US 20050132502 A1
The present invention relates to a method of eliminating the need to have a track or other delivery service bring solvent to a home where a dry cleaning machine using said solvent is used. Instead, the method involves a method of first monitoring or having monitored level of solvent used and then ordering or obtaining said solvent in a consumer package or kit wherein the solvent can then be directly applied by the consumer or other to a receptacle where said solvent is kept.
1. Method of maintaining or replacing solvent used in an in-home dry cleaning machine which comprises:
(1) monitoring or having monitored level of solvent present to determine whether it is below a desired level;
(2) ordering or obtaining at a point of purchase an amount of solvent small enough to be carried in a consumer package or kit; and
(3) applying or having applied, directly from said solvent containing consumer package or kit to a receptacle or container where said solvent is kept, sufficient solvent to replace lost or wasted solvent.
2. A method according to
3. A method according to
4. A kit for replacing solvent which is used in a home dry cleaning machine.
5. A method of
6. A method of
The present invention relates to in-home dry cleaning machines and process and, in particular, to methods and kits for the home consumer to replace solvent lost during the dry cleaning process.
Dry cleaning process for cleaning laundry articles are those in which an organic solvent, rather than water, is used as the primary medium for cleaning articles. In general, dry cleaning helps avoid damage which may be associated with aqueous washing (e.g., shrinkage, dye transfer).
The prior art discloses dry cleaning process and machines, which can be used by a consumer in his or her home. (See for example, WO 01/94675, assigned to P&G). Typically such dry cleaning machines use a dry cleaning solvent (e.g., typically a non-flammable, non-chlorine containing organic dry cleaning solvent or mixture of solvents).
The dry cleaning solvent composition is typically a composition comprising, in addition to solvent, small amounts of surfactant (as described for example in U.S. Pat. No. 6,623,530 to Murphy et al); and the composition is contacted with a fabric article (any article that is customarily cleaned in a conventional laundry process or in a dry cleaning process; the term comprises articles of clothing, linens, drapery and clothing accessories and also encompasses items made in whole or in part of fabric such as tote bags, furniture covers, tarpaulins and the like).
After the articles are contacted with the dry cleaning solvent composition, a certain amount of solvent is used up by the process and the solvent is said to be “spent”. For example, solvent is often deposited and left on the article being dry cleaned during processing. A certain amount of the solvent is also lost as it becomes part of the waste product (a combination of spent solvent, spent surfactant, lint, oils, etc.) and some is lost going through filters (e.g., filters separating solid and liquid waste) and/or in receptacles holding the waste. Some of the solvent may be separated from the waste product and thus be “regenerated” for additional use. However, overall, the amount of solvent is depleted and some or all must be replaced after multiple uses.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,247,340 to Lindquist et al. discloses the use of carbon dioxide from a low-pressure vessel to “top off” a higher pressure-cleaning vessel. With regard to transfer of liquid CO2 from such tank 135 to the high pressure storing tank, this is done automatically via a pressure differential. As to the low pressure supply tank, this is filled periodically from a mobile tank (e.g., truck) every few weeks. Thus, the system is clearly driven by delivery of solvent (CO2) from a truck rather than by a distribution system that allows a consumer to replace solvent themselves (e.g., by purchasing at store, ordering by phone or internet, etc. such that the replenished solvent is physically delivered into the dry cleaning apparatus by the consumer him or herself.
U.S., Pat. No. 6,248,136 to McClain et al. discloses a distribution system whereby (a) a concentrated detergent and, (b) a dry cleaning solvent are separately delivered and are mixed at the site where by will be used (e.g., dry cleaning establishment). The solvent is still delivered, however, and there is no teaching or suggestion of a distribution system whereby a home dry-cleaning customer orders (e.g., via internet, telephone) or buys solvent him or herself and tops off lost solvent from a home dry cleaning machine.
The present invention relates to precisely a machine for a home customer to monitor his or herself (e.g., perhaps through an indicator or alarm) whether solvent needs to be replenished and if so, to replace the solvent themselves. In one embodiment, this can be by placing an order on, for example, phone or internet. In another embodiment, this can be by purchasing at a store where solvent may be sold. In another embodiment, the customer may purchase a kit comprising said solvent and optionally additionally comprising filters or other parts which may be needed to maintain the home dry cleaning machine.
The term “dry cleaning process” used herein is intended to mean any process wherein laundry articles are contacted with a dry cleaning composition within a closable vessel. However, as used herein this term does not include any process comprising steps wherein the laundry articles are also immersed and rinsed in an aqueous cleaning composition comprising more than 80 wt. % water because this would damage garments that can only be dry cleaned.
The term “dry cleaning composition” as used herein is intended to mean the composition used in the dry cleaning process including the dry cleaning solvent, any surfactant, cleaning agents but excluding the laundry articles that are to be cleaned.
The term “organic dry cleaning solvent” as used herein is intended to mean any non-aqueous solvent that preferably has a liquid phase at 20° C. and standard pressure. The term organic has its usual meaning, i.e., a compound with at least one carbon hydrogen bond.
The term “laundry article” or “fabric article” as used herein is typically a garment but may include any textile article. Textile articles include—but are not limited to—those made from natural fibers such as cotton, wool, linen, hemp, silk and man made fibers such as nylon, viscose, acetate, polyester, polyamide, polypropylene elastomer, natural or synthetic leather, natural or synthetic fur and mixtures thereof.
