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Publication numberUS20050170727 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/044,547
Publication dateAug 4, 2005
Filing dateJan 27, 2005
Priority dateJan 27, 2004
Also published asEP1709224A1, EP1709224B1, EP1709224B2, EP1709225A1, EP1709225B1, EP1709225B2, US8926877, US20050164587, US20130099408, WO2005073446A1, WO2005073447A1
Publication number044547, 11044547, US 2005/0170727 A1, US 2005/170727 A1, US 20050170727 A1, US 20050170727A1, US 2005170727 A1, US 2005170727A1, US-A1-20050170727, US-A1-2005170727, US2005/0170727A1, US2005/170727A1, US20050170727 A1, US20050170727A1, US2005170727 A1, US2005170727A1
InventorsDavid Melik, Kelyn Arora, Jeffrey Auer
Original AssigneeMelik David H., Arora Kelyn A., Auer Jeffrey A.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Soft extensible nonwoven webs containing fibers with high melt flow rates
US 20050170727 A1
Abstract
The present invention provides a polymer composition that enables a nonwoven web to possess high extensibility. The polymer composition comprises a polypropylene having a melt flow rate of from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes and a second polymer having a melt flow rate of from about 10 to about 80 grams per 10 minutes. Additionally, the present invention provides low denier fibers that possess softness and enable the formation of nonwoven webs with high extensibility.
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Claims(20)
1. A nonwoven web comprising fibers having a polymer composition comprising:
a. from about 50% to about 95% of a polypropylene having a melt flow rate of from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes, and
b. from about 5 to about 50% of a polymer having a melt flow rate of from about 10 to about 80 grams per 10 minutes.
2. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polypropylenes, polyethylene, and polyolefin copolymers or terpolymers, and combinations thereof.
3. The nonwoven web according to claim 2 wherein the polymer is polypropylene.
4. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the polypropylene has a melt low rate of from about 100 to about 600 grams per 10 minutes and the polymer has a melt flow rate of from about 15 to about 70 grams per 10 minutes.
5. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the melt flow rate of the polymer composition is from about 100 to about 800 grams per 10 minutes.
6. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the nonwoven web has a basis weight of from about 5 to about 100 grams per square meter.
7. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the fibers having a diameter of from about 5 to about 50 microns.
8. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 additionally comprising different fibers.
9. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the nonwoven web has a strain at peak load in at least one direction of greater than about 80 percent.
10. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the nonwoven web has an extension ratio of greater than about 1.
11. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the nonwoven web is produced by a spunbond process.
12. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the polymer composition comprises an additional ingredient.
13. The nonwoven web according to claim 1 wherein the web is an article selected from the group consisting of a topsheet for feminine hygiene pad, diaper, and/or adult incontinence product, stretchable ears for diapers, wipe for cleaning a hard surface or skin, and combinations thereof.
14. A disposable article comprising the nonwoven web according to claim 1.
15. A fiber comprising a polymer composition wherein the polymer composition comprises:
a. from about 50% to about 95% of polypropylene having a melt flow rate of from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes, and
b. from about 5 to about 50% of a polymer having a melt flow rate of from about 10 to about 80 grams per 10 minutes.
16. The fiber according to claim 15 wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polypropylenes, polyethylene, and polyolefin copolymers or terpolymers, and combinations thereof.
17. The fiber according to claim 15 wherein the polymer is polypropylene.
18. The fiber according to claim 15 wherein the fiber has a diameter of from about 5 to about 50 microns.
19. The fiber according to claim 15 wherein the fiber is a multicomponent fiber with the polymer composition comprising one component of the fiber.
20. A laminate nonwoven web comprising one layer comprising fibers having a polymer composition comprising:
a. from about 50% to about 95% of a polypropylene having a melt flow rate of from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes, and
b. from about 5 to about 50% of a polymer having a melt flow rate of from about 10 to about 80 grams per 10 minutes.
Description
    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/539,369, filed Jan. 27, 2004.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to soft extensible nonwoven webs comprising low denier fibers and disposable articles comprising such nonwoven webs.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Nonwoven webs formed by nonwoven extrusion processes such as, for example, meltblowing and spunbonding processes may be manufactured into products and components of products so inexpensively that the products could be viewed as disposable after only one or a few uses. Representatives of such products include disposable absorbent articles, such as diaper, incontinence briefs, training pants, feminine hygiene garments, wipes, and the like.
  • [0004]
    There is an existing consumer need for nonwovens that can deliver softness and extensibility when used in disposable products. Softer nonwovens are gentler to the skin and help to provide a more garment-like aesthetic for diapers. Nonwovens that are capable of high extensibility at relatively low force can be used to provide sustained fit in products such as disposable diapers, for example, as part of a stretch composite, and facilitate the use of various mechanical post-treatments such as stretching, aperturing, etc. Extensible materials are defined herein as those capable of elongating, but not necessarily recovering all or any of the applied strain. Elastic materials, on the other hand, by definition, must recover a substantial portion of their elongation after the load is removed.
  • [0005]
    There exists within the industry today a need for extensible nonwovens with moderate to low denier fibers that can be made from conventional resins without the need for high cost specialty polymers or elastic polymers. It is well known to those trained in the art that as spinning attenuation velocities increase, molecular orientation increases and fiber elongation decreases. For strong, low denier fibers with low elongation, this is not a problem, but producing low denier fibers with high elongation remains a significant challenge. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide nonwoven webs comprising low denier fibers that can be made from conventional resins without the need for costly additives. It is a further object of the present invention to provide disposable articles comprising such soft extensible nonwoven webs.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0006]
    The present invention provides nonwoven webs comprising fibers comprising a polymer composition that enables the nonwoven web to possess high extensibility. Additionally, the present invention provides low denier fibers that possess softness and enable the formation of nonwoven webs with high extensibility.
