US 20050125204 A1
A system and method provide a computer-based automated tool for quickly and efficiently designing utility stations. One example of such a utility station is a unit substation. The tool includes a database of user-selective predrawn symbols that are associated with a pre-defined and stored station template. Each of the respective symbols have associated therewith attributes that are computer recognizable as being attributes associated with the respective symbols, and may be combined into a list, when the symbols are selected for use with the station. The tool presents a graphical rendering of the symbols arranged on the station, after the respective symbols have been identified.
47. A method for designing an electrical substation, comprising:
receiving user selections corresponding to functional requirements for the electrical substation via a user interface;
retrieving representations of components for the electrical substation, based on the functional requirements, from a database configured to store the representations of the components; and
generating at least one substation design, using the functional requirements and the representations of components retrieved from the database.
48. The method of
outputting at least one of the substation designs.
49. The computer-implemented method of
outputting information relating to the substation design to one of a document management system, cost management system, a display device and server.
50. The method of
the electrical substation comprises one of a power substation and a switching substation.
51. The method of
presenting a series of options to a user; and
selecting responses to the presented options via a user interface;
wherein subsequent options are presented as a function of selections of previous options.
52. The method of
processing the selected functional requirements in a knowledge-based system including a user modifiable artificial intelligence based representation of a decision tree defined by hierarchical nodes.
53. The method of
creating a database including a stored database representation of attributes of substation components, the stored database representation being consistent with the multi-level nodal hierarchy of the knowledge-based system.
54. The method of
updating the database dynamically with additional designs and representations of components and component attributes.
55. The method of
storing a monetary value associated with the representations of a component in the database.
56. The method of
outputting the cost information corresponding to each representation of the component used in generating the at least one substation design.
57. The method of
outputting the at least one generated substation design to a display; and
displaying the cost associated with each displayed component upon the selection of a component.
58. A system for designing an electrical substation comprising:
an input device configured to collect user selections corresponding to functional requirements of an electrical substation;
a processing unit containing computer-executable instructions for accepting the functional requirements and generating at least one design of an electrical substation based on the functional requirements selected by the user.
59. The system of
an output device configured to output the at least one design for an electrical substation.
60. The system of
the output device is configured to output the at least one design for an electrical substation to one of a document management system, cost management system, display device and server.
61. The system of
computer-executable instructions for accepting user selected options regarding aspects of the substation.
62. The system of
an input device for collecting information from which weighted preferences can be derived.
63. The system of
the input device is configured to collect user selections corresponding to functional requirements presents options in an interactive, hierarchical manner, wherein subsequent options are presented as a function of selections of previous options.
64. The system of
the system of presenting options is implemented in a decision tree.
65. The system of
the processing unit for generating at least one substation design as a function of the functional requirements is an expert system.
66. The system of
the output device further comprises a device for outputting a list of system components making up a substation design and their attributes.
67. The system of
the output device is configured to output cost information related to each component used in the substation design.
68. The system of
the output device is configured to output the substation design to a display device; and
the display device is configured to display cost information when a particular component of the substation design is selected on the display.
69. The system of
the output device further comprises a device for outputting a blueprint of a substation design.
70. The computer-implemented system of
a database configured to store representations of components of an electrical substation which is accessed by the processing unit to generate the at least one design of an electrical substation.
71. The computer-implemented system of
the database is configured to store cost information corresponding to the representations of the components used in the at least one design of an electrical substation.
72. A computer-implemented system for designing an electrical substation, comprising:
means for receiving user selection corresponding to functional requirements for the electrical substation;
means for retrieving representations of components for the electrical substation from a means for storing the representations of the components as a function of the functional requirements; and
means for generating at least one substation design using the functional requirements received by the receiving means and the representations retrieved from the database.
73. The computer-implemented system of
means for outputting at least one of the substation designs.
74. The computer implemented system of
the means for outputting outputs data corresponding to substation design to one of a document management system, cost management system, display device, and server.
75. The computer-implemented method of
76. The system of
means for presenting a series of options to a user; and
means for accepting responses to the options;
wherein subsequent options are presented as a function of selections of previous options.
