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Publication numberUS20050158348 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/080,812
Publication dateJul 21, 2005
Filing dateMar 16, 2005
Priority dateSep 27, 2002
Also published asCN1500524A, CN100534530C, US7138394, US7781429, US20040063794, US20060211688
Publication number080812, 11080812, US 2005/0158348 A1, US 2005/158348 A1, US 20050158348 A1, US 20050158348A1, US 2005158348 A1, US 2005158348A1, US-A1-20050158348, US-A1-2005158348, US2005/0158348A1, US2005/158348A1, US20050158348 A1, US20050158348A1, US2005158348 A1, US2005158348A1
InventorsJoseph Schwarz, Michael Weisspapir
Original AssigneeAlpharx Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Vehicle for topical delivery of anti-inflammatory compounds
US 20050158348 A1
Abstract
A vehicle for topical application which contains a liquid eutectic mixture of hydrophobic compounds to improve solubility of pharmaceutically active component and enhance topical and transdermal delivery.
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Claims(18)
1. A vehicle for topical delivery of a pharmaceutically active component, comprising a liquid eutectic mixture containing a hydrophobic component.
2. The vehicle as set forth in claim 1, wherein said hydrophobic component is selected from the group consisting of pharmaceutically acceptable glycerin esters, aliphatic esters, aromatic esters, waxes, lipids, fats, lipid soluble vitamins, hydrocarbons, silicone polymers, tocopherols, tocotrienols and related compounds, or mixture thereof.
3. The vehicle as set forth in claim 1, wherein the ratio of said hydrophobic component and liquid eutectic mixture are in a ratio of between 1:10 to 10:1.
4. The vehicle as set forth in claim 1, wherein the ratio of said hydrophobic component and liquid eutectic mixture are in a ratio of between 1:3 to 3:1.
5. The vehicle as set forth claim 1, wherein said eutectic mixture comprises at least two compounds selected from the group consisting of camphor, menthol, thymol, resorcinol, phenol or substituted phenol derivativesThe vehicle as set forth claim 5, wherein said eutectic mixture is liquid at ambient temperature.
6. A composition for topical delivery comprising an oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion or microemulsion, wherein the oil phase of said emulsion comprises a vehicle as set forth in claim 3.
7. The composition as set forth in claim 6, wherein said pharmaceutically active component is dissolved in said oil phase of said emulsion or microemulsion.
8. The composition as set forth in claim 7, wherein said oil phase comprises between 5% and 80% of said composition.
9. The composition as set forth in claim 7, further including a surfactant.
10. The composition as set forth in claim 9, wherein said pharmaceutically active component is selected from anti-inflammatory drugs.
11. The composition as set forth in claim 10, wherein said anti-inflammatory drugs are selected from group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
12. The composition as set forth in claim 11, wherein said anti-inflammatory drugs are selected from the group consisting of indomethacin, diclofenac, ketorolac, piroxicam, meloxicam, tenoxicam, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, nimesulide, naproxen, rofecoxib, celecoxib and salicylic acid.
13. The composition as set forth in claim 10, further including additional pharmaceutically active components, pharmaceutically acceptable surfactants, viscosity regulating agents, antibacterial preservatives, skin penetration enhancers, fragrances and colorants.
14. The composition as set forth in claim 9, wherein said surfactant is non-ionic surfactant, phospholipid or mixture thereof.
15. A method for increasing the solubility of a pharmaceutically active component in a vehicle for topical delivery of said pharmaceutically active component, comprising:
providing a pharmaceutically active component;
providing at least two compounds selected from the group consisting of camphor, menthol, thymol, resorcinol, phenol or substituted phenol derivatives; and
forming a eutectic mixture containing said pharmaceutically active component and said at least two members whereby said mixture contains a greater amount of solubilzed active component relative to a non eutectic mixture.
16. The method as set forth in claim 15, wherein said two selected compounds are camphor and menthol.
17. The method as set forth in claim 15, wherein said pharmaceutically active component comprises a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
18. A composition for topical delivery having an increased amount of a solubilized pharmaceutically active component comprising an emulsion selected from the group consisting of an oil-in-water, water-in-oil and microemulsion, wherein said oil phase of said emulsion comprises a vehicle as set forth in claim 3, wherein said hydrophobic component is selected from the group consisting of pharmaceutically acceptable glycerin esters, aliphatic esters, aromatic esters, waxes, lipids, fats, lipid soluble vitamins, hydrocarbons, silicone polymers, tocopherols, tocotrienols and related compounds, or mixture thereof, said eutectic; mixture comprising at, least two members selected from the group consisting of camphor, menthol, thymol, resorcinol, phenol or substituted phenol derivatives; and a pharmaceutically active component, said composition having an increased solubilized amount of said pharmaceutically active component relative to a non eutectic composition.