  • [0007]
    Specifically, the nonwoven web of the present invention comprises fibers having a polymer composition. The polymer composition comprises from about 50% to about 95% of polypropylene having a melt flow rate of from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes and from about 5 to about 50% of a polymer having a melt flow rate of from about 10 to about 80 grams per 10 minutes. The melt flow rate of the polymer composition is preferably from about 100 to about 600 grams per 10 minutes. The polymer composition of the present invention may optionally contain an additional ingredient. The lower melt flow rate polymer may be selected from the group consisting of polypropylenes, polyethylene, and polyolefin copolymers or terpolymers, and combinations thereof. Preferably, the lower melt flow rate polymer is also a polypropylene. In a preferred embodiment, the high melt flow rate polypropylene has a melt flow rate of from about 100 to about 600 grams per 10 minutes, and the polymer, which may be a low melt flow rate polypropylene, has a melt flow rate of from about 15 to about 70 grams per 10 minutes. The nonwoven web may have a basis weight of from about 5 to about 100 grams per square meter (gsm) and may be produced by a spunbond process. The diameter of the fibers comprising the web will typically be from about 5 to about 50 microns. The fibers may be a monocomponent fiber containing the polymer composition or the fibers may be a multicomponent fiber in which at least one component contains the polymer composition. The nonwoven web may optionally comprise fibers other than the fibers comprising the polymer composition of the present invention. The strain at peak load in at least one direction of the nonwoven web is preferably greater than about 80 percent.
  • [0008]
    The present invention is also directed to the fibers used in the nonwoven webs. The nonwoven webs of the present invention may be used to make disposable articles.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0009]
    As used herein, the term “absorbent article” refers to devices that absorb and contain body exudates, and, more specifically, refers to devices that are placed against or in proximity to the body of the wearer to absorb and contain the various exudates discharged from the body.
  • [0010]
    As used herein, the term “disposable” is used to describe absorbent articles that are not intended to be laundered or otherwise restored or reused as an absorbent article (i.e., they are intended to be discarded after a single use and, preferably, to be recycled, composted or otherwise disposed of in an environmentally compatible manner). A “unitary” absorbent article refers to absorbent articles that are formed of separate parts united together to form a coordinated entity so that they do not require separate manipulative parts like a separate holder and liner.
  • [0011]
    As used herein, the term “nonwoven web” refers to a web that has a structure of individual fibers or threads which are interlaid, but not in any regular, repeating manner. Nonwoven webs have been, in the past, formed by a variety of processes, such as, for example, air laying processes, meltblowing processes, spunbonding processes and carding processes, including bonded carded web processes.
  • [0012]
    As used herein, the term “microfibers” refers to small diameter fibers having an average diameter not greater than about 100 microns, and a length-to-diameter ratio of greater than about 10. Those trained in the art will appreciate that the diameter of the fibers comprising a nonwoven web impact its overall softness and comfort, and that the smaller denier fibers generally result in softer and more comfortable products than larger denier fibers. For fibers of the present invention, it is preferable that the diameters are in the range of about 5 to 50 microns to achieve suitable softness and comfort, more preferable in the range from about 5 to 35 microns in diameter, and even more preferable in the range from about 15 to 30 microns in diameter. The fiber diameter can be determined using, for example, an optical microscope calibrated with a 10 micrometer graticule.
  • [0013]
    As used herein, the term “meltblown fibers” refers to fibers formed by extruding a molten thermoplastic material through a plurality of fine, usually circular, die capillaries as molten threads or filaments into a high velocity gas (e.g., air) stream which attenuates the filaments of molten thermoplastic material to reduce their diameter to generally from 1 to 10 microns, but more typically in the range from 2 to 3 microns in diameter. Thereafter, the meltblown fibers are carried by the high velocity gas stream and are deposited on a collecting surface to form a web of randomly dispersed meltblown fibers.
  • [0014]
    As used herein, the term “spunbonded fibers” refers to small diameter fibers that are formed by extruding a molten thermoplastic material as filaments from a plurality of fine, usually circular, capillaries of a spinneret, with the diameter of the extruded filaments then being rapidly reduced by drawing. A spunbond nonwoven web may be produced, for example, by the conventional spunbond process wherein molten polymer is extruded into continuous filaments which are subsequently quenched, attenuated by a high velocity fluid, and collected in random arrangement on a collecting surface. After filament collection, any thermal, chemical or mechanical bonding treatment, or any combination thereof, may be used to form a bonded web such that a coherent web structure results.
  • [0015]
    As used herein, the term “staple fibers” refers to small diameter fibers that are formed by extruding a molten thermoplastic material as filaments from a plurality of fine, usually circular, capillaries of a spinneret, with the diameter of the extruded filaments then being rapidly reduced by drawing, typically using conventional godet winding systems. The fiber diameter can be further reduced through post-extrusion drawing prior to cutting the fibers into discontinuous lengths. The fibers may also have finish applied or be crimped to aid in, for example, a carding process. Staple fibers may be used, for example, to make nonwoven fabrics using carding, air-laid or wet-laid processes.
  • [0016]
    As used herein, the term “melt spinning” refers to processes that produce staple or spunbonded fibers. Additionally, hybrid processes that encompass aspects of both fall within this definition. For example, extruded filaments that are attenuated by both high velocity air near the die exit and an air drag device near the point of fiber collection.
