US 20050187213 A1
A method of treating or preventing a respiratory disease in a pig, the method comprising administering to the pig in need thereof an effective amount of meloxicam or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
1. A method of treating or preventing a respiratory disease in a pig, the method comprising administering to the pig in need thereof an effective amount of meloxicam or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
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23. A ready-to-use two-component pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs, the composition comprising:
(a) a first component comprising meloxicam or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; and
(b) a second component comprising one or more antibiotics selected from the group consisting of β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, fenicoles, and macrolides, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
This application claims priority to European Application No. EP 04 004 054.5, filed Feb. 23, 2004, which is hereby incorporated by reference.
1. Technical Field
The invention relates to the use of meloxicam or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for preparing a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment or prevention of respiratory diseases in pigs.
2. Background Information
Respiratory disease in pigs belongs to the most important health problems in swine production. Porcine respiratory disease is primarily caused by infectious agents, but environmental factors have a strong influence. The relevant pathogens include mycoplasmas, bacteria, and viruses (e.g., G. Christensen, V. Sorensen, and J. Mousing, Diseases of the Respiratory System, In: Diseases of Swine, B. E. Straw, S. D'Allaire, W. L. Mengeling, & D. J. Taylor (eds), Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa (1999) pp. 913-940).
The most important measures for the control of porcine respiratory disease are to improve herd management and housing conditions and introduce a vaccination program. However, if pigs have developed respiratory disease, they have to be treated.
Current therapy of porcine respiratory disease includes treatment with antibiotics. The successful use of various types of antibiotics is described, including β-lactams, quinolones, and tetracyclines (e.g., I. Lang, M. Rose, E. Thomas, & E. Zschiesche, A Field Study of Cefquinome for the Treatment of Pigs with Respiratory Disease, Revue Med Vet 8-9, (2002) pp. 575-580).
It is known that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a relevant role in the pathophysiology of porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Isolated porcine alveolar macrophages increase their COX-2 activity after exposure to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (W. S. Cho & C. Chae, In vitro Effects of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase-2 in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages, Am J Vet Res 64, (2003) pp. 1514-1518). Moreover, in situ hybridization (W. S. Cho & C. Chae, Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Swine Naturally Infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Vet Pathol 40, (2003) pp. 25-31) and immunohistochemistry (W. S. Cho & C. Chae, Immunohistochemical Detection of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Lungs of Pigs Naturally Infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, J Comp Pathol 127, (2002) pp. 274-279) showed increased COX-2 expression in lungs of pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
Moreover, it is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) can be used for the treatment of pigs with respiratory disease. However, little information on controlled clinical studies is available: for a review, see A. Laval, Utilisation des Anti-inflammatoires chez le Porc, Rec Méd Vét 168 (8/9) (1992) pp. 733-744. Ketoprofen, and, to a lesser extent, flunixin decrease fever induced by experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (J. M. Swinkels, A. Pijpers, J. C. Vernooy, A. Van Nes, & J. H. Verheijden, Effects of Ketoprofen and Flunixin in Pigs Experimentally Infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, J Vet Pharmacol Ther 17, (1994) pp. 299-303). However, no effects on lung lesions were observed. Ketoprofen was further tested in a controlled, blinded clinical field study (M. F. De Jong, O. Sampimon, J. P. Arnaud, G. Theunissen, G. Groenland, & P. J. Werf, A Clinical Study with a Non Steroid Antiinflammatory Drug, 14, (1996) 659 IPVS). In this study, ketoprofen had no effect on clinical score, relapse, or cure rate.
Indomethacin alleviated experimental endotoxin-induced respiratory failure in pigs (N. C. Olson, T. T. Brown, J. R. Anderson, & D. L. Anderson, Dexamethasone and Indomethacin Modify Endotoxin-Induced Respiratory Failure in Pigs, J Appl Physiol 58, (1985) pp. 274-284).
Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compound that belongs to the oxicam class and exerts potent anti-inflammatory, anti-exudative, and anti-pyretic activity. The efficacy of meloxicam as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of respiratory infections in cattle has been widely proven. Recently meloxicam was approved for the treatment of MMA (A. Hirsch et al., J Vet Pharmacol Therap 26 (2003) pp. 355-360) and locomotor disorders in pigs (G. Friton et al., Berl Münch Tierärztl Wschr 116 (2003) pp. 421-426).
A review article (P. Lees, The Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Used in the Treatment of Respiratory Diseases in Cattle and Pigs, (1991) pp. 67-74, Hatfield, U.K. Proc. Royal Vet. Coll.) focuses on pharmacokinetics used in the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs; however, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs data for pigs was almost entirely lacking and only lists data for cattle including meloxicam.
