|Publication number||US20050143737 A1|
|Application number||US 10/749,822|
|Publication date||Jun 30, 2005|
|Filing date||Dec 31, 2003|
|Priority date||Dec 31, 2003|
|Also published as||US8702760, US20090254123, WO2005065375A2, WO2005065375A3|
|Publication number||10749822, 749822, US 2005/0143737 A1, US 2005/143737 A1, US 20050143737 A1, US 20050143737A1, US 2005143737 A1, US 2005143737A1, US-A1-20050143737, US-A1-2005143737, US2005/0143737A1, US2005/143737A1, US20050143737 A1, US20050143737A1, US2005143737 A1, US2005143737A1|
|Inventors||John Pafford, Thomas Wilson, Lawrence Boyd, Mark LoGuidice|
|Original Assignee||John Pafford, Thomas Wilson, Boyd Lawrence M., Loguidice Mark D.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (68), Referenced by (112), Classifications (15), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to spinal implant systems, and particularly to systems for stabilization of the spine. The invention provides a dynamic stabilization system that permits limited relative movement between the instrumented vertebrae and the stabilization system.
In the past, the principal protocol for the treatment of the spine has been rigid fixation combined with fusion of the affected vertebral body or intervertebral disc. Arthrodesis, as this approach is known, has been achieved with a variety of rigid fixation elements, such as spinal rods or plates that are rigidly fixed to a vertebra using bone screws, bone bolts and spinal hooks. However, spinal fusion has been recognized to have limitations in the treatment of disc degeneration, especially in the earlier stages of the degeneration where it may be unnecessary to eliminate motion of the spinal motion segments.
Clinical studies suggest that cells of the intervertebral disc respond favorably to reduced (but not eliminated) mechanical loading through deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, proteoglycan, fibronectin, etc.) into the disc space. In some cases, a degenerated disc may simply involve a mechanically overloaded and hypermobile segment that can be repaired by reversing the mechanically damaging load environment. For instance, clinical experiences with dynamic stabilization systems suggest that the disc becomes increasingly hydrated over time, as judged by MRI scanning.
Spinal instability is a recognized effect of degenerative disc disease. In contrast to arthrodesis, arthroplasty is a protocol that contemplates restoring segmental spinal motion while treating the degenerative condition. Arthroplasty has been successfully used in the treatment of degenerative conditions of the hip and knee. In recent years, efforts have been made to implement arthroplasty in the spine, and most particularly in the intervertebral space. Intradiscal arthroplasty is now clinically available in the form of articulating prosthetic discs and polymeric disc nucleus replacements. With the availability of viable intradiscal arthroplasty devices, interest has grown in providing some means for dynamic spinal stabilization—i.e., stabilization that still permits some degree of mobility between spinal segments.
Drawing from the approaches developed for intradiscal arthroplasty, efforts have made to develop an extradiscal arthroplasty. These systems offer the advantage of “soft stabilization” that limit, rather than eliminate, spinal segment motion. Current theories suggest that preventing movement of the spinal segments may not be a significant factor in clinical success of spinal stabilization systems. Instead, these theories focus on creating a normal loading pattern for the spine as a primary vehicle for successful spinal instrumentation. Thus, the goals for dynamic stabilization has been to restrict movement of the spine to a zone or range where normal or near normal loading of the spinal segments can occur. At the same time, dynamic stabilization techniques have sought to prevent the spine from adopting a position or orientation where abnormal loading of the spine can occur.
One approach to achieve these goals for dynamic stabilization utilizes the spinous process. Thus, in one system, flexible “ligaments’ are engaged around the spinous process of adjacent vertebrae. Another form of flexible “ligament” is attached to the spinous process by way of small screws. In yet another approach, a polymeric spacer is held in place between the adjacent spinous processes. One system utilizes a coil spring that spans several vertebrae and that is anchored to the lamina of the end vertebrae. In one version, a rod extends through part of the coil spring to control rotation.