  • [0017]
    Continuous fibers, staple fibers, hollow fibers, shaped fibers, such as multi-lobal fibers, and monocomponent and multicomponent fibers can all be produced by using the methods of the present invention. Component, as used herein, is defined as a separate part of the fiber that has a spatial relationship to another part of the fiber. Multicomponent fibers, commonly bicomponent fibers, may be in a side-by-side, sheath-core, segmented pie, ribbon, or islands-in-the-sea configuration. The sheath may be continuous or non-continuous around the core. The fibers of the present invention may have different geometries that include round, elliptical, star shaped, rectangular, and other various eccentricities. The fibers of the present invention may also be splittable fibers. Splitting may occur by rheological differences in the polymers or splitting may occur by a mechanical means and/or by fluid induced: distortion. As used herein, the diameter of a noncircular cross section fiber is the equivalent diameter of a circle having the same cross-sectional area.
  • [0018]
    As used herein, the term “extensible” refers to any nonwoven, which upon application of an extending force, has an average strain at peak load in at least one direction of at least about 80%, preferably at least about 100%, more preferably at least about 125%, and most preferably greater than about 150%. The strain at peak load described herein is determined according to the method outlined in the tensile testing methods section for nonwovens. The term elongatable may also be used to describe the extensibility of the nonwoven webs. The extension ratio is the average strain at peak load for the blend nonwoven web divided by the average strain at peak load for a nonwoven web made from the lowest melt flow rate component of the blend. The nonwoven webs will be produced with the same throughput and have the same basis weight and the fibers will have the same diameter. The extension ratio is at least greater than 1, preferably greater than 1.2, and more preferably greater than 1.5. In some cases, the extension ratio will be greater than 2.
  • [0019]
    As used herein, the terms “consolidation” and “consolidated” refer to the bringing together of at least a portion of the fibers of a nonwoven web into closer proximity to form a site, or sites, which function to increase the resistance of the nonwoven to external forces, e.g., abrasion and tensile forces, as compared to the unconsolidated web. “Consolidated” can refer to an entire nonwoven web that has been processed such that at least a portion of the fibers are brought into closer proximity, such as by thermal point bonding. Such a web can be considered a “consolidated web”. In another sense, a specific, discrete region of fibers that is brought into close proximity, such as an individual thermal bond site, can be described as “consolidated”.
  • [0020]
    Consolidation can be achieved by methods that apply heat and/or pressure to the fibrous web, such as thermal spot (i.e., point) bonding. Thermal point bonding can be accomplished by passing the fibrous web through a pressure nip formed by two rolls, one of which is heated and contains a plurality of raised points on its surface, as is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,855,046 issued to Hansen, et al. Consolidation methods can also include, but are not limited to, ultrasonic bonding, through-air bonding, resin bonding and hydroentanglement. Hydroentanglement typically involves treatment of the fibrous web with high pressure water jets to consolidate the web via mechanical fiber entanglement (friction) in the region desired to be consolidated, with the sites being formed in the area of fiber entanglement. The fibers can be hydroentangled as taught in U.S. Pat. No. 4,021,284 issued to Kalwaites and U.S. Pat. No. 4,024,612 issued to Contrator et al.
  • [0021]
    As used herein, the term “polymer composition” describes a blend of two or more polymers. In the present invention, the polymer composition will comprise a polypropylene having a high melt flow rate and a second polymer with a lower melt flow rate. The polymer composition generally includes, but is not limited to, homopolymers, copolymers, such as, for example, block, graft, random and alternating copolymers, terpolymers, etc., and blends and modifications thereof. The polymer composition shall include all possible geometrical configurations of the material. These configurations include, but are not limited to, isotactic, syndiotactic and random symmetries.
  • [0022]
    Examples of suitable polymers for use in the polymer composition include, but are not limited to polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene-polypropylene copolymers, polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates, aliphatic ester polycondensates, and mixtures thereof. Other suitable polymers include biodegradable polymers such as PHAs, PLAs, starch compositions and other biodegradable polymers described in U.S. Publication 2002/0188041-A1. Other suitable polymer compositions are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,476,135 in the description of an olefin polymer composition. Polymer compositions comprise polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, polyamides, and aliphatic containing polyesters such as poly(butylene succinate) and poly(butylene succinate adipate). Additional aliphatic containing polyesters include, but are not limited to, poly(caprolactone), poly(ethylene succinate), poly(ethylene succinate adipate), aliphatic polyester-based polyurethanes, copolyesters of adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and 1,4-butanediol, polyester-amides, combinations and copolymers thereof, and the like. Other suitable polymers include a low density or ultra low density (p<0.9 g/cc) polyethylene resin and an ethylene-propylene elastomer-containing resin.