77. The computer-implemented method of
accessing a means for storing representations of attributes of substation components.
78. The computer-implemented method of
the means for storing can be dynamically updated with additional designs and substation components and component attributes.
This application is related to, and claims the benefit of the earlier filing date of, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/128,560 (Attorney Docket 7910-0032-13 PROV), filed Apr. 9, 1999, entitled “Utility Station Automated Design System and Method,” the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention pertains to automated design systems and methods for planning and designing utility stations. More particularly, the present invention relates to automated design systems, methods and computer program product, for designing, and estimating materials and costs for utility stations, such as a unit substation or other component of a public utility system, such as an electric power generation, transmission and distribution system.
2. Discussion of the Background
In 1999, a typical unit substation design and development project costs approximately 1 million dollars and takes roughly one year from conception to completion. The typical process begins with an engineer who prepares a sketch of the substation, and sends the sketch to a drafting area, where a draftsperson takes the sketch, along with associated notes prepared by the engineer, and develops a working construction set (i.e., a set of drawings with associated symbols and notes). The draftsperson then gives a draft construction set to the engineer for review. At this time, during the review, the engineer would either modify the construction set, or add additional information to the construction set and then send the modified construction set back to the draftsperson for redrafting to incorporate the changes. The draftsperson completes the changes and sends the changes back to the engineer. This iterative process can repeat as many as four or more times. Once the construction set is finalized, roughly three or more months have expired since the initiation of the project.
As presently recognized by the inventors, the conventional design process presumes that every unit substation has to be redesigned by the engineer, even though approximately 90% of the components are the same between substations. In this way, the engineer has to address each component of the system, even though the engineer may have already done similar work on previous projects. After the initial design is done, the engineer then prepares a materials list of the components and prepares a cost estimate.
Regarding how the details are developed in the drawings, the Engineer is provided with a “one line diagram” from a planning department and includes an electrical representation of the symbols for each device to be included in the substation. Conventionally, draftspeople use CAD (computer aided design) programs, like AutoCAD, a draftsperson oriented program. The draftsperson then draws the component parts of the system using the CAD program. After a CAD drawing has been prepared, the engineer will provide the CAD drawing to the planning department, who at that time may decide to further modify the substation, so as to change components required therein, or change the system performance to meet perceived customer demands. If the planning department does change the drawings, another engineering and drafting operation is required in order to produce a final set of construction drawings.
These construction drawings are detail oriented, such that the drawings may be provided to a contractor for building the substation. For example, the construction drawings will have detailed features, such as conduit placement, foundation placement and grounding placement. The drawings also show the connections amongst the different subcomponents used in the substation. These connections can be very detailed, perhaps showing a small connector fitting between pieces of bus lines. This detail may become very cumbersome because a unit substation may have between two and three hundred electrical connectors. Furthermore, the unit substation may have three to four hundred feet of aluminum bus infrastructure, a couple thousand feet of copper in the ground, and on the order of 20 to 50 foundations. After the drawings are complete, the engineer then uses the drawings to fill out a materials list for the equipment to be ordered. Generally, it is a time consuming process for the engineer to scrutinize the different components on the drawing and list the same on a materials list.
As recognized by the present inventors, the iterative process between the engineer and the draftsperson is a time consuming process, and an expensive procedure for designing substations. The conventional process presumes that each substation has different characteristics that mandate the use of a significant amount of engineering, as well as draftspersons' time in order to properly design the substation. However, as presently recognized, there can be a significant amount of redundancy between respective substations, that if, properly characterized could be an advantage in streamlining the design process.
Another limitation with the conventional practice, is that the iterative design process is prone to error, based on the number of different people involved in the process. Furthermore, because each substation is custom designed, it is more difficult for planning departments, as well as contractors who will build the substation to interpret the drawings because each set of construction plans differs from one substation to the next.
Accordingly, one object of the present invention is to address the above-described limitations of existing systems and methods. While the present section of this document is directed to a summary of the invention, a limited number of attributes associated with the present invention are described herein. However, a more complete description is provided in the section entitled “Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments”.
