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Publication numberUS20050129951 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/011,185
Publication dateJun 16, 2005
Filing dateDec 15, 2004
Priority dateDec 15, 2003
Also published asCN1636654A, CN1636654B, DE602004012521D1, DE602004012521T2, DE602004012521T8, EP1548136A1, EP1548136B1, US7449043, US7708936, US20090110817
Publication number011185, 11011185, US 2005/0129951 A1, US 2005/129951 A1, US 20050129951 A1, US 20050129951A1, US 2005129951 A1, US 2005129951A1, US-A1-20050129951, US-A1-2005129951, US2005/0129951A1, US2005/129951A1, US20050129951 A1, US20050129951A1, US2005129951 A1, US2005129951A1
InventorsMarianne Collin, Susanne Norgren, Hakan Engstrom
Original AssigneeSandvik Ab
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cemented carbide tool and method of making the same
US 20050129951 A1
Abstract
A cemented carbide tool comprising hard constituents in a binder phase of Co and/or Ni and at least one surface portion and an interior portion in which surface portion the grain size is smaller than in the interior portion is disclosed. The surface portion with the fine grain size has a lower binder phase content than the interior portion. A method to form the cemented carbide cutting tool is also disclosed.
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Claims(27)
1. A cemented carbide tool for metal cutting or metal forming comprising:
a cemented carbide body comprising
hard constituents in a binder phase of Co and/or Ni; and
at least one surface portion and an interior portion,
wherein the surface portion has a smaller WC grain size than the interior portion, and
wherein the surface portion with the smaller WC grain size has a lower binder phase content than the interior portion.
2. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein the binder phase content of the surface portion is less than 0.92 of that in the interior portion.
3. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 2, wherein the binder phase content of the surface portion is less than 0.85 of that in the interior portion.
4. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein the WC grain size in the surface portion is less than 0.9 of that in the interior portion.
5. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 4, wherein the WC grain size in the surface portion is less than 0.8 of that in the interior portion.
6. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein the surface portion contains Cr, and wherein a ratio of parameter A to parameter B is greater than 1.2, where parameter A=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] in the surface portion and parameter B=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] taken at a part of the cemented carbide body having the lowest Cr content.
7. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 6, wherein the ratio of parameter A to parameter B is greater than 3.0.
8. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein a thickness of the surface portion is 0 to 2000 μm.
9. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 8, wherein the thickness of the surface portion is 5 to 1200 μm.
10. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 9, wherein the thickness of the surface portion is 10 to 800 μm.
11. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 10, wherein the thickness of the surface portion is 10 to 300 μm.
12. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein a composition of the cemented carbide body is WC+Co with a binder phase content of greater than 1.5 wt-% and less than 25 wt-%.
13. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 12, wherein the binder phase content is greater than 5 wt-%.
14. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 12, wherein the binder phase content is less than 15 wt-%.
15. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein a composition of the cemented carbide body is WC+Co with a binder phase content of greater than 1.5 wt-% and less than 25 wt-% and a gamma-phase content of 0 to 30 vol-%.
16. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 15, wherein the binder phase content is greater than 5 wt-%.
17. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 15, wherein the binder phase content is less than 15 wt-%.
18. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 15, wherein the gamma-phase content is 0.2 to 16 vol-%.
19. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein the tool is a cutting tool insert.
20. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, wherein the tool is a coldforming tool.
21. The cemented carbide tool according to claim 1, comprising a wear resistant coating on an outer surface.
22. A method of making a cemented carbide body with a wear resistant surface zone, the method comprising:
providing a compact of cemented carbide from a single powder mixture;
optionally presintering the compact and grinding the compact to a desired shape and size;
placing a powder of a grain refiner containing carbon and/or nitrogen on at least one portion of an exposed surface of the compact;
sintering the compact and grain refiner powder so as to diffuse the grain refiner toward the center of the compact to form a surface portion in the sintered compact and to form an interior portion in the sintered compact;
optionally adding an isostatic gas pressure during a final stage of sintering;
optionally post-HIP-ing at a temperature lower than a sintering temperature and at a pressure of 1 to 100 MPa;
optionally grinding to final shape; and
optionally depositing a wear resistant coating on a surface;
wherein the surface portion has a smaller WC grain size than the interior portion and wherein the surface portion has a lower cobalt content than the interior portion.
23. The method according to claim 22, wherein the single powder mixture comprises powders forming hard constituents and a binder phase of Co and/or Ni.
24. The method according to claim 22, wherein the grain refiner contains Cr.
25. The method according to claim 22, wherein sintering as at a temperature of about 1350 C. to 1410 C. for about 15 minutes to 60 minutes.
26. A cemented carbide cutting tool insert for metal machining comprising
a cemented carbide body comprising
hard constituents in a binder phase of Co and/or Ni and
at least one surface portion and an interior portion,
wherein the surface portion has a WC grain size less than 0.9 a WC grain size in the interior portion,
wherein the surface portion has a binder phase content less than 0.92 of a binder phase content in the interior portion,
wherein the surface portion contains Cr, and
wherein a ratio of parameter A to parameter B is greater than 1.2, where
parameter A=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] in the surface portion and
parameter B=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] taken at a part of the cemented carbide body having the lowest Cr content.
27. The cemented carbide cutting tool insert according to claim 26, wherein a composition of the cemented carbide body is WC+Co with a binder phase content of 5 to 15 wt-% and a gamma-phase content of 0 to 30 vol-%.
Description
RELATED APPLICATION DATA

