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Publication numberUS20050132010 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/734,437
Publication dateJun 16, 2005
Filing dateDec 12, 2003
Priority dateDec 12, 2003
Also published asUS7783715, US20080313296
Publication number10734437, 734437, US 2005/0132010 A1, US 2005/132010 A1, US 20050132010 A1, US 20050132010A1, US 2005132010 A1, US 2005132010A1, US-A1-20050132010, US-A1-2005132010, US2005/0132010A1, US2005/132010A1, US20050132010 A1, US20050132010A1, US2005132010 A1, US2005132010A1
InventorsMichael Muller
Original AssigneeInternational Business Machines Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Scheduled electronic mail deletions
US 20050132010 A1
Abstract
Described are a system and method of managing electronic mail messages in an email account. An email message is displayed to a user on a display screen of a device. In response to detecting intent of the user to close the email message, the user is automatically presented with a plurality of deletion options for deleting the email message. The user selects one of deletion options, causing the email message to close and setting a deletion criterion for deleting the email message based on the selected deletion option. In response to detecting intent of the user to send an email message, the user is presented with a plurality of deletion options for the deleting a self-copy email message. The user selects one of the deletion options, causing the email message to be sent, and the deletion criterion to be set for the self-copy based on the selected deletion option.
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Claims(39)
1. A method of managing electronic mail (email) messages in an email account, the method comprising:
displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device;
presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message;
receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options; and
in response to the input signal, performing the action on the first email message and setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the second email message is the first email message and the action is to close the first email message.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the action is to send the first email message and the second email message is a copy of the sent first email message.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes associating deletion of the second email message to an occurrence of a scheduled item.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the scheduled item is an appointment in a calendar.
6. The method of claim 4, wherein the scheduled item is a task in a task list.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes scheduling deletion of the second email message to a specified time.
8. The method of claim 1, further comprising prompting the user for confirmation before deleting the second email message based on the deletion criterion.
9. The method of claim 1, further comprising defining by the user each deletion option to be presented.
10. The method of claim 1, further comprising displaying a mailbox view listing a plurality of email messages, and providing an indicator for each email message scheduled for deletion.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising activating the indicator for one of the email messages to display deletion criterion associated with that email message.
12. A computing system for managing electronic mail (email) messages in an email account, the computing system comprising:
a display screen;
an input device receiving a first signal from a user of the computer system indicating an intent of the user to perform an action on a first email message displayed on the display screen; and
a processor executing an email client program to display a plurality of deletion options on the display screen in response to the first signal, the email client program performing the action on the first email message and setting a deletion criterion for a second email message in response to a second signal received by the input device that selects one of the deletion options.
13. The computing system of claim 12, wherein the second email message is the first email message and the action is to close the first email message.
14. The computing system of claim 12, wherein the action is to send the first email message to a recipient and the second email message is a copy of the sent first email message.
15. The computing system of claim 12, wherein the deletion criterion for deleting the second email message is associated with an occurrence of a scheduled item.
16. The computing system of claim 12, wherein the deletion criterion for deleting the second email message includes an expiration date.
17. The computing system of claim 12, wherein the email client program displays on the display screen a mailbox view listing a plurality of email messages and an indicator for each email message scheduled for deletion.
18. The computing system of claim 17, wherein the email client program displays on the display screen deletion criterion associated with deleting one of the email messages for which the indicator is activated.
19. An apparatus for managing electronic mail (email) messages in an email account, the apparatus comprising:
means for displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device;
means for presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message;
means for receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options; and
means, responsive to the input signal, for performing the action on the first email message and for setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
20. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the second email message is the first email message and the action is to close the first email message.
21. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the action is to send the first email message to a recipient and the second email message is a copy of the sent first email message.
22. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the means for setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes means for associating deletion of the second email message to an occurrence of a scheduled item.
23. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the means for setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes means for scheduling deletion of the second email message to a specified time.
24. The apparatus of claim 19, further comprising means for displaying a mailbox view listing a plurality of email messages and for providing an indicator for each email message scheduled for deletion.
25. The apparatus of claim 24, further comprising means for activating the indicator for one of the email messages to display deletion criterion associated with that email message.
26. A computer program product for use with a computer system, the computer program product comprising a computer useable medium having embodied therein program code comprising:
program code for displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device;
program code for presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message;
program code for receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options; and
program code, responsive to the input signal, for performing the action on the first email message and for setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
27. The computer program product of claim 26, wherein the second email message is the first email message and the action is to close the first email message.
28. The computer program product of claim 26, wherein the action is to send the first email message to a recipient and the second email message is a copy of the first email message.
