray millimeter wave radiation from nearby natural or cultural objects that is at a higher or lower Blackbody temperature than the physical temperature of the absorber in the wall will be absorbed into absorber material 470. The absorber then radiates Blackbody radiation proportional to its physical temperature irrespective of the presence or absence of any stray millimeter radiation incident on the absorber.
To ensure that absorber material 420 radiates Blackbody radiation of the desired characteristics, its temperature is controlled. Thermal couple 430 is embedded in absorber material 420. If the temperature of layer 420 increases because of absorbed radiation, this increase will be sensed by thermal couple 430, which is connected in a feedback loop to heating blanket 416. The amount of power generated by heating blanket 416 will be decreased, keeping the temperature of absorber material 420 at the desired level. In the example where the rear wall 120 radiates at a Blackbody temperature of ninety degrees Fahrenheit, the feedback loop holds the temperature of absorber material layer 420 at ninety degrees Fahrenheit.
A layer of thermally insulative material is added over absorber material layer 420. In contrast to layer 414 which does not impact operation of the system if it absorbs mm wave radiation, insulative layer 420 is preferably transparent to mm wave radiation and does not absorb water. In one embodiment, the insulative layer may be layer 422 of closed cell urethane radome foam. Such a foam layer would provide relatively good thermal insulation but would be relatively transparent to millimeter waves.
A protective layer 424 can be placed over the urethane foam layer 422. A material such as is used to form coverings on radomes may, for example, be used. Preferably layer 424 is constructed from a low loss radome material that is transparent to radiation in the frequency range measured by camera 230 yet provides sufficient mechanical protection for the underlying structure of the wall.
Other elements such as are commonly found in electronic control systems may also be included. For example, a thermal cutout switch 516 may also be included. Thermal cutout switch 516 may prevent the wall from being heated to a temperature at which damage may occur. Likewise, a fuse 514 may be employed to prevent the system from drawing dangerous amounts of power. Also, solid state relay 512 takes low voltage control signals from Temperature Controller 510 and switches on and off the high current high voltage power that is being supplied to the heating blanket 416.
Rather than containing a source of heat with a heat spreader, the wall in
Any heat generated within absorber material 620 from absorbed radiation coming from natural or cultural objects is small and is easily dissipated by the cold air flowing through plenum 616, thereby maintaining absorber material 614 at a constant physical temperature. Absorber material 618 will produce Blackbody radiation in proportion to its physical temperature which is set by the temperature of the ambient air in the plenum.
Layer 618 may be thermally insulative foam that is preferably transparent to mm wave radiation. It may be similar to layer 422 in
In addition to receiving data from portal 110, computer 820 may receive information from other sources. In system 800, inspection area 810 may include a line scanner 834, such as may be used to inspect carry on baggage. In addition, inspection area 810 includes a biometric scanner 832. Biometric scanner 832 may, for example, be a video camera coupled to an automatic face recognition system.
Computer 820 may be programmed to synthesize data from various sources. Data may be synthesized relating to a specific passenger. When biometric data matches the person suspected of terrorist activity, the threshold settings for the other inspection systems may be decreased, such that even small quantities of suspicious materials would result in an alarm being triggered.
Data gathered from the mm wave inspection system within portal 110 may be combined with information from carryon baggage scanner 834 to increase the confidence that a particular passenger has no contraband items. For example, biometric information may be used to validate the identity of the passenger. For example, small quantities of material that could be an explosive but would normally be considered too small to trigger an alarm, may trigger an alarm if such small quantities were detected both by the carryon inspection and the mm wave inspection of the person. In addition, appropriate responses to suspicious items identified by the mm wave inspection system or the carryon baggage scanner 834 may be determined based on information derived from other sources.
In addition, inspection system 800 includes one or more network connections allowing the threat detection software running at computer 820 to either be updated or receive new data. For example, computer 820 is shown connected over a network, which may be the internet 840, to a threat and object identification database 850. Computer 820 may download information from database 850 as information is updated. Database 850 may contain programs that perform threat or object identification. Alternatively, database 850 may contain data indicating parameters or threshold levels that should be used by threat detection programs on computer 820.
In addition, computer 820 is shown connected over a network 842, which may be a classified network. Classified network 842 allows computer 820 access to intelligence databases such as 852, 854, and 856. These intelligence databases may include information about individuals suspected of terrorist activity or information about a general threat of terrorist activity. Computer 820 may use this information to adjust thresholds or otherwise alter its threat detection processing for specific conditions. For example, alarm thresholds may be set lower for any individual suspected of terrorist activity or for travelers boarding flights for which there is a threat of terrorist activity.