Description
    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/255,951, filed Sep. 27, 2002.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to the preparation of semisolid formulations for topical delivery of pharmaceutically active ingredients, designed for pain control and inflammation treatment.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Topical pharmaceutical preparations of different types have been used for treatment of rheumatic and arthritic pain for decades. Semisolid compositions comprise plant derivatives, such as capsaicin (red hot pepper stinging substance) or turpentine (pine tar component) ointments, homeopathic extract and liniments (Opodeldoc Rus), mustard plasters, menthol rubs, essential oil balms and many others were used for a long time, mainly as local irritants. Such irritation improves local blood flow, accelerates injured tissue recovery, and switches attention from chronic pain from inflammation.
  • [0004]
    By including non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) into ointment or cream application onto the desired location allows for effective control of muscle and joint pain intensity. Moreover, when NSAIDs are applied topically, local drug concentration in muscle and joint tissues is significantly higher than in non-treated sites. Additionally, there is no intensive metabolism in liver (so called “first-pass effect”) because such drugs do not pass through the liver before action.
  • [0005]
    The required amount of NSAIDs is lower than an oral dose to achieve similar anti-inflammative and analgesic effects. The most common side effect of NSAIDs is serious irritation of stomach and gastro-intestinal mucosa. This is substantially diminished with local topical applications.
  • [0006]
    Topical NSAID formulations are very popular in Europe, Asia and Far East regions. Examples of such compositions include Voltaren Emulgel® (Voltarol™ in UK), a 1.16% Diclofenac diethylammonium emulsion cream with isopropyl alcohol, Feldene® Gel (0.5% Piroxicam water-ethyl alcohol gel), Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen gels of different strengths (5-10%), and 1-10% Indomethacin in alcohol. DMSO-containing creams and many other formulations are widespread in many countries as OTC (over the counter) remedies for muscle pain, minor sport injuries, rheumatic and back pain treatment, etc.
  • [0007]
    Generally, topical NSAID preparations do not have attributable side-effects such as gastric irritation and internal bleeding. Advantageously, the compounds provide relatively fast action onset and moderate efficacy in treatment of local muscle and joint pain. The main problems of these products is low drug loading due to low solubility in the cream components. High loading can be reached by use of concentrated alcohols, i.e. ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol suitable as solvents for NSAIDs. Drug loading is high and can easily reach 5-10% or greater, e.g., 5% Ibuprofen gel with isopropyl alcohol, 1% Indomethacin gel based on ethyl alcohol or even 10% Indomethacin ointment with dimethylsulfoxide.
  • [0008]
    These solvents are widely used for gel preparation, but widespread use is often limited due to the proclivity for skin irritation. A further limitation is realized in fast termination of action for gel preparations since the drug precipitates from solution subsequent to water absorption from the body tissue. Further, solvents in high concentration often irritate the skin due to drying and delipidisation and may initiate contact dermatitis and allergy. The drug which is insoluble in water media and body fluids, precipitates in the upper skin layers and does not penetrate, thus seriously limiting the anti-inflammatory action. Similar behavior has been observed for polyethylene glycol (mixture of PEG-4000 and PEG-400) hydrophilic topical base compositions.
  • [0009]
    Traditional hydrophobic vehicles such as fixed oils, mineral oil, petrolatum, lanolin and wax based ointments, along with emulsion creams (either O/W or W/O type) are less irritating to human skin, but these present another complication—solubility. Drug loading in such vehicles is limited by the solubility of the drug in the lipid phase. For example, the solubility of Indomethacin in olive or corn oil is below 0.2%, whereas Ketoprofen is about 1.5% and Piroxicam below 0.05%. According to Benita et at. “Submicron Emulsions as Colloidal Drug Carriers for Intravenous Administration: Comprehensive Physicochemical Characterization”, J. Pharm Sci., 1993, Nov. 82 (11), pp. 1069-79, even for low drug loading, stability of the dispersed system is questionable. A 0.1% Indomethacin submicron emulsion lost stability after 1 month storage.