This application is based on and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. 119 to Swedish Application No. 0303360-2, filed Dec. 15, 2003, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. This application is also based on and also claims priority under 35 U.S.C. 119 to Swedish Application No. 0303487-3, filed Dec. 22, 2003, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

The present disclosure relates to a cemented carbide tool for metal cutting or metal forming made via sintering techniques. More specifically, the disclosure pertains to a cemented carbide tool that is made via sintering techniques wherein there are two distinct microstructural zones having complementary properties.

STATE OF THE ART

In the discussion of the state of the art that follows, reference is made to certain structures and/or methods. However, the following references should not be construed as an admission that these structures and/or methods constitute prior art. Applicant expressly reserves the right to demonstrate that such structures and/or methods do not qualify as prior art against the present invention.

In cemented carbides the grain size, as well as the binder phase (e.g., cobalt) content, each has an influence on the performance of the composite. For example, a smaller or finer grain size of the tungsten carbide results in a more wear resistant material. An increase in cobalt content typically leads to an increase in toughness.

Cemented carbides having a fine grain size are produced through the incorporation of grain refiners in the initial powder blend. Such cemented carbide has a fine grain size throughout its microstructure. Cemented carbide with a coarse grain size is produced via sintering without the incorporation of any grain refiners since the tendency of a cemented carbide like a WC-Co composite is for the WC grains to coarsen during sintering. Such cemented carbide has a coarse grain size throughout its microstructure. As can be appreciated these hard bodies have a uniform microstructure throughout.

Cemented carbide products are widely used in tools for metal machining, as well as for different coldforming operations of materials like steels, copper alloys, composite materials, etc. Examples of the latter type of tools are wire drawing dies, which are a cemented carbide nib usually fit into a steel or metal holder. Such tools should have a hard and wear resistant surface zone, which also should have the following additional properties: good thermal conductivity; low coefficient of friction, i.e., it may be self lubricating or assist lubrication with a coolant; good corrosion resistance; resistance to microcracking; and high toughness.

Cemented carbide bodies having at least two distinct microstructural zones are known in the art. For example, drills having a core of a tough cemented carbide grade and a cover of a more wear resistant grade are disclosed in EP-A-951576.

EP-A-194018 relates to a wire drawing die made from a central layer with coarse grained tungsten carbide particles and a peripheral layer with finer grained tungsten carbide particles. Initially, the layers have the same content of cobalt. After sintering, the coarse grained layer in the center is reduced in cobalt content.

EP-A-257869 discloses a rock bit button made with a wear resistant tip portion and a tough core. The tip portion is made from a powder with low Co-content and a fine WC grain size and the core portion is made from a powder with high Co content and coarse WC grains. Nothing is disclosed about the Co-content in the two portions after sintering. However, also in this case the Co-content in the coarse grained portion will be reduced at the benefit of the Co-content in the fine grained layer. A similar disclosure is found in U.S. Pat. No. 4,359,335.