Some dynamic stabilization systems have relied upon fixation to the pedicle of the vertebrae. In these types of systems, a pedicle screw is threaded into the pedicle of adjacent vertebrae. A member spans between the heads of the pedicle screws to limit the movement of the spinal segments. In one device, known as the Graf Ligament, a non-elastic band is wrapped around pedicle screw anchors. The non-elastic bands lock the spinal segment into lordosis, while permitting minimal rotation movements of the spine.
Another system utilizing pedicle screws, provided by Sulzer Spine-Tech as the Dynesys System, incorporates a polymeric cylinder between the bone anchors. The Dynesys System permits, but limits, relative motion between adjacent vertebrae. The FASS System essentially integrates features from the Graf and Dynesys systems.
The DSS System employs still another approach by including a spring element connected to pedicle screws. The spring element is contained within a polyurethane tube to prevent tissue ingrowth. Finally, some systems utilize a rigid member, such as a spinal plate, spanning between vertebrae. The flexible stabilization feature is incorporated into the interface between the pedicle screw and the rigid member, such as through a flexible washer or a spherical screw-plate interface.
These prior extradiscal arthroplasty approaches all involve the introduction of flexible elements between spinal motion segments. Consequently, many of these systems are susceptible to over-loading the disc annulus or are, by necessity, unduly restrictive with respect to motion of the spinal segment.
Moreover, these prior systems are not capable of altering the stiffness of a segment in various loading modes (e.g., flexion/extension, compression, lateral bending and axial rotation). Furthermore, these early approaches to arthrodesis do not allow selection of where, or at which motion segment, dynamic movement is permitted. Finally, no system exists that can readily convert to and from a soft stabilization to a more rigid or completely rigid system.
In response to these limitations of the prior art, the present invention contemplates a dynamic stabilization system that relies upon flexible elements interposed between a bone anchor, such as a bone screw or spinal hook and a stabilization member, such as a rod or a plate. Furthermore, the present invention incorporates features that allow “fine tuning” of the dynamic flexibility of the total construct during the initial spinal instrumentation surgery, and even later during a revision procedure.
In one embodiment of the invention, a dynamic stabilization system for stabilization of the spine comprises a stabilization element configured to span between at least two vertebrae of the spine, at least two bone anchors, each having a bone engagement portion, and at least two connectors for connecting a corresponding one of the bone anchors to the stabilization element. At least one of the connectors includes a flexible element between the bone anchor and the stabilization element to permit relative pivoting therebetween. In another embodiment, the connector also includes an adjustment element for adjusting the flexibility of the flexible element.
In certain embodiments, the connector includes a bearing member attached to the stabilization element, in which the bearing member includes the flexible element. Where the stabilization element includes an elongated spinal rod, the bearing member is a rod end bearing including a rod engagement portion, and the flexible element is a bearing element of the rod end bearing. Where an adjustment element is provided, the bearing element is received within a bearing race of the rod end bearing and the adjustment element is arranged to compress the bearing element within the bearing race. The rod engagement portion includes a bore for receiving a portion of the spinal rod therein and a set screw for clamping the spinal rod within the bore.
In another embodiment of the invention, at least one of the bone anchors of the stabilization system includes a stem having a threaded portion and the flexible element includes a bore for receiving the stem therethrough. In certain embodiments, the adjustment element includes a nut engaging the threaded portion and arranged to compress the flexible element as the nut is threaded onto the threaded portion.
The dynamic stabilization system of the present invention can include come connectors that are configured to substantially rigidly connect one of the bone anchors to the stabilization element. Thus, the stabilization system can include a mix of rigid and flexible connectors that integrate the bone anchors to the stabilization element spanning the spine.
In embodiments of the dynamic stabilization system in which the stabilization element is an elongated spinal rod, at least one of the bone anchors includes a stem having a threaded portion and defining slot sized to receive the spinal rod therethrough. The flexible element includes a sleeve disposed around the stem with at least a portion disposed between the bone engagement portion of the bone anchor and the spinal rod when the rod extends through the opening. Where an adjustment element is provided, it includes a nut engaging the threaded portion that is arranged to compress the sleeve as the nut is threaded onto the threaded portion. In certain embodiments, the flexible element includes a first sleeve disposed between the bone engagement portion and the spinal rod and a second sleeve disposed between the spinal rod and the nut. In other embodiments, the sleeve is disposed between the bone engagement portion and the nut and includes an opening for receiving rod therethrough when the rod extends through the slot in the stem.