The use of meloxicam in conjunction with antibiotics in bovine respiratory disease is well-established (H. Schmidt, H. Philipp, E. Salomon, & K. Okkinga, Effekte der zusätzlichen Gabe von Metacam (Meloxicam) auf den Krankheitsverlauf bei Rindern mit Atemwegserkrankungen, Der praktische Tierarzt 81 (2000) pp. 240-244) and registered in the EU. However, to date no information on the use of meloxicam in pigs with respiratory disease is publicly available.
Since the pharmacokinetics in pigs and cattle differ substantially for meloxicam (plasma half-time in cattle is 26 hours whereas it is 2.5 hours in pigs), there is no expectation that the successful use of meloxicam in cattle should also be beneficial for pigs. Moreover, the causative agents for bovine and porcine respiratory disease differ substantially.
The problem underlying the present invention was to provide a medication for the prevention or treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs, one of the most important health problems in swine production.
It has been found surprisingly that meloxicam can be used for the treatment or prevention of respiratory diseases in pigs.
Accordingly, the invention relates to the use of meloxicam or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for preparing a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment or prevention of respiratory diseases in pigs.
Moreover, the invention relates to a method of treating or preventing respiratory diseases in pigs, which method comprises administering an effective amount of meloxicam to the pigs in need thereof.
Furthermore, the invention relates to veterinary preparation containing meloxicam as well as at least one antibiotic selected from the group consisting of β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, fenicoles, and macrolides.
Another aspect of the invention is a ready-to-use two-component system for the treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs, wherein:
Still another aspect of the invention is an article of manufacture comprising packaging material contained within which is a composition consisting of meloxicam and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and a label which indicates that the composition can be used to treat or prevent respiratory diseases in pigs.
Preferably the invention relates to the use of meloxicam or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for preparing a pharmaceutical composition in a form suitable for systemic or oral administration for the treatment or prevention of respiratory diseases in pigs. Meloxicam (4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2H- 1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide) of formula
Meloxicam may be used according to the invention in the form of a physiologically acceptable acid addition salt. By physiologically acceptable acid addition salts are meant, according to the invention, the meglumine, sodium, potassium, or ammonium salt, preferably the meloxicam meglumine salt.
In a further preferred embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered corresponding to a daily dose of meloxicam ranging from 0.01 mg/kg to 5.0 mg/kg, preferably from 0.1 mg/kg to 3.5 mg/kg, in particular from 0.2 mg/kg to 2.0 mg/kg.
The pharmaceutical composition is preferably administered in a form suitable for injection, in particular for intramuscular injection, or in form of water soluble granules for administration via drinking water or as top dressing on feed.
A suitable injection formulation is disclosed, for example, in Example 25 of EP-A-0 002 482. Furthermore, such injection solutions may additionally contain excipients selected from among citric acid, lecithin, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, phosphoric acid and EDTA or the salts thereof as disclosed in the Examples 1 to 5 of the International Patent Application WO 01/97813 (corresponding to U.S. Patent App. Pub No. 2002/0035107), each of which is hereby incorporated by reference. Moreover, an injection solution of meloxicam for needleless injections is disclosed in the International Patent Application WO 03/049733 (corresponding to U.S. Patent App. Pub No. 2003/0119825), each of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
Suitable water soluble granules for administration via drinking water or as top dressing on feed are, for example, disclosed in the International Patent Application PCT/EP03/11802 (corresponding to U.S. Patent App. Pub No. 2004/0234596), each of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the meloxicam granules contain a binder which may be selected from among hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, gelatine, starch, and polyethylene glycol ether, preferably hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and polyethylene glycol ether, and most preferably hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone.
In another preferred embodiment of the invention, meloxicam granules contain a sweetener, which may be selected from among sodium saccharine, aspartame, and SUNETT® (acesulfame K), preferably sodium saccharine or aspartame.
Particularly preferred according to the invention are meloxicam granules containing a flavoring agent which may be selected from among vanilla, honey flavoring, apple flavoring, and contramarum, preferably honey flavoring and apple flavoring.
Also particularly preferred are meloxicam granules in which the carrier is selected from among lactose, glucose, mannitol, xylitol, sucrose, and sorbitol, preferably glucose, lactose, or sorbitol, more preferably glucose or lactose, and most preferably glucose.
Most preferred are the following granules of meloxicam recipes:
Particularly preferred are meloxicam granules in which the content of meloxicam is between 0.05% and 4%, preferably between 0.1% and 2%, preferably between 0.3% and 1.8%, more preferably between 0.4% and 1.5%, and most preferably 1.2%. Also particularly preferred are meloxicam granules which contain meglumine and meloxicam in a molar ratio of about 9:8 to 12:8, preferably 10:8.