  • [0010]
    Use of more polar hydrophobic compounds may help to improve solubility of NSAIDs. Tocopherol acetate, triethyl citrate, glycerin monolaurate, glycerin monooleate (Myverol™ 18-9) dissolve between 1.5 and 2 times more Indomethacin or Diclofenac (in acidic form). Nevertheless, this loading is insufficient to obtain an effective NSAID emulsion. Transdermal adhesive systems such as skin patches and plasters with Indomethacin or Diclofenac present low efficacy by the same reasoning.
  • [0011]
    A further method to increase drug solubility in the oil phase is to use highly polar compounds, miscible with the oil phase. Solvents such as Ethoxyethylene glycol (Transcutol™), dimethylisosorbide (DMIS), Isopropylideneglycerin (Solketal™), ethoxylated furanyl alcohol (Glucofurol™) visibly boost drug implementing in the separate hydrophobic phase. However, upon mixing with water, most of the solvent is extracted into the water and the dissolved drug precipitates immediately and almost entirely from the oil phase.
  • [0012]
    Recently developed submicron emulsions (SME) employed as a base for NSAIDs, provide very effective delivery and exert pronounced improvement for drug action as discussed in Friedman et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 6,113,921). However, low solubility of NSAIDs in a lipid phase of such emulsions leads to shortened periods of efficacy and drug precipitation from the oil phase during storage. High loading, desirable for optimal activity of topical NSAID preparation for SME is achievable only for highly lipophilic compounds, such as Naproxen, Ketoprofen or Ibuprofen with significantly lower anti-inflammatory activity.
  • [0013]
    Eutectic mixture use in topical applications is rather limited. An example is EMLA cream, developed by Astra-Zeneca. The liquid, formed by mixing two crystalline bases of local anesthetics, Lidocain and Prilocaln due to eutectic formation serves as an oil phase in the cream for topical application. The cream, containing 5% of the oil phase, provides excellent stability and anesthetic action.
  • [0014]
    In view of the limitations in the anti-inflammatory drug art, there exists a need for an improved composition which overcomes the shortcomings presently encountered.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0015]
    It has been found that a eutectic mixture of camphor, menthol, thymol and similar compounds is a powerful solvent for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other substances. The solubility of Indomethacin, Diclofenac, or Ketoprofen in the mixture increased between 3 and 20 fold. As a particular advantage, the eutectic mixture was found to be safe, non-toxic and present synergistic behavior in the anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs due to the anti-inflammatory properties of camphor and skin penetration enhancing properties of menthol.
  • [0016]
    The eutectic mixture can be combined with pharmaceutically acceptable oils and lipids and included, into topical formulations. The compositions were found to allow much higher drug loading than existing ointment bases and creams, showed no skin irritation and provided enhanced delivery properties for incorporated drugs.
  • [0017]
    Prior to embracing on a discussion of the preparation, some general properties of menthol and camphor will be established.
  • [0018]
    The menthol used was (1R, 2S, 5R)-5-methyl-2-(1-methyethyl)-cyclohexanol with a molecular weight of 156.27 and melting point of 42° C. Menthol generally has a peppermint odor. It is well known as a skin irritant and penetration enhancer, as discussed in Tsuk (U.S. Pat. No. 4,933,184). It is widely used in many topical formulations for relief of arthritic and rheumatic pain. Natural L-menthol exerts a cooling or refreshing sensation due to direct interaction with cold sensitive receptors in the skin. This was established in the Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, Third Edition, ed. A. H. Kibbe, Pharmaceutical Press, London, U.K., 2000, pp. 334-335. Menthol has been used as mild local anesthetic and as volatile aromatic component for breath relief in obstruction and cold treatment in Hughes et al., (U.S. Pat. No. 5,322,689).
  • [0019]
    Similar properties are known for camphor 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2,2,1]heptanone-2, having a molecular weight of 152.24. Camphor has a high melting point (180° C.) and is a very volatile substance with strong pine-like odor that sublimes even at room temperature and pressure. Initially, camphor found use as a stimulant, but now camphor is mainly used as a component in topical preparations. It is often used in nasal decongestants and aromatic compositions.
  • [0020]
    Either menthol or camphor separately or in combination are widely used in topical formulations, mainly due to their irritant action, receptor interaction and specific traditional odor, frequently associated with time-honored remedies. Ben Gay™ ointment, Tiger™ balm, Menthol Chest Rub and similar compositions are well known and popular.
  • [0021]
    Certain external analgesic products containing between 10% to 60% methyl salicylate, more than 3% to 11% camphor and 1.25% to 16% menthol, either singly or in combination, cause irritation or mild inflammation of the skin for the purpose of relieving pain in muscles, joints, or viscera distal to the site of application by stimulating depressing cutaneous sensory receptors, discussed in Ivy et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,013,726).