In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of replacing solvent from in-home dry cleaning machines which method comprises:
The consumer can buy such replacement at a store or outlet or can order, for example by phone or internet, that the replacement solvent be delivered to his or her home. Presumably, solvent will be bought/delivered in a receptacle or container whereby the consumer can readily open and pour the solvent by themselves. In one embodiment, the solvent may be sold as a refill packet or container where it may be possible to simply detach the previous container from the machine or machine feed and replace with the new part.
The distribution system of the invention allows consumers to have a self-packaged, single dose (i.e., for one household) amount of solvent rather than have a delivery vehicle or truck carrying large amounts of solvent drive around for periodic solvent delivery.
In another embodiment, the solvent package may be sold as part of a kit wherein the kit may comprise such a solvent package and instructions for use/replenishment in home dry cleaning machines, or may comprise a solvent package in combination with one or more parts (e.g., filters, pumps) which may need replacement in the dry cleaning machine.
In another embodiment of the invention, the solvent dispenser/container may be fitted with an alarm or monitor which monitors the amount of solvent left in the container and indicates to the consumer (e.g., with a sound or flashing light, or with colored indicator) that solvent quantity is low and will need replenishment.
According to the process of the invention, a dry cleaning process is provided for in-home dry cleaning comprising a low and/or non-aqueous dry cleaning step of contacting a fabric article with a low and/or non-aqueous dry cleaning composition, wherein said composition comprises a non-flammable, non-chlorine containing organic dry cleaning solvent, water and surfactant.
One example of a composition which may be used with fabric articles is:
The fabric may be treated in low aqueous step dry cleaning step, non-aqueous dry cleaning step, rinsing step, etc.
The laundry articles in need of treatment are placed inside a closable vessel. It will be clear that the process is also suitable for cleaning one laundry article at the time although it will often be more efficient to clean more articles at the same time. Preferably, the vessel is a rotatable drum as part of an automated dry cleaning machine that is closed or sealed in such a way that the dry cleaning solvent can be contained within the machine if needed. Inside the vessel, the laundry articles are then contacted with the dry cleaning composition. This may be done in any way known in the art such as spraying or even using a mist.
In some cases it may be useful to formulate the dry cleaning composition in situ in the drum by contacting the different ingredients of the dry cleaning composition separately with the laundry articles. For example—when the dry cleaning composition comprises dry cleaning solvent, water and surfactant—first water, then surfactant followed by the dry cleaning solvent. Or first the dry cleaning solvent, followed by the surfactant and then water. Or any other order.
Alternatively, 2 or more of the ingredients may be premixed before they are contacted with the laundry articles. For example, water and surfactant may be premixed and this premix is then contacted with the laundry followed by the dry cleaning solvent. In the alternate, dry cleaning solvent and surfactant may be premixed and this premix is then contacted with the laundry followed by water.
Thus, in one aspect, in situ formulation of the dry cleaning composition may also be provided by incorporating one or more ingredients of the dry cleaning composition into a pretreatment composition, pretreating the laundry articles with the pretreatment composition, contacting the laundry articles with the pretreatment composition, contacting the laundry articles with the remaining ingredients of the dry cleaning composition thereby formulating the dry cleaning composition in situ. This pretreatment may take place manually outside the drum or mechanically inside the drum as part of a pretreatment step. The pretreatment step per se need not be immersive, i.e., it may be limited to treating the stained areas only provided that when the laundry articles are contacted with all the ingredients making up the final dry cleaning composition, the laundry articles are immersed in said dry cleaning composition. For example—when the dry cleaning composition comprises of dry cleaning solvent, water and surfactant—stained areas of the laundry articles may be pre-treated with a premix of water and surfactant manually or by an automated process. After effective pretreatment time is allowed, the laundry articles may be contacted in the drum with the remaining ingredients such as in this case, the dry cleaning solvent (and optionally the remaining amounts of water and cleaning agent) to result in situ in the dry cleaning composition according to this aspect of the invention. The pretreatment time will be at least 5 sec but could be less than 1 day, preferably less than 1 hr, more preferably less than 30 min. The pretreatment composition may be formulated to treat specific stains. For example cleaning effective amounts of protease and other enzymes may be included to treat proteinacious stains.
In another embodiment, the complete dry cleaning composition is premixed in a separate premix compartment. For example, when the dry cleaning composition comprises dry cleaning solvent, surfactant and water, these may be premixed in a separate compartment before the dry cleaning composition is contacted with the laundry article. Preferably such a premix is in the form of an emulsion or microemulsion.
Forming a premix of for example a water-in-oil emulsion can be brought about by any number of suitable procedures. For example, the aqueous phase containing a cleaning effective amount of surfactant package can be contacted with the solvent phase by metered injection just prior to a suitable mixing device. Metering is preferably maintained such that the desired solvent/water ratio remains relatively constant. Mixing devices such as pump assemblies or in-line static mixers, a centrifugal pump or other type of pump, a colloid mill or other type of mill, a rotary mixer, an ultrasonic mixer and other means of dispersing one liquid in another, non-miscible liquid can be used to provide effective agitation to cause emulsification.
These static mixers are devices through which the emulsion is passed at high speed and in which said emulsion experiences sudden changes in direction and/or in the diameter of the channels which make up the interior of the mixers. This results in a pressure loss, which is a factor in obtaining a correct emulsion in terms of droplet size and stability.
In one variant of the method of the invention, the mixing steps are for example sequential. The procedure consists in mixing the solvent and emulsifier in a first stage, the premix being mixed and emulsified with the water in a second stage.