Meloxicam can be used according to the invention to treat or prevent respiratory diseases in any breed of swines. Preferably pigs selected from the swine breeds American Landrace, American Yorkshire, Angeln Saddleback, Arapawa Island, Ba Xuyen, Bantu, Bazna, Beijing Black, Belarus Black Pied, Belgian Landrace, Bentheim Black Pied, Berkshire, Black Slavonian, British Landrace, British Lop, Bulgarian White, Cantonese, Chester White, Czech Improved White, Danish Landrace, Dermantsi Pied, Duroc, Dutch Landrace, Fengjing, Finnish Landrace, French Landrace, German Landrace, Gloucestershire Old Spots, Guinea Hog, Hampshire, Hereford, Hezuo, Iberian, Italian Landrace, Jinhua, Kele, Krskopolje, Kunekune, Lacombe, Large Black, Large Black-white, Large White, Lithuanian Native, Mangalitsa, Meishan, Middle White, Minzhu, Mong Cai, Mukota, Mora Romagnola, Moura, Mulefoot, Neijiang, Ningxiang, Norwegian Landrace, Ossabaw Island, Oxford Sandy and Black, Philippine Native, Pietrain, Poland China, Red Wattle, Saddleback, Spots, Swabian-Hall, Swedish Landrace, Tamworth, Thuoc Nhieu, Tibetan, Turopolje, Vietnamese Potbelly, Welsh, and Wuzhishan, in particular American Landrace, Belgian Landrace, British Landrace, Danish Landrace, Dutch Landrace Finnish Landrace, French Landrace, German Landrace, Italian Landrace, and Pietrain can be treated with meloxicam according to the present invention.
Furthermore preferred is the administration of meloxicam is in conjunction with an antibiotic, preferably selected from the group consisting of β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, fenicoles, and macrolides. Most preferred are amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, tylosin, tilmicosin, and sulfamethazine.
The dose of antibiotic is not critical per se and depends strongly on the different efficacies of the antibiotics used. As a rule up to 150.0 mg/kg, preferably from 0.1 mg/kg to 120 mg/kg, in particular from 10 mg/kg to 110 mg/kg of an antibiotic are co-administered together with meloxicam.
The following dose ranges are most preferred:
The phrase “co-administration” (or “administration in conjunction with”), in defining use of meloxicam and an antibiotic, is intended to embrace administration of each agent in a sequential manner in a regimen that will provide beneficial effects, in particular, reduction of the symptoms of the respiratory disease in the affected pig of the drug combination. The phrase also is intended to embrace co-administration of these agents in a substantially simultaneous manner, such as in a single capsule or injection solution having a fixed ratio of these active agents or in multiple, separate capsules for each agent.
Accordingly, meloxicam and the antibiotic may be co-administered in a combined form, or separately or separately and sequentially wherein the sequential administration is preferably close in time.
Preferably the medicament according to this invention is used for the prevention or treatment of Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in growing or fattening pigs; or for the prevention or treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, for the prevention or treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by bacteria in particular Actinobacillus spp., in particular Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp., or for the prevention or treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by viruses, in particular Swine Influenza Virus, Aujetzky's Virus, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Porcine Circovirus, and Transmissible Gastroenteritis and Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus.
Most preferably the medicament according to this invention is used for the prevention or treatment of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis, Swine Influenza Virus, and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.
The Examples that follow serve to illustrate the use of meloxicam according to the invention. They are intended solely as possible procedures described by way of example, without restricting the invention to their content.
The study was a controlled, randomized, and blinded exploratory study under experimental conditions with a parallel group design.
Crossbred pigs of about 10 weeks of age were challenged with a single intranasal inoculation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The next day, pigs were included in the study and treated if they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: rectal temperature ≧40° C. and clinical symptoms of acute or subacute infectious respiratory disease.
Twenty-four (12 castrated male and 12 female) pigs were included and randomly allocated to three treatment groups with 8 pigs per group. The treatment groups were:
Meloxicam was administered as 0.5% solution, at 0.5 mg/kg daily on three consecutive days, oxytetracycline as 20% long-acting solution (OXYTET® 200) at 20 mg/kg as single injection.
Relevant criteria for the evaluation of efficacy were incidence of fever, clinical parameters of respiratory disease, deaths, and lung lesions at necropsy 10 days after first treatment or after spontaneous death. The percentage of affected lung tissue was calculated by lobe and averaged for the total lung.
Challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae lead to severe pleuropneumonia within 12 hours.
The incidence of fever (rectal temperature ≧40.56° C.) following the first treatment was lower in group 3 (♦) than in groups 1 (Δ), and 2 (∘) (cp.