  • [0022]
    Topical preparations for joint relief include that provided for in Lang et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 4,731,200) for an aqueous-alcohol composition containing benzylidene-camphor derivatives, Ivy et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,013,726) for a lotion containing methyl salicylate, camphor and menthol, Ivy et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,124,320) for an analgesic lotion containing menthol and camphor, Heywang et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,144,081) for a pharmaceutical composition containing camphor and Singh (U.S. Pat. No. 5,175,152) for a composition with methyl salicylate, menthol and camphor.
  • [0023]
    These substances have been advertised for use in relieving joint pain, such as the elbow, knee, thumb area, ankle, neck, wrist, hand and finger, shoulder, etc.
  • [0024]
    To improve solubility of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a complex mixture of surfactants, polyglycol(s) and glycerides has been used in combination with polymers and sodium or potassium hydroxide solutions as established in Morton et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,376,688).
  • [0025]
    In Kaplun-Fischoff et al., “Testosterone Skin Permeation Enhancement by Menthol Through Formation of Eutectic with Drug and Interaction with Skin Lipids”, J. Pharm Sci. 1997,. December, 86 (12) pp. 1394-9, the researchers observed that menthol forms a eutectic mixture with crystalline testosterone. The formed mixture is not liquid, but the composition demonstrated a significant improvement in transdermal penetration of testosterone. According Kaplun-Frischoff et al., menthol affects skin permeation by a dual mechanism: by forming a eutectic with the penetrating compound, thereby increasing its solubility in skin ceramides and by altering the barrier properties of the stratum corneum.
  • [0026]
    A careful investigation of existing compositions containing menthol and camphor in different ratios showed that there is no one example of the specific use of menthol and camphor in combination as eutectic mixture in order to improve solubility of an included drug. All anti-inflammatory components used in such formulations are liquid (methylsalycilate, benzylnicotinate, etc.) and easily miscible with oil components of the creams or ointments. There is no limitation for solubility, and these topicals can contain up to 60% of active component, e.g., methylsalycilate), Altadonna (U.S. Pat. No. 5,853,768).
  • [0027]
    In the documentation there has not been a recognition of a menthol-to-camphor ratio in the eutectic region. In all cases, the existing preparations are used only due to their mild irritative or anti-inflammatory activity (camphor, nicotinic acid derivatives) or skin penetration enhancement properties of menthol itself.
  • [0028]
    It has now been recognized that a radical increase of drug solubility in a eutectic mixture of polar hydrophobic compounds allows preparation of effective and safe topical formulations with these drugs for external application.
  • [0029]
    One object of one embodiment of the present invention is thus to provide a vehicle for topical delivery of a pharmaceutically active component, comprising a liquid eutectic mixture containing a hydrophobic component.
  • [0030]
    A further object of one embodiment of the present invention is to provide a composition for topical delivery comprising an oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion or microemulsion, wherein the oil phase of the emulsion comprises a vehicle as set forth in claim 3.
  • [0031]
    A still further object of one embodiment of the present invention is to provide a method for increasing the solubility of a pharmaceutically active component in a vehicle for topical delivery of the pharmaceutically active component comprising providing a pharmaceutically active component; providing at least two compounds selected from the group consisting of camphor, menthol, thymol, resorcinol, phenol or substituted phenol derivatives; and forming a eutectic mixture containing the pharmaceutically active component and at least two members whereby the mixture contains a greater amount of solubilzed active component relative to a non eutectic mixture.
  • [0032]
    Having thus described the invention, reference will now be made to the accompanying drawings illustrating preferred embodiments.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0033]
    FIG. 1 is a graphical representation of Diclofenac (free acid) solubility in a mixture of MCT and a menthol/camphor mixture;
  • [0034]
    FIG. 2 is a graphical representation of Indomethacin solubility in oleaginous vehicles and in a menthol/camphor vehicle;
  • [0035]
    FIG. 3 is a graphical representation of Piroxicam solubility in oleaginous vehicles and in a eutectic vehicle;
  • [0036]
    FIG. 4 is a graphical representation of drug content change during storage; and
  • [0037]
    FIG. 5 is a graphical representation of comparative anti-inflammatory activity of topical formulations.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0038]
    A mixture of equimolar amounts of crystalline camphor and menthol at room temperature immediately led to liquefied crystals. This mixture was used in the preparations as an effective solvent for some NSAID compounds.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 1 graphically represents the solubility of Diclofenac (as free acid) in mixtures of medium chain triglycerides (MCT, standard oil vehicle, Labrafac® TGCC) with different levels of added menthol-camphor eutectic mixture. Diclofenac saturation concentration at 25° C. was evaluated by HPLC. Solubility in a pure equimolar menthol-camphor eutectic mixture was found to be 11.8 times higher than in pure MCT.