In another variant of the method of the invention, provision is made for carrying out the above steps in a continuous mode.
The premix may take place at room temperature, which is also the temperature of the fluids and raw materials used.
A batch process such as an overhead mixer or a continuous process such as a two fluid co-extrusion nozzle, an in-line injector, an in-line mixer or an in-line screen can be used to make the emulsion. The size of the emulsion composition in the final composition can be manipulated by changing the mixing speed, mixing time, the mixing device and the viscosity of the aqueous solution. In general, by reducing the mixing speed, decreasing the mixing time, lowering the viscosity of the aqueous solution or using a mixing device that produces less shear force during mixing, one can produce an emulsion of a larger droplet size. Especially preferred are ultrasonic mixers. Although the description above refers to the addition of surfactant it is understood it may also apply to the addition of cleaning agents.
While the laundry articles are in contact with the dry cleaning solvent, it is preferred to add mechanical energy for example by agitating or tumbling the laundry articles by rotating the drum or other means known in the art. Usually after one step, the dry cleaning solvent including any cleaning agents and/or loosened soil will be separated from the laundry articles. This is preferably done by spinning the laundry articles and collecting the dry cleaning composition, although other separation methods known in the art may also be employed such as evaporation. The dry cleaning solvent is then preferably recycled by separating the soil and/or cleaning agents from the solvent.
In other instances it may be advantageous to recirculate at least part of the dry cleaning composition during one step. For example by separating a portion of the dry cleaning composition from the laundry articles, optionally filtering soil from the separated portion of dry cleaning composition and contacting the laundry articles with the filtered portion of the dry cleaning composition.
The surfactants, dry cleaning solvents, cosolvents and optional cleaning agents used in present invention are described below and may be the same or different for each step of the inventive process.
The dry cleaning is usually performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, between 10 and 30° C. in most countries. In some instances the process temperature may be elevated to just under the boiling point of the most volatile dry cleaning solvent used. Sometimes the process may be performed under reduced or elevated pressure, typically achieved via a vacuum pump or by supplying a gas, such as nitrogen, to the apparatus thereby increasing the pressure the closable vessel. The dry cleaning process may be carried out in any suitable apparatus. Preferably, the apparatus will comprise a closable vessel and means to recycle the dry cleaning solvents used to minimize solvent losses into the environment. The dry cleaning composition may be in the form of a micro-emulsion but usually will be in the form of a macro-emulsion, which is generally accepted to be thermodynamically unstable. A suitable process and appliance for dry cleaning is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,045,588. The solvent will preferably be filtered and recycled in the same appliance. Generally, the laundry articles will be agitated in the dry cleaning process by tumbling, rotating, ultrasonics or any suitable type of mechanical energy (see U.S. Pat. No. 6,045,588).
Still other advantages and novel features of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description, which presents, by way of illustration, various exemplary modes contemplated for carrying out the invention. As will be realized, the invention is capable of other different aspects and objects all without departing from the invention. Accordingly, advantages, aspects, and descriptions are illustrative in nature and not restrictive.
Dry Cleaning Solvent
The dry cleaning solvent is usually a non-flammable, non-chlorine containing organic dry cleaning solvent. Although the term dry cleaning solvent is used in the singular, it should be noted that a mixture of solvents may also be used. Thus, the singular should be taken to encompass the plural, and vice versa. Because of the typical environmental problems associated with chlorine containing solvents, the solvent preferably does not contain Cl atoms. In addition, the solvent should not be flammable such as most petroleum or mineral spirits having typical flash points as low as 20° C. or even lower. The term non-flammable is intended to describe dry cleaning solvents with a flash point of at least 37.8° C., more preferably at least 45° C., most preferably at least 50° C. The limit of a flashpoint of at least 37.8° C. for non-flammable liquids is defined in NFPA 30, the Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code as issued by National Fire Protection Association, 1996 edition, Massachusetts USA. Preferred test methods for determining the flash point of solvents are the standard tests as described in NFPA30. One preferable class of solvents is a fluorinated organic dry cleaning solvent including hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrofluoroether (HFE). However even more preferred are non flammable non-halogenated solvents. For example other classes of suitable highly preferred solvents are siloxanes and hydrocarbons (see below). It should be noted that mixtures of different dry cleaning solvents may also be used.
The most desirable solvents are non-ozone depleting and a useful common definition for the ozone depleting potential is defined by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA: the ozone depleting potential is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus, the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0.
One preferred hydrofluorocarbon solvent is represented by the formula CxHyF(2x+2−y), wherein x is from 3 to 8, y is from 1 to 6, the mole ratio of F/H in the hydrofluorocarbon solvent is greater than 1.6.
Preferably, x is from 4 to 6 and most preferred x is 5 and y is 2.
Especially suitable are hydrofluorocarbon solvents selected from isomers of decafluoropentane and mixtures thereof. In particular useful is 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane. The E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company markets this compound under the name Vertrel XF™.
Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) suitable for use in the present invention are generally low polarity chemical compounds minimally containing carbon, fluorine, hydrogen, and catenary (that is, in-chain) oxygen atoms. HFEs can optionally contain additional catenary heteroatoms, such as nitrogen and sulphur. HFEs have molecular structures which can be linear, branched, or cyclic, or a combination thereof (such as alkylcycloaliphatic), and are preferably free of ethylenic unsaturation, having a total of about 4 to about 20 carbon atoms. Such HFEs are known and are readily available, either as essentially pure compounds or as mixtures.