An alternative approach is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,843,039, which discloses cemented carbide bodies preferably for cutting tool inserts for metal machining. The bodies comprise a core of cemented carbide containing eta-phase surrounded by a surface zone of cemented carbide free of eta-phase and having a low content of cobalt in the surface and a higher content of cobalt next to the eta-phase zone. U.S. Pat. No. 4,743,515 is similar, but it relates to rock drilling and mineral cutting.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,623,723 discloses a method of making a cemented carbide body with a wear resistant surface zone. The method includes the following steps: providing a compact of cemented carbide; placing a powder of grain refiner on at least one portion of the exposed surface of the compact; and heat treating the compact and grain refiner powder so as to diffuse the grain refiner toward the center of the green compact thereby forming a surface zone inwardly from the exposed surface in which the grain refiner was placed, and forming an interior zone. As a result, a cemented carbide body is obtained with a surface zone having a grain size that is smaller but with a Co-content that is higher than that of the interior portion of the body. This means that the increased wear resistance that is obtained as a result of the smaller WC grain size is to a certain extent lost by the increase in Co-content.

SUMMARY

Exemplary embodiments of a cemented carbide tool with a surface zone with low binder phase content and fine WC grain size and thus high wear resistance and exemplary methods making the same are provided.

An exemplary embodiment of a cemented carbide cutting for metal cutting or metal forming comprises a cemented carbide body comprising hard constituents in a binder phase of Co and/or Ni, and at least one surface portion and an interior portion. The surface portion has a smaller WC grain size than the interior portion. The surface portion with the smaller WC grain size has a lower binder phase content than the interior portion.

An exemplary method of making a cemented carbide body with a wear resistant surface zone comprises providing a compact of cemented carbide from a single powder mixture, optionally presintering the compact and grinding the compact to a desired shape and size, placing a powder of a grain refiner containing carbon and/or nitrogen on at least one portion of an exposed surface of the compact, the grain refiner containing C and/or N, sintering the compact and grain refiner powder so as to diffuse the grain refiner toward the center of the compact to form a surface portion in the sintered compact and to form an interior portion in the sintered compact, optionally adding an isostatic gas pressure during a final stage of sintering, optionally post-HIP-ing at a temperature lower than the sintering temperature and at a pressure of 1 to 100 MPa, optionally grinding to final shape, and optionally depositing a wear resistant coating on a surface of the sintered compact. Sintering obtains a dense body. The surface portion has a WC grain size smaller than the interior portion and the surface portion has a cobalt content lower than in the interior portion.

An exemplary embodiment of a cemented carbide cutting tool insert for metal machining comprises a cemented carbide body comprising hard constituents in a binder phase of Co and/or Ni and at least one surface portion and an interior portion. The surface portion has a WC grain size less than 0.9 the WC grain size in the interior portion and the surface portion with the smaller grain size has a binder phase content less than 0.92 the binder phase content in the interior portion. The surface portion contains Cr and a ratio of parameter A to parameter B is greater than 1.2, where parameter A=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] in the surface portion and parameter B=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] taken at a part of the cemented carbide body having the lowest Cr content.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIGURES

The following detailed description of preferred embodiments can be read in connection with the accompanying drawings in which like numerals designate like elements and in which:

FIG. 1 is a graph showing hardness (HV3) and cobalt content versus distance from the edge in an exemplary embodiment of a tool.

FIG. 2 is a graph showing chromium content versus distance from the edge in the exemplary embodiment of a tool.

FIG. 3 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 100 μm from the edge (FEG-SEM, 20000X, BSE mode) in a the exemplary embodiment of a tool.

FIG. 4 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 3 mm from the edge (FEG-SEM, 20000X, BSE mode) in the exemplary embodiment of a tool.

FIG. 5 is a graph showing cobalt content versus distance to the previously Cr3C2-covered surface and also showing chromium content versus distance to the previously Cr3C2-covered surface in another exemplary embodiment of a tool.

FIG. 6 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 100 μm from the surface where the Cr3C2-powder was placed (FEG-SEM, 15000X, BSE mode).