  • [0040]
    Similar behavior was observed also for Indomethacin, illustrated graphically in FIG. 2. The maximum solubility in an equimolar eutectic menthol-camphor mixture is 160 mg/ml, compared with 2 mg/ml in the soy oil or 4.8 mg/ml in MCT oil. For comparison, Ho et. al. “Penetration Enhancement by Menthol Combined with a Solubilization Effect in a Mixed Solvent System”, J. Controlled Release 1998, February 12; 51 (2-3), pp. 301-11, investigated the influence of menthol addition (up to 12% by weight) as solubility enhancer for Indomethacin in different pharmaceutical vehicles such as water, ethanol, propylene glycol and their combinations. In any case the maximum solubility hardly reached 2% (approximately 20 mg/ml).
  • [0041]
    In FIG. 3, further graphic data are presented for Piroxicam.
  • [0042]
    Piroxicam solubility is significantly lower than aromatic NSAIDs, however, use of the eutectic menthol-camphor mixture increased drug solubility at room temperature between 8 and 11 times, from 0.35 mg/ml in MCT to 2.9-3.2 mg/ml in pure eutectic mixture and to 1.8 mg/ml in MCT with 60% menthol-camphor (1:1) content.
  • [0043]
    If alpha-tocopherol or tocopherol acetate is used as the oil phase, solubility can reach 30-35 mg/ml for a tocopherol-menthol-camphor composition 5:3:3 (parts by weight).
  • [0044]
    Use of other ratios for menthol-camphor eutectic mixture (e.g., 2:1 or 1:2; 3:4 or 4:3) also improves solubility for most of the investigated substances, but to a slightly lower extent. Very significant improvement in solubility was achieved with replacement of menthol for another eutectic forming substance, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, thyme oil component).
  • [0045]
    Obtained solutions of NSAIDs in lipid phase containing menthol-camphor or another eutectic mixture vehicle are stable in wide temperature range and non-irritating for human and animal skin (Dreize' test). Based on these observations different topical formulations with NSAIDs were prepared and will now be discussed in the examples.
  • EXAMPLE 1 Indomethacin 1% Cream
  • [0046]
    TABLE 1
    CREAM INGREDIENTS % Per 250 g
    Indomethacin USP 1.00 2.5
    Medium Chain Triglycerides (Labrafac ® 4.00 10
    CCTG)
    Soy Lecithin (Phospholipon ® S-80) 1.00 2.5
    (±) Camphor USP 3.00 7.5
    L-(−)-Menthol USP 3.00 7.5
    Tween ™-80 (Polysorbate 80, USP) 1.60 4.0
    TPGS (Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 0.80 2.0
    1000 succinate)
    Sodium Ethylenediamine tetraacetate 0.10 0.25
    (EDTA sodium)
    Carbopol ® 971 P 1.50 3.75
    Glycerin USP 2.50 6.25
    Water 81.50 203.75

    Vehicle (Eutectic Mixture) Preparation:
  • [0047]
    (±) Camphor and L-Menthol were mixed together during heating at between 40 and 50° C. until a clear liquid was obtained.
  • [0000]
    Oil Phase Preparation:
  • [0048]
    Soy lecithin, MCT oil and TPGS were mixed together at 45° C. until a homogenous solution was obtained. Tween™-80 as then added, followed by the addition of the eutectic mixture vehicle. The mixture was stirred until completely dissolved. Indomethacin (USP grade) was added to the warm mixture and stirred for 10 minutes at 45° C. until completely dissolved.
  • [0000]
    Water Phase Preparation:
  • [0049]
    EDTA disodium salt, glycerin and Tween™-80 were added to water (90% of calculated amount) and stirred until completely dissolved.
  • [0000]
    Emulsification:
  • [0050]
    The solution was combined with the oil phase, mixed thoroughly using appropriate mixer and homogenized using high pressure homogenizer (Avestin® C-5) at 8,000-12,0009 psi, (600-800 bar). The mixture was passed through the homogenizer between 2 and 3 times.