Preferred hydrofluoroethers can have a boiling point in the range from about 40° C. to about 275° C., preferably from about 50° C. to about 200° C., even more preferably from about 50° C. to about 121° C. It is very desirable that the hydrofluoroether has no flashpoint. In general, when a HFE has a flash point, decreasing the F/H ratio or decreasing the number of carbon-carbon bonds each decreases the flash point of the HFE (see WO/00 26206).
Useful hydrofluoroethers include two varieties: segregated hydrofluoroethers and omega-hydrofluoroalkylethers. Structurally, the segregated hydrofluoroethers comprise at least one mono-, di-, or trialkoxy-substituted perfluoroalkane, perfluorocycloalkane, perfluorocycloalkyl-containing perfluoroalkane, or perfluorocycloalkylene-containing perfluoroalkane compound.
HFEs suitable for use in the processes of the invention include the following compounds:
wherein X and Y are each independently F or H provided that at least one F is present. Preferably, X=F and Y=H;
n=2-15 and m=1-10, but preferably, n=3-8 and m=1-4, or more preferably n=4-6 and m=1-3.
Especially preferred is a HFE wherein n=4 and m=1 or 2 which is marketed under the name of HFE 7100™ and 7200™ respectively by the 3M corporation.
Mixtures of different organic dry cleaning solvents may also be used. For example, a suitable dry cleaning composition may comprise a mixture of HFEs together with a mixture of hydrocarbons and/or siloxanes.
When solvent compounds are mentioned, isomers thereof are also included. Thus, suitable HFEs include nonafluoromethoxybutane (C4F9OCH3) isomers such as 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxy-butane (CH3OCF2CF2CF2CF3), 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-methoxy-propane (CH3OCF2CF(CF3)2), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-propane (CH3OC(CF3)3), and 1,1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluoro-2-methoxy-butane (CH3OCF(CF3)CF2CF3), approximate isomer boiling point=60 (C; Also isomers of nonafluoroethoxybutane (C4F9OC2H5) such as 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-ethoxybutane (CH3CH2OCF2CF2CF2CF3), 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-ethoxypropane (CH3CH2OCF2CF(CF3)2), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-ethoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-propane (CH3CH2OC(CF3)3), and 1,1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluoro-2-ethoxybutane (CH3CH2OCF(CF3)CF2CF3) with approximate isomer boiling points of 73° C.
Siloxane Dry Cleaning Solvent
Some siloxane solvents may also be used advantageously in the present invention. The siloxane may be linear, branched, cyclic, or a combination thereof. One preferred branched siloxane is tris (trimethylsiloxyl) silane. Also preferred are linear and cyclic oligo dimethylsiloxanes are preferred. One preferred class of siloxane solvents is an alkylsiloxane represented by the formula:
where each R is independently chosen from an alkyl group having form 1 to 10 carbon atoms and w is an integer from 1 to 30. Preferably, R is methyl and w is 1-4 or even more preferably w is 3 or 4.
Of the cyclic siloxane octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane and decamethyl cyclopentasiloxane are particularly effective.
Very useful siloxanes are selected from the group consisting of decamethyl tetrasiloxane, dodecamethyl pentasiloxane and mixtures thereof.
Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent
Hydrocarbon dry cleaning solvents that can be used in the present invention are non-flammable as defined above and include isoparaffinic solvents. As used herein, the term “isoparaffinic solvent” means one or more branched alkanes having on average, at least 9 carbon atoms, preferably from 10 to 16 carbon atoms.
Suitable isoparaffinic solvents, include those sold as DF-2000 or Isopar L, namely a mixture of C11 to C15 alkanes ex Exxon Mobil. These isoparaffinic solvents are branched chain fully saturated hydrocarbons and are characterised by boiling range. These mixtures are available in boiling ranges from 180° C. to 210° C. In addition to the isoparaffinic hydrocarbons, non-flammable hydrocarbon solvents including low petroleum odour solvents having a boiling range of 195° C. to 250° C. and d-Limonene may also be useful. From an odour standpoint, the isoparaffinic solvents are preferred, as these materials have a low odour. However, if odour is not a consideration, substantially any of the above solvents can be utilized. Preferably, the organic solvent is not a terpene.
Especially suitable organic dry cleaning solvents include those selected from the group consisting of the isomers of nonafluoromethoxybutane, nonafluoroethoxybutane and decafluoropentane, octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane, decamethyl cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl tetrasiloxane, dodecamethyl pentasiloxane, isoparaffinic solvents and mixtures thereof. Even more preferred are organic dry cleaning solvents include those selected from the group consisting of octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane, decamethyl cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl tetrasiloxane, dodecamethyl pentasiloxane, isoparaffinic solvents and mixtures thereof.
The dry cleaning compositions of the invention generally contain greater than about 50 percent by weight of organic dry cleaning solvent, preferably greater than about 75 weight percent, more preferably greater than about 80 weight percent, more preferably greater than about 85 weight percent, even more preferably greater than about 95 weight percent, but preferably less than 100 weight percent of organic dry cleaning solvent by weight of the total dry cleaning composition. Such amounts aid in improved drying times and maintain a high flashpoint or no flashpoint at all. For the rinse step or conditioning step the dry cleaning compositions may even comprise of at least 99 weight percent of organic dry cleaning solvent by weight of the total dry cleaning composition and sometimes even 100 weight percent of organic dry cleaning solvent.