  • [0023]
    As used herein, the term “polypropylene composition” is utilized in its ordinary commercial meaning to include any polymer composition which includes polypropylene. Additionally, as used herein, the term “polypropylene composition” generally includes, but is not limited to, homopolymers of propylene, copolymers of propylene, such as, for example, block, graft, random and alternating copolymers, terpolymers, etc., and blends and modifications thereof. Furthermore, unless otherwise specifically limited, the term “polypropylene composition” shall include all possible geometrical configurations of the material. These configurations include, but are not limited to, isotactic, syndiotactic and random symmetries. Examples of suitable polypropylenes for use in the present invention include, but are not limited to, isotactic and syndiotactic polypropylene homopolymers, and copolymers of propylene with ethylene and/or butene. The polypropylene composition may be a composition where two different polypropylene materials, such as a higher melt flow rate polypropylene and a lower melt flow rate polypropylene, are blended. Those trained in the art will appreciate that the incorporation of comonomers such as ethylene or butene or changes in stereoregularity will generally lead to a reduction in the melting temperature of the polypropylene composition. If the melting temperature becomes too low, the properties of the resulting fibers may be unsuitable for use in some products of the present invention. For example, for materials stored in a warehouse in summer, where temperatures can reach above 80° C., the dimensional stability of the product can be compromised if the melt temperature is below about 80° C. For use in the present invention, it is preferred that the melting temperature of the polypropylene composition is greater than about 100° C., more preferably greater than approximately 120° C., and even more preferably greater than about 140° C. The melting temperature as described herein is determined by DSC and is taken as the highest endothermic peak temperature observed on the DSC heating scan using the method outlined in ASTM D 3418, incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0024]
    The polymer and polypropylene compositions of the present invention may optionally include an additional ingredient. Suitable additional ingredients include, but are not limited to, those which are typically used in fiber making, nonwoven processing, polymer composition and polymer formation. In the case of the polymeric blend, desirable additional ingredients are those which form a solid solution and/or homogeneous mixture, with the polymeric blend and other components of the polymeric composition.
  • [0025]
    In one aspect, the additional ingredient is selected from the group such as: nucleating agents, antiblock agents, antistatic agents, a different polymer, pro-heat stabilizers, softening agents, lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents, plasticizers, light stabilizers, weathering stabilizers, weld strength improvers, slip agents, dyes, antioxidants, flame retardants, pro-oxidant additives, natural oils, synthetic oils, anti-blocking agents, fillers, coefficient of friction modifiers, humectants, and combinations thereof. Additionally, any coatings or surface treatments for the fibers may be added during processing or after the fiber is formed.
  • [0026]
    In the polymeric or polypropylene composition, the additional ingredient will comprise an amount effective to achieve the result the additional ingredient is present in the polymeric mixture to achieve. For example, a stabilizing amount for a UV stabilizer, a lubricating amount for a lubricating agent. For a skin conditioning agent, an amount of the agent that has an effect on the skin would be desired. Typically, the additional ingredient is from about 0.1% to about 5% of the composition. These additional ingredients may be employed in conventional amounts although, typically, such ingredients are not required in the composition in order to obtain the advantageous combination of softness and extensibility.
  • [0027]
    The polypropylene compositions comprise a high melt flow rate polypropylene. The polypropylene compositions may also comprise a low melt flow rate polypropylene. The high melt flow rate polypropylene will have a melt flow rate in the range from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes, preferably from about 100 to about 800 grams per 10 minutes, and more preferably from about 100 to about 600 grams per 10 minutes. The low melt flow rate polypropylene will have a melt flow rate of from about 10 to about 80 grams per 10 minutes and preferably from about 15 to about 70 grams per 10 minutes. The polypropylene composition blend may have a melt flow rate in the range from about 100 to about 2000 grams per 10 minutes. Preferably, the melt flow rate of the polypropylene composition blend will be from about 100 to about 1000 grams per 10 minutes, and more preferably from about 100 to about 600 grams per 10 minutes. The melt flow rate as described herein is determined according to the method outlined in ASTM D 1238 (condition L; 230/2.16), incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0028]
    Those trained in the art will recognize that the polypropylene compositions with the above described range of melt flow rates are typically used in a melt-blowing process. It has been unexpectedly found, however, that such resins can also be used in melt-spinning processes to make, for example, spunbond fibers. It has further been unexpectedly found that the resultant webs have higher elongation than webs made using typical polypropylene spunbond grade resins at the same low fiber diameters, where the melt flow rate of polypropylene spunbond resins generally ranges from about 25 to 60 grams per 10 minutes.
  • [0029]
    While not intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the characteristic relaxation time of the high melt flow compositions of the present invention is sufficiently faster than the characteristic spin line strain and crystallization rates so as to result in fibers that are only slightly oriented and thereby maintain high residual elongations to break. By contrast, the characteristic relaxation time of conventional staple or spunbond fiber grade resins is generally slower than the characteristic spin line strain and crystallization rates so as to result in fibers that are highly oriented and thereby maintain low residual elongations to break. It is also believed that the combination of a high melt flow rate polymer and a low melt flow rate polymer is desired as the low melt flow rate polymer may improve the bonding and strength of the nonwoven web while the high melt flow rate polymer may improve the extensibility.
  • [0030]
    Typically, the fibers of the present invention are low denier, which helps to produce extremely soft, extensible and highly uniform nonwoven webs. Nonwoven webs with this combination of properties are particularly well suited for use in disposable absorbent articles such as diapers, adult incontinence products, light incontinence products, training pants, feminine hygiene garments, wipes, and the like, as they are able to be used in portions of the article where extensibility and softness can aid in the article's comfort and overall performance. Suitable applications for the nonwoven webs of the present invention include topsheet for feminine hygiene pads, diapers, and/or incontinence products, stretchable components for diapers such as ears or tabs, and wipes for cleaning the skin such as facial or body cleansing wipes or baby wipes or wipes for cleaning a hard surface such as a floor, counter, or window.
  • [0031]
    Although the nonwoven web of the present invention can find beneficial use as a component of a disposable absorbent article, such as a diaper, its use is not limited to disposable absorbent articles. The nonwoven web of the present invention can be used in any application requiring or benefiting from softness and extensibility, such as wipes, polishing cloths, floor cleansing wipes, furniture linings, durable garments, and the like. Many different wipes, such as facial cleansing cloths, body and personal cleansing cloths and/or hand mitts, and other beauty or personal cleansing applications may be desired.