29. The computer program product of claim 26, wherein the program code for setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes program code for associating deletion of the second email message to an occurrence of a scheduled item.
30. The computer program product of claim 26, wherein the program code for setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes program code for scheduling deletion of the second email message to a specified time.
31. The computer program product of claim 26, further comprising program code for displaying a mailbox view listing a plurality of email messages, and program code for providing an indicator for each email message scheduled for deletion.
32. The computer program product of claim 31, further comprising program code for activating the indicator for one of the email messages to display deletion criterion associated with that email message.
33. A computer data signal embodied in a carrier wave for use with a computer system having a display and capable of generating a user interface through which a user may interact with the computer system, the computer data signal comprising:
program code for displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device;
program code for presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message;
program code for receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options; and
program code, responsive to the input signal, for performing the action on the first email message and for setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
34. The computer data signal of claim 33, wherein the second email message is the first email message and the action is to close the first email message.
35. The computer data signal of claim 33, wherein the action is to send the first email message to a recipient and wherein the second email message is a copy of the first email message.
36. The computer data signal of claim 33, wherein the program code for setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes program code for associating deletion of the second email message to an occurrence of a scheduled item.
37. The computer data signal of claim 33, wherein the program code for setting the deletion criterion for the second email message includes program code for scheduling deletion of the second email message to a specified time.
38. The computer data signal of claim 33, further comprising program code for displaying a mailbox view listing a plurality of email messages, and program code for providing an indicator for each email message scheduled for deletion.
39. The computer data signal of claim 33, further comprising program code for activating the indicator for one of the email messages to display deletion criterion associated with that email message.
Description
    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The invention relates generally to electronic mail systems. More particularly, the invention relates to a system and method of scheduling automatic deletions of electronic mail messages in a user's electronic mail account.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    Electronic mail, or email, is a widespread, heavily used software tool for exchanging messages among users over a communications network, such as the Internet. Anyone with an email-enabled computing device, such as a desktop or laptop computer, workstation, personal digital assistant, or cell phone, with a wireless or wired connection to the network, can send email messages to the electronic mailboxes of others users similarly connected to the network. A typical business user can receive several hundred email messages in the course of a day. Moreover, users often save a copy of each self-generated mail message, whether that mail message is a newly composed mail message or a reply to or a forwarding of a received message. Unless proactively and regularly managed, users' mailboxes thus become cluttered with saved email messages, many of which have outlived their usefulness.
  • [0003]
    Disadvantages inherent to mailbox clutter are evident. Organizations need to spend more on their mail servers to maintain the large number of saved email messages and employees are less efficient when having to sort through many irrelevant emails. Notwithstanding such disadvantages, mailbox clutter still grows because users do not want to delete immediately email messages that may have some time-limited usefulness (e.g., until a scheduled meeting occurs with the email message sender). Many users, however, forget to delete these email messages after their period of usefulness has passed. Thus, there is a need for a system and method that can help email users reduce the clutter of email messages in their mailboxes and organizations manage costs for maintaining email accounts.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0004]
    In one aspect, the invention features a method of managing electronic mail (email) messages in an email account. A first email message is displayed to a user on a display screen of a device. The user is presented with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message. An input signal is received from the user that selects one of deletion options. In response to the input signal, the action is performed on the first email message and a deletion criterion is set for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
  • [0005]
    In another aspect, the invention features a computing system for managing electronic mail (email) messages in an email account. The computing system comprises a display screen and an input device receiving a first signal from a user of the computer system indicating intent of the user to perform an action on a first email message displayed on the display screen. A processor executes an email client program to display a plurality of deletion options on the display screen in response to the first signal. The email client program performs the action on the first email message and sets a deletion criterion for a second email message in response to a second signal received by the input device that selects one of the deletion options.
  • [0006]
    In yet another aspect, the invention features an apparatus for managing electronic mail (email) messages in an email account. The apparatus includes means for displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device, means for presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message, means for receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options, and means, responsive to the input signal, for performing the action on the first email message and for setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
  • [0007]
    In still another aspect, the invention features a computer program product for use with a computer system. The computer program product comprises a computer useable medium having embodied therein program code. The program code includes program code for displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device, program code for presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message, program code for receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options, and program code, responsive to the input signal, for performing the action on the first email message and for setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
  • [0008]
    In still yet another aspect, the invention features a computer data signal embodied in a carrier wave for use with a computer system having a display and capable of generating a user interface through which a user may interact with the computer system. The computer data signal comprises program code for displaying to a user a first email message on a display screen of a device, program code for presenting the user with a plurality of deletion options in response to detecting an intent of the user to perform an action on the first email message, program code for receiving an input signal from the user that selects one of deletion options, and program code, responsive to the input signal, for performing the action on the first email message and for setting a deletion criterion for a second email message based on the selected deletion option.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0009]
    The above and further advantages of this invention may be better understood by referring to the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like numerals indicate like structural elements and features in various figures. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.