FIG. 7 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 3 mm from the surface where the Cr3C2-powder was placed (FEG-SEM, 15000X, BSE mode).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

It has now surprisingly been found that it is possible from a single mixture of tungsten carbide and binder phase to obtain a cemented carbide body with a surface portion with a smaller grain size and lower cobalt content than those in the interior portion.

According to the present disclosure, there is provided a cemented carbide tool for metal cutting or metal forming comprising a cemented carbide body comprising hard constituents in a binder phase of Co and/or Ni. The cemented carbide body comprises at least one surface portion, 0 to 2000 μm thick, and an interior portion. The thickness of the surface portion can vary from 0 to 2000 μm, for example, 5 to 1200 μm, alternatively 10 to 800 μm, and alternatively 10 to 300 μm. In the surface portion, the WC grain size is smaller than in the interior portion and the binder phase content is lower than that in the interior portion. Also, the Cr-content is higher in the surface portion than that in the interior portion.

In an exemplary embodiment, the binder phase content of the surface portion is <1, alternatively <0.92, alternatively <0.85, of the binder phase content in the interior portion and the WC grain size of the surface portion is <1.0, alternatively <0.9, alternatively <0.8, of the WC grain size in the interior portion.

In another exemplary embodiment, the surface portion contains Cr such that the ratio between the parameter A=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] in the surface portion and the parameter B=[(wt-% Cr/wt-% binder phase)+0.01] taken at the part of the body that is characterized by the lowest Cr content is A/B >1.2, alternatively A/B >1.5, alternatively in some exemplary embodiments, A/B>3.0.

The WC grain size in the surface portion can vary. For example, the WC grain size in the surface portion can be submicron. In a second example, the WC grain size in the interior portion is 1 to 3 microns.

In some exemplary embodiments, the composition of the cemented carbide is WC+Co with a binder phase content >1.5 wt-%. For example, the binder phase content in some exemplary embodiments can be >1.5 wt-%, alternatively >5 wt-%. Also for example, the binder phase content in some exemplary embodiments can be <25 wt-%, alternatively <15 wt-%.

In further exemplary embodiments, the cemented carbide can in addition contain a proportion of gamma-phase (γ-phase). For example, the cemented carbide can contain 0-30 vol-% gamma-phase. Alternatively, the cemented carbide can contain 0.2-16 vol-% gamma-phase or 0.4-9 vol-% gamma phase.

In still further exemplary embodiments, the cemented carbide tool is a cutting tool insert for metal machining. It is obvious to the man skilled in the art that features of the disclosed cemented carbide tool and method can be applied to other cemented carbide cutting tools, such as endmills and drills. In further exemplary embodiments, the cemented carbide tool is a coldforming tool. Other examples of uses of cemented carbide in forming applications are from such variable fields as the forming of beverage cans, bolts, nails and other applications known to the person skilled in the art.

Grain refiners such as VC and Cr3C2 can optionally be added to all embodiments. Also, exemplary embodiments of disclosed cemented carbide tools may further optionally be provided with a wear resistant coating as known in the art, preferably 1 to 40 μm thick, alternatively 1 to 15 μm thick.

An exemplary method of making a cemented carbide body for metal or metal forming, such as a cutting tool insert for chip forming machining or a coldforming tool, with a wear resistant surface zone comprises the following steps:

    • providing a compact of cemented carbide made from one single powder mixture, the single powder mixture comprising powders forming hard constituents, optional grain refiners such as VC and Cr3C2, and a binder phase of Co and/or Ni;
    • placing a powder of a grain refiner on at least one portion of the exposed surface of the compact by dipping, spraying, painting, applying a thin tape or in any other way. The grain refiner in one exemplary method being any chromium carbide (e.g., Cr3C2, Cr23C6 and Cr7C3 or mixtures of these) or a mixture of chromium and carbon or other compounds containing chromium and carbon and/or nitrogen;
    • sintering the compact and grain refiner powder so as to diffuse the grain refiner away from the surface(s) on which the grain refiner was placed to form a gradient zone in a surface portion of the sintered counterpart, the gradient zone having a lower cobalt content, a higher chromium content and a lower WC grain size as compared to an interior portion of the sintered compact;
    • optionally adding an isostatic gas pressure during a final stage of sintering to obtain a dense body;
    • optionally reducing a thickness of the surface portion using grinding or any other mechanical method;
    • optionally removing undesired carbides and graphite from the surface of the sintered compact using grinding or any other mechanical method;
    • optionally depositing a wear resistant coating on the surface of the sintered compact; and
    • for a tool that is a cutting insert, optionally performing an edge treatment as known in the art.