  • [0032]
    If additional extensibility or activation of the nonwoven web is desired, a post processing treatment may be desired. Both mechanical and chemical post processing treatments may be suitable. Possible mechanical post processing treatments include stretching, tentering, and other treatments found in U.S. Pat. Pub. 2004/0131,820 and 2003/028,165, WO 04/059,061, WO 04/058,214, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,518,801 and 5,650,214. Nonwovens that are capable of high extensibility, such as the nonwovens of the present invention, facilitate the use of mechanical post-treatments.
  • [0033]
    The extensible, soft nonwoven of the present invention may also be in the form of a laminate. Laminates may be combined by any number of bonding methods known to those skilled in the art including, but not limited to, thermal bonding, adhesive bonding including, but not limited to spray adhesives, hot melt adhesives, latex based adhesives and the like, sonic and ultrasonic bonding, and extrusion laminating whereby a polymer is cast directly onto another nonwoven, and while still in a partially molten state, bonds to one side of the nonwoven, or by depositing melt blown fiber nonwoven directly onto a nonwoven. These and other suitable methods for making laminates are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,013,151, Wu et al., and U.S. Pat. No. 5932, 497, Morman et al. One use of the nonwoven web is as a spunbond layer in a spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) laminate. Alternatively, the nonwoven web could also be used as a meltblown layer.
  • [0034]
    The products and methods of the present invention are further exemplified in the following examples.
  • [0000]
    Experimental Procedures
  • [0000]
    Fiber Analysis
  • [0035]
    Mounting of Fiber Samples: For each sample tested, 10-12 fibers were prepared. Fibers are randomly selected and separated from the bundle. The fiber is then taped to a paper rectangular frame, being sure to wrap tape and the end of the fiber over the backside of the frame. Care is taken not to stretch or deform the fiber in any way.
  • [0036]
    Diameter Measurements: Mounted fibers are viewed on a Zeiss Axioskope microscope equipped with a color video camera and a display monitor. With the fiber in focus under a 40× objective lens and a 1× eyepiece the diameter of the fiber is measured on the monitor in inches with a pair of calipers. The microscope is calibrated for this magnification, using a 1 mm scale divided into 100ths, manufactured by Graticules LTD.
  • [0037]
    Tensile Testing: Mounted fibers are tensile tested on an MTS Synergie 400 material tester equipped with a calibrated 10 Newton load cell and Testworks 4 software version 4.04. Fibers are tested according to ASTM D3822, with a test gauge length of 1 inch and a crosshead speed of 2 inches per minute. The mounted fibers are loaded into tester grips. The paper frame is cut away on both sides of the fiber so paper does not interfere with test. An average of ten fibers is tested, and the average strain at break is used as the measure of extensibility.
  • [0000]
    Nonwoven Handsheet Production and Tensile Testing
  • [0038]
    Nonwoven Handsheet Production: Polyolefin compositions are converted into nonwoven handsheet samples using the following procedure:
  • [0039]
    Neat or compounded materials are first melt spun into fibers (monocomponent or bicomponent) using a two extruder system, where each extruder is a horizontal single-screw extruder. The extrudate rate from each extruder to the spinpack is controlled by a metering melt pump that feeds a 4-hole spin pack (Hills Incorporated, W. Melbourne, Fla.). In all examples the spinpack is fitted with a spinneret for a round hole, and distribution plates for a sheath-core cross-section. For the case of monocomponent fibers, the same resin is used in both extruders for a sheath:core ratio of approximately 50:50. The extruder/melt pump/spinpack system is mounted on an adjustable height platform. The spin line length is maintained constant at a distance of approximately 70 inches, the mass throughput at about 0.4 grams per minute per hole, and the melt extrusion temperature at approximately 230° C. The molten filaments exit the spinneret into a quench cabinet that is located: directly below the spinpack and are drawn down with a height adjustable air drag device that uses compressed air at high pressures to produce a stream of air that surrounds and draws the filaments. The air pressure is adjusted to achieve collected fiber diameters of about 20-25 microns.
  • [0040]
    The fibers are collected on a stationary perforated metal screen (0.25 inch holes, 0.45 inch center-to-center spacing), where the fiber collection pattern is effectively circular with the inner 5 inches or so being suitably uniform for tensile testing and where a sufficient time of collection is used to achieve an average basis weight of about 30-45 grams per square meter within the inner region. The collected fiber sample is then bonded ultrasonically to make a nonwoven handsheet, where the ultrasonic bonding of nonwovens is described by Mao and Goswami in International Nonwovens Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, pages 38-47, and No. 3, pages 17-28. An ultrasonic bonding system manufactured by Machintek Corporation (Fairfield, Ohio) is used for bonding. This system incorporates a Branson Ultrasonics Corporation (Danbury, Conn.) model 921AE actuator equipped with a model 109-121-392 rectangular slotted horn, and a translation stage to allow for a constant bonding time across the fiber sample. Using a bonding plate having a bond area of about 20% and bonding points approximately 1.2 millimeters long×0.7 millimeters wide arranged in a staggered row configuration, good bonding is found for an actuator amplitude setting of 50%, a horn pressure of about 40 pounds per square inch, and a translational speed of approximately 4 meters per minute. Prior to bonding, a 0.010 inch thick sheet of fiber-reinforced Teflon is placed between the fiber sample and the horn.
  • [0041]
    Tensile Testing for Nonwoven Handsheets: For each nonwoven handsheet, one tensile test strip is prepared by first cutting a 1 inch width strip through the center of the handsheet using a JDC Precision Sample Cutter (Thwing-Albert Instrument Company, Philadelphia, Pa.), whereby the direction of this cut is parallel to the short dimension of the bonding points. The length of the sample strip is then trimmed to about 4 inches, making sure that the center of the sample strip is nearly the center of the handsheet.