In embodiments of the dynamic stabilization system in which the stabilization element is an elongated spinal plate defining at least one opening therethrough, at least one of the bone anchors includes a stem having a threaded portion and the flexible element is a bushing engaged within the opening. The bushing defines a bore for receiving the stem therethrough and includes an upper head portion disposed between spinal plate and the nut. An adjustment element includes a nut engaging the threaded portion, whereby the nut compresses the head portion when the nut is threaded onto the threaded portion. In certain embodiments, the flexible element includes a lower head portion disposed between the spinal plate and the bone engaging portion of the bone anchor. The bone anchor further includes an intermediate portion between the bone engagement portion and the lower head portion of the bushing.
The present invention contemplates a method for dynamic stabilization of motion segments of the spine comprising the steps of positioning a stabilization element adjacent the spine, the stabilization element configured to span a length of the spine between at least two motion segments, engaging bone anchors to at least two motion segments, and coupling the bone anchors to the stabilization element with a flexible element between at least one bone anchor and the stabilization element. The method further contemplates the step of adjusting the flexibility of the flexible element. This step of adjusting the flexibility includes compressing the flexible element. This method can be coupled with the step of repairing or replacing all or part of the intervertebral disc between at least two motion segments. In a more specific embodiment, the method is coupled with the replacement or augmentation of all or part of the nucleus pulposus with a polymeric prosthesis adapted to emulate the physical properties of the natural nucleus.
In another aspect of the invention, a method for dynamic stabilization of a motion segment of the spine comprises the steps of introducing a device into an intervertebral space to at least partially maintain or restore the natural motion of the disc at the motion segment and then coupling a dynamic stabilization system across the motion segment that permits natural motion of the disc. The device can include a device for replacing or augmenting the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. In certain embodiments, the device includes a polymeric prosthesis configured to replace or augment the nucleus pulposus in which the polymeric prosthesis exhibits physical properties similar to the natural nucleus pulposus.
It is one object to provide a system for the dynamic stabilization of the spine in which at least some of the natural motion of a spinal motion segment is retained. It is another object to provide a dynamic stabilization system that permits adjustment in the flexibility at different locations along the dynamic construct.
One benefit of the present invention is that it can be readily adapted to existing stabilization constructs and can be integrated with known constructs that are fixed or that permit limited micro-motion. Another benefit is that the invention provides the orthopaedic surgeon with a great deal of flexibility in the initial surgical procedure or in a subsequent revision procedure.
Other objects and benefits of the invention can be discerned from the following written description taken along with the accompanying figures.
For the purposes of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the embodiments illustrated in the drawings and described in the following written specification. It is understood that no limitation to the scope of the invention is thereby intended. It is further understood that the present invention includes any alterations and modifications to the illustrated embodiments and includes further applications of the principles of the invention as would normally occur to one skilled in the art to which this invention pertains.
An exemplary spinal construct is depicted in
In prior stabilization constructs, the connectors and associated bone anchors have been common at each instrumented vertebral level. In the typical case, the stabilization element, such as rod R, was rigidly fixed to the bone anchor, or at best was permitted some “micro-motion”. In accordance with one feature of the present invention, the connectors C1-C4 can be different—e.g., they can provide different levels of flexibility or rigidity depending upon the physiological requirements for the particular patient and the nature of the injury or damage to the spine that is being addressed by the stabilization construct.