The carbon content of the cemented carbide compact can be determined out of consideration for the carbon contribution from the applied chromium carbide. For example, in the case of γ-phase containing cemented carbide, the chromium solubility in the γ-phase has to be compensated for. Also, for example, compacts that would result in an eta-phase containing microstructure can be used.

The sintering can be performed for optimal time to obtain the desired structure and a body with closed porosity, preferably a dense body. This time depends on the grain size of WC and the composition of the cemented carbide. It is within the purview of the person skilled in the art to determine whether the requisite structure has been obtained and to modify the sintering conditions in accordance with the present specification. If necessary or desired, the body can optionally be post-HIP-ed at a lower HIP-temperature compared to the sintering temperature and at a pressure of 1 to 100 MPa.

Alternatively in some exemplary embodiments, the grain refiner powder is placed on a sintered body which is subsequently heat treated to obtain the desired structure at a temperature higher than that for pre-sintering.

EXAMPLE 1

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 90 weight-% WC and 10 weight-% Co. The WC raw material was fine-grained with an average grain size of 0.25 μm (FSSS). The rake faces were covered with a Cr3C2 containing layer (0.02 g Cr3C2 /cm2). Thereafter the compacts were sintered at 1370 C. for 30 minutes whereafter the outer 1 mm deep portion was removed by grinding.

A cross-section of a sintered and ground blank was examined. FIG. 1 shows a graph of hardness 100 and cobalt content 200 versus the distance from the edge. The cobalt content 200 is lowest close to the edge and increases with increasing distance while the hardness 100 is highest close to the edge and decreases with the distance. FIG. 2 shows a graph of chromium content 300 versus the distance from the edge. The chromium content 300 is highest close to the edge and decreases with the distance. Cobalt and chromium contents were measured using EPMA (electron probe microanalyser). FIG. 3 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 100 μm from the edge (FEG-SEM, 20000X, BSE mode). FIG. 4 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 3 mm from the edge (FEG-SEM, 20000X, BSE mode). The WC-grain size 100 μm from the edge and 3 mm from the edge was measured as 0.28 μm and 0.36 μm, respectively (arithmetic mean of linear intercept values).

EXAMPLE 2

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 94 weight-% WC and 6 weight-% Co. The WC raw material was relatively fine-grained with an average grain size of 0.25 μm (FSSS). The rake faces were covered with 0.007 g/cm2 of Cr3C2. The pressed compacts with Cr3C2 -layers were sintered at 1350 C. for 30 minutes and post-HIP-ed at 1300 C. and 6 MPa for 30 minutes.

A cross-section of a sintered blank was examined. No Cr3C2 was observed on the surface. The following table shows HV3, cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size for this example:

HV3 100 μm from the edge 1720
HV3 3 mm from the edge 1520
Co-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 4.0
Co-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% 6.5
Cr-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 0.7
Cr-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% <0.05
WC grain size 100 μm from the edge, μm 0.7
WC grain size 3 mm from the edge, μm 0.9

EXAMPLE 3

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 90 weight-% WC and 10 weight-% Co. The rake faces were covered with a Cr3C2 containing layer (0.01 g Cr3C2 /cm2). Thereafter, the compacts were sintered at 1370 C. for 30 minutes.

A cross-section of a sintered blank was examined. No Cr3C2 was observed on the surface. The following table shows HV3, cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size for this example:

HV3 100 μm from the edge 1450
HV3 3 mm from the edge 1280
Co-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 7.5
Co-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% 11
Cr-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 0.4
Cr-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% <0.05
WC grain size 100 μm from the edge, μm 1.1
WC grain size 3 mm from the edge, μm 1.4

EXAMPLE 4

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 90 weight-% WC and 10 weight-% Co. The WC raw material was fine-grained with an average grain size of 0.25 μm (FSSS). The rake faces were covered with a Cr3C2 containing layer (0.018 g Cr3C2/cm2). Thereafter, the compacts were sintered at 1410 C. for 60 minutes.