In some cases water may be used in the dry cleaning process and the amount of water is important. In those cases, the amount of water present in any step of the dry cleaning process is at such a level that laundry articles can be safely cleaned. This includes laundry articles that can only be dry cleaned. The amount of water present in the low aqueous dry cleaning composition is preferably from 0.01 to 50 wt. % water more preferably from 0.01 to 10 wt. %, even more preferably from 0.01 to 0.9 wt. % water by weight of the dry cleaning composition or more preferably, 0.05 to 0.8 wt. % or most preferable 0.1 to 0.7 wt. %. The amount of water present in the non-aqueous dry cleaning composition is preferably from 0 to 0.1 wt. % water by weight of the dry cleaning composition or more preferably, 0 to 0.01 wt. % or even more preferable 0 to 0.001 wt. % and most preferable 0 wt. %.
The compositions of the invention may contain one or more cosolvents. The purpose of a cosolvent in the dry cleaning compositions of the invention is often to increase the solvency of the dry cleaning composition for a variety of soils. The cosolvent also enables the formation of a homogeneous solution containing a cosolvent, a dry cleaning solvent, and the soil; or a cosolvent, a dry cleaning solvent and an optional cleaning agent. As used herein, a “homogeneous composition” is a single phased composition or a composition that appears to have only a single phase, for example, a macro-emulsion, a micro-emulsion or an azeotrope. However, if a cosolvent is used the dry cleaning composition is preferably a non-azeotrope as azeotropes may be less robust.
Useful cosolvents of the invention are soluble in the dry cleaning solvent or water, are compatible with typical cleaning agents, and can enhance the solubilization of hydrophilic composite stains and oils typically found in stains on clothing, such as vegetable, mineral, or animal oils. Any cosolvent or mixtures of cosolvents meeting the above criteria may be used.
Useful cosolvents include alcohols, ethers, glycol ethers, alkanes, alkenes, linear and cyclic amides, perfluorinated tertiary amines, perfluoroethers, cycloalkanes, esters, ketones, aromatics, the fully or partly halogenated derivatives thereof and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the cosolvent is selected from the group consisting of alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, ethers, esters, cyclic amides, aromatics, ketones, the fully or partly halogenated derivatives thereof and mixtures thereof.
Representative examples of cosolvents which can be used in the dry cleaning compositions of the invention include methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, t-butyl alcohol, trifluoroethanol, pentafluoropropanol, hexafluoro-2-propanol, methyl t-butyl ether, methyl t-amyl ether, propylene glycol n-propyl ether, propylene glycol n-butyl ether, dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether, propylene glycol methyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, decalin, methyl decanoate, t-butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, glycol methyl ether acetate, ethyl lactate, diethyl phthalate, 2-butanone, N-alkyl pyrrolidone (such as N-methyl pyrrolidone, N-ethyl pyrrolidone), methyl isobutyl ketone, naphthalene, toluene, trifluorotoluene, perfluorohexane, perfluoroheptane, perfluorooctane, perfluorotributylamine, perfluoro-2-butyl oxacyclopentane.
Preferably, the cosolvent is present in the compositions of the invention in an effective amount by weight to form a homogeneous composition with the other dry cleaning solvent(s) such as HFE. The effective amount of cosolvent will vary depending upon which cosolvent or cosolvent blends are used and the other dry cleaning solvent(s) used in the composition. However, the preferred maximum amount of any particular cosolvent present in a dry cleaning composition should be low enough to keep the dry cleaning composition non-flammable as defined above.
In general, cosolvent may be present in the compositions of the invention in an amount of from about 1 to 50 percent by weight, preferably from about 5 to about 40 percent by weight, and more preferably from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight. In some exceptional cases the cosolvent may be present amounts of from about 0.01 percent by weight of the total dry cleaning composition.
The dry cleaning compositions of the invention can utilise many types of cyclic, linear or branched surfactants known in the art, both fluorinated and non-fluorinated. Preferred solvent compatible surfactants include nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants having at least 4 carbon atoms, but preferably less than 200 carbon atoms or more preferably less than 90 carbon atoms as described below. Solvent compatible surfactants usually have a solvent-philic part that increases the solubility of the surfactant in the dry cleaning solvent/composition. Effective surfactants may comprise of one or more polar hydrophilic groups and one or more dry cleaning solvent-philic parts having at least 4 carbon atoms so that the surfactant is soluble in said dry cleaning solvent/composition. It is preferred that the surfactant is soluble in the dry cleaning composition, i.e., to at least the amount of surfactant used in the dry cleaning composition at 20° C. The composition may comprise one or a mixture of surfactants depending on the desired cleaning and garment care. One preferred surfactant is an anionic surfactant. Another preferred surfactant is a cationic surfactant.
The polar hydrophilic group, Z, can be nonionic, ionic (that is, anionic, cationic, or amphoteric), or a combination thereof. Typical nonionic moieties include polyoxyethylene and polyoxypropylene moieties. Typical anionic moieties include carboxylate, sulfonate, sulfate, or phosphate moieties. Typical cationic moieties include quaternary ammonium, protonated ammonium, imidazolines, amines, diamines, sulfonium, and phosphonium moieties. Typical amphoteric moieties include betaine, sulfobetaine, aminocarboxyl, amine oxide, and various other combinations of anionic and cationic moieties. Especially suitable surfactants comprise at least one polar hydrophilic group Z which is an anionic moiety whereby the counterion may be as described below.