  • [0000]
    Cream Preparation:
  • [0051]
    In a separate vessel Carbopol® 971 P was mixed with 10% of calculated amount of water and soaked for between 2 and 6 hours. Carbopol® paste was combined with the homogenized emulsion using a high shear rotor-stator type mixer (Omni GLH mixer) at 18,000-24,000 rpm. Triethanolamine was added gradually while mixing until the desired pH and viscosity were achieved.
  • EXAMPLE 2 Indomethacin 2% Cream
  • [0052]
    The composition was prepared in accordance with the methodology of Example 1.
    TABLE 2
    CREAM INGREDIENTS Per 100 g Per 1000
    Lipid Phase
    Indomethacin USP 2.00 20.00
    Medium Chain Triglycerides 8.00 80.00
    Egg Lecithin S-75 2.00 20.00
    (±) Camphor USP 6.00 60.00
    L-(−)-Menthol USP 6.00 60.00
    Tween ™-80 (Polysorbate-80 USP) 2.00 20.00
    TPGS (Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 0.80 8.00
    1000 succinate)
    Water Phase
    Sodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate 0.10 1.00
    Bronopol ® (2-Brom-2-nitro-1,3- 0.10 1.00
    Triethanolamine 0.50 5.00
    Ultrez ™ 10 0.50 5.00
    Glycerin 2.20 22.00
    Water 69.80 698.00
  • [0053]
    Bronopol® (2-Brom-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol) was added to the water phase as an antibacterial preservative. Ultrez™was used as a viscosity regulating component instead of Carbopol® without the preliminary hydration step as set forth in Example 1.
  • EXAMPLE 3 Diclofenac Sodium 1% Cream
  • [0054]
    The composition of the emulsion for 1% Diclofenac cream presented in Table 3. The cream contains approximately 14% of the oil phase with a ratio MCT:Camphor:Menthol of 6:3:4.
    TABLE 3
    Emulsion part of Diclofenac sodium 1% cream.
    Per 100 g
    CREAM INGREDIENTS cream
    Medium Chain Triglycerides (Labrafac ® CCTG) 6.00
    (±) Camphor USP 3.00
    L-(−)-Menthol USP 4.00
    Tocopherol succinate 0.02
    Soy Lecithin (Phospholipon ® S-80) 0.12
    Tween-80 (Polysorbate - 80) 2.00
    DICLOFENAC Sodium USP 1.00
    Water 80.38
    Hydrochloric acid 1N 3.5
  • [0055]
    The oil phase was prepared by dissolving MCT, oil Tocopherol succinate, lecithin, camphor, and menthol at 45° C.
  • [0056]
    The water phase was prepared by dissolving Diclofenac sodium and Tween™-80 in hot 85° C. purified water.
  • [0057]
    After mixing the warm oil and hot water phases, hydrochloric acid was added to coarse emulsion while intensive stirring. The pH was adjusted to between 3.5 and 4.2. Homogenization was conducted as described in Example 2. After a fine emulsion was obtained, it was filtered through 0.45 micron PTFE membrane filter. The emulsion was used for cream preparation by addition of Carbopol® 971 as a gelling agent to a final concentration of 1.5% with pH adjustment to between 4.5 and 5.0.
  • [0058]
    1.5% Diclofenac sodium emulsion (Example 3A, high loading) was prepared by a similar manner. The composition is identical to that tabulated in Table 3. Balance was adjusted with water and hydrochloric acid.
  • EXAMPLE 4 Ibuprofen 5% Cream
  • [0059]
    5% Ibuprofen cream was prepared as described in The composition of the emulsion for 5% Diclofenac cream is presented in Table 4. The cream contains approximately 26% of the oil phase with a ratio MCT:Camphor:Menthol of approximately 4.25:1:1.
    TABLE 4
    CREAM INGREDIENTS Per 100 g Per 300
    Ibuprofen 5.00 15.00
    Medium Chain Triglycerides 13.75 41.25
    Soy Lecithin (Phospholipon ® S-80) 1.20 3.60
    (±) Camphor USP 3.25 9.75
    L-(−)-Menthol USP 3.25 9.75
    Tween ™-80 (Polysorbate-80, USP) 2.00 6.00
    TPGS (Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 0.80 2.40
    1000 succinate)
    Sodium Ethylenediamine tetraacetate 0.10 0.30
    (EDTA sodium)
    Bronopol ™ 0.10 0.30
    Triethanolamine 1.00 3.00
    Carbopol ® 934P 1.00 3.00
    Glycerin 2.20 6.60
    Water 66.35 398.10
  • EXAMPLE 5 Piroxicam 0.5% Cream
  • [0060]
    The composition was prepared by the method described in Example 4, but L-(−)-menthol was replaced with thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol). The cream contained approximately 28% of the oil phase with a ratio MCT:Camphor:Thymol:Tocopherol acetate of approximately 2:5:5:2.