  • [0010]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a client system constructed in accordance with the invention.
  • [0011]
    FIG. 2 is a flow diagram of an embodiment of a process for scheduling automatic deletion of a received email message.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 3 is an illustration of a one-click deletion menu for assigning a deletion criterion to a received email message.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of an embodiment of a process for scheduling automatic deletion of an email message to be sent.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 5 is an illustration of a one-click deletion menu for assigning a deletion criterion to an email message to be sent.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 6 is an illustration of a one-click deletion menu for linking a deletion criterion for an email message to a scheduled item, such as a task in a “to do” list or a meeting in a “calendar.”
  • [0016]
    FIG. 7 is a flow diagram of an embodiment of a process for linking deletion of an email to a scheduled item.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 8 is a diagram of an example of mailbox view having email messages marked for scheduled deletion in accordance with the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0018]
    In general, the present invention provides users with a tool for managing electronic mail (email) messages in their email accounts. In brief overview, a user determines if and when email messages are to be deleted from an email account. Scheduled email deletions can be time-based or event-based. Time-based deletions cause email messages to be deleted at a specified time. Event-based deletions cause email messages to be deleted on the occurrence of a particular event. A user assigns a deletion criterion to an email message, whether time-based or event based, upon closing that email message. Accordingly, email messages are subsequently and automatically removed from a user's email account, at the scheduled time or upon the occurrence of the event, without any further intervention by the user, thus helping reduce the clutter of email messages in the user's email account and the amount of computing resources needed for storing email messages.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of a client system 10 constructed in accordance with the invention. The client system 10 can be any personal computer (e.g., 286, 386, 486, Pentium, Pentium II, Macintosh computer), Windows-based terminal, Network Computer, wireless device, information appliance, RISC Power PC, X-device, workstation, mini-computer, mainframe computer, cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA) or other computing device that has hardware 14 such as a display screen, one or more input devices (e.g., keypad, stylus, keyboard, mouse, touch-pad, and trackball), a processor for executing application programs 16, and sufficient persistent storage for storing such application programs and related information. One such application program 16 is an electronic mail client program 18 of the invention.
  • [0020]
    The email client program 18 can be any proprietary or commercially available email program, such as Lotus NOTES™ and Microsoft OUTLOOK™, modified to support scheduled email deletions of the invention. Optionally, the client system 10 includes other application programs 16, such as a “personal information manager” 22 with which the email client program 18 interoperates to schedule event-based email deletions in accordance with the invention. The personal information manager program 22 includes a task organizer (i.e., “To Do” items) module 24 and a calendar module 26 by which a user can define and schedule tasks and appointments. Although shown to be separate application programs, the email client program 18 and personal information manager 22 can be integrated in a single application program.
  • [0021]
    The email client program 18 and performance information manager 22 execute within an operating system 28. Examples of operating systems supported by the client system 10 include Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, Windows XP, Windows CE, Macintosh, Java, LINUX, and UNIX. The client system 10 also includes a network interface 30 for communicating over a network 32. The network 32 can be a local-area network (LAN), a metro-area network (MAN), or wide-area network (WAN), such as the Internet or World Wide Web. Users of the client system 10 can connect to the network 32 through one of a variety of connections, such as standard telephone lines, LAN or WAN links (e.g., T1, T3), broadband connections (Frame Relay, ATM), and wireless connections (e.g., 802.11(a), 802.11(b), 802.11(g)). The email client program 18 communicates with an email server 40 located on the network 32 through the network interface 30, to exchange email messages with other users connected to the network 32.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 2 shows an embodiment of a process 50 for scheduling time-based deletions of email messages in an email account in accordance with the invention. Consider that the user is currently running the email client program 18 on the client system 10, has received a new email message, and opened it to read its contents. The email client program 18 accordingly displays the new email message on a display screen of the client system 10 within a graphical window. At step 54, the user signals intent to close the email message by activating a “close” button located at the window's edge. In response to this signal to close the email message, the email client program 18 displays (step 58) a deletion-options menu on the display screen. The deletion-options menu lists various deletion criteria from which the user is required to make a selection to complete the process of closing the email message.