The present invention is directed to a utility station automated design system and method that allows an engineer to design a unit substation, or other utility station, as well as prepare a materials list and cost estimate, in several hours, rather than several months, as is the case with conventional design practices. A feature of the present invention, is a computer-based tool having a database that holds both standard “substation templates”, as well as equipment “symbols” that may be applied to one another, as selected by a user, via a graphical user interface to produce a 3D drawing set. The user is presented with a series of options that are logically arranged so as to guide the user through the process of designing the unit substation, using the symbols and templates, as selected by the user. Moreover, the user is requested to select a predetermined “standard” substation architecture, and once selected, the user is presented with a series of options regarding which components are to be included within the standard configuration. Once selected, symbols associated with the selected components, are selected by the user from a database, and overlaid in layers with the assistance of a computer aided drawing package. In this way, the symbols are arranged and presented on a display, or printed as a set of construction drawings, so that an overall unit substation system may be designed in a relatively short period of time. Subsequently, the user may be requested to identify whether the user would like to modify the existing design, or prepare a list of building materials and cost estimates associated with the respective components in the unit substation, or other utility station.
A more complete appreciation of the invention and many of the attendant advantages thereof will be readily obtained as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate identical or corresponding parts throughout the several views, and more particularly to
Although the present invention is discussed with respect to design of a utility station, the approach, as recognized by one of ordinary skill in the relevant art, is applicable to other types of facilities, including water facilities as well as gas facilities. For example, the water facilities encompass wells/well houses, pump stations, lift stations, pressure regulator stations, complex piping arrangements, small to moderately sized water and wastewater treatment plants and site layouts, and tank sites. The gas facilities can be categorized as follows: transmission facilities, distribution facilities, and production and gathering facilities. These three types of gas facilities involve interconnects with other pipeline companies' facilities, regulator (pressure reducing) stations, metering stations (e.g., delivery stations, border stations, and check meters), pressure and flow monitoring equipment, valve stations, and, compressor stations.
Before turning to the specific features contained within
In light of such problems, the present inventors determined that it was possible to use AutoLISP routines that would be used to prepare menus to import different information regarding company information and like into the drawing set. For example, a feature of the invention is to use a AutoLISP routine to provide on a pull down menu, such as the size of the drawings, such as “A”, “B”, . . . , or the drawing scale. This routine also sets line types, text, layering, line widths and the like, so that respective drawing sets from a particular company, will be uniform in appearance.
Aside from importing corporate information into a particular drawing, the present inventors also determined that it would be advantageous and commercially efficient to prepare pre-approved two-dimension (2-D) symbols, or 3-D symbols as will be discussed, for an entire station of equipment, complete with foundations, conduits, and grounding at all voltage levels used by the corporation. Through the use of layer control in AutoCAD, each of the pre-approved and stored equipment symbols are placed in an equipment layer, the foundation symbols to be placed in a foundation layer and so on. In this way, symbols can be associated with a particular drawing, thereby allowing the user of the system to automatically specify the symbols (and the components associated therewith) to be automatically retrieved and overlaid on the drawing. In this way, when construction drawings are prepared, where construction drawings include a plan view, section view, conduit plan, grounding plan, foundation plan and the like, depending on the drawing type selected, the AutoLISP routine turns layers off and on until only the foundations are visible, if the foundation plan is the one that is to be displayed. Dimensioning work for the respective components shown in the drawing is done automatically with AutoCAD.
In an alternative embodiment, pre-approved and pre-drawn 3-D symbols are a substitute for, or are used with 2-D symbols. Using 3-D symbols, allows for not only perspective view, but also allows a user to change the viewer's reference point in 3-D. Furthermore, a 3-D model is automatically produced which is capable of being rendered. The 3-D renderings produced with the 3-D model can be used in governmental permit hearings. Typically, such work cannot be produced in the typical CAD facility, but rather are provided to an outside drafting firm, with both cost and time penalties associated therewith.
By saving the respective symbols in a library, accessible to different users, by way of the computer network, users may extract the respective symbols when designing a unit substation. So as to avoid having the end user, perhaps an engineer, become familiar with 3-D design practices, the present invention incorporates dialog boxes, hierarchically arranged, and AutoLISP routines that allow the user to design a 3-D structure from a plan view. In this way, the user can design the system, by providing only minimal information, regarding the size of the bus, bus spacing and the like, and the AutoLISP routine makes the additions to the drawing on the correct layers at the correct heights as a 3-D, custom model would do.