    TABLE 5
    CREAM INGREDIENTS Per 100 g Per 250
    Piroxicam 2.00 5.00
    Medium Chain Triglycerides 3.00 7.50
    Soy Lecithin (Phospholipon ® S-80) 2.00 5.00
    (±) Camphor USP 7.50 18.75
    Thymol 7.50 18.75
    Tween ™-80 (Polysorbate-80, USP) 2.50 6.25
    Tocopherol acetate (Vitamine E 2.00 5.00
    acetate)
    EDTA 0.10 0.25
    Carbopol ® 934P 1.50 3.75
    Glycerin 2.20 5.50
    Triethanolamine 0.90 2.25
    Water 69.70 174.25
  • EXAMPLE 6 Reference
  • [0061]
    Emulsion with Indomethacin, prepared according to U.S. Pat. No. 6,113,921.
    TABLE 6
    Per 100 g cream
    0.5% Indo 1.0% Indo
    (low (high
    CREAM INGREDIENTS (loading) loading)
    Indomethacin 0.5 1.0
    Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT oil) 17.0 17.0
    Egg Lecithin (Phospholipon ® E-80) 0.8 0.8
    Emulphor EL-620 (polyethoxylated 1.6 1.6
    castor oil)
    Carbopol ® 940 1.7 1.7
    Glycerin 2.2 2.2
    EDTA sodium salt 0.05 0.05
    Tocopherol acid succinate 0.04 0.05
    Triethanolamine 0.65 0.65
    Water 75.3 74.5
  • [0062]
    Indomethacin (0.5 g for low loading and 1.0 g for high loading emulsions) was dissolved in a preheated (60° C.) mixture of egg lecithin, tocopherol succinate and MCT oil. This mixture was emulsified with a water phase (water with Emulfor EL-620, EDTA sodium and glycerin) using a high shear mixer for 5 minutes at 20,000 rpm to form an emulsion.
  • [0063]
    Further treatment of the emulsion was conducted in a high pressure homogenizer at 800 bar (12,000 psi) for 6 cycles. Thereafter, the emulsion was cooled to room temperature, and pH was adjusted to between 5.6 and 6.5. Part of emulsion was gelled using Carbopol® 940 to form a cream; another part was stored at room temperature in tightly closed amber glass containers for 6 months to observe the physical stability.
  • EXAMPLE 7 Diclofenac Sodium 1.0% and 1.5% Creams
  • [0064]
    Diclofenac sodium (1.0% and 1.5% drug loading) emulsions were prepared as described in Example 3 and 3A.
  • [0065]
    To estimate drug precipitation, the stored emulsion samples either for the reference Example 6, low and high loaded or invention related (Examples 1 and 2) were filtered through PTFE membrane filters. The Indomethacin content in the filtrates was measured using the HPLC method. FIG. 4 illustrates the results.
  • [0066]
    A low loaded emulsion, prepared in accordance with U.S. Pat. No. 6,113,921, showed reasonable stability during storage, but with an increase in the initial Indomethacin loading, the final concentration of non-precipitated drug decreased drastically. In contrast, the eutectic mixture vehicle emulsion, prepared in accordance with the present invention, maintained drug content.
  • [0067]
    Similar results have been obtained for Diclofenac sodium emulsions. In a composition containing 1% of the drug, stability for both formulations was observed. In a composition containing 1.5% Diclofenac sodium emulsion in the menthol-camphor eutectic mixture, stability was observed for at least 3 months at room temperature, while the identically loaded reference emulsion demonstrated significant drug precipitation during the same period.