  • [0042]
    Each sample strip is tensile tested on a testing machine, for example, on an Instron 1122 modified with a MTS Sintech ReNew Upgrade Package and equipped with a 50 pound load cell, 1 inch width serrated grip faces, and Testworks Software Version 3.1, or on a MTS Synergie 400 test stand equipped with a 100 newton load cell, 1 inch width rubber grip faces, and Testworks Software Version 4.07 (Instron Corporation, Canton, Mass.; MTS Systems Corporation, Eden Praire, Minn.). Sample strips are tested with a gauge length of 2 inches and a crosshead speed of 2 inches per minute. An average of five nonwoven strips is tested, and the average strain at peak load is used as the measure of extensibility. The extension ratio is the average strain at peak load for the blend handsheet or nonwoven divided by the average strain at peak load for the handsheet or nonwoven made from the lowest melt flow rate component of the blend.
  • [0000]
    Spunbond Nonwoven Web Production and Tensile Testing
  • [0043]
    Spunbond Nonwoven Web Production: Polyolefin compositions are converted into spunbond nonwoven webs on pilot and commercial scale spunbond nonwoven lines equipped with slot jet attenuation and thermal calender bonding systems. Line speed is adjusted to achieve desired basis weight.
  • [0044]
    Tensile Testing for Spunbond Nonwoven Webs: For each nonwoven web, one tensile test strip is prepared by first cutting a 1 inch width strip in the direction of interest using a JDC Precision Sample Cutter (Thwing-Albert Instrument Company, Philadelphia, Pa.). The length of the sample strip is then trimmed to about 7 inches.
  • [0045]
    Each sample strip is tensile tested on a testing machine, for example, on an Instron 1122 modified with a MTS Sintech ReNew Upgrade Package and equipped with a 50 pound load cell, 1 inch width serrated grip faces, and Testworks Software Version 3.1, or on a MTS Synergie 400 test stand equipped with a 100 newton load cell, 1 inch width rubber grip faces, and Testworks Software Version 4.07 (Instron Corporation, Canton, Mass.; MTS Systems Corporation, Eden Praire, Minn.). Sample strips are tested with a gauge length of 5 inches and a crosshead speed of 5 inches per minute. An average of ten nonwoven strips is tested, and the average strain at peak load is used as the measure of extensibility. The extension ratio is the average strain at peak load for the blend spunbond nonwoven web divided by the average strain at peak load for the nonwoven web made from the lowest melt flow rate component of the blend.
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1
  • [0046]
    This comparative example illustrates the properties resulting from melt spinning a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene. Specifically, a polypropylene resin with a melt flow rate of 35 grams per 10 minutes (ProFax PH835 from Basell Polyolefins Company, Wilmington, Del.) is spun and bonded into nonwoven handsheets. Table 1 shows the average strain at peak load for these handsheets.
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 2
  • [0047]
    This comparative example illustrates the properties resulting from melt spinning a high melt flow rate polypropylene. Specifically, a polypropylene resin with a melt flow rate of 400 grams per 10 minutes (Valtec HH441 from Basell Polyolefins Company, Wilmington, Del.) is spun and bonded into nonwoven handsheets. Table 1 shows the average strain at peak load for these handsheets.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0048]
    This example demonstrates synergistic properties resulting from melt spinning a blend of a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene and a high melt flow rate polypropylene. Specifically, a 50:50 blend by weight of the polypropylenes from Comparative Example 1 and Comparative Example 2 is spun and bonded into nonwoven handsheets. The blend is pre-compounded in a twin-screw extruder prior to spinning. Table 1 shows the average strain at peak load for the handsheets made from the blend (1) are higher than that for either of the individual constituents (C1, C2), indicating synergistic elongation behavior.
    TABLE 1
    Handsheets Made From Monocomponent Fibers - Neat Polypropylene
    Resins and a High MFR/Low MFR Polypropylene Blend
    STRAIN AT
    EXAM- MFR PEAK LOAD EXTENSION
    PLE # RESIN (g/10 min) (%) RATIO
    C1 Profax PH835 35 72
    C2 Valtec HH441 400 98
    1 50% Profax 118 168 2.3
    PH835 50%
    Valtec HH441
  • [0049]
    The melt flow rate of a blend is calculated using the logarithmic additivity rule, such as described by Abraham et al. in Eur. Polym. J., 26(2), pages 197-200 (1990). The melt flow rate for the blend of Example 1 is therefore calculated according to the following equation:
    log(MFR Blend)=w 1 log(MFR 1)+w 2 log(MFR 2)+ . . . +w n log( MFR n)
    where wi is the weight fraction of constituent i, MFRi the melt flow rate of constituent i, n the total number of constituents in the blend, and w1+w2 + . . . +w n=1.
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 3
  • [0050]
    This comparative example illustrates the properties resulting from melt spinning a polyolefin copolymer. Specifically, a soft polyolefin resin with a melt flow rate of 25 grams per 10 minutes (Adflex Z104S from Basell Polyolefins Company, Wilmington, Del.) is spun and bonded into nonwoven handsheets. Table 2 shows the average strain at peak load for these handsheets.
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 4
  • [0051]
    This comparative example illustrates the properties resulting from melt spinning a blend of a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene and a polyolefin copolymer. Specifically, an 80:20 blend by weight of the polypropylene from Comparative Example 1 and the polyolefin copolymer from Comparative Example 3 is spun and bonded into nonwoven handsheets. The blend is pre-compounded in a twin-screw extruder prior to spinning. Table 2 shows the average strain at peak load for the handsheets made from the blend (C4) is between those for the individual constituents (C1, C3).