In view of the present inventors' observations, much of the structure within a substation is, or at least could be, reused. The present inventors determined that aside from symbols, substation-level templates, (i.e., pre-approved substation layouts) may be used to preposition respective components within the substation. In this way, the engineer need not spend time positioning respective components, but rather needs to only select symbols, and have the symbols automatically placed in the pre-approved locations.
One feature of using components as part of a standardization design process, is to standardize different sizes of transformers to predetermined set levels. For example, in a preferred embodiment, three different top-ratings of transformers are used: 14 MVA, 22 MVA, and 33 MVA. Other ratings may be used as well. Furthermore, the standard unit substation also includes one of four types of switch gear: 2 feeder, 3 feeder, 4 feeder, and stations with a main breaker. To this end, in the preferred embodiment, different unit substation “templates” include three standard layouts, referred to herein as “single unit-right”, “single unit-left”, and “two unit designs”. Other standard layouts may be used as well, as will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the substation design art, based on the description contained herein.
An advantage of the present invention is that the respective symbols used within the substations have associated therewith different attributes which are stored in memory. These attributes are associated with symbols by file name, for example, and stored in one or both of ACCESS data files, and EXCEL spread sheets, where both ACCESS and EXCEL are available through Microsoft Corporation.
Using the system and method described herein, an engineer can produce a construction set of a unit substation in approximately 3 hours. The engineer reviews a description of the substation provided by a planning department and then initiates an AutoCAD session. The engineer then selects the type of drawing from the pull down menu presented on a display screen. Subsequently the engineer selects a type of station to be designed, such as a new 115 kV unit substation. Other types of stations or other differently rated substations may be designed as well. After selecting the type of substation, the engineer is presented with a series of dialog boxes, logically arranged in sequence, for presenting choices regarding the components to be used in the overall system. The engineer responds to the respective prompts, and the responses are saved in memory. Once all the entries are complete, the engineer executes a compilation routine by acknowledging the engineer has made all of the selections, and AutoCAD begins to draw the station, by retrieving the pre-drawn symbols from a library and applying the respective symbols to the selected pre-designed substation template. Subsequently, the engineer can request, or as an alternative the request may be automatically produced, to provide a cost and estimate materials list for the materials needed for the construction of the unit substation. Thus, rather than taking three months or more to produce the construction set, the engineer can complete the job, reliably and efficiently in approximately three hours.
The AutoCAD server 120 includes a memory 126 that includes the AutoCAD application, custom menu structure, custom macros, custom list routines and custom symbols, as were discussed above. Information produced at the computer 122 may be viewed on the display 124, or alternatively other information provided via the computer 122 is viewed on the display 124. The print sever 130 includes its own computer 132, and display 134. The computer 132 contains a communication mechanism that communicates over the network 90 so that information may be passed to a plotter 136 for producing hard-copies of drawings sets. User workstation 140 includes a computer 142 and monitor 144, where the computer 142 communicates via an input/output (I/O) device 146 for communicating with external devices. The external devices may be remote terminals, or even local peripherals, such as a mouse, keyboard, external memory and an interface for loading symbols if necessary and the like. Similarly, user terminal 150 includes a computer 152, monitor 156, and I/O device 154.
As part of the AutoCAD server memory 126, the present invention includes a database of custom symbols, where each of the symbols are 3-D drawing files of components used in a unit substation. Held in the ACCESS database and/or EXCEL spreadsheet in memory 105, are attributes that are associated with the custom symbols held in the database of symbols in the memory 126. In addition, AutoLISP routines perform the functional operations interfacing function for communicating with AutoCAD, and thus perform the separate processing steps described herein. These AutoLISP routines are also contained in the memory 126. Furthermore, both the menu arrangement as presently discussed herein, as well as macros, that help to assist in performing routine repetitive operations are also stored in the memory 126.