The best treatment response in clinical parameters was observed in group 3.
The number of pigs which died during the three days following first treatment is displayed below.
The mean extent of lung lesions was less severe in group 3 than in the other groups (see below).
Meloxicam in addition to antibiotic treatment effectively reduced fever, clinical symptoms of respiratory disease, deaths, and the extent of lung lesions in pigs with experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infection.
The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of meloxicam granules dissolved in drinking water in pigs experimentally infected with Swine Influenza Virus (SIV).
The study was an open, negative controlled randomized laboratory study carried out according to GCP at one site.
Meloxicam granules containing 6 mg meloxicam per gram were offered to the pigs in the treatment groups (A+B) via drinking water in a concentration of 1 g granules per liter drinking water ad libitum for 7 consecutive days. This resulted in an actual meloxicam uptake of 0.8 mg per kg body weight per day. The pigs in the control group (C) received municipal drinking water ad libitum.
30 pigs were infected with SIV on study day 0. 10 pigs were allocated to each of the three groups A, B, and C. Treatment (groups A and B) started after SIV challenge on the same day.
The study animals were clinically examined daily on study days 0 to 7 and 14. They were weighed on study days 7 and 14. All animals of group A and 5 animals of group C were euthanized and necropsied on study day 7; the remaining study animals, group B and 5 study animals of group C, on study day 14.
It is the major finding of this study that meloxicam granules administered continuously in the drinking water at an approximate daily dose of 0.8 mg/kg body weight significantly alleviated the development of lung lesions caused by experimental infection with SIV during the first week after challenge.
On study day 7 the percentage of lung tissue affected with SIV-related lesions (median value) was 8.9% in meloxicam group A and 23.8% in the control group (5 study animals of group C).
Moreover, meloxicam-treated pigs reached significantly higher weight gains during the two weeks following infection than untreated controls. Mean daily weight gain in the interval study day 0 to 7 was 557 g in meloxicam group A and 257 g in the control (5 study animals of group C). In the interval study day 0 to 14, mean daily weight gain was 629 g in meloxicam group B and 486 g in the control (5 study animals of group C).
The area under the curve of the clinical index score (CIS), a sum of the relevant clinical parameters, over study days 0 to 7 was significantly smaller in groups A and B than in group C.
Thus oral treatment with meloxicam granules at a dose of 0.8 mg meloxicam per kg body weight per day for 7 consecutive was an efficacious treatment for SIV infection.
Materials and Methods
A medium scale farm (560 sows) with a previous history of recurring PRDC episodes was selected. A double-blinded randomized study was carried out with the selection of 162 growing animals with a mean age of 90 days at the onset of PRDC clinical signs. Animals were randomly allocated to 8 pens and divided into two treatment groups, with respect to equal sex ratio, same housing and feeding conditions and genetic background. Group 1 (PC) received 800 ppm chlorotetracycline in the feed over 8 consecutive days plus a single IM injection of a placebo (isotonic saline) at d0 (start of the trial, n=82). Group 2 (M) received 800 ppm chlorotetracycline in the feed over 8 consecutive days plus a single IM injection of 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight meloxicam (METACAM® 2%, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH) at d0 (n=80). Clinical parameters were assessed as the daily Respiratory Score (RS), using a 3 point score (0=absence of signs to 3=abdominal breathing and disordered general condition) over 8 consecutive days and the total number of additional required injectable medications (AIM). Growth performance data for each group included the Average Daily Gain (ADG) for the following trial periods: d90 to d117, d117 to d170 (slaughtering), and d90 to d170 of age. Mortality was also calculated for these time periods. Slaughterhouse records per group, included the percentage of each lung surface (LS) affected by chronic and acute respiratory lesions.
Student's t-Test and Pearson's Chi-Square Test were used for the consequent comparisons of means and frequencies between trial groups.
Results and Discussion
RS and AIM in the meloxicam group were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Same applies for LS affected by acute lesions (p<0.01), while no differences were observed for LS in chronic cases (Table 1).
The analysis of growth performance data revealed significant differences between groups at d90 to d117 (p<0.05, Table 2).
Under the conditions of this study, the reduction of the prevalence of respiratory signs as well as the reduced overall number of required injectable antibiotic medications are indicative for the potent anti-inflammatory activity of meloxicam. The latter could become a valuable adjunctive measure, especially when respiratory distress is associated with remarkable reduction of the feed intake. The initial differences in growth performance and in mortality rate could be explained by the fact that meloxicam, when combined with proper antimicrobial medication, contributes to faster recovery from a respiratory inflammation and faster restoring of the distorted growth rate of affected animals. Further research on the evaluation of feed intake and the use of meloxicam in PRDC recurring episodes is required.