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0052]
    This example illustrates the synergistic properties resulting from melt spinning a blend of a high melt flow rate polypropylene and a polyolefin copolymer. Specifically, an 80:20 blend by weight of the polypropylene from Comparative Example 2 and the polyolefin copolymer from Comparative Example 3 is spun and bonded into nonwoven handsheets. The blend is pre-compounded in a twin-screw extruder prior to spinning. Table 2 shows the average strain at peak load for the handsheets made from the blend (2) are higher than that for either of the individual constituents (C2, C3), indicating synergistic elongation behavior.
    TABLE 2
    Handsheets Made From Monocomponent Fibers - Neat Polypropylene
    and Polyolefin Copolymer Resins and Polypropylene/Polyolefin
    Copolymer Blends
    STRAIN AT
    EXAM- MFR PEAK LOAD EXTENSION
    PLE # RESIN (g/10 min) (%) RATIO
    C1 Profax PH835 35 72
    C2 Valtec HH441 400 98
    C3 Adflex Z104S 25 120
    C4 80% Profax 33 88 0.7
    PH835 20%
    Adflex Z104S
    2 80% Valtec 230 160 1.3
    HH441 20%
    Adflex Z104S
  • [0053]
    The melt flow rate of a blend is calculated using the logarithmic additivity rule, such as described by Abraham et al. in Eur. Polym. J., 26(2), pages 197-200 (1990). The melt flow rate for the blends of Comparative Example 4 and Example 2 are therefore calculated according to the following equation:
    log(MFR Blend)=w 1 log(MFR 1)+w 2 log(MFR 2)+ . . . +w n log(MFR n)
    where wi is the weight fraction of constituent i, MFRi the melt flow rate of constituent i, n the total number of constituents in the blend, and w1+w2+ . . . +wn=1.
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 5
  • [0054]
    This comparative example illustrates the fiber properties resulting from melt spinning a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene. Specifically, a polypropylene resin with a melt flow rate of 35 grams per 10 minutes (ProFax PH835 from Basell Polyolefins Company, Wilmington, Del.) is spun at a mass throughput of 0.3 grams per hole per minute on a pilot-scale spunbond nonwoven line. Unbonded fiber bundles are collected for single fiber property evaluation. Table 3 shows the resultant diameters and average strain at break of the fibers.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • [0055]
    This example demonstrates synergistic properties resulting from melt spinning a blend of a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene and a high melt flow rate polypropylene. Fibers of the present invention are prepared from a pre-compounded blend of 50 wt % ProFax PH835 and 50 wt % Valtec HH441 (400 MFR polypropylene resin available from Basell Polyolefins Company, Wilmington, Del.) at a mass throughput of 0.3 grams per hole per minute on a pilot-scale spunbond nonwoven line. Unbonded fiber bundles are collected for single fiber property evaluation. Table 3 shows the resultant diameters and average strain at break of the fibers. At equivalent or even at smaller diameters, fibers prepared from the blend of the present invention exhibit higher extensibility than fibers prepared from the neat 35 MFR polypropylene resin (C5).
    TABLE 3
    Monocomponent Fiber Data - Neat Polypropylene Resin and
    a High MFR/Low MFR Polypropylene Blend
    Diameter Strain at
    Example # Resin (microns) Break (%)
    C5 ProFax PH835 19 267
    3 50% ProFax 19 349
    PH835 and 50
    Valtec HH441
    C5 ProFax PH835 29 407
    3 50% ProFax 23 514
    PH835 and 50
    Valtec HH441
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 6 AND EXAMPLE 4
  • [0056]
    These examples illustrate the advantageous properties of spunbond nonwoven webs prepared from the blends of the present invention as compared to spunbond nonwoven webs prepared from standard spunbond grade polypropylene resins. Thermally bonded spunbond nonwovens are prepared using the formulations and mass throughputs as described in Comparative Example 5 and Example 3 at a mass throughput of 0.3 grams per hole per minute on a pilot-scale spunbond nonwoven line. For each sample, the data reported is at the optimum bonding temperature as defined by the condition producing the highest strain at peak load in the cross direction. Basis weights, fiber diameters and average strain at peak load measured in the cross-direction are listed in Table 4. The spunbond nonwoven web prepared from the blend of the present invention (4) exhibits higher extensibility as compared to the standard polypropylene control (C6).
    TABLE 4
    Spunbond Nonwoven Webs from Monocomponent Fibers - Neat
    Polypropylene Resin and a High MFR/Low MFR Polypropylene Blend
    Basis Fiber CD Strain
    Weight Diameter at Peak Extension
    Example # Resin (g/m2) (microns) Load (%) Ratio
    C6 ProFax 24 30 66
    PH835
    4 50% ProFax 24 28 115 1.7
    PH835 and
    50 Valtec
    HH441
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 7
  • [0057]
    This comparative example illustrates the fiber properties resulting from melt spinning a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene. Melt-spun fibers are prepared using a 35 MFR polypropylene resin available from Sunoco Chemicals, Pittsburgh, Pa. (CP-360-H) on a commercial-scale spunbond nonwoven line. Unbonded fiber bundles are collected for single fiber property evaluation. Table 5 shows the resultant diameter and average strain at break of the fibers.