Typically, a user will design a substation from one of the user terminals 140 or 150. In the embodiment described in
The AutoCAD application included in the memory 126, may be AutoCAD 2000, although other versions of AutoCAD may be used as well, such as AutoCAD release 14, the on-line help section documentation for which is incorporated herein by reference.
If the user selects to design a new standard 115 kV unit substation, or other station as preprogrammed into a set of templates, the user selects this option. The process then flows to step S5, where the user is presented with a design dialog box associated with a “template” 115 kV unit substation. An example of the dialog box is shown in
At a generation plant in the U.S., generators typically generate approximately 22,000 volts. This voltage is then stepped up to approximately 345,000 volts for cross-country transmission. This high voltage is used in order to minimize resistive losses. However, the 345 kV is too high for use in end use applications, and therefore the voltage is stepped down to 115,000 volts in some cases, where the 115,000, as well as the 345,000 volts are all three phase voltages. The unit substation converts the voltage from 115 kV down to 12,470 volts. The 12,470 volts then is distributed around cities and the like and connects to transformers that hang on utility poles in residential areas, for example. It is these transformers that converts the electrical power down to the 120-240 volts used in the United States and typical applications. While the present discussion has been directed towards power distribution in the United States, the particular numbers herein, may be adjusted for use in other countries around the world.
The engineer then selects the ground grid spacing, from a predetermined set of spacings, as shown. Subsequently, the engineer selects the wall height surrounding the substation, swing grill, fixed grill, and mandoors. After all the selections are made, the operator clicks the “OK” button to complete the selections. Once clicked, the selections are saved in memory.
The above discussion was directed to step S5 in
Switch gear is a disconnecting device and a metering device. Power is brought in from the transformer into the switch gear and then has feeders that extend therefrom into separate circuits. Disconnecting devices, such as circuit breakers, are included on each circuit. In this way, it is known how much power is being used on each of the feeders, by way of the meter. Each of the circuits are thus separately protected and this control and monitoring of the respective circuits may occur independently, so that if lightening, for example, were to hit one of the feeders, then that event would be detected and the feeder may be disconnected without damaging the other feeders.
Information that is input by the engineers in the respective dialog boxes is collected by way of a AutoLISP routine that takes the respective choices, compiles the choices and takes the compilation of choices to an associative mechanism, that retrieves respective symbols from the symbol library in the memory 126 for retrieval. Once the symbols are retrieved, the symbols are then overlayed in a drawing, as is the case in step S9 as shown in
From either step S101 directly, or from step S109, the process proceeds to step S115 and then step S17, which performs similar operations to those described in step S15 and step S17 of
The process proceeds from step S401 to step S403, when the user selects the menu item “New Standard 115 kV Unit Sub”. Then, as previously discussed, the process proceeds to step S405, where the user is provided with a dialog box identifying the different items that may be selected by the engineer. At this point, the operator has the option of going directly into the estimate operation which is performed in step S409, that provides the dialog information that is extracted to a text file and provided to the EXCEL spreadsheet. On the other hand, if the process proceeds from S405 to step S407, the switch gear design dialog box is presented to the user, for component selection by the user. Subsequently, the unit substation routine S14 is performed, where as previously discussed with respect to
In step S413, the operator indicates that the operator would like to modify an existing facility, and is presented with a dialog box in step S415, which receives input from the user, and provides that information to the estimate dialog information in step S409, and updates the information contained in the drawing set, in the exist routine S417.
Each of the remaining steps in
The processes set forth in the present description may be implemented using a conventional general purpose microprocessor programmed according to the teachings of the present specification, as will be appreciated to those skilled in the relevant art(s). Appropriate software coding can be readily prepared by skilled programmers based on the teachings of the present disclosure, as will also be apparent to those skilled in the relevant arts.
The present invention thus also includes a computer-based product that may be hosted on a storage medium and include instructions that can be used to program a computer to perform a process in accordance with the present invention. The storage medium may include, but is not limited to, any type of disk including floppy disks, optical disks, CD-ROMs, magneto-optical disks, ROMs, RAMs, EPROMs, EEPROMs, flash memory, magnetic or optical cards, or any type of media suitable for storing electronic instructions.
Obviously, numerous modifications and various of the present are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.