A cross-section of a sintered blank was examined. No Cr3C2 was observed on the surface. The following table shows HV3, cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size for this example:

HV3 100 μm from the edge 1750
HV3 4 mm from the edge 1480
Co-content 100 μm from the edge, wt-% 9.0
Co-content 4 mm from the edge, wt-% 10.5
Cr-content 100 μm from the edge, wt-% 0.5
Cr-content 4 mm from the edge, wt-% 0.1
WC grain size 100 μm from the edge, μm 0.32
WC grain size 4 mm from the edge, μm 0.58

EXAMPLE 5

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 94 weight-% WC and 6 weight-% Co. The WC raw material was submicron. The pressed compacts were sintered at 1370 C. The sintered blanks were ground into style SNKN1204 EN and covered with a Cr3C2 -containing tape (0.01 g Cr3C2/cm2) on the clearance face and resintered at a sintering temperature of 1390 C. for 15 minutes.

A cross-section of a sintered blank was examined. No Cr3C2 was observed on the surface. The following table shows HV3, cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size for this example:

HV3 100 μm from the edge 1820
HV3 3 mm from the edge 1700
Co-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 5.0
Co-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% 6.5
Cr-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 0.22
Cr-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% <0.05
WC grain size 100 μm from the edge, μm 0.4
WC grain size 3 mm from the edge, μm 0.6

EXAMPLE 6

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 77 weight-% WC, 6 weight-% TaC, 2 weight-% NbC, 4 weight-% TiC and 11 weight-% Co. The compacts were covered with a Cr3C2 -containing tape (0.02 g Cr3C2/cm2) and sintered at a sintering temperature of 1370 C. for 30 minutes and thereafter HIP-ed at 1200 C. and 100 MPa for 60 minutes.

A cross-section of a sintered blank was examined. The cobalt content and the WC grain size were significantly lower close to the edge compared to the interior as was verified through the following HV3 values.

HV3 100 μm from the edge 1470
HV3 3 mm from the edge 1300

EXAMPLE 7

Inserts were produced according to the following:

    • Composition: 91.6 weight-% WC +0.23 weight-% TaC +0.16 weight-% NbC+8.0 weight-% Co
    • Style: CNMG120408-QM
    • Sintering temperature: 1370 C.

The inserts were given a rounded cutting edge and thereafter split into two variants. Variant A was covered with Cr3C2 on the rake face according to the methods and procedures described herein using a painting technique resulting in a layer of about 0.01 g Cr3C2/cm2. Variant B was not covered with Cr3C2.

For the rest of the manufacturing, the two variants were dealt with together and in the same way involving resintering at 1390 C. for 15 minutes, blasting, cleaning and coating with a 4 μm thick TiAIN PVD-layer. Cross-sections of each variant were examined. No Cr3C2 was observed between the TiAIN-layer and the cemented carbide material on Variant A. The following table shows cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size for this example:

Variant A Variant B
Co-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 7.0 8.0
Co-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% 8.5 8.0
Cr-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 0.2 <0.05
Cr-content 3 mm from the edge, weight-% <0.05 <0.05
WC grain size 100 μm from the edge, μm 0.55 0.7
WC grain size 3 mm from the edge, μm 0.7 0.7

The inserts were tested in a facing operation in order to compare the resistance to plastic deformation: The following provides details on the facing operation:

    • Workpiece: Inconel 718
    • Cutting depth: 1 mm
    • Feed: 0.25 mm/rev
    • Cutting speed: 80 to 140 m/min
    • Result (maximum cutting speed for keeping plastic deformation below 0.25 mm):
      • Variant A: 120 m/min
      • Variant B: 100 m/min
    • These results indicate that treatment of Variant A according to the methods and procedures described herein gives better resistance to plastic deformation than Variant B.
EXAMPLE 8

Cemented carbide pressed compacts were made according to the following: A cylindrical green compact were pressed from a powder with the composition of 96.7 weight-% WC and 3.3 weight-% Co and 0.2% VC. The WC raw material was relative fine-grained with an average grain size of 0.8 μm (FSSS). One surface was covered with a Cr3C2 containing layer (0.02 g Cr3C2/cm2). Thereafter the compacts were sintered at 1370 C. for 30 minutes.