  • [0023]
    The user then selects (step 62) a particular deletion criterion to assign to the email message. The manner of making the selection depends upon the technology of the client system 10. For example, the user can click the desired selection (e.g., for a mouse, trackball, or touch-pad input device), type a character associated with the selection (e.g., for a keypad or keyboard), or press the selection on the display screen (e.g., with a stylus). Execution of the user's selection results in closing (step 66) the email message, and scheduling or performing immediately (step 70) the deletion of the email mail message in accordance with the user's selection. Optionally, in the inbox of the user's mailbox view, when the email message is not deleted immediately, an indicator also appears (step 74) adjacent to the email message to indicate the scheduled deletion. One technique useful for implementing single selection deletion-option menus of the invention is described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/992,236, filed Nov. 6, 2001, titled “Method and Apparatus for Single Selection Evaluations in Interactive Systems,” the entirety of which is incorporated by reference herein.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 3 shows an example of a deletion-options menu 100 presented to the user for closing a received email message. The deletion-options menu 100 includes a plurality of deletion-criterion buttons 104. Each button 104, except for button 104 a, identifies a different expiration period for the email message (e.g., immediate deletion, delete in 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 year). The deletion-criterion button 104 a indicates to save the email message indefinitely. With the exception of this button 104 a, each of the other deletion-criterion buttons establishes a time-based scheduled deletion of the email message. In one embodiment, those deletion-options available to the user are determined by an email retention policy set by the organization for which the user works. For example, the policy can require mandatory expiration periods not to exceed one year. In this instance, the “Save indefinitely” button 104 a is not presented as an option. In another embodiment, the user designs the deletion-option menu 100 to satisfy personal email retention practices. Deletion options other than the time-based deletion options shown in FIG. 3 can be used without departing from the principles of the invention. For example, another set of deletion options includes: delete immediately, at the end of the day, at the end of the week, at the end of the month, at the end of the year, or keep indefinitely.
  • [0025]
    Although described above in connection with closing email messages, the principles of the invention apply also to setting a deletion criterion for a self-copy of a “sent” email message. Users commonly configure their email client programs to save a copy in their email account of those email messages that are newly authored, sent in reply, or forwarded. For example, consider that before closing the email message described in FIG. 3, the user desires to draft a reply to the sender of the email message. Referring to FIG. 4, an embodiment of a process 110 for managing a copy of a sent email message includes displaying (step 118) a deletion-options menu on the display screen when the user signals intent to send the email message. The user can signal this intent by activating a “send” button displayed by the email client program 18. This deletion-options menu lists various deletion criteria from which the user is required to make a selection to complete the process of sending the email message. The user selects (step 122) the particular deletion criterion for the email message using a selection technique appropriate for the technology of the client system 10, as described above. This selection causes the email message to be sent (step 126) and the copy of this email message, which remains in the user's email account, to be immediately deleted or scheduled for deletion (step 130). Optionally, in the sent mail folder of the user's email account, when the copy of the sent email message is not deleted immediately, an indicator appears (step 134) adjacent to the email message to indicate the scheduled deletion.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 5 shows an embodiment of a deletion-options menu 150 presented to the user for setting a deletion criterion for the self-copy of a sent email message (i.e., a newly authored, reply, or forwarded email message). The deletion-options menu 150 includes a plurality of deletion-criterion buttons 154 that each identify a period for saving a copy of the sent email message in the sender's email account (e.g., do not save, save for 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 1 year, and indefinitely). Activating any of the buttons 154 operates to send the email message to its identified recipients. Activation of the selected button 154 also schedules a time-based deletion or performs an immediate deletion of the copy, except for the button 154 a, which indicates to save the copy indefinitely.
  • [0027]
    Another embodiment of the invention permits the user to associate or link the deletion of an email message to an external object, such as a scheduled item and a file stored on the client system 10. A scheduled item, as used herein, is a scheduled event, such as a task or an appointment. For linking to a scheduled item, the user runs the personal information manager program 22 of FIG. 1 to define and maintain such tasks and appointments. FIG. 6 shows an embodiment of another deletion-options menu 180 that can be presented to the user for linking the deletion of email messages with scheduled items or with stored files. In addition to the same buttons of FIG. 3, here identified as deletion-criterion buttons 184, the deletion-options menu 180 includes a button 184 b (labeled “Save Until”) for linking the deletion of the email message (or its copy) to a scheduled item. In another embodiment, the user can highlight an email message in a mailbox view and open a drop-down menu on the toolbar that includes an option to link the highlighted email message to an external object.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 7 shows an embodiment of a process 200 for linking the deletion of an email message to a scheduled item. When closing a received email message, when forwarding a received email message, or when sending a new or reply email message, the user signals (step 204) intent to close or send the email message. In response, the email client program 18 displays (step 208) the deletion-options menu 180 of FIG. 6, for example. To link deletion of the email message to a scheduled item, the user selects (step 212) the linking button 184 b. Activation of this button 184 b causes a dialog window to open (step 216), prompting the user to identify the particular scheduled item to which the email message (or its copy) is to be linked. To assist the user in selecting the scheduled item, the dialog window provides searching and browsing capabilities for looking through the possible tasks or appointments. Once the user enters the selected scheduled item, at step 220 the email message closes (for a close operation) or is sent (for a send operation) to its target recipient. Any number of email messages can be linked to the same scheduled item. When the event associated with the scheduled item occurs, e.g., the task is marked completed or the date of the appointment passes, each email message linked to that scheduled item is automatically deleted (step 224).