The polar hydrophilic group Z is preferably selected from the group comprising —SO4M, —SO3M, —PO4M2, —PO3M2, —CO2M and mixtures thereof wherein each M can be independently selected from the group including H, NR4, Na, K and Li, wherein each R is independently selected from H and C1-4 alkyl radical but preferably H. Preferably M is H but in some cases salts may also be used.
In one preferred embodiment, the surfactant is fluorinated or more preferably a fluorinated acid.
Suitable fluorosurfactants are in most cases those according to the formula (I):
and contain one, two or more fluorinated radicals (Xf) and one or more polar hydrophilic groups (Z), which radicals and polar hydrophilic groups are usually (but not necessarily) connected together by one or more suitable linking groups (Y). Preferably, n and p are integers independently selected from 1 to 4 and m is selected from 0 to 4. When the surfactant comprises more than one Xf, Y or Z group, then each of Xf, Y and Z may be the same or different. Preferably, the polar hydrophilic group is connected by a covalent bond to Y, or in absence of Y, to Xf.
The fluorinated radical, Xf, can generally be a linear or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated, aromatic or non-aromatic, radical preferably having at least 3 carbon atoms. The carbon chain may be linear or branched and may include hetero atoms such as oxygen or sulphur, but preferably not nitrogen. Preferably, Xf is an aliphatic and saturated. A fully fluorinated Xf radical is preferred, but hydrogen or chlorine may be present as substituents provided that not more than one atom of either is present for every two carbon atoms, and, preferably, the radical contains at least a terminal perfluoromethyl group. Radicals containing no more than about 20 carbon atoms are preferred because larger radicals usually represent a less efficient utilisation of fluorine.
Especially suitable Xf groups can be based on perfluorinated carbon: CnF2n+1—wherein n is from 1-40, preferably 2 to 26, most preferably 2 to 18 or can be based on oligomers of hexafluoropropyleneoxide: [CF(CF3)—CF2—O]n wherein n is from 1 to 30. Suitable examples of the latter are marketed by E.I DuPont de Nemours and Co. under the name Krytox™ 157, especially, Krytox™ 157 FSL. Fluoroaliphatic radicals containing about 2 to 14 carbon atoms are more preferred.
The linking group, Y, is selected from groups such as alkyl, alkylene, alkylene oxide, arylene, carbonyl, ester, amide, ether oxygen, secondary or tertiary amine, sulfonamidoalkylene, carboxamidoalkylene, alkylenesulfonamidoalkylene, alkyleneoxyalkylene, or alkylenethioalkylene or mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment Y is (CH2)t or (CH2)tO wherein t is 1 to 10, preferably 1 to 6, most preferably 2 to 4. Alternatively, Y may be absent, in which case Xf and Z are directly connected by a covalent bond.
A particularly useful class of fluoroaliphatic surfactants useful in this invention are those wherein Xf, Y, and Z are as defined, and n is 1 or 2, m is 0 to 2, and p is 1 or 2.
Examples of very useful surfactants are those comprising at least wherein n is 1 to 4, m is 0 to 4, and p is 1 to 4, Z is as defined and
wherein R1 is a perfluoroalkyl group having 1 to 40 carbon atoms; R2 is an alkyl or an alkylene oxide group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms; and v is 0-10
Preferably, the surfactant is according to the formula
wherein R1 is a perfluoroalkyl group having 1 to 26 carbon atoms; R2 is an alkyl or an alkylene oxide group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms; v is 0-10 and w is 1-2.
More preferably, R1 is a perfluoroalkyl group having 2 to 16 carbon atoms; R2 is an alkyl or an alkylene oxide group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms; v is 1 and w is 1 or 2.
Most preferably, R1 is a perfluoroalkyl group having 2 to 14 carbon atoms; R2 is ethylene oxide; v=1 and w=1-2.
One other suitable class of surfactants are non-fluorinated surfactants according the formula (II):
wherein Xh is a non-fluorinated radical and(Y), (Z), n, m and p are as described above for formula (I).
Xh may be a linear, branched or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated, aromatic or non-aromatic, radical preferably having at least 4 carbon atoms. Xh preferably includes hydrocarbon radicals. When Xh is a hydrocarbon, the carbon chain may be linear, branched or cyclic and may include hetero atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur, although in some cases nitrogen is not preferred. Preferably, Xh is aliphatic and saturated. Radicals containing no more than about 24 carbon atoms are preferred. One preferred surfactant is an acid surfactant. Preferred surfactants include anionic surfactants. Anionic surfactants are generally known in the art and include, for example, alkyl aryl sulfonates (such as, for example, alkylbenzenesulfonates), alkyl aryl sulfonic acids (such as, for example, sodium and ammonium salts of toluene-, xylene- and isopropylbenzenesulfonic acids), sulfonated amines and sulfonated amides (such as, for example, amidosulfonates), carboxylated alcohols and carboxylated alkylphenol ethoxylates, diphenyl sulfonates, fatty esters, isethionates, lignin-based surfactants, olefin sulfonates (such as, for example, RCH=CHSO3Na, where R is C10-C16), phosphorous-based surfactants, protein based surfactants, sarcosine-based surfactants (such as, for example, N-acylsarcosinates such as sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate), sulfates and sulfonates of oils and/or fatty acids, sulfates and sulfonates of ethoxylated alkylphenols, sulfates of alcohols, sulfates of ethoxylated alcohols, sulfates of fatty esters, sulfates of aromatic or fluoro containing compounds, sulfosuccinnamates, sulfosuccinates (such as, for example, diamyl-, dioctyl- and diisobutylsulfosuccinates), taurates, and sulfonic acids.