  • EXAMPLE 5
  • [0058]
    This example demonstrates synergistic fiber properties resulting from melt spinning a blend of a conventional spunbond grade polypropylene and a high melt flow rate polypropylene. Melt-spun fibers of the present invention are prepared from a pre-compounded blend of 50 wt % Sunoco CP-360-H and 50 wt% Valtec HH441 (400 MFR polypropylene resin available from Basell Polyolefins Company, Wilmington, Del.) on a commercial-scale spunbond nonwoven line. Unbonded fiber bundles are collected for single fiber property evaluation. Table 5 shows the resultant diameter and average strain at break of the fibers. At equivalent diameter, fibers prepared from the blend of the present invention (5) exhibit higher elongation than fibers prepared from the neat 35 MFR polypropylene resin (C7).
    TABLE 5
    Monocomponent Fiber Data - Neat Polypropylene Resin and
    a High MFR/Low MFR Polypropylene Blend
    Diameter Strain at
    Example # RESIN (microns) Break (%)
    C7 Sunoco CP- 23 411
    360-H
    5 50% Sunoco 23 482
    CP-360-H
    50% Valtec
    HH441
    C7 Sunoco CP- 27 505
    360-H
    5 50% Sunoco 29 624
    CP-360-H
    50% Valtec
    HH441
  • EXAMPLE 6
  • [0059]
    Thermally bonded spunbond nonwovens are prepared from a pre-compounded blend of 50 wt % PP 3155 (35 MFR polypropylene resin available from Exxon/Mobil Chemical Company) and 50 wt % Valtec HH441 (400 MFR polypropylene resin available from Basell Polyolefins) on a commercial-scale spunbond nonwoven line. The data reported is at the optimum bonding temperature as defined by the condition producing the highest elongation at peak in the cross direction. Basis weight is 20 grams per square meter and average fiber diameter is 20 microns. The cross-directional elongation at peak for the resultant nonwoven is 129%.
  • COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 8 AND EXAMPLES 7 AND 8
  • [0060]
    These examples illustrate the advantageous properties, and in particular the improved processability of spunbond nonwoven webs prepared from the blends of the present invention as compared to spunbond nonwoven webs prepared from standard spunbond grade polypropylene resins. Thermally bonded spunbond nonwovens are prepared using the formulations as described in Comparative Example 7 and Examples 5 and 6 on a commercial-scale spunbond nonwoven line. For each sample, the data reported is at a slightly underbonded condition, that is a temperature approximately 20° F. below the peak temperature as defined by the temperature producing the highest strain at peak load in the cross direction. Basis weights, fiber diameters and average strain at peak load measured in the cross-direction are listed in Table 6. The spunbond nonwoven webs prepared from the blend of the present invention (7,8) exhibit higher extensibility as compared to the standard polypropylene control (C8).
  • [0061]
    In addition, each of the above-described spunbond nonwoven webs is processed according to the method outlined in U.S. patent application 2004/0131820 A1 to form a tufted fibrous web. Line speed is 300 feet per minute and tooling pitch is 0.060 inch pitch set to 0.110 inch depth of engagement. Table 6 also describes the processability of the spunbond nonwoven webs and the quality of the resultant structures, where full loops of unbroken fibers are highly desired for tactile benefit and functionality. The spunbond nonwoven webs of the present invention (7,8) exhibit far greater ease of processing and higher quality looped structures than webs prepared under equivalent conditions but made from standard spunbond grade polypropylene (C8).
    TABLE 6
    Spunbond Nonwoven Webs from Monocomponent Fibers - Neat
    Polypropylene Resin and a High MFR/Low MFR Polypropylene Blend
    CD
    Strain at
    Basis Fiber Peak
    Weight Diameter Load Extension Processing
    Ex # Resin (g/m2) (microns) (%) Ratio Loop Quality Ability
    C8 Sunoco 92 29 95 Sparse, Repeated roll
    CP-360-H short loops wraps
    Matted tops Extremely high
    Many line tensions
    broken fibers Many web
    breaks at normal
    line speeds
    7 50% 89 30 206 2.2 Mostly full Less difficult to
    Sunoco loops strip from roll
    CP-360- Moderate Lower line
    H and height tensions
    50% Fewer Can run at
    Valtec matted tops higher line speeds
    HH441 and broken
    fibers
    8 50% 95 33 196 2.1 Mostly full Less difficult to
    Exxon loops strip from roll
    3155 Moderate Lower line
    and 50% height tensions
    Valtec Fewer Can run at
    HH441 matted tops higher line speeds
    and broken
    fibers
  • [0062]
    The disclosures of all patents, patent applications (and any patents which issue thereon, as well as any corresponding published foreign patent applications), and publications mentioned throughout this description are hereby incorporated by reference herein. It is expressly not admitted, however, that any of the documents incorporated by reference herein teach or disclose the present invention.
  • [0063]
    While particular embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated and described, it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that various other changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that are within the scope of the invention.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification442/327, 442/361, 442/417, 442/401
International ClassificationD04H1/00, C08L23/12, C08L23/10, D04H3/16, D04H1/42, D04H13/00
Cooperative ClassificationD04H3/14, D04H3/147, Y10T442/681, Y10T442/637, Y10T442/60, Y10T442/641, Y10T442/699, Y10T442/697, B29D7/01, D04H1/42, C08L2205/02, D04H3/007, D01F8/06, D04H13/002, D04H3/16, C08L23/10, D01D5/0985
European ClassificationD04H3/16, D01F8/06, D01D5/098B, C08L23/10, D04H13/00B2, D04H1/42
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 6, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY, THE, OHIO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MELIK, DAVID HARRY;ARORA, KELYN ANNE;AUER, JEFFREY ALLEN;REEL/FRAME:016015/0377;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050202 TO 20050203