Connectors and bone anchors for a generally rigid fixation are well known. Connectors providing dynamic stabilization may be constructed in accordance with the embodiments disclosed herein. For instance, in one embodiment, a connector 10, depicted in
The bone anchor 12 is engaged to the stabilization element R by way of a bearing member 25. The bearing member is similar to a rod-end bearing used in industrial machinery applications. For example, the bearing member 25 can be similar to the HME self-lubricating rod end manufactured by Heim Bearings of Fairfield, Conn. The bearing member 25 includes a bearing element 27 that defines a passageway 28 to receive the stem 16 of the bone anchor 12, as shown in
The race 29 is mounted within a bore 34 defined in a bearing housing 31. The race is fixed within the housing in a conventional manner, such as by a press-fit engagement. As shown in
The rod engagement element 32 is configured for attachment or connection to the stabilization rod R. Thus, in its simplest form, the element 32 is welded to the rod end. Preferably, the engagement element 32 defines a bore 33 for snugly receiving the rod end. Alternatively, the element 32 can define a press-fit engagement with the rod end. The bore 33 and the rod end can define complementary non-circular features to prevent rotation of the rod about its axis within the rod engagement element 32.
Most preferably, some additional fixation is provided to positively and solidly engage the bearing housing to the rod R. Thus, as shown with respect to the rod engagement element 36, the rod bore 37 is intersected by a set screw 40, which is configured as is typical for spinal implants. The set screw can be threaded into the engagement element 37 to bear against the rod end to clamp the bearing housing 31 to the rod R. Several set screws 40 are provided to ensure a solid fixation between the two parts.
As shown in
In accordance with the present invention, the bearing member 25 allows articulation of the rod R and bone anchor 12 relative to each other in certain degrees of freedom. For instance, the stem 16 of the bone anchor can move in the direction of the arrows in
In another embodiment, the degree of flexibility is adjusted by the amount of compression of the bearing element 27. In this embodiment, the bearing element is formed of an elastomeric material that is compressed between the intermediate portion 15 and the nut 20. As the nut is tightened onto the threaded end 18 of the stem 16, it presses the bearing element 27 which causes it to bulge transverse to the compressive force. As the bearing element bulges, it presses outward into the race 29, thereby increasing the frictional resistance between the two components. Thus, the nut 20 operates as an adjustment element to adjust the dynamic flexibility of the bearing element.
It can be appreciated that this flexibility adjustment can occur at any time during the life of the stabilization construct. In other words, the construct can be initially implanted with a particular degree of flexibility in the connector 10 at any instrumented vertebral level. Moreover, if it is later determined that this degree of flexibility requires adjustment, minimally invasive procedures can be used to access the nut 20 and either tighten or loosen the nut depending upon whether the connector 10 needs less or more flexibility.
It is understood that the elements of the connector must be formed of medical grade materials, and especially of materials that can withstand the extreme loads experienced by the spinal construct. Thus, the bone anchor 12, nut 20 and bearing housing 31 may be formed of a biocompatible metal, such as stainless steel or titanium. The bearing race 29 can also be formed of a biocompatible metal, provided that its surface is polished to provide a sufficient articulating surface for the bearing element. Preferably, the bearing race 29 is formed of a biocompatible polymer, including UHMWPE, PTFE, nylon, polyurethane, or thermoplastic elastomers, such as HYTRL™. The bearing element 27 may be formed of the same material as the bearing race. Alternatively, the bearing element may be formed of a material that is more elastic than the material of the bearing race.
In the embodiment illustrated in
In order to control the degree of freedom of the connector 10, the set screws 42 can be replaced with pivot pins that fit within corresponding bores (not shown) formed in the bearing element 27. Alternatively, the bearing element can assume different configurations, such as the oblong element 45 shown in
In one feature of the invention, the interface between the bone anchor and the stabilization element is adjustable, either during or subsequent to the initial surgery in which the stabilization scaffolding is implanted. This feature is accomplished by the use of elastomeric elements that can be compressed to adjust their dynamic flexibility. This feature is implemented in an additional embodiment of the present invention depicted in
However, with this embodiment, the non-threaded portion 57 of the stem 56 defines a vertical slot 58 configured to receive the stabilization rod R therethrough. Preferably, the width of the slot is close to the outer diameter of the rod, while the vertical height of the slot is greater than the diameter. As can be seen in the figures, the rod R passes through the vertical slot 58 and is sandwiched between opposite sleeves 65 U and 65 L. Both sleeves are preferably formed of an elastomeric material that is resiliently compressed as the bone anchor 52 pivots in the direction indicated by the arrows in
As with the previous embodiment, the nut 60 is used to change the dynamic flexibility of the connector 50 by adjusting the amount that the resilient sleeves 65 are compressed. A washer (not shown) is provided between the nut 60 and the uppermost sleeve 65 U so that tightening the nut does not compromise the integrity of the sleeve. The dynamic flexibility of the connector 50 may also be adjusted by using sleeves having different thicknesses or different elastomeric material properties. The elongated slot 58 may be sized to accommodate an expected range of thicknesses of the lowermost sleeve 65 L.