Examples of suitable non-fluorinated anionic surfactants include Crodafos™ 810A (ex Croda).
Other classes of suitable surfactants include, but are not limited to nonionic and cationic surfactants. Compounds suitable for use as the nonionic surfactant of the present invention are those that carry no discrete charge when dissolved in aqueous media. Nonionic surfactants are generally known in the art and include, for example, alkanol amides (such as, for example, coco, lauric, oleic and stearic monoethanolamides, diethanolamides and monoisopropanolamides), amine oxides (such as, for example, polyoxyethylene ethanolamides and polyoxyethylene propanolamides), polyalkylene oxide block copolymers (such as, for example, poly(oxyethylene-co-oxypropylene)), ethoxylated alcohols, (such as, for example, isostearyl polyoxyethylene alcohol, lauryl, cetyl, stearyl, oleyl, tridecyl, trimethyinonyl, isodecyl, tridecyl), ethoxylated alkylphenols (such as, for example, nonylphenol ), ethoxylated amines and ethoxylated amides, ethoxylated fatty acids, ethoxylated fatty esters and ethoxylated fatty oils (such as, for example, mono- and diesters of acids such as lauric, isostearic, pelargonic, oleic, coco, stearic, and ricinoleic, and oils such as castor oil and tall oil), fatty esters, fluorocarbon containing materials, glycerol esters (such as, for example, glycerol monostearate, glycerol monolaurate, glycerol dilaurate, glycerol monoricinoleate, and glycerol oleate), glycol esters (such as, for example, propylene glycol monostearate, ethylene glycol monostearate, ethylene glycol distearate, diethylene glycol monolaurate, diethylene glycol monolaurate, diethylene glycol monooleate, and diethylene glycol stearate), lanolin-based surfactants, monoglycerides, phosphate esters, polysaccharide ethers, propoxylated fatty acids, propoxylated alcohols, and propoxylated alkylphenols, protein-based organic surfactants, sorbitan-based surfactants (such as, for example, sorbitan oleate, sorbitan monolaurate, and sorbitan palmitate), sucrose esters and glucose esters, and thio- and mercapto-based surfactants.
In a preferred embodiment, one component of the present invention comprises one or more nonionic surfactants according to one or more of the structural formulas III and IV:
R9 is a monovalent hydrocarbon group of from 1 to 30 carbons that may be linear, cyclic, branched, unsaturated, aromatic or fluoro containing; R10 is hydrogen or a monovalent hydrocarbon group of 1 to 30 carbons that may be linear, cyclic, branched, unsaturated, aromatic or fluoro containing; and n is from about 1 to about 100, more preferably from about 1 to about 40. In a highly preferred embodiment, R9 contains from 2 to about 24 carbons, even more preferably from 8 to 24 carbons, R10 is H and n is from about 2 to about 20.
Other suitable nonionic surfactants include Polyethylene oxide condensates of nonyl phenol and myristyl alcohol, such as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,685,930 Kasprzak; and b) fatty alcohol ethoxylates, R—(OCH2CH2)aOH wherein a=1 to 100, typically 1 to 30, R=hydrocarbon residue 8 to 20 C atoms, typically linear alkyl. Examples polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, with 4 or 10 oxyethylene groups; polyoxyethylene cetyl ether with 2, 6 or 10 oxyethylene groups; polyoxyethylene stearyl ether, with 2, 5, 15, 20, 25 or 100 oxyethylene groups; polyoxyethylene (2), (10) oleyl ether, with 2 or 10 oxyethylene groups. Commercially available examples include, but are not limited to: BRIJ and NEODOL. See also U.S. Pat. No. 6,013,683 Hill et al. Other suitable nonionic surfactants include Tween™.
Suitable cationic surfactants include, but are not limited to dialkyldimethyl ammonium salts having the formula:
wherein R′ and R″ are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon containing moiety containing 1-30 C atoms or derived from tallow, coconut oil or soy, X=Cl, I or Br. Examples include: didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), dihexadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dihexadecyidimethyl ammonium bromide, dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dieicosyldimethyl ammonium chloride, didocosyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dicoconutdimethyl ammonium chloride, ditallowdimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Commercially available examples include, but are not limited to: ADOGEN, ARQUAD, TOMAH, VARIQUAT. See also U.S. Pat. No. 6,013,683 Hill et al.