A cross-section of the sintered body was examined. Cobalt and chromium contents were measured using EPMA (electron probe microanalyzer). FIG. 5 is a graph showing cobalt content 400 versus the distance from the previously Cr3C2-covered surface. The cobalt content 400 is lowest close to the surface and increases with increasing distance, showing a tendency to formation of a Co richer zone between the surface and the bulk. FIG. 5 also shows the chromium content 500 versus the distance from the previously Cr3C2-covered surface. The chromium content 500 is highest close to the surface and decreases with the distance. FIG. 6 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 100 μm from the surface where the Cr3C2 powder was placed (FEG-SEM, 15000X, BSE mode). FIG. 7 is a micrograph showing the microstructure at a distance of 3 mm from the surface where the Cr3C2 powder was placed (FEG-SEM, 15000X, BSE mode). The following table shows cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size (measured as arithmetic mean of intercept values) for this example:

Co-content 100 μm from the surface, wt-% 2.6
Co-content 3 mm from the surface, wt-% 3.3
Cr-content 100 μm from the surface, wt-% 0.6
Cr-content 3 mm from the surface, wt-% <0.05
WC grain size 100 μm from the surface, μm 0.35
WC grain size 3 mm from the surface, μm 0.44

EXAMPLE 9

Cemented carbide pressed compacts in the style B-SNGN120408 were made according to the following: Green compacts were pressed from a powder with the composition of 90 weight-% WC and 10 weight-% Co. The WC raw material was fine-grained with an average grain size of 0.25 μm (FSSS). The rake faces were covered with a Cr3C2 containing layer of 0.036 g Cr3C2/cm2. Thereafter the compacts were sintered at 1370 C. for 270 minutes. A cross-section of a sintered blank was examined. No Cr3C2 was observed on the surface. The following table shows HV3, cobalt-content, chromium-content and WC grain size for this example:

HV3 100 μm from the edge 1710
HV3 4 mm from the edge 1600
Co-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 9.6
Co-content 4 mm from the edge, weight-% 10.3
Cr-content 100 μm from the edge, weight-% 0.39
Cr-content 4 mm from the edge, weight-% 0.28
WC grain size 100 μm from the edge, μm 0.3
WC grain size 4 mm from the edge, μm 0.4

Although the present invention has been described in connection with preferred embodiments thereof, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that additions, deletions, modifications, and substitutions not specifically described may be made without department from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7427310Dec 15, 2004Sep 23, 2008Sandvik Intellectual Property AbCemented carbide tools for mining and construction applications and method of making same
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US7678327Aug 11, 2008Mar 16, 2010Sandvik Intellectual Property AktiebolagCemented carbide tools for mining and construction applications and method of making same
US7713327 *May 25, 2006May 11, 2010Sandvik Intellectual Property AbTool for coldforming operations with improved performance
US7989092 *Jul 7, 2008Aug 2, 2011Seco Tools AbFine grained cemented carbide for turning in heat resistant super alloys (HRSA)
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US8110075Aug 25, 2011Feb 7, 2012Seco Tools AbCoated cutting tool for general turning in heat resistant super alloys (HRSA)
US8187430May 11, 2011May 29, 2012Seco Tools AbMethod of making a coated cemented carbide insert
US8399103Apr 27, 2007Mar 19, 2013Taegutec, Ltd.Coated cemented carbide cutting tools and method for pre-treating an coating to produce cemented carbide cutting tools
WO2008133360A1 *Apr 27, 2007Nov 6, 2008Dong Gil AhnCoated cemented carbide cutting tools and method for pre-treating and coating to produce cemented carbide cutting tools
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/408, 428/698, 428/336
International ClassificationC22C29/08, B23B27/14, C22C1/05, C22C29/00
Cooperative ClassificationB22F2998/00, C22C1/051, C22C29/08, B22F2005/001, B22F2005/002
European ClassificationC22C29/08, C22C1/05B
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