  • EXAMPLE 8 Salicylic Acid Trolamine Cream
  • [0068]
    TABLE 7
    Component %
    Oil Phase
    Tocopherol acetate (synth.) 3.0
    Myvacet ™ 9-45K (Quest) 9.0
    L-Menthol (USP) 2.0
    DL-Camphor (USP) 2.0
    Cremophor ® EL (BASF) 4.0
    Supersat ® AWS (RITA) 2.0
    Lecithin (Phosal 53 MCT) 1.5
    Ethyl alcohol 1.5
    Estol ® 1540 (Ethylhexyl Cocoate, 3.0
    Uniguema)
    Crotix ® (Croda) 2.0
    Surfhope ® C-1601 (Mitsubishi) 2.0
    Surfhope ® C-1816 (75-25) 2.0
    (Mitsubishi)
    Salicylic acid 7.30
    Water phase
    Triethanolamine USP/NF 7.70
    Bronopol ™ (BASF) 0.10
    Water purified 50.90
    Total 100.00
  • [0069]
    Cream containing salicylic acid was prepared using a different set of surfactants. Salicylic acid was dissolved in the oil phase of the composition, with triethanolamine added to the water phase. After emulsification viscosity was adjusted using Crotix® (Croda) since Carbopol® was found inappropriate as a thickener. Anti inflammatory activity “in vivo”:
  • [0070]
    Investigations on animals (rats, carrageenan induced paw edema model) showed significant anti-inflammatory action of the topically applied compositions containing the eutectic vehicle. The results are illustrated in FIG. 5. From a review of FIG. 5, it is evident that the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the formulations of the present invention (ARX) is superior. This is a consequential result of the increased solubility and thus amount of the active ingredient.
    TABLE 8
    Area Under the Curve (AUC) ratio for edema volume
    (calculated by trapezoidal rule for t = 0-6 hours).
    GROUP Ratio, % (±RSD)
    Control (nontreated) 100% (±28%)
    Indomethacin cream (ex. 2)  32% (±12%)
    2 mg of Indomethacin/rat
    Indomethacin gel (Methacin ™, Sumitomo Pharm.) 114% (±39%)
    2 mg of Indomethacin/rat
    Diclofenac sodium cream (ex. 3)  30% (±14%)
    2 mg of Diclofenac sodium/rat
    Voltaren ® Emulgel ®  82% (±9%)
    2 mg of Diclofenac/rat
    Salicylic acid trolamin cream (ex. 8)  65% (±18%)
    (15 mg of salicylate/rat)
    Marketed Trolamine Salicylate cream (Aspercream)  89% (±42%)
    (15 mg of salicylate/rat)
  • [0071]
    The area under the curve reflects the duration and intensity of carrageenan induced inflammation(units are hr*mcl); the graeter the edema volume, the higher the inflammation and vice versa. A decrease of AUC corresponds to a decrease of inflammation. AUC for the contol (non-treated) group was assigned to 100%. According to table 8 Indomethacin in the eutectic-based formulation is almost 3 times more active than the same dose of Indomethacin in a conventional cream. Salycilate trolamine in the proposed vehicle demonstrates 50% higher anti-inflammatory activity.
  • [0072]
    Although embodiments of the invention have been described above, it is not limited thereto and it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous modifications form part of the present invention insofar as they do not depart from the spirit, nature and scope of the claimed and described invention.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7781429Aug 24, 2010Alpharx Inc.Vehicle for topical delivery of anti-inflammatory compounds
US9012402Jun 11, 2014Apr 21, 2015James BlanchardGel for topical delivery of NSAIDs to provide relief of musculoskeletal pain and methods for its preparation
US9084754Jun 15, 2012Jul 21, 2015Nuvo Research Inc.Highly permeating terbinafine formulation
US9211238Mar 2, 2011Dec 15, 2015Gabriele BlumeCarrier system for the transport of active substances into the skin
US20060211688 *May 18, 2006Sep 21, 2006Joseph SchwarzVehicle for topical delivery of anti-inflammatory compounds
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WO2014023895A3 *Jul 31, 2013May 1, 2014Jean-Noël THORELInhibition of the adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms by a sucrose stearate and/or a sorbitan ester in the cosmetic treatment of cutaneous atopy
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/400
International ClassificationA61K47/46, A61K47/08, A61K47/34, A61K47/44, A61K31/405, A61K31/192, A61K47/10, A61K47/22, A61P29/00, A61K45/00, A61K31/125, A61K31/00, A61K31/05, A61K47/14, A61K9/00, A61P25/04, A61K31/60
Cooperative ClassificationA61K9/0014, A61K47/08, A61K47/10, A61K31/00, A61K31/125, A61K31/05
European ClassificationA61K31/05, A61K31/00, A61K9/00M3, A61K47/10, A61K47/08, A61K31/125
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 16, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: ALPHARX INC., CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SCHWARZ, JOSEPH;WEISSPAPIR, MICHAEL;REEL/FRAME:016388/0127
Effective date: 20050124