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Publication numberUS20050189547 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/119,805
Publication dateSep 1, 2005
Filing dateMay 3, 2005
Priority dateMar 26, 2002
Also published asUS6909122, US7754512, US20030183831
Publication number11119805, 119805, US 2005/0189547 A1, US 2005/189547 A1, US 20050189547 A1, US 20050189547A1, US 2005189547 A1, US 2005189547A1, US-A1-20050189547, US-A1-2005189547, US2005/0189547A1, US2005/189547A1, US20050189547 A1, US20050189547A1, US2005189547 A1, US2005189547A1
InventorsMasumi Taninaka, Hiroyuki Fujiwara, Susumu Ozawa, Masaharu Nobori
Original AssigneeMasumi Taninaka, Hiroyuki Fujiwara, Susumu Ozawa, Masaharu Nobori
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Semiconductor light-emitting device with isolation trenches, and method of fabricating same
US 20050189547 A1
Abstract
According to the present invention, a light-emitting semiconductor device has light-emitting elements separated by isolation trenches, preferably on two sides of each light-emitting element. The device may be fabricated by forming a single band-shaped diffusion region, then forming trenches that divide the diffusion region into multiple regions, or by forming individual diffusion regions and then forming trenches between them. The trenches prevent overlap between adjacent light-emitting elements, regardless of their junction depth, enabling a high-density array to be fabricated while maintaining adequate junction depth.
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Claims(9)
1. A method of fabricating a semiconductor light-emitting device having a semiconductor substrate of a first conductive type, the method comprising:
diffusing an impurity of a second conductive type into the semiconductor substrate, thereby forming at least one diffusion region having a diffusion depth sufficient for emission of a light with a desired intensity; and
forming a plurality of isolation trenches separating the at least one diffusion area into a plurality of mutually isolated light-emitting regions.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the light-emitting regions are disposed in a linear array and the isolation trenches are formed between the light-emitting regions, leaving sides of the light-emitting regions extending parallel to the linear array free of isolation trenches.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein only one diffusion region is formed by the diffusing of the impurity of the second conductive type.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the isolation trenches are deeper than the diffusion depth of the light-emitting regions.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein a plurality of diffusion regions are formed by the diffusing of the impurity of the second conductive type.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein forming the plurality of said isolation trenches includes removing side material from the diffusion regions.
7. The method of claim 5, wherein the isolation trenches are deeper than the diffusion depth of the light-emitting regions.
8. The method of claim 5, wherein the isolation trenches are shallower than the diffusion depth of the light-emitting regions.
9-15. (canceled)
Description
    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to a semiconductor light-emitting device having a plurality of light-emitting regions formed by diffusion of an impurity of a second conductive type into a substrate of a first conductive type, and more particularly to a structure and fabrication method that enable the light-emitting regions to be arranged more densely than before.
  • [0003]
    2. Description of the Related Art
  • [0004]
    Known semiconductor light-emitting devices include arrays of light-emitting elements such as arrays of light-emitting diodes, generally referred to as LED arrays. LED arrays formed on semiconductor chips are used as light sources in, for example, electrophotographic printers.
  • [0005]
    FIGS. 28A and 28B show an LED array disclosed on page 60 of the book LED Purinta no Sekkei (Design of LED Printers), published by Torikeppusu. FIG. 28A shows the cross-sectional structure of the LED array; FIG. 28B is a plan view showing the chip pattern.
  • [0006]
    The LED array shown in these drawings has a plurality of light-emitting regions 3. The light-emitting regions 3 are formed by growing an epitaxial layer 2 of a first conductive type (an n-type GaAs0.6P0.4 layer) on a gallium-arsenide (GaAs) substrate 1 of the first conductive type (n-type), then selectively diffusing an impurity of a second conductive type (p-type), such as zinc (Zn), into the epitaxial layer 2. Each light-emitting region 3 has an individual aluminum (Al) electrode 4, and the light-emitting regions 3 share a common gold-germanium-nickel (Au—Ge—Ni) electrode 5. The individual electrodes 4 are formed on an insulating layer 6 deposited on the epitaxial layer 2, and make electrical contact with the surfaces of the light-emitting regions 3. The common electrode 5 is formed on the underside of the n-type GaAs substrate 1.
  • [0007]
    There is an increasing demand for electrophotographic printers capable of printing very clear images. Improved clarity is obtained by increasing the resolution of the printer. For an LED printer, this means increasing the resolution of the LED arrays used as light sources, by increasing the density of the layout of their light-emitting elements.