In the system of
In the embodiment of
In the illustrated embodiment, camera 930 is equipped with a mechanical translation device 950. Mechanical translation device 950 allows camera 930 to move relative to person 150. Mechanical translation device 950 may be used for bringing a person 150 within the field of view of camera 930, which will be particularly useful when the system is not used in connection with a fixed inspection station. In addition, mechanical translation device 950 allows camera 930 to scan its field of view over person 150. In this way, the field of view of camera 930 need not encompass the entirety of person 150. Camera 930 may have a field of view, for example, encompassing about one half of person 150. In this embodiment, camera 930 may take an image of a portion of the person 150 after which the field of view camera 930 would be changed by moving mechanical translation device 950 to reposition camera 930 with its field of view on a second portion of the person 150.
Mechanical translation device 950 may be a motor driven pivot mounting for camera 930 or any other suitable mechanism. In addition, it is not necessary that camera 930 be focused on different spots of person 950 through a mechanical translation device. For example, camera 930 may include a phased array of individual detectors that may be electronically steered to adjust the focal point of camera 930. Any suitable means for adjusting the focal point of camera 930 may be used.
Having thus described several aspects of at least one embodiment of this invention, it is to be appreciated various alterations, modifications, and improvements will readily occur to those skilled in the art. For example, to avoid the need to have a person turn around inside portal 110, an inspection portal may contain two or more cameras, one to image the front, back and/or each side of the individual. Alternatively, the effect of two cameras may be simulated with a reflector behind the person or by use of reflectors and vertical translation of the scanning camera with a mechanical translation device.
Camera 1030 is mounted relative to a quasi-optic beam splitter 1020. Quasi-optic beam splitter 1060 allows a beam such as 1060 to pass straight through to camera 1030. Beam 1060 represents radiation to or from the front of person 1050.
In addition, quasi-optic beam splitter 1020 reflects radiation towards mirror 1022. Mirror 1022 is focused on a second mirror 1024, which directs a beam 1060 to or from the back of a person 1050.
In the embodiment illustrated, radiation from the front of a person 1050 and the back of a person 1050 is both provided to camera 1030 at the same time. Processing in camera 1030 may separate out the radiation 1060 from the radiation 1062 to create separate images of the front or back of person 1050. For example, radiation 1060 travels along a shorter path than radiation 1062. Accordingly, the range between camera 1030 and the front of person 1050 is shorter than the range between camera 1030 and the back of person 1050. Techniques that sort image signals based on the range between the detector and the object are known. For example, the received signal may be processed using a fast fourier transform or similar transformation. The signal bins created by the fast fourier transform can be taken to be representative of range.
In addition, other techniques for forming images of the front of a person and the back of a person using the same camera may be employed. For example, camera 1030 may directly face mirror 1022, which may be movably mounted. By rotating mirror 1022, camera 1030 could be effectively focused either at the front of a person 1050 or at mirror 1024, resulting in an image of the back of a person 1050 being formed.
Quasi-optic beam splinters such as 1020 and mirrors such as 1022 and 1024 are known. Preferably, the structures are formed from materials that have the desired properties in the frequency range in which camera 1030 operates. For example, in the 94 GHz band, a mirror can be created by placing a metal coating over a substrate such as plastic.
Further, the portal need not be constructed with directly opposing openings. The path through the inspection portal may make various turns so that when a person is being imaged by a camera, the appropriate background for an image is provided.
Furthermore, the camera need not be pointing directly at the individual. Reflectors may be used to divert radiation from the person to the camera. Using reflectors could reduce the overall size of the inspection portal. For example,
Alternatively, it is not required that camera 230 form an image of an entire person simultaneously. Camera 230 may scan person 150. In the extreme, camera 230 need not form a 2 dimensional image. It may more simply be a detector.
Also, it is not required that all of the walls be made to radiate at a particular temperature. Preferably, those portions of a wall that appear in an image will appear to have the same temperature. But, this result may be achieved by using reflective surfaces reflecting radiation from an object at the desired temperature. For example,
According, while specific materials and positional relationships are described, alternative materials and orientations are possible that create the appearance that all portions of the portal in the field of view of the millimeter wave camera are in the dead zone.
Further it was described that contrast between a person and a contraband item was created by surrounding the person and contraband with a wall that radiates with controlled characteristics. A similar effect may be achieved computationally using additional types of automatic target recognition algorithms without the need to actually control the foreground radiation. As one alternative, in place of a wall such as 220 to control the foreground radiation, incoming radiation may be measured and/or characterized. The same approach may be used in place of a wall 120. The background radiation may be measured and/or characterized. Systems may be employed with active and/or passive illumination of people or other objects to be inspected. For example,
Also, the system of
Also, it was described that an operator display is created by superimposing information from a mm wave image onto a visual image. The information from the mm wave image may be, but need not be, in the same shape as the actual contraband item. The contraband item may be represented as a rectangle or some other convenient shape. Also, it is not necessary that the visible image be formed with visible light. It may, for example, be formed using infrared radiation or may be the silhouette of the person.
Such alterations, modifications, and improvements are intended to be part of this disclosure, and are intended to be within the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description and drawings are by way of example only.