In the embodiment shown in
Adjustability of dynamic flexibility of a stabilization construct may also be implemented in a system that relies upon an elongated stabilization plate. In particular, a stabilization plate 80, as shown in
In order to provide the dynamic flexibility feature of the present invention, the plate 80 includes a plurality of elastomeric bushings 85 that are pressed into a corresponding one of the openings 83. As shown in
The lower head portion 87 L is supported on the intermediate portion 55 of the anchor, which the nut 60 bears against the upper head portion 87 U. The two head portions 87 are compressed by tightening the nut 60 onto the stem 56 of the bone anchor 52, to thereby increase the rigidity (or decrease the dynamic flexibility) of the plate-to-bone anchor interface.
The dynamic stabilization system of the present invention is well suited as an adjunct to a disc repair procedure. For instance, an intervertebral disc may require augmentation or replacement, depending upon the severity of the damage or disease to the disc. Where the disc is intact, it is important to maintain the loading pattern as normal as possible since this loading pattern helps hydrate the disc and flush toxins from the disc. The dynamic stabilization systems disclosed herein provide stabilization for the affected disc while allowing a meaningful amount of motion at that vertebral level.
Devices have been developed for replacement of the intervertebral disc. In some cases, the device is a mechanical device that is configured to mimic the mechanics of the disc motion. In more recent years, the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc has been replaced with a polymer prosthesis that emulates the physical and chemical properties of the disc. In particular, these types of prostheses are intended to preserve or restore the movement and load response of the affected disc as close to the natural disc as possible. One such material is a hydrogel that has similar elastic properties to the natural nucleus pulposus and that shares a similar fluid transport mechanism to the natural disc. This material can be used to replace the entire nucleus pulposus, or to augment the existing nucleus where voids or other defects in the nucleus exist.
Even where the intervertebral disc has been replaced with a mechanical device, or where all or part of the nucleus pulposus has been replaced or augmented by a polymer prosthesis, restoration and maintenance of normal spinal segment motion is important. Consequently, it is contemplated that the dynamic stabilization system of the present invention, including connectors 10, 50 or the plate 80, may be used in connection with disc/nucleus repair or replacement procedures.
Thus, in one aspect of the invention, a method for dynamic stabilization of a motion segment includes the step of introducing a device into an intervertebral space that at least partially restore or maintain the natural motion of the intervertebral disc. The motion segment is instrumented with a dynamic stabilization system that includes one or more of the connectors 10, 50 or the plate 80, which permits the natural motion of the disc.
While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, the same should be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character. It is understood that only the preferred embodiments have been presented and that all changes, modifications and further applications that come within the spirit of the invention are desired to be protected.
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|U.S. Classification||606/257, 606/268, 606/910, 623/17.16, 606/246, 606/287, 606/281, 606/278, 606/279, 606/267|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B17/7007, A61B17/701|
|European Classification||A61B17/70B1C4, A61B17/70B1E|
|May 20, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SPINE WAVE, INC., CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:PAFFORD, JOHN;WILSON, THOMAS;BOYD, LAWRENCE M.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015344/0154;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040302 TO 20040312
|May 4, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SPINE WAVE, INC., CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:PAFFORD, JOHN;WILSON, THOMAS;BOYD, LAWRENCE M.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:022630/0659;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040302 TO 20040312