Also suitable surfactants are silicone surfactants including, but not limited to the polyalkyleneoxide polydimethylsiloxanes having a polydimethylsiloxane hydrophobic moiety and one or more hydrophilic polyalkyleneoxide side chains and have the general formula:
wherein a+b are from about 1 to about 50, preferably from about 3 to about 30, more preferably from about 10 to about 25, and each R1 is the same or different and is selected from the group consisting of methyl and a poly(ethyleneoxide/propyleneoxide) copolymer group having the general formula:
with at least one R1 being a poly(ethyleneoxide/propyleneoxide) copolymer group, and wherein n is 3 or 4, preferably 3; total c (for all polyalkyleneoxide side groups) has a value of from 0 to about 100, preferably from about 6 to about 100; total d is from 0 to about 14, preferably from 0 to about 3; and more preferably d is 0; total c+d has a value of from about 5 to about 150, preferably from about 9 to about 100 and each R2 is the same or different and is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, an alkyl having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and an acetyl group, preferably hydrogen and methyl group. Examples of these surfactants may be found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,705,562 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,707,613, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Examples of this type of surfactants are the Silwet™ surfactants which are available from CK Witco, OSi Division, Danbury, Conn. Representative Silwet™ surfactants are for example L-7608, L-7607, L-77, L-7605, L-7604, L-7600, L-7657, L-7602. The molecular weight of the polyalkyleneoxide group (R1) is less than or equal to about 10,000. Preferably, the molecular weight of the polyalkyleneoxide group is less than or equal to about 8,000, and most preferably ranges from about 300 to about 5,000. Thus, the values of c and d can be those numbers which provide molecular weights within these ranges. However, the number of ethyleneoxide units (—C2H4O) in the polyether chain (R1) must be sufficient to render the polyalkyleneoxide polysiloxane water dispersible or water soluble. If propyleneoxide groups are present in the polyalkyleneoxide chain, they can be distributed randomly in the chain or exist as blocks. Especially preferred Silwet™ surfactants are L-7600, L-7602, L-7604, L-7605, L-7657, and mixtures thereof. Besides cleaning and/or emulsifying activity, polyalkyleneoxide polydimethylsiloxane surfactants can also provide other benefits, such as anti-static benefits, and softness to fabrics.
The preparation of polyalkyleneoxide polydimetylsiloxanes is well known in the art. Polyalkyleneoxide polydimethylsiloxanes of the present invention can be prepared according to the procedure set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 3,299,112, incorporated herein by reference.
Another suitable silicone surfactant is SF-1488, which is available from GE silicone fluids. Especially preferred silicone surfactants include Tegopren™ 7008 and 7009 (ex Goldschmidt).
These and other surfactants suitable for use in combination with the organic dry cleaning solvent as adjuncts are well known in the art, being described in more detail in Kirk Othmer's Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd Ed., Vol. 22, pp. 360-379, “Surfactants and Detersive Systems”, incorporated by reference herein. Further suitable nonionic detergent surfactants are generally disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,929,678, Laughlin et al., issued Dec. 30, 1975, at column 13, line 14 through column 16, line 6, incorporated herein by reference. Other suitable detergent surfactants are generally disclosed in WO-A-0246517.
The surfactant or mixture of surfactants is present in a cleaning effective amount. A cleaning effective amount is the amount needed for the desired cleaning. This will, for example, depend on the number of articles, level of soiling and volume of dry cleaning composition used. However, surprisingly effective cleaning was observed when the surfactant was present from at least 0.001 wt. % to 10 wt. % by weight of the dry cleaning composition. More preferably, the surfactant is present from 0.01 to 3 wt. % or even more preferably from 0.05 to 0.9 wt. % by weight of the dry cleaning composition. More preferably, the surfactant is present from 0.1 to 0.8 wt. % or even more preferably from 0.3 to 0.7 wt. % by weight of the dry cleaning composition.
Optional Cleaning Agents
The dry cleaning compositions may contain one or more optional cleaning agents. Cleaning agents include any agent suitable for enhancing the cleaning, appearance, condition and/or garment care. Generally, the cleaning agent may be present in the compositions of the invention in an amount of about 0 to 20 wt. %, preferably 0.001 wt. % to 10 wt. %, more preferably 0.01 wt. % to 2 wt. % by weight of the total dry cleaning composition.
Some suitable cleaning agents include, but are not limited to, builders, enzymes, bleach activators, bleach catalysts, bleach boosters, bleaches, alkalinity sources, antibacterial agents, colorants, perfumes, pro-perfumes, finishing aids, lime soap dispersants, composition malodour control agents, odour neutralisers, polymeric dye transfer inhibiting agents, crystal growth inhibitors, photobleaches, heavy metal ion sequestrants, anti-tarnishing agents, anti-microbial agents, anti-oxidants, anti-redeposition agents, soil release polymers, electrolytes, pH modifiers, thickeners, abrasives, divalent or trivalent ions, metal ion salts, enzyme stabilisers, corrosion inhibitors, diamines or polyamines and/or their alkoxylates, suds stabilizing polymers, process aids, fabric softening agents, optical brighteners, hydrotropes, suds or foam suppressors, suds or foam boosters, fabric softeners, anti-static agents, dye fixatives, dye abrasion inhibitors, anti-crocking agents, wrinkle reduction agents, wrinkle resistance agents, soil repellency agents, sunscreen agents, anti-fade agents, and mixtures thereof.
As indicated, the invention is specifically directed to a machine or process whereby a consumer can be in charge of ordering/buying their own package or kit of solvent for replacement in their dry cleaning machine.
One way to do so, for example, is by ordering through telephone or internet. Another way is to go to a store where a “single-sized” serving of solvent (for home use machine) can be purchased.
The invention also comprises kits whereby package(s) of solvents are sold with instructions and optionally with other components of the machine which may need replacing.
Except in the operating and comparative examples, or where otherwise explicitly indicated, all numbers in this description indicating amounts or ratios of materials or conditions or reaction, physical properties of materials and/or use are to be understood as modified by the word “about”.
Where used in the specification, the term “comprising” is intended to include the presence of stated features, integers, steps, components, but not to preclude the presence or addition of one or more features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof.
The following examples are intended to further illustrate the invention and are not intended to limit the invention in any way.
Unless indicated otherwise, all percentages are intended to be percentages by weight.
The in home dry cleaning machine indicates that it is time for the solvent to be topped off. The consumer purchases solvent in a retail outlet, brings it home, and adds enough solvent so the machine is topped off.