  • [0029]
    As a safeguard against unwanted email message deletions, one embodiment of the email client program 18 prompts the user for a confirmation before deleting any automatic time-based or event-based deletions. For example, the email client program 18 can display a dialog window listing each of the email messages that are to be deleted immediately, pending user confirmation. In one embodiment, a checkbox appears adjacent to each deletion candidate. The dialog window also instructs the user to enter a check into the checkbox of each email message that is to be deleted, or, alternatively, that is to be saved from deletion, depending upon the preferred technique for confirming deletion.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 8 shows an example of a mailbox view 300 listing a plurality of email messages. (For example, the mailbox view 300 can be of the sent mail folder or of the inbox folder). Some of the email messages (denoted 304) are associated with scheduled time-based deletions, other email messages (denoted 308) are associated with event-based deletions, and other email messages (denoted 312) are unassociated with any scheduled deletions (i.e., to remain in the email account indefinitely until manually deleted by the user). One type of icon 316, here, a timepiece or a clock located adjacent to the subject column of the email message, identifies the email message as being associated with a scheduled time-based deletion. Variations of the icon 316′, 316″ (e.g., different colors, different shading or different patterns) can indicate the amount of time remaining before the email message is deleted. For example, a red clock can signify that the email message is to expire immediately (i.e., to be deleted upon the next refresh of the email client program 18); an orange clock can signify that the email message is to expire in less than an hour; and a green clock can signify that the email message is scheduled to expire in less than one month. The user can activate the icon (e.g., by double-clicking) to open a dialog window that specifies the scheduled time of deletion and permits the user to modify or remove the expiration date.
  • [0031]
    Another type of icon 320, here, a double-headed arrow located adjacent to the subject column of the email message, indicates that the email message is associated with an event-based deletion. Optionally, a second icon, such as a clock, appears adjacent the double-headed arrow to indicate when the scheduled event is currently expected to occur. Again, patterns or color can be used to denote the expiration period, for example, a yellow clock to signify that the scheduled event is to occur within a week. Activating this icon opens a dialog window that specifies the scheduled item. The user can open and review the scheduled item, remove the link to this scheduled item, change the link to a different scheduled object, or any combination thereof. Note that if a scheduled item experiences a schedule change, the expiration date of the email message linked to that scheduled item automatically changes. For example, consider an appointment that is changed to occur one week later than originally scheduled. The expiration date of any email message linked to the occurrence of this appointment is automatically extended one week.
  • [0032]
    Additionally, for a user with visual disabilities, all iconic indicia described above have optional text equivalents (suitable for presentation via text-to-speech technology), which can be used instead of the icons, depending upon the user's settings in a preferences table.
  • [0033]
    The present invention may be implemented as one or more computer-readable software programs embodied on or in one or more articles of manufacture. The article of manufacture can be, for example, any one or combination of a floppy disk, a hard disk, hard-disk drive, a CD-ROM, a DVD-ROM, a flash memory card, an EEPROM, an EPROM, a PROM, a RAM, a ROM, or a magnetic tape. In general, any standard or proprietary, programming or interpretive language can be used to produce the computer-readable software programs. Examples of such languages include C, C++, Pascal, JAVA, BASIC, Visual Basic, and Visual C++. The software programs may be stored on or in one or more articles of manufacture as source code, object code, interpretive code, or executable code.
  • [0034]
    While the invention has been shown and described with reference to specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification709/206
International ClassificationH04L12/58, G06Q10/00, G06F15/16
Cooperative ClassificationH04L51/22, G06Q10/107
European ClassificationG06Q10/107, H04L12/58
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 12, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MULLER, MICHAEL J.;REEL/FRAME:014806/0033
Effective date: 20031209