  • [0008]
    FIG. 29 illustrates relationships between the size and density of the light-emitting elements in an LED array. FIG. 30 shows the relationship between the width of the diffusion areas and the diffusion depth, indicating width in arbitrary units on the horizontal axis, and depth in arbitrary units on the vertical axis.
  • [0009]
    In the arrays shown on the left in FIG. 29, the width (in the array direction) of a light-emitting region 3 is equal to the distance between two adjacent light-emitting regions 3. The resolution of the array is equal to twice this value. Accordingly, to increase the resolution, it is necessary to decrease the size of the light-emitting regions 3, which entails decreasing the size of the diffusion windows through which the light-emitting regions 3 are formed. As shown in FIG. 30, however, if the size of the light-emitting regions 3 is decreased beyond a certain point, the diffusion depth must also decrease. Because of inadequate diffusion depth, the light-emitting regions 3 then fail to emit the desired amount of light.
  • [0010]
    Referring once more to FIG. 29, it can be seen that as the size of the light-emitting regions 3, 3 a, 3 b is decreased to increase the density of the array, eventually the light-emitting regions become too small to be formed with adequate depth. If the density is increased without changing the size of the light-emitting regions 3, however, it soon becomes impossible to fabricate the array because adjacent light-emitting regions overlap.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0011]
    An object of the present invention is to provide a semiconductor device including a dense array of light-emitting elements having an adequate diffusion depth.
  • [0012]
    According to the present invention, the individual light-emitting elements are separated by isolation trenches. The isolation trenches are preferably formed on only two sides of each light-emitting element. The trenches enable the light-emitting elements to be formed with a suitable size and adequate depth.
  • [0013]
    The light-emitting elements may be formed by creating a single band-shaped diffusion region with adequate depth, then forming isolation trenches that divide the single diffusion region into multiple diffusion regions, each of which becomes a light-emitting element having a suitable size. In this case the isolation trenches must be deeper than the diffusion depth.
  • [0014]
    Alternatively, individual diffusion regions may be formed, and then isolation trenches may be formed between them, preferably removing parts of the sides of the diffusion regions. In this case the isolation trenches may be either deeper or shallower than the diffusion depth.
  • [0015]
    The isolation trenches reliably prevent overlap between adjacent light-emitting elements, regardless of their diffusion depth and associated lateral diffusion width. A high-density array can accordingly be formed while maintaining adequate junction depth.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0016]
    In the attached drawings:
  • [0017]
    FIG. 1A is a plan view of an LED array according to a first embodiment of the invention;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 1B is a sectional view through line A-A′ in FIG. 1A;
  • [0019]
    FIGS. 2A to 9A are plan views illustrating steps in a fabrication process for the LED array in FIGS. 1A and 1B;
  • [0020]
    FIGS. 2B to 9B are sectional views through line A-A′ in FIGS. 2A to 9A, respectively;
  • [0021]
    FIG. 10A is a plan view of an LED array according to a second embodiment of the invention;
  • [0022]
    FIG. 10B is a sectional view through line A-A′ in FIG. 10A;
  • [0023]
    FIGS. 11A to 18A are plan views illustrating steps in a fabrication process for the LED array in FIGS. 10A and 10B;
  • [0024]
    FIGS. 11B to 18B are sectional views through line A-A′ in FIGS. 11A to 18A, respectively;
  • [0025]
    FIG. 19A is a plan view of an LED array according to a third embodiment of the invention;
  • [0026]
    FIG. 19B is a sectional view through line A-A′ in FIG. 19A;
  • [0027]
    FIGS. 20A to 27A are plan views illustrating steps in a fabrication process for the LED array in FIGS. 19A and 19B;
  • [0028]
    FIGS. 20B to 27B are sectional views through line A-A′ in FIGS. 20A to 27A, respectively;
  • [0029]
    FIG. 28A is a sectional view of a light-emitting element in a conventional LED array;
  • [0030]
    FIG. 28B is a plan view of a conventional LED array;
  • [0031]
    FIG. 29 illustrates factors limiting the density of a conventional LED array; and
  • [0032]
    FIG. 30 is a graph of diffusion depth plotted against diffusion region width.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0033]
    Preferred embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the attached drawings, in which like elements are indicated by like reference characters. Although the illustrated embodiments are LED arrays, the invention is not limited to LED arrays.
  • First Embodiment
  • [0034]
    FIG. 1A is a plan view of a first embodiment of the invention. FIG. 1B is a sectional view through line A-A′.
  • [0035]
    The LED array shown in these drawings has a semiconductor substrate 10 of a first conductive type (n-type) in which a plurality of light-emitting regions, more specifically light-emitting diodes (LEDs) 11, are formed by diffusion of an impurity of a second conductive type (p-type). A pn junction is created at the interface between the diffusion region 12 of each light-emitting diode 11 and the semiconductor substrate 10. Between each pair of mutually adjacent light-emitting diodes 11, an isolation trench 17 is provided to separate their two diffusion regions 12.
  • [0036]
    Except where the light-emitting diodes 11 and isolation trenches 17 are formed, the semiconductor substrate 10 is covered by an insulating layer 13. A plurality of p-electrodes 14 and p-electrode pads 15 are formed on the insulating layer 13, each light-emitting diode 11 being electrically coupled by a p-electrode 14 to a p-electrode pad 15. An n-electrode 16 is formed on the underside of the semiconductor substrate 10. A light-emitting diode 11 emits light from its pn junction when a forward voltage is applied between its p-electrode pad 15 and the n-electrode 16. The light emitted through the surface 11 a of the light-emitting diode 11 may be used in electrophotographic printing.
  • [0037]
    As shown in FIG. 1B, the isolation trenches 17 are deeper than the diffusion regions 12 of the light-emitting diodes 11. The dimensions of the light-emitting diodes 11, that is, the area of the surface 11 a and the depth of the diffusion region 12, are selected to provide a desired amount of light emission. The depth of the isolation trenches 17 is selected to exceed the depth of the diffusion region 12.
  • [0038]
    A fabrication process for the first embodiment will now be described.
  • [0039]
    Referring to FIGS. 2A and 2B, a diffusion mask 41 having a plurality of diffusion window 11 b is formed on the surface of the semiconductor substrate 10. The diffusion mask 41 may be used as the insulating layer 13 in the finished device. Each diffusion window 11 b corresponds to one light-emitting diode 11, the diffusion window 11 b being large enough to permit formation of the surface 11 a of the light-emitting diode 11 shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B. In particular, the width of the diffusion window 11 b in-the array direction (the direction parallel to line A-A′) exceeds the width of the surface 11 a in this direction. The diffusion mask 41 may be, for example, a silicon nitride (SiN) film five hundred to three thousand angstroms (500 Å to 3000 Å) thick formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The diffusion windows 11 b may be formed by photolithography and etching.
  • [0040]
    Referring to FIGS. 3A and 3B, a diffusion source 42 is deposited on the diffusion mask 41 and the diffusion windows 11 b. The diffusion source 42 may be, for example, an insulating film doped with zinc, such as a film of zinc oxide and silicon dioxide (ZnO—SiO2), likewise 500 Å to 3000 Å thick. The diffusion source 42 may be formed by sputtering.
  • [0041]
    Referring to FIGS. 4A and 4B, an anneal cap 43 is formed on the diffusion source 42. The anneal cap 43 may be, for example, an aluminum nitride (AlN) film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick, which can be formed by sputtering.
  • [0042]
    Referring to FIGS. 5A and 5B, the device is annealed in, for example, a nitrogen atmosphere for one hour, causing a p-type impurity (zinc) to diffuse through the diffusion windows 11 b to a desired depth into the semiconductor substrate 10, forming diffusion regions 12 b. Diffusion proceeds laterally as well as vertically, so the diffusion regions 12 b have a rounded shape. The boundary between each diffusion region 12 b and the semiconductor substrate 10 becomes a pn junction. The annealing conditions are selected to produce a desired pn junction depth, regardless of how closely lateral diffusion causes adjacent diffusion regions 12 b to approach each other. The diffusion depth or pn junction depth may be, for example, substantially one micrometer (1.0 μm).
  • [0043]
    Referring to FIGS. 6A and 6B, the diffusion source 42 and anneal cap 43 are now removed, exposing the diffusion mask 41 and the surfaces of the diffusion regions 12 b. The diffusion source 42 and anneal cap 43 may be removed by etching.
  • [0044]
    Referring to FIGS. 7A and 7B, the isolation trenches 17 are now formed by, for example, photolithography and etching. Formation of the isolation trenches 17 removes side material from the diffusion regions, reducing their width so that the surfaces 11 a of the remaining diffusion regions 12 have the desired size.
  • [0045]
    Referring to FIGS. 8A and 8B, the p-electrodes 14 and p-electrode pads 15 are formed by, for example, evaporation deposition of a film of aluminum, followed by photolithography, etching, and sintering.
  • [0046]
    Referring to FIGS. 9A and 9B, the n-electrode 16 is formed on the underside of the semiconductor substrate 10. The n-electrode 16 may comprise, for example, a gold alloy, and may be formed by evaporation deposition.
  • [0047]
    The process described above makes it possible to form light-emitting diodes 11 with a very small surface 11 a, and to place these light-emitting diodes 11 very close together, while maintaining electrical isolation between adjacent light-emitting diodes 11 and while providing an adequate pn junction depth.
  • [0048]
    Although it would be possible to surround each light-emitting diode 11 with isolation trenches on all four sides, there are advantages in forming the isolation trenches 17 on only two sides of each light-emitting diode 11.
  • [0049]
    One advantage is that more of the pn junction is left intact. The pn junction is present in the area directly below the surface 11 a, and also on the two sides of the diffusion region 12 extending parallel to the array axis, since no isolation trenches 17 are formed on these two sides. Considerable light is emitted from these two side regions, where the pn junction extends toward the surface of the device. If isolation trenches were to be formed on all four sides of the light-emitting diode 11, the pn junction would be removed from all four sides, and less total light would be omitted.
  • [0050]
    Another advantage is that if isolation trenches were to be formed on all four sides, the p-electrode 14 would have to cross an isolation trench to reach the surface 11 a of the light-emitting diode 11. Such a crossing would increase the likelihood of electrical discontinuities in the p-electrode 14. In the first embodiment, the p-electrode 14 proceeds from the surface of the insulating layer 13 directly onto the surface 11 a of the light-emitting diode 11 without having to cross an isolation trench 17.
  • [0051]
    Another advantage is that the dimensions in the vertical direction in FIG. 1A (orthogonal to the array direction) can easily be reduced to shrink the size of the LED array chip, since it is not necessary to reduce the width of any of the isolation trenches. If there were isolation trenches on all four sides of the light-emitting diodes 11, it would be necessary to reduce the width of isolation trenches crossed by p-electrodes, further increasing the likelihood of an electrical discontinuity.
  • [0052]
    Incidentally, it is also possible to reduce the horizontal dimensions of the array in FIG. 1A, by reducing the width of the diffusion regions 12 without reducing the width of the trenches 17, thus avoiding the difficulty of forming extremely narrow trenches. Reducing the width of the diffusion regions does not cause any structural problems.
  • [0053]
    Next, a second embodiment will be described. The second embodiment is also an LED array.
  • [0054]
    Referring to FIG. 10A, the second embodiment has the same plan-view layout as the first embodiment, with the surfaces 21 a of the light-emitting diodes separated by isolation trenches 27.
  • [0055]
    Referring to FIG. 10B, the light-emitting diodes 21 in the second embodiment differ from the light-emitting diodes in the first embodiment in that the pn junction at the bottom of each light-emitting diode 21 extends straight across from the isolation trench 27 on one side to the isolation trench 27 on the other side, without having the rounded cross-sectional shape seen in the first embodiment.
  • [0056]
    A fabrication process for the second embodiment will now be described.
  • [0057]
    Referring to FIGS. 11A and 11B, a diffusion mask 41b is formed on the surface of the semiconductor substrate 10. The diffusion mask 41 b may be used as the insulating layer 13 in the finished device. The diffusion mask 41 b has a single diffusion window 21 b extending from one end of the device to the other. The diffusion mask 41 b may be, for example, a silicon nitride film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick formed by chemical vapor deposition. The diffusion window 21 b may be formed by photolithography and etching.
  • [0058]
    Referring to FIGS. 12A and 12B, a diffusion source 42 is deposited on the diffusion mask 41 and the diffusion window 21 b. The diffusion source 42 may be, for example, a sputtered ZnO—SiO2 film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick.
  • [0059]
    Referring to FIGS. 13A and 13B, an anneal cap 43 is formed on the diffusion source 42. The anneal cap 43 may be, for example, a sputtered aluminum nitride film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick.
  • [0060]
    Referring to FIGS. 14A and 14B, the device is annealed in, for example, a nitrogen atmosphere for one hour, causing a p-type impurity (e.g., zinc) to diffuse through the diffusion window 21 b to a desired depth in the semiconductor substrate 10, such as a depth of substantially 1.0 μm,, forming a diffusion region 22 b.
  • [0061]
    Referring to FIGS. 15A and 15B, the diffusion source 42 and anneal cap 43 are now removed, exposing the diffusion mask 41 b and the surface of the diffusion region 22 b. The diffusion source 42 and anneal cap 43 may be removed by etching.
  • [0062]
    Referring to FIGS. 16A and 16B, the isolation trenches 27 are formed by, for example, photolithography and etching. Formation of the isolation trenches 27 removes part of the material of the diffusion region, which becomes divided into a plurality of mutually isolated diffusion regions 22, creating an array of light-emitting diodes having surfaces 21 a of the desired size.
  • [0063]
    Referring to FIGS. 17A and 17B, the p-electrodes 14 and p-electrode pads 15 are formed as in the first embodiment.
  • [0064]
    Referring to FIGS. 18A and 18B, the n-electrode 16 is formed as in the first embodiment.
  • [0065]
    Compared with the first embodiment, the second embodiment provides each light-emitting diode 21 with a larger pn junction area at the full junction depth, thereby permitting the surfaces 21 a of the light-emitting diodes 21 to be smaller than in the first embodiment. The formation of all the light-emitting diodes 21 from a single diffusion region 22 b also leads to more uniform light-emitting characteristics.
  • [0066]
    Next, a third embodiment will be described. The third embodiment is likewise an LED array.
  • [0067]
    Referring to FIG. 19A, the third embodiment has the same plan-view layout as the first embodiment, with the surfaces 31 a of the light-emitting diodes separated by isolation trenches 37.
  • [0068]
    Referring to FIG. 19B, the light-emitting diodes 31 in the third embodiment have substantially the same rounded cross-sectional shape as in the first embodiment, but the isolation trenches 37 in the third are not as deep as the diffusion regions 32 of the light-emitting diodes 31.
  • [0069]
    A fabrication process for the third embodiment will now be described.
  • [0070]
    Referring to FIGS. 20A and 20B, a diffusion mask 41 is formed on the surface of the semiconductor substrate 10. The diffusion mask 41 may be used as the insulating layer 13 in the finished device. As in the first embodiment, the diffusion mask 41 has individual diffusion windows 31 b defining the locations at which light-emitting diodes will be formed. The diffusion mask 41 may be, for example, a silicon nitride film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick formed by chemical vapor deposition. The diffusion windows 31 b may be formed by photolithography and etching.
  • [0071]
    Referring to FIGS. 21A and 21B, a diffusion source 42 is deposited on the diffusion mask 41 and the diffusion windows 31 b. The diffusion source 42 may be, for example, a sputtered ZnO—SiO2 film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick.
  • [0072]
    Referring to FIGS. 22A and 22B, an anneal cap 43 is formed on the diffusion source 42. The anneal cap 43 may be, for example, a sputtered aluminum nitride film 500 Å to 3000 Å thick.
  • [0073]
    Referring to FIGS. 23A and 23B, the device is annealed in, for example, a nitrogen atmosphere for one hour, causing a p-type impurity (e.g., zinc) to diffuse through the diffusion windows 31 b to a desired depth (e.g., 1.0 μm) in the semiconductor substrate 10, forming diffusion regions 32 b.
  • [0074]
    Referring to FIGS. 24A and 24B, the diffusion source 42 and anneal cap 43 are now removed, exposing the diffusion mask 41 and the surfaces of the diffusion regions 32 b. The diffusion source 42 and anneal cap 43 may be removed by etching.
  • [0075]
    Referring to FIGS. 25A and 25B, the isolation trenches 37 are formed by, for example, photolithography and etching. Formation of the isolation trenches 27 removes part of the material from the upper sides of the diffusion regions 32 b, reducing the surfaces 31 a of the light-emitting diodes to a desired size, but the etching process is stopped before the lower parts of the diffusion regions 32 b are reached. The remaining diffusion regions 32 thus have rounded bottoms.
  • [0076]
    Referring to FIGS. 26A and 26B, the p-electrodes 14 and p-electrode pads 15 are formed as in the first embodiment.
  • [0077]
    Referring to FIGS. 27A and 27B, the n-electrode 16 is formed as in the first embodiment.
  • [0078]
    The relative shallowness of the isolation trenches 37 in the third embodiment makes the etching process illustrated in FIGS. 25A and 25B easier to control than in the first embodiment. Consequently, if the surfaces 31 a of the light-emitting diodes 31 in the third embodiment are equal in width to the surfaces 11 a of the light-emitting diodes 11 in the first embodiment, the light-emitting diodes 31 can be placed closer together in the third embodiment than in the first embodiment.
  • [0079]
    The present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above; those skilled in the art will recognize that various modifications are possible. The scope of the invention should accordingly be determined from the appended claims.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification257/79, 257/E27.121, 438/45, 438/22, 257/102
International ClassificationH01L21/76, H01L21/764, H01L33/08, H01L33/30, H01L27/15
Cooperative ClassificationH01L27/153, B41J2/45
European ClassificationB41J2/45, H